Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.
Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…
Inattentional blindness refers to situations in which a person is unaware of a change that is occurring because attention is not currently focused on what is changing. Change blindness occurs when a change takes place during an eye movement or blink ...
Kuhn and colleagues described a novel attentional misdirection approach (deliberate diversion of attention away from a visually salient stimulus) to investigate overt and covert attention mechanisms in connection with inattentional blindness (not being able to perceive something that is plainly visible because one's attention has not been focused on it). This misdirection paradigm is valuable to study the temporal relationship between eye movements and visual awareness. Although, as put forth in this comment, the link between attentional misdirection and inattentional blindness needs to be developed further. There are at least four differences between the two paradigms which concern the conceptual aspects of the unexpected object and the methodological aspects of the task design. This highlights the need for a broader theoretical framework incorporating inattentional blindness and overt and covert attention mechanisms. Two possible research lines focusing on the orienting attention research and the "selection-for-action" paradigm are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perez-Moreno, Elisa; Conchillo, Angela; Recarte, Miguel A.
The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the mental load of a cognitive task prevents the processing of visual stimuli, that is, whether the mental load produces inattentional blindness, and at what point in the cognitive-task processing more interference is produced. An arithmetic task with two levels of mental load was used in a…
Swettenham, John; Remington, Anna; Murphy, Patrick; Feuerstein, Maike; Grim, Kelly; Lavie, Nilli
Attention research in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has produced conflicting results. Some findings demonstrate greater distractibility while others suggest superior focused attention. Applying Lavie's load theory of attention to account for this discrepancy led us to hypothesize increased perceptual capacity in ASD. Preliminary support for our hypothesis has so far been found for adults with ASD with reaction time (RT) and signal detection sensitivity measures. Here we test the novel prediction we derived from this hypothesis that children with ASD should have lower rates of inattentional blindness than controls. Twenty-four children with ASD (mean age = 10 years 10 months) and 39 typically developing children (age and IQ matched) took part in the study. We assessed the effects of perceptual load on the rates of inattentional blindness in each group. Participants performing a line discrimination task in either a high load or low load condition were presented with an unexpected extra stimulus on a critical trial. Performance on the line judgment task and rates of detection and stimulus identification were recorded. Overall rates of detection and identification were higher in the ASD group than in the controls. Moreover, whereas both detection and identification rates were significantly lower in the high (compared with low) load conditions for the controls, these were unaffected by load in the ASD group. Reduced inattentional blindness rates under load in ASD suggests higher perceptual capacity is a core feature, present from childhood and leading to superior performance in various measures of perception and attention.
Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.
People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545
Full Text Available People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial or near the focus of attention (central. We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities.
Dixon, Benjamin J; Daly, Michael J; Chan, Harley H L; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Irish, Jonathan C
Augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation systems, designed to increase accuracy and efficiency, have been shown to negatively impact on attention. We wished to assess the effect "head-up" AR displays have on attention, efficiency, and accuracy, while performing a surgical task, compared with the same information being presented on a submonitor (SM). Fifty experienced otolaryngology surgeons (n = 42) and senior otolaryngology trainees (n = 8) performed an endoscopic surgical navigation exercise on a predissected cadaveric model. Computed tomography-generated anatomic contours were fused with the endoscopic image to provide an AR view. Subjects were randomized to perform the task with a standard endoscopic monitor with the AR navigation displayed on an SM or with AR as a single display. Accuracy, task completion time, and the recognition of unexpected findings (a foreign body and a critical complication) were recorded. Recognition of the foreign body was significantly better in the SM group (15/25 [60%]) compared with the AR alone group (8/25 [32%]; p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in task completion time (p = 0.83) or accuracy (p = 0.78) between the two groups. Providing identical surgical navigation on a SM, rather than on a single head-up display, reduced the level of inattentional blindness as measured by detection of unexpected findings. These gains were achieved without any measurable impact on efficiency or accuracy. AR displays may distract the user and we caution injudicious adoption of this technology for medical procedures.
Kennedy, Kellie D.; Stephens, Chad L.; Williams, Ralph A.; Schutte, Paul C.
The study reported herein is a subset of a larger investigation on the role of automation in the context of the flight deck and used a fixed-based, human-in-the-loop simulator. This paper explored the relationship between automation and inattentional blindness (IB) occurrences in a repeated induction paradigm using two types of runway incursions. The critical stimuli for both runway incursions were directly relevant to primary task performance. Sixty non-pilot participants performed the final five minutes of a landing scenario twice in one of three automation conditions: full automation (FA), partial automation (PA), and no automation (NA). The first induction resulted in a 70 percent (42 of 60) detection failure rate with those in the PA condition significantly more likely to detect the incursion compared to the FA condition or the NA condition. The second induction yielded a 50 percent detection failure rate. Although detection improved (detection failure rates declined) in all conditions, those in the FA condition demonstrated the greatest improvement with doubled detection rates. The detection behavior in the first trial did not preclude a failed detection in the second induction. Group membership (IB vs. Detection) in the FA condition showed a greater improvement than those in the NA condition and rated the Mental Demand and Effort subscales of the NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) significantly higher for Time 2 compared Time 1. Participants in the FA condition used the experience of IB exposure to improve task performance whereas those in the NA condition did not, indicating the availability and reallocation of attentional resources in the FA condition. These findings support the role of engagement in operational attention detriment and the consideration of attentional failure causation to determine appropriate mitigation strategies.
Inattentional blindness can occur when our attention has been assigned to a primary task and not enough attentional resources are left to detect what can be a very important unexpected event. This unexpected event is often something that would be detected under normal conditions. Recent research has shown that perceptual load, and qualities of the unexpected stimulus can impact the occurrence of inattentional blindness. As the nuclear industry has situations of high perceptual load, consideration should be given to the implications of this research. (author)
Full Text Available Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness. Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554, susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.
Schelonka, Kathryn; Graulty, Christian; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Pitts, Michael A
A three-phase inattentional blindness paradigm was combined with ERPs. While participants performed a distracter task, line segments in the background formed words or consonant-strings. Nearly half of the participants failed to notice these word-forms and were deemed inattentionally blind. All participants noticed the word-forms in phase 2 of the experiment while they performed the same distracter task. In the final phase, participants performed a task on the word-forms. In all phases, including during inattentional blindness, word-forms elicited distinct ERPs during early latencies (∼200-280ms) suggesting unconscious orthographic processing. A subsequent ERP (∼320-380ms) similar to the visual awareness negativity appeared only when subjects were aware of the word-forms, regardless of the task. Finally, word-forms elicited a P3b (∼400-550ms) only when these stimuli were task-relevant. These results are consistent with previous inattentional blindness studies and help distinguish brain activity associated with pre- and post-perceptual processing from correlates of conscious perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, Rebekah C; Davies, Martin; Aimola Davies, Anne M
When attention is otherwise engaged, observers may experience inattentional blindness, failing to notice objects or events that are presented in plain sight. In an inattentional blindness experiment, an unexpectedstimulus ispresented alongside primary-task stimuli, and its detection is probed. We evaluate a criterion that is commonly used to exclude observers from the data analysis. On the final experimental trial, observers do not perform the primary task, but instead look for anything new. Observers who fail to report the unexpected stimulus on thisfull-attention trialare excluded. On the basis of 4 hypothetical experiments and a review of 128 actual experiments from the literature, we demonstrate some potentially problematic consequences of implementing the full-attention-trial exclusion criterion. Excluded observers may cluster in experimental conditions and the exclusion criterion may lead researchers to understate the pervasiveness of inattentional blindness. It may even render usblindto inattentional blindness on the full-attention trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shafto, Juliet P; Pitts, Michael A
Previous studies suggest that early stages of face-specific processing are performed preattentively and unconsciously, whereas conscious perception emerges with late-stage (>300 ms) neuronal activity. A conflicting view, however, posits that attention is necessary for face-specific processing and that early-to-mid latency neural responses (∼ 100-300 ms) correspond more closely with perceptual awareness. The current study capitalized on a recently developed method for manipulating attention and conscious perception during EEG recording (modified inattentional blindness paradigm) and used face stimuli that elicit a well known marker of early face processing, the N170 event-related potential (ERP). In Phase 1 of the experiment, subjects performed a demanding distracter task while line drawings of faces and matched control stimuli were presented in the center of their view. When queried, half of the subjects reported no awareness of the faces and were deemed inattentionally blind. In Phase 2, subjects performed the same distracter task, but now consciously perceived the face stimuli due to the intervening questioning. In Phase 3, subjects performed a discrimination task on the faces. Two primary contrasts were made: aware versus unaware (equally task irrelevant) and task-relevant versus task-irrelevant (equally aware). The N170 and a subsequent ERP component, the visual awareness negativity (∼ 260-300 ms), were absent during inattentional blindness and present in the aware conditions. The P3b (> 300 ms) was absent for task-irrelevant faces, even when consciously perceived, and present only when the faces were task relevant. These results inform contemporary theories of conscious face perception in particular and visual attention and perceptual awareness in general. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510940-09$15.00/0.
Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline
Perceptual science has frequently benefited from studying illusions created outside of academia. Here, we describe a striking, but little-known, example of inattentional blindness from the British comedy series “Monty Python's Flying Circus.” Viewers fail to attend to several highly incongruous characters in the sketch, despite these characters being clearly visible onscreen. The sketch has the potential to be a valuable research and teaching resource, as well as providing a vivid illustration of how people often fail to see something completely different. PMID:26034570
Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu
The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stothart, Cary R; Wright, Timothy J; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R
We sometimes fail to notice unexpected objects or events when our attention is directed elsewhere, a phenomenon called inattentional blindness. We explored whether unexpected objects that shared the color of consequential objects would be noticed more often. In three pre-registered experiments, participants played a custom video game in which they avoided both low- and high-cost missiles (Experiment 1 and 2) or tried to hit rewarding missiles while avoiding costly ones (Experiment 3). After participants had played the game for about 8min, an unexpected object moved across the screen. Although participants selectively avoided more costly missiles when playing, they were no more likely to notice an unexpected object when its color was associated with greater costs. Apparently, people are no more likely to notice unexpected objects that are associated with negative consequences. Future research should examine whether objects that are themselves consequential are noticed more frequently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beanland, Vanessa; Tan, Choo Hong; Christensen, Bruce K
Inattentional blindness (IB) occurs when observers fail to detect unexpected objects or events. Despite the adaptive importance of detecting unexpected threats, relatively little research has examined how stimulus threat influences IB. The current study was designed to explore the effects of stimulus threat on IB. Past research has also demonstrated that individuals with elevated negative affectivity have an attentional bias towards threat-related stimuli; therefore, the current study also examined whether state and trait levels of negative affectivity predicted IB for threat-related stimuli. One hundred and eleven participants (87 female, aged 17-40 years) completed an IB task that included both threat-related and neutral unexpected stimuli, while their eye movements were tracked. Participants were significantly more likely to detect the threatening stimulus (19%) than the neutral stimulus (11%) p = .035, odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval OR [1.13, 14.17]. Neither state nor trait levels of negative affectivity were significantly associated with IB. These results suggest observers are more likely to detect threat-related unexpected objects, consistent with the threat superiority effect observed in other paradigms. However, most observers were blind to both unexpected stimuli, highlighting the profound influence of expectations and task demands on our ability to perceive even potentially urgent and life-threatening information.
Full Text Available Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.
Dehaene, Stanislas; Changeux, Jean-Pierre
Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.
Full Text Available Attention and awareness are known to be linked (e.g. see Lavie, Beck, & Konstantinou, 2014, for a review. However the extent to which this link changes over development is not fully understood. Most research concerning the development of attention has investigated the effects of attention on distraction, visual search and spatial orienting, typically using reaction time measures which cannot directly support conclusions about conscious awareness. Here we used Lavie’s Load Theory of Attention and Cognitive Control to examine the development of attention effects on awareness. According to Load Theory awareness levels are determined by the availability of attentional capacity. We hypothesised that attentional capacity develops with age, and consequently that awareness rates should increase with development due to the enhanced capacity. Thus we predicted that greater rates of inattentional blindness (IB would be found at a younger age, and that lower levels of perceptual load will be sufficient to exhaust capacity and cause IB in children but not adults. We tested this hypothesis using an IB paradigm with adults and children aged 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13 years old. Participants performed a line-length judgment task (indicating which arm of a cross is longer and on the last trial were asked to report whether they noticed an unexpected task-irrelevant stimulus (a small square in the display. Perceptual load was varied by changing the line-length difference (with a smaller difference in the conditions of higher load. The results supported our hypothesis: levels of awareness increased with age, and a moderate increase in the perceptual load of the task led to greater IB for children but not adults. These results extended across both peripheral and central presentations of the task stimuli. Overall, these findings establish the development of capacity for awareness and demonstrate the critical role of the perceptual load in the attended task.
Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J
Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.
Christopher F Chabris
Full Text Available Inattentional blindness—the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else—has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.
Koreimann, Sabrina; Gula, Bartosz; Vitouch, Oliver
While inattentional blindness is a modern classic in attention and perception research, analogous phenomena of inattentional deafness have been widely neglected. We here present the first investigation of inattentional deafness in and with music under controlled experimental conditions. Inattentional deafness in music is defined as the inability to consciously perceive an unexpected musical stimulus when attention is focused on a certain facet of the piece. Participants listened to a modification of the first 1'50″ of Richard Strauss' Thus Spake Zarathustra; while the control group just listened, the experimental group had to count the number of timpani beats. An e-guitar solo served as the unexpected event. In Study 1, experimental data from n = 115 participants were analyzed. Non-musicians were compared with musicians to investigate the impact of expertise. In Study 2 (n = 47), the scope of the inattentional deafness effect was investigated with a more salient unexpected stimulus. Results demonstrate an inattentional deafness effect under dynamic musical conditions. Quite unexpectedly, the effect was structurally equivalent even for musicians. Our findings clearly show that sustained inattentional deafness exists in the musical realm, in close correspondence to inattentional blindness with dynamic visual stimuli.
and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... effect of the categories applied. This paper puts forward a fourth type of organizational blindness in addition to the already documented ones, namely self-imposed blindness to potentially destructive information. This paper studies how relevant - but problematic - information is actively ignored...
Sommers, Marilyn S.
Objective Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use and internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens’ perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers’ perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. Methods We conducted seven focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by two research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Results Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (sd 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (sd 109.2; range 4–364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, three major themes emerged; (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. In spite of recognizing hand-held cell phone use, texting and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engage in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their
McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S
Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use, and Internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens' perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers' perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. We conducted 7 focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤ 1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by 2 research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (SD = 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (SD = 109.2; range 4-364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, 3 major themes emerged: (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. Despite recognizing that handheld cell phone use, texting, and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engaged in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their behaviors, although some still drew
Dill, Evan T.; Young, Steven D.
In the constant drive to further the safety and efficiency of air travel, the complexity of avionics-related systems, and the procedures for interacting with these systems, appear to be on an ever-increasing trend. While this growing complexity often yields productive results with respect to system capabilities and flight efficiency, it can place a larger burden on pilots to manage increasing amounts of information and to understand intricate system designs. Evidence supporting this observation is becoming widespread, yet has been largely anecdotal or the result of subjective analysis. One way to gain more insight into this issue is through experimentation using more objective measures or indicators. This study utilizes and analyzes eye-tracking data obtained during a high-fidelity flight simulation study wherein many of the complexities of current flight decks, as well as those planned for the next generation air transportation system (NextGen), were emulated. The following paper presents the findings of this study with a focus on electronic flight bag (EFB) usage, system state awareness (SSA) and events involving suspected inattentional blindness (IB).
Reduced inattention and hyperactivity and improved cognition after marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) supplementation in children and adolescents with clinical and subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Kean, James D; Sarris, Jerome; Scholey, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con
This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8.7 years) with high hyperactivity and inattention in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome was the Conners Parent Rating Scale assessing parental reports of behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes assessed changes in cognition and mood. The results of the present study did not support the hypothesis that PCSO-524® improves parental reports of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity in children ages 6 to 14 years over placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA on post hoc subsample analysis indicated significant improvements in hyperactivity (p = 0.04), attention (p = 0.02), learning (p = 0.05) and probability of ADHD (p = 0.04) with a medium to large average effect size (d = 0.65) in those children who did not meet criteria for combined hyperactivity and inattention. Furthermore, significant improvements in the PCSO-524® group were indicated in a whole sample repeated measures ANCOVA on recognition memory between baseline and week 8 over placebo (p = 0.02, d = 0.56); this difference was not sustained at week 14. The results presented indicate that PCSO-524® may be beneficial in reducing levels of hyperactivity and inattention in a population of children with clinical and subclinical symptoms of ADHD.
... Specific Prevalence Rates for Blindness by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by ...
Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André
This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex......- analytic properties of the random utility model. Thus any additive random utility model can be given an interpretation in terms of boundedly rational behavior. We provide examples of this equivalence utilizing the nested logit model, an empirically relevant random utility model allowing for flexible...
Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti
Inattentional blindness refers to a failure to consciously detect an irrelevant object that appears without any expectation when attention is engaged with another task. The perceptual load theory predicts that task-irrelevant stimuli will reach awareness only when the primary task is of low load, which allows processing resources to spill over to processing task-irrelevant stimuli as well. We studied whether perceptual load has an effect on inattentional blindness for a task-irrelevant stimulus whose meaning is or is not relevant to the attentional goals of the observer. In the critical trial, a word appeared without any expectation in the center of a display of attended pictures. The results showed that, under both high and low load, unexpected words belonging to the attended semantic category were detected more often than semantically unrelated words. These results imply that task-irrelevant stimuli, whose meanings are relevant to the observer's task, enter awareness irrespective of perceptual load.
... doctors may do surgery to remove it. Is Learning Different? A baby who is blind can still ... do amazing things in many different fields, including music, the arts, and even sports. Serious vision problems ...
Andersen, Steffen; Campbell, John Y.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
This paper studies inattention to mortgage refinancing incentives among Danish households. Danish data are particularly suitable for this purpose because there are minimal barriers to refinancing, yet many borrowers fail to refinance optimally, and the characteristics of these borrowers can...... inattention and inertia in the same direction, implying a positive cross-sectional correlation of 0.62 between these two household attributes. Younger, better educated, and higher-income households have less inertia and less inattention. Financial wealth and housing wealth have opposite effects...... be accurately measured. The paper estimates a mixture model of household refinancing types in which household characteristics affect both inattention (a low proportion of rational refinancers) and residual inertia (a low probability that fully inattentive households refinance). Many characteristics move...
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016
Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit
An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.
Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege
This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf
Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2010), s. 89-146 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sales Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp408.pdf
Miguel A. Recarte
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación es determinar si la carga mental de una tarea cognitiva impide el procesamiento de estímulos visuales, es decir, si la carga mental produce ceguera atencional, y en qué momento del procesamiento de la tarea cognitiva se produce más interferencia. Se utilizó una tarea aritmética con dos niveles de carga mental junto a una tarea de búsqueda y detección visual en situación de doble tarea. Se llevó a cabo un experimento con 35 participantes. Un sistema de registro ocular (ASL Model 5000 fue usado para comprobar qué estímulos fueron mirados. Los resultados muestran un deterioro en la tarea de detección al realizar las dos tareas simultáneamente, que es mayor cuando la tarea aritmética fue de mayor carga mental. Dicho deterioro no puede ser explicado por una alteración del patrón ocular. El momento de procesamiento o subproceso de la tarea aritmética que produce una mayor interferencia sobre la detección visual corresponde con el momento puramente cognitivo de cálculo, frente a subprocesos con componentes perceptivos o motores, como escuchar los estímulos o emitir las respuestas.
Miguel A. Recarte
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación es determinar si la carga mental de una tarea cognitiva impide el procesamiento de estímulos visuales, es decir, si la carga mental produce ceguera atencional, y en qué momento del procesamiento de la tarea cognitiva se produce más interferencia. Se utilizó una tarea aritmética con dos niveles de carga mental junto a una tarea de búsqueda y detección visual en situación de doble tarea. Se llevó a cabo un experimento con 35 participantes. Un sistema de registro ocular (ASL Model 5000 fue usado para comprobar qué estímulos fueron mirados. Los resultados muestran un deterioro en la tarea de detección al realizar las dos tareas simultáneamente, que es mayor cuando la tarea aritmética fue de mayor carga mental. Dicho deterioro no puede ser explicado por una alteración del patrón ocular. El momento de procesamiento o subproceso de la tarea aritmética que produce una mayor interferencia sobre la detección visual corresponde con el momento puramente cognitivo de cálculo, frente a subprocesos con componentes perceptivos o motores, como escuchar los estímulos o emitir las respuestas.
Twenty-one convenience sample student volunteers aged between 14-15 years worked in pairs (and one group of three) with two randomly allocated high quality conceptual (molecular level) and operational (mimicking wet labs) simulations. The volunteers were told they had five minutes to play, repeat, review, restart or stop the simulation, which in…
Witkowski, Mark; Randell, David
This paper considers several aspects of natural visual attention and its link to wider notions of awareness, natural and artificial, in the context of foveated vision. It builds on a theory of abductive perception; a formal definition for an artificial or robot perceptual system, using objects represented as feature clouds. It proposes a broad, but unifying approach to several aspects of visual attention in the light of this, including autonomic eye gaze movements, aspects of secondary and covert attention, and exogenous (sense driven) and endogenous (task driven) attention. Modes of attentional lapse, commonly referred to as inattentional blindness and change blindness, are also discussed in the context of the model presented.
Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D
There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be
da Silva, T L; Pianca, T G; Roman, T; Hutz, M H; Faraone, S V; Schmitz, M; Rohde, L A
An association between ADRA2A -1291 C > G polymorphism and response to methylphenidate in inattentive symptoms was previously suggested in children with ADHD. No investigation specifically assessed this association in ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). In this naturalistic pharmacogenetic study, 59 subjects with ADHD-I from a non-referred sample were treated with short-acting methylphenidate and genotyped for ADRA2A -1291 C > G polymorphism. The primary outcome measure was the inattentive subscale of the SNAP-IV applied by a child psychiatrist blinded to genotype at baseline and first month of treatment. Children and adolescents with the G allele showed significantly lower inattentive scores with MPH treatment at the first month of treatment than subjects without the G allele (n = 59; F = 6.14; p = 0.016). We extended to ADHD-I previous findings suggesting the influence of the G allele at the ADRA2A -1291 C > G polymorphism on the improvement of inattentive symptoms with methylphenidate in children with all ADHD subtypes.
An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...
Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.
Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…
Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei
Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7–20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground. PMID:23129611
Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary
Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…
Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.; Matějka, Filip
Roč. 85, č. 2 (2017), s. 521-553 ISSN 0012-9682 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * stochastic choice * dynamic logit Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.379, year: 2016
Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash
Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales
Kollins, Scott H.; Wigal, Timothy L.
Abstract Background Extended-release guanfacine (GXR) is approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. This post-hoc analysis further examines the effects of GXR on hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness. Method Data from two large double-blind placebo-controlled pivotal trials of GXR in the treatment of ADHD were analyzed. Using the pooled population to provide sufficient sample size and associated statistical power, the impact of GXR treatment on core ADHD symptoms was examined by comparing ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores in the overall GXR and placebo groups in subjects with each of the three ADHD subtypes. ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness subscale scores in the overall study population by randomized dose group (vs. placebo) were also examined. Results The full analysis set included 631 subjects aged 6–17 years (GXR: n=490; placebo: n=141). Among subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD, differences in least squares (LS) mean reductions from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were significantly greater in GXR-treated subjects (n=127) than in placebo-treated subjects (n=38) at treatment weeks 3 through 5 and end point (p≤0.020). Among subjects with combined type ADHD, differences in LS mean ADHD-RS-IV total score reductions from baseline were significantly greater in the GXR group (n=354) than in the placebo group (n=100) at treatment weeks 1 through 5 and end point (p≤0.011). The dearth of predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type subjects (n=12) precluded analysis of this subgroup. Each randomized GXR dose group in each trial demonstrated significantly greater reductions from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness subscale scores than did the respective placebo group at end point (p≤0.05 for all). Conclusions The results support the use of GXR in the treatment of core ADHD symptoms
Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.; Matějka, Filip
Roč. 85, č. 2 (2017), s. 521-553 ISSN 0012-9682 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-34759S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00703S Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : rational inattention * stochastic choice * dynamic logit Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.379, year: 2016
Kennel, Susan; Taylor, Ann Gill; Lyon, Debra; Bourguignon, Cheryl
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the potential for the use of binaural auditory beat stimulation to reduce the symptom of inattention in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This pilot study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to listen to either an audio program on compact disk that contained binaural auditory beats or a sham audio program that did not have binaural beats for 20 minutes, three times a week for 3 weeks. The Children's Color Trails Test, the Color Trails Test, the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and the Homework Problem Checklist were used to measure changes in inattention pre- and postintervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze pre- and postintervention scores on the Color Trails Tests, Homework Problem Checklist, and the TOVA. The effect of time was significant on the Color Trails Test. However, there were no significant group differences on the Color Trails Test or the TOVA scores postintervention. Parents reported that the study participants had fewer homework problems postintervention. The results from this study indicate that binaural auditory beat stimulation did not significantly reduce the symptom of inattention in the experimental group. However, parents and adolescents stated that homework problems due to inattention improved during the 3-week study. Parents and participants stated that the modality was easy to use and helpful. Therefore, this modality should be studied over a longer time frame in a larger sample to further its effectiveness to reduce the symptom of inattention in those diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper considers the uplink of a single-cell large-scale multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) system in which m mono-antenna users communicate with a base station (BS) outfitted by n antennas. We assume that the number of antennas at the BS and that of users take large values, as envisioned by large-scale MIMO systems. This allows for high spectral efficiency gains but obviously comes at the cost of higher complexity, a fact that becomes all the more critical as the number of antennas grows large. To solve this issue is to choose a subset of the available n antennas. The subset must be carefully chosen to achieve the best performance. However, finding the optimal subset of antennas is usually a difficult task, requiring one to solve a high dimensional combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we approach this problem in two ways. The first one consists in solving a convex relaxation of the problem using standard convex optimization tools. The second technique solves the problem using a greedy approach. The main advantages of the greedy approach lies in its wider scope, in that, unlike the first approach, it can be applied irrespective of the considered performance criterion. As an outcome of this feature, we show that the greedy approach can be applied even when only the channel statistics are available at the BS, which provides blind way to perform antenna selection.
Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.
Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…
St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.
Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…
Salla, Julie; Michel, Grégory; Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Lacourse, Eric; Paquin, Stéphane; Galéra, Cédric; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M
Few prospective studies spanning early childhood to early adolescence have examined separately the contribution of inattention and hyperactivity to academic achievement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the developmental trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms during early and middle childhood are independently associated with academic achievement at age 12 years. The independent associations between inattention and hyperactivity trajectories during early and middle childhood and academic performance at age 12 years were examined in a population-based longitudinal birth cohort (n = 2120). In adjusted analyses, high early childhood inattention trajectories were associated with teacher-rated academic performance in reading, writing and mathematics and with government exam score in writing. High and moderate inattention trajectories during middle childhood predicted lower performance on both teacher-rated academic performance and government exam scores in reading, writing, and mathematics. Hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor of educational outcomes. Childhood inattention symptoms rather than hyperactivity carry risk of poor educational outcomes at age 12 years. Children with high levels of inattention can be identified during the preschool years. Prevention programs supporting the development of attentional capacities and executive functions could help reduce the negative consequences of inattention.
A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831
James D. Kean
Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.
Stokholm, Lonny; Juhl, Mette; Lønfeldt, Nicole N
/inattention problems according to oxytocin exposure. RESULTS: Synthetic oxytocin was administered in 26% of the deliveries. We did not find the use of synthetic oxytocin during birth to be associated with childhood hyperactivity/inattention problems, whether analyzed in linear or logistic regression models......INTRODUCTION: The objective was to examine the association between obstetric synthetic oxytocin use and hyperactivity/inattention problems in offspring. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified children born in 2000-2003, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort, with data on the Strengths...
Hockey, Thomas A.
The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing literature to date suggests a relationship between cognitive attention and working memory (WM, but the relationship between overt inattentive behaviour and WM is less clear. This study examined the relationship between WM and parent-rated inattentive behaviour in a community sample of 140 children aged 7–12 years. Methods Children completed 2 clinical (laboratory-based measures of WM (auditory-verbal and visual-spatial and a measure of real-life WM, designed specifically for this study, while their parents completed questionnaires about their child's inattentive behaviour and other areas of functioning. Results Findings indicated that poorer performance on WM tasks predicted inattentive behaviour. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous research linking WM deficits and poor attention in ADHD and normal populations. The present findings support a controlled attention model of WM.
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts...
Harrison, Barbara E; Ferrari, Marisa; Campbell, Cathy; Maddens, Michael; Whall, Ann L
Impulsivity in older adults is poorly understood and there is limited literature on the relationship between impulsivity and falls. This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between of inattention and impulsivity related falls (IRF) in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 192) included patients 65 years and older with a documented in-patient fall in 2007. "Impaired judgment" was identified as the critical attribute of IRF. The Confusion Assessment Method item for inattention was extracted as the variable for inattention. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of falls were classified as IRF. A significant relationship was found between inattention on the shift prior to a fall and the fall being an IRF (Chi-square = 45.5, df = 1, p = .00, Phi = .54, p = .00). Early identification of older adults with impaired attention has potential to reduce IRF when nursing uses this assessment to implement additional safety interventions for hospitalized older adults. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R
Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria
The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rodriguez, Alina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic...... children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. RESULTS: There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related...
Jacqueline F. Saad; Kristi R. Griffiths; Michael R. Kohn; Simon Clarke; Leanne M. Williams; Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I (n?=?16) or as ADH...
Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...
Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; Moura, Luciana Monteiro de; Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Souza, Altay Alves Lino de; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...
Dalton, Polly; Fraenkel, Nick
It is now well-known that the absence of attention can leave us "blind" to visual stimuli that are very obvious under normal viewing conditions (e.g. a person dressed as a gorilla; Simons & Chabris, 1999). However, the question of whether hearing can ever be susceptible to such effects remains open. Here, we present evidence that the absence of…
Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda
We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary
This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.
Sims, Darcey M; Purpura, David J; Lonigan, Christopher J
Despite strong evidence that inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors are associated with mathematical difficulties in school-age children, little research has been conducted to examine the link between these constructs before the start of formal education. The purpose of this study was to examine how different manifestations of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, as measured by different assessment tools, are related to early mathematics skills in preschoolers. Eighty-two preschool children completed a measure of early mathematics and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Teachers rated children's behaviors using the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-15 Item. Sixty-five of these children completed mathematics assessments 1 year later. Teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely related to concurrent early mathematics skills, whereas CPT errors were uniquely predictive of early mathematics skills 1 year later. Findings have implications for the understanding and assessment of behavior problems that are associated with early mathematics difficulties. © The Author(s) 2012.
Fassbender, Catherine; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schweitzer, Julie B
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with different impairment profiles in the symptom domains of hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattention. An additional symptom domain of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been proposed. Although there is a degree of correlation between the SCT symptom domain and inattention, it has been proposed as a distinct disorder independent of ADHD. The objective of this study was to examine the neural substrates of cue-related preparatory processes associated with SCT symptoms versus inattentive symptoms in a group of adolescents with ADHD. We also compared cue-related effects in the entire ADHD group compared with a group of typically developing (TD) peers. A modified cued flanker paradigm and fMRI examined brain activity associated with attention preparation and motor response preparation. Between group contrasts between the ADHD and TD group revealed significant hypoactivity in the ADHD group during general attention preparation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) during response preparation. In the ADHD group, greater numbers of SCT symptoms were associated with hypoactivity in the left SPL to cues in general whereas greater numbers of inattentive symptoms were associated with greater activity in the SMA to cues that provided no information and less activity in the thalamus during response preparation. Hypoactivity in the SPL with increasing SCT symptoms may be associated with impaired reorienting or shifting of attention. Altered activity in the SMA and thalamus with increasing inattention may be associated with a general problem with response preparation, which may also reflect inefficient processing of the response preparation cue. Our results support a degree of differentiation between SCT and inattentive symptom profiles within adolescents with ADHD.
Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara
Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717
Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J
Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school. Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed...... by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and performance-based tests (i.e.,Color Trail Test and Digit Span Test). Symptoms of inattention and emotional problems were measured with parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties...
Full Text Available Sepsis, newly defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is the most common cause of death in ICUs and one of the principal causes of death worldwide. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of sepsis, translation of these advances into clinically effective therapies has been disappointing. Given the extreme complexity of sepsis pathogenesis, the paradigm “one disease, one drug” is obviously flawed and combinations of multiple targets that involve early immunomodulation and cellular protection are needed. In this context, the immune-reprogramming properties of cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent an emerging therapeutic strategy in sepsis and associated organ dysfunction. This article provides an update of the current knowledge regarding MSC in preclinical models of sepsis and sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Recommendations for further translational research in this field are discussed.
Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…
Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon
Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Paloyelis, Yannis; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Wood, Alexis C.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna
Previous studies have documented the primarily genetic aetiology for the stronger phenotypic covariance between reading disability and ADHD inattention symptoms, compared to hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. In this study, we examined to what extent this covariation could be attributed to "generalist genes" shared with general cognitive ability…
Full Text Available the United States of America where indications are that 65 per cent of near-crashes involve some form of driver inattention within three seconds before an incident. This pilot project interrogated a small sample (non-representative) of naturalistic driving...
Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.
Roč. 105, č. 1 (2015), s. 272-298 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : discrete choice behavior * rational inattention * multinomial logit model Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2015
Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.
Roč. 105, č. 1 (2015), s. 272-298 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : discrete choice behavior * rational inattention * multinomial logit model Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2015
Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, a recent computational model based on the concepts of stochastic resonance and dopamine related internal noise postulates that a moderate amount of auditive noise benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. On the basis of this model we predicted that inattentive children would be enhanced by adding background white noise while attentive children's performance would deteriorate. Methods Fifty-one secondary school pupils carried out an episodic verbal free recall test in two noise conditions. In the high noise condition, verb-noun sentences were presented during auditory background noise (white noise, 78 dB, and in the low noise condition sentences were presented without noise. Results Exposure to background noise improved performance for inattentive children and worsened performance for attentive children and eliminated episodic memory differences between attentive and inattentive school children. Conclusions Consistent with the model, our data show that cognitive performance can be moderated by external background white noise stimulation in a non-clinical group of inattentive participants. This finding needs replicating in a larger sample using more noise levels but if replicated has great practical applications by offering a non-invasive way to improve school results in children with attentional problems.
Söderlund, Göran B W; Sikström, Sverker; Loftesnes, Jan M; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J
Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, a recent computational model based on the concepts of stochastic resonance and dopamine related internal noise postulates that a moderate amount of auditive noise benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. On the basis of this model we predicted that inattentive children would be enhanced by adding background white noise while attentive children's performance would deteriorate. Fifty-one secondary school pupils carried out an episodic verbal free recall test in two noise conditions. In the high noise condition, verb-noun sentences were presented during auditory background noise (white noise, 78 dB), and in the low noise condition sentences were presented without noise. Exposure to background noise improved performance for inattentive children and worsened performance for attentive children and eliminated episodic memory differences between attentive and inattentive school children. Consistent with the model, our data show that cognitive performance can be moderated by external background white noise stimulation in a non-clinical group of inattentive participants. This finding needs replicating in a larger sample using more noise levels but if replicated has great practical applications by offering a non-invasive way to improve school results in children with attentional problems.
Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R
To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tang, Jean Y; Chiou, Albert S; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M; Aszterbaum, Michelle; Chanana, Anita M; Lee, Wayne; Lindgren, Joselyn A; Raphael, Maria Acosta; Thompson, Bobbye J; Bickers, David R; Epstein, Ervin H
Sporadic human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are generally well managed with current surgical modalities. However, in the subset of high-risk patients predisposed to developing large numbers of BCCs, there is an unmet need for effective, low-morbidity chemoprevention. This population includes fair-skinned patients with extensive sun exposure and those with genodermatoses such as the basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome (BCNS). Tazarotene (Tazorac, Allergan) is a topical retinoid with relative specificity for RAR-β and RAR-γ receptors. We previously demonstrated tazarotene's robust anti-BCC efficacy in Ptch1(+/-) mice, a murine equivalent of BCNS, and others have found it to have some efficacy against sporadic human BCCs. We report here results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study in patients with BCNS evaluating the efficacy of topically applied tazarotene for BCC chemoprevention (N = 34 subjects), along with an open-label trial evaluating tazarotene's efficacy for chemotherapy of BCC lesions (N = 36 subjects) for a maximum follow-up period of 3 years. We found that only 6% of patients had a chemopreventive response and that only 6% of treated BCC target lesions were clinically cured. Our studies provide no evidence for either chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic effect of tazarotene against BCCs in patients with BCNS.
Genetic-linked Inattentiveness Protects Individuals from Internet Overuse: A Genetic Study of Internet Overuse Evaluating Hypotheses Based on Addiction, Inattention, Novelty-seeking and Harm-avoidance
Full Text Available The all-pervasive Internet has created serious problems, such as Internet overuse, which has triggered considerable debate over its relationship with addiction. To further explore its genetic susceptibilities and alternative explanations for Internet overuse, we proposed and evaluated four hypotheses, each based on existing knowledge of the biological bases of addiction, inattention, novelty-seeking, and harm-avoidance. Four genetic loci including DRD4 VNTR, DRD2 Taq1A, COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms were screened from seventy-three individuals. Our results showed that the DRD4 4R/4R individuals scored significantly higher than the 2R or 7R carriers in Internet Addiction Test (IAT. The 5-HTTLPR short/short males scored significantly higher in IAT than the long variant carriers. Bayesian analysis showed the most compatible hypothesis with the observed genetic results was based on attention (69.8%, whereas hypotheses based harm-avoidance (21.6%, novelty-seeking (7.8% and addiction (0.9% received little support. Our study suggests that carriers of alleles (DRD4 2R and 7R, 5-HTTLPR long associated with inattentiveness are more likely to experience disrupted patterns and reduced durations of Internet use, protecting them from Internet overuse. Furthermore, our study suggests that Internet overuse should be categorized differently from addiction due to the lack of shared genetic contributions.
Månsson, Annegrete Gohr; Elmose, Mette; Dalsgaard, Søren; Roessler, Kirsten K
Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life. A mixed method approach is applied. A non-blinded, waiting list controlled study is combined with a case study, consisting of interviews and observations. The intervention consists of children practising target-shooting sport, by attending a local shooting association, once a week for six months, during regular school hours. Data from questionnaires (ADHD-RS, SDQ, Kidscreen-27), as well as a computerized continued performance test (Qb test), measure the children's activity and attention. The study includes 50 children in an intervention group and 50 children in a waiting list control group. The Qb test collects data from at least 20 children from the intervention group and at least 20 children from the waiting list control group. Data from the questionnaires and Qb-test is collected at baseline, and six months post intervention. In addition, a case study is carried out, consisting of interviews of at least five children from the intervention group, their parents, teachers and shooting instructors. Observations are carried out, when children are in school and while they are attending the local shooting association. The case study adds to an in-depth understanding of children's participation in target-shooting sports. At present, little is known about the effects and influence of practising target-shooting sport for
VanderDrift, Laura E; Antshel, Kevin M; Olszewski, Amy K
The aim of this study is to understand how ADHD symptoms correlate with romantic relationship maintenance and test theoretical pathways by which symptoms of ADHD lead to relationship difficulties. This study involved two phases of data collection, which were identical except for the population. Phase 1 ( n = 172) was a nonclinical sample of romantically involved young adults. Phase 2 ( n = 39) was a clinical sample of romantically involved young adults with ADHD. Participants in both phases reported on their levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, their relationship maintenance activities, and their relationship quality. ADHD symptoms were associated with greater relationship difficulties. In both samples, inattentive symptoms were associated with greater interest in relational alternatives and less constructive responses to partner's bad behaviors, whereas hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were associated with negative responses to bad behavior. The results of this study have implications for developing cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions targeting relationship difficulties in young adults with ADHD.
Tininenko, Jennifer R; Fisher, Philip A; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C
Sleep disruption has been linked to numerous neural regulatory problems and problems with social emotional and behavioral functioning, and researchers have shown that sleep disruption is prominent in children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These issues are germane to foster children, who have numerous disparities in areas of self-regulation and psychopathology but for whom there has been very little examination of sleep quality or the associations between poor sleep quality and physiological/behavioral dysregulation. Actigraphy measures were used to examine associations between sleep duration/quality and inattentive/hyperactive problem behavior in a sample of 79 children (aged 5-7 years): 32 foster children and 47 nonmaltreated community children. Of the sleep variables examined, only sleep duration was significantly associated with inattentive/hyperactive problem behavior. These associations were more significant in foster children compared to community children and in boys compared to girls. The results have several implications for prevention and intervention research.
Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Jickling, Glen C.; Gunther, Joan R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Bos-Veneman, Netty G. P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; Sharp, Frank R.
Background: Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the primary behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies showed that peripheral blood gene expression signatures can mirror central nervous system disease. Tourette syndrome (TS) is
Plamondon, André; Martinussen, Rhonda
The main goal of the current study is to investigate whether intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement mediate the association between inattention symptoms and academic achievement (reading, writing, and mathematics), as well as to document the extent to which inattention symptoms contribute to academic achievement due to variance overlapping with intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement. Participants were 92 children (Grades 1-4). Data were gathered using a combination of parent and teacher reports as well as objective assessments. Results did not support the mediating role of intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement. A commonality analysis showed that 77.44% to 82.10% of the variance explained in each academic achievement domains was due to variance shared by inattention symptoms, intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement. These results suggest more commonality than differences between inattention symptoms, intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement with regard to their association with academic achievement. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 SAGE Publications.
O'Neill, Sarah; Thornton, Veronica; Marks, David J; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M
Early inattention is associated with later reading problems in children, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We investigated whether the negative relation between preschoolers' ADHD symptoms and 8-year-old reading achievement is directly related to the severity of inattention or is mediated by early language skills. Children (n = 150; 76% boys) were evaluated at 3 time points: preschool (T1), mean (SD) age = 4.24 (.49) years; 1 year later (T2), mean (SD) age = 5.28 (.50) years; and during school age (T3), mean (SD) age = 8.61 (.31) years. At T1, parents' Kiddie-SADS responses were dimensionalized to reflect ADHD severity. Children completed the Language domain of the NEPSY (i.e., A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment) at T1 and again at T2. At T3, children completed the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition Word Reading, Pseudoword Decoding, Reading Comprehension, and Spelling subtests, and their teachers completed ratings of Reading and Written Expression performance in school. The mediating effect of T2 Language on the relation between preschool Inattention and age 8 Reading was examined using the nonparametric bootstrapping procedure, while controlling for T1 Language. Language ability at T2 mediated the path from preschool inattention (but not hyperactivity/impulsivity) to 8-year-old reading achievement (both test scores and ratings) after controlling for preschoolers' language ability. Early attentional deficits may negatively impact school-age reading outcomes by compromising the development of language skills, which in turn imperils later reading achievement. Screening children with attentional problems for language impairment, as well as implementing early intervention for both attentional and language problems may be critical to promote reading achievement during school years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Peter Sörös; Peter Sörös; Katharina Bachmann; Alexandra P. Lam; Alexandra P. Lam; Manuela Kanat; Eliza Hoxhaj; Swantje Matthies; Bernd Feige; Helge H. O. Müller; Christiane Thiel; Christiane Thiel; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen; Alexandra Philipsen
BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear...
Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H. O.; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Methods Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using Free...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the contribution of impulsivity, inattention and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in the development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa (BN. In particular, their specific contribution to disordered eating symptoms and whether they have additive effects to the general psychopathological burden remains unclear. METHODS: Fifty-seven female patients seeking treatment for BN and 40 healthy controls completed diagnostic questionnaires and interviews that investigated: a ADHD, b impulsivity, c eating disorders and d general psychopathology. Attentional processes and impulsivity were assessed by a comprehensive computer-based neuropsychological battery. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of patients with BN met the clinical cut-off for previous childhood ADHD compared to 2.5% of healthy controls. Adult ADHD according to DSM IV was also more prevalent in patients with BN, with an odds ratio of 4.2. Patients with BN and previous childhood ADHD were more impulsive and inattentive than patients with BN alone. These patients also displayed more severely disordered eating patterns and more general psychopathological symptoms compared with those without ADHD. Severity of eating disorder symptoms was better explained by inattentiveness than by either impulsivity or hyperactivity. DISCUSSION: Our data suggest an elevated rate of former childhood and current ADHD-symptoms in treatment-seeking patients with BN. Stronger impulsivity and inattention associated with more severe neuropsychological deficits and eating disorder symptoms indicate an additive risk that is clinically relevant for these patients. Thus, clinicians should identify comorbid patients who might profit from additional ADHD-specific treatments.
S?derlund, G?ran BW; Sikstr?m, Sverker; Loftesnes, Jan M; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J
Abstract Background Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, a recent computational model based on the concepts of stochastic resonance and dopamine related internal noise postulates that a moderate amount of auditive noise benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. On the basis of this model we predicted that inattentive children would be enhanced by adding background white noise while attentive children's performance would deteriorate. Me...
Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues
This article presents a protocol developed for the investigation of signs of inattention and hyperactivity in children and adolescents, considering the behavioral, neuropsychological and clinical aspects. The first stage is a telephone triage. Further, the assessment consists of a face-to-face screening in which a behavioral inventory (BPM) is filled, and neuropsychological tests (IQ estimated by the Wisc-III and CPT-II Test) are performed. If there are indicators of inattention and hyperacti...
Schmitz, Marcelo; Denardin, Daniel; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Pianca, Thiago; Roman, Tatiana; Hutz, Mara Helena; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis Augusto
Previous investigations have demonstrated that an MspI polymorphism at the adrenergic alpha2A receptor gene (ADRA2A) is associated with severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattentive symptoms in clinical samples composed mainly of subjects with ADHD, combined type. This study aimed to investigate the association between this ADRA2A polymorphism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattentive type (ADHD-I) in a nonreferred sample. In a case-control study, we assessed a sample of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD-I and 100 non-ADHD controls. Cases and controls were matched by gender and age and were screened by using teacher reports in a revised version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale at 12 schools. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived through structured diagnostic interviews. Homozygous subjects for the G allele at the ADRA2A had significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for ADHD-I than did those with other genotypes (CC + CG genotypes), even after adjusting for potential confounders (p = .02; OR = 3.78; 95% confidence interval = 1.23-11.62). In family-based analyses, no significant associations were detected. Our results suggest that the ADRA2A may be associated with ADHD-I, replicating previous findings from clinical samples that have suggested the importance of this gene for the dimension of inattention. In addition, these results support the role of the noradrenergic system in ADHD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment are related in non-referred school-aged children. Methods Data come from three population-based cohorts from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, which are part of the Nordic Network on ADHD. The combined sample size was 13,087 children who were studied at ages 7–8 or 10–12 years. Teachers rated children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. Results There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related to a two to tenfold increase in scholastic impairment. Prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms was similar across the three cohorts, but inattention was lowest among children from the Finnish cohort, after stratification on living conditions. Conclusion These results extend previous reports of scholastic impairment among children with clinically diagnosed ADHD to non-referred population samples from three European countries. Surveillance policies should be implemented in school systems to catch children in need of behavioral or scholastic support early.
Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [ F (1,27) = 26.27, p attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.
Guzick, Andrew G.; McNamara, Joseph P.H.; Reid, Adam M.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Bussing, Regina; Geffken, Gary R.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be highly comorbid in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some have proposed, however, that obsessive anxiety may cause inattention and executive dysfunction, leading to inappropriate ADHD diagnoses in those with OCD. If this were the case, these symptoms would be expected to decrease following successful OCD treatment. The present study tested this hypothesis and evaluated whether ADHD symptoms at baseline predicted OCD treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive and ADHD symptoms were assessed in 50 youth enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and cognitive behavioral treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) revealed that ADHD symptoms at baseline do not significantly predict treatment outcome. A multivariate RMANOVA found that OCD treatment response moderated change in inattention; participants who showed greater reduction in OCD severity experienced greater reduction in ADHD-inattentive symptoms, while those with less substantial reduction in obsessions and compulsions showed less change. These findings suggest that children and adolescents with OCD and inattention may experience meaningful improvements in attention problems following OCD treatment. Thus, in many youth with OCD, inattention may be inherently tied to obsessions and compulsions. Clinicians may consider addressing OCD in treatment before targeting inattentive-type ADHD. PMID:28966908
Astri J. Lundervold
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate parent reports of childhood symptoms of inattention as a predictor of adolescent academic achievement, taking into account the impact of the child’s intellectual functioning, in two diagnostically and culturally diverse samples.Method: Samples: (a an all-female sample in the U.S. predominated by youth with ADHD (Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study [BGALS], N = 202, and (b a mixed-sex sample recruited from a Norwegian population-based sample (the Bergen Child Study [BCS], N = 93. Inattention and intellectual function were assessed via the same measures in the two samples; academic achievement scores during and beyond high school and demographic covariates were country-specific.Results: Childhood inattention predicted subsequent academic achievement in both samples, with a somewhat stronger effect in the BGALS sample, which included a large subgroup of children with ADHD. Intellectual function was another strong predictor, but the effect of early inattention remained statistically significant in both samples when intellectual function was covaried.Conclusion: The effect of early indicators of inattention on future academic success was robust across the two samples. These results support the use of remediation procedures broadly applied. Future longitudinal multicenter studies with pre-planned common inclusion criteria should be performed to increase our understanding of the importance of inattention in primary school children for concurrent and prospective functioning.
Guzick, Andrew G; McNamara, Joseph P H; Reid, Adam M; Balkhi, Amanda M; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K; Bussing, Regina; Geffken, Gary R
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be highly comorbid in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some have proposed, however, that obsessive anxiety may cause inattention and executive dysfunction, leading to inappropriate ADHD diagnoses in those with OCD. If this were the case, these symptoms would be expected to decrease following successful OCD treatment. The present study tested this hypothesis and evaluated whether ADHD symptoms at baseline predicted OCD treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive and ADHD symptoms were assessed in 50 youth enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and cognitive behavioral treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) revealed that ADHD symptoms at baseline do not significantly predict treatment outcome. A multivariate RMANOVA found that OCD treatment response moderated change in inattention; participants who showed greater reduction in OCD severity experienced greater reduction in ADHD-inattentive symptoms, while those with less substantial reduction in obsessions and compulsions showed less change. These findings suggest that children and adolescents with OCD and inattention may experience meaningful improvements in attention problems following OCD treatment. Thus, in many youth with OCD, inattention may be inherently tied to obsessions and compulsions. Clinicians may consider addressing OCD in treatment before targeting inattentive-type ADHD.
Matonti, F; Roux, S; Denis, D; Picaud, S; Chavane, F
Blindness and visual impairment are a major public health problem all over the world and in all societies. A large amount of basic science and clinical research aims to rehabilitate patients and help them become more independent. Various methods are explored from cell and molecular therapy to prosthetic interfaces. We review the various treatment alternatives, describing their results and their limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Barbieri, Stefania; Vettore, Gianna; Pietrantonio, Vincenzo; Snenghi, Rossella; Tredese, Alberto; Bergamini, Mauro; Previato, Sara; Stefanati, Armando; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Feltracco, Paolo
Full Text Available Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13 or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1 and post (day2, day21 LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21 and T cell (day2 populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2. BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2 in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.
Sarah A. Gray
Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM, and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes.Methods. 204 students from grades 1–4 (49.5% female were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013 was used to determine mediation pathways.Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores.Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills.
Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary
Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills.
Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)
Background In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (pChlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, pChlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people. PMID:22849818
Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J
We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.
Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.
Basch, Charles E
To outline the prevalence and disparities of inattention and hyperactivity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which inattention and hyperactivity adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Approximately 4.6 million (8.4%) of American youth aged 6-17 have received a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and almost two thirds of these youth are reportedly under treatment with prescription medications. Urban minority youth are not only more likely to be affected but also less likely to receive accurate diagnosis and treatment. Causal pathways through which ADHD may affect academic achievement include sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. In one study, youth with diagnosed ADHD were 2.7 times as likely to drop out (10.0% vs. 22.9%). A similar odds ratio for not graduating from high school was found in another prospective study, with an 8-year follow-up period (odds ratio = 2.4). There are many children who are below the clinical diagnostic threshold for ADHD but who exhibit signs and symptoms that interfere with learning. Evidence-based programs emphasizing functional academic and social outcomes are available. Inattention and hyperactivity are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement through their effects on sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out, and effective practices are available for schools to address these problems. This prevalent and complex syndrome has very powerful effects on academic achievement and educational attainment, and should be a high priority in efforts to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Orban, Sarah A; Rapport, Mark D; Friedman, Lauren M; Eckrich, Samuel J; Kofler, Michael J
Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during 'preferred' activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction. Boys ages 8-12 (M = 9.62, SD = 1.22) with ADHD (n = 32) and typically developing boys (TD; n = 30) completed a counterbalanced series of working memory tests and watched two videos on separate assessment days: an analogue math instructional video, and a non-instructional video selected to match the content and cognitive demands of parent/teacher-described 'preferred' activities. Objective, reliable observations of attentive behavior revealed no between-group differences during the non-instructional video (d = -0.02), and attentive behavior during the non-instructional video was unrelated to all working memory variables (r = -0.11 to 0.19, ns). In contrast, the ADHD group showed disproportionate attentive behavior decrements during analogue classroom instruction (d = -0.71). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped, serial mediation revealed that 59% of this between-group difference was attributable to ADHD-related impairments in central executive working memory, both directly (ER = 41%) and indirectly via its role in coordinating phonological short-term memory (ER = 15%). Between-group attentive behavior differences were no longer detectable after accounting for ADHD-related working memory impairments (d = -0.29, ns). Results confirm anecdotal reports of intact sustained attention during activities that place minimal demands on working memory, and indicate that ADHD children's inattention during analogue classroom instruction is related, in large part
Full Text Available BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS. Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014.ResultsLinear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [F(1,27 = 26.27, p < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.4744]. No significant associations were found between cortical thickness and the scores on CAARS subscales in women. No significant associations were found between the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age.ConclusionIncreased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.
Sonneville, K R; Calzo, J P; Horton, N J; Field, A E; Crosby, R D; Solmi, F; Micali, N
Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence. We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the UK, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher- and parent-reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating. Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating [standardized estimate 0.145, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.038–0.259, p = 0.009] and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate 0.088, 95% CI −0.002 to 0.169, p = 0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate 0.085, 95% CI 0.007–0.128, p = 0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food. Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating.
Levine, Laura E; Waite, Bradley M; Bowman, Laura L
We examined how young adults' use of instant messaging, text messaging, and traditional reading related to their self-reported experience of distractibility and impulsiveness and to their performance on computerized tasks designed to assess inattention and impulsive responses to visual stimuli. Participants reported their media use and completed self-report measures of impulsiveness (i.e., the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and distractibility for academic reading. They also completed performance based measures of inattention and impulsiveness using the Tests of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.(®)). Results demonstrated that instant message use was significantly related to higher levels of attentional impulsiveness and distractibility on the self-report measures, while traditional reading consistently predicted lower levels of impulsiveness and distractibility. However, media use was not significantly related to the performance measures of inattention and behavioral impulsiveness.
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Fischel, Janet E
The literature on the prevalence and stability of preschool problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity suggests a number of links to early literacy skills and broader school achievement. Developmental considerations in the assessment of preschool ADHD are reviewed in this paper, along with evidence for the stability of symptoms over time and the relationship between early symptoms of ADHD and elementary school achievement. Emphasis is placed on describing the nature of the connection between preschool ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, as few studies to date have focused specifically on that relationship. Several explanations for the relationship between preschool ADHD symptoms and achievement are analyzed, including an explanation that focuses on the relationship between inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and the acquisition of emergent literacy and language skills. Finally, the evidence for four models that have been proposed to account for the link between behavior and learning is reviewed and critically analyzed. Suggestions are made for future research that might resolve important questions only partially addressed in studies to date.
Lundervold, Astri J; Bøe, Tormod; Lundervold, Arvid
Inattention in childhood is associated with academic problems later in life. The contribution of specific aspects of inattentive behaviour is, however, less known. We investigated feature importance of primary school teachers' reports on nine aspects of inattentive behaviour, gender and age in predicting future academic achievement. Primary school teachers of n = 2491 children (7-9 years) rated nine items reflecting different aspects of inattentive behaviour in 2002. A mean academic achievement score from the previous semester in high school (2012) was available for each youth from an official school register. All scores were at a categorical level. Feature importances were assessed by using multinominal logistic regression, classification and regression trees analysis, and a random forest algorithm. Finally, a comprehensive pattern classification procedure using k-fold cross-validation was implemented. Overall, inattention was rated as more severe in boys, who also obtained lower academic achievement scores in high school than girls. Problems related to sustained attention and distractibility were together with age and gender defined as the most important features to predict future achievement scores. Using these four features as input to a collection of classifiers employing k-fold cross-validation for prediction of academic achievement level, we obtained classification accuracy, precision and recall that were clearly better than chance levels. Primary school teachers' reports of problems related to sustained attention and distractibility were identified as the two most important features of inattentive behaviour predicting academic achievement in high school. Identification and follow-up procedures of primary school children showing these characteristics should be prioritised to prevent future academic failure.
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Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin
The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.
Nicolau, José C; Furtado, Remo H M; Silva, Suzana A; Rochitte, Carlos E; Rassi, Anis; Moraes, João B M C; Quintella, Edgard; Costantini, Costantino R; Korman, Adrian P M; Mattos, Marco A; Castello, Hélio J; Caixeta, Adriano; Dohmann, Hans F R; de Carvalho, Antonio C C
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a major determinant of long-term prognosis after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). STEMI patients with reduced LVEF have a poor prognosis, despite successful reperfusion and the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors. Intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC) may improve LVEF in STEMI patients successfully reperfused. The main inclusion criteria for this double-blind, randomized, multicenter study were patient age 30 to 80 years, LVEF ≤50%, successful angioplasty of infarct-related artery, and regional dysfunction in the infarct-related area analyzed before cell injection. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess LVEF, left ventricular volumes, and infarct size at 7 to 9 days and 6 months post-myocardial infarction. One hundred and twenty-one patients were included (66 patients in the BMMC group and 55 patients in the placebo group). The primary endpoint, mean LVEF, was similar between both groups at baseline (44.63% ± 10.74% vs 42.23% ± 10.33%; P = 0.21) and at 6 months (44.74% ± 12.95 % vs 43.50 ± 12.43%; P = 0.59). The groups were also similar regarding the difference between baseline and 6 months (0.11% ± 8.5% vs 1.27% ± 8.93%; P = 0.46). Other parameters of left ventricular remodeling, such as systolic and diastolic volumes, as well as infarct size, were also similar between groups. In this randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial, BMMC intracoronary infusion did not improve left ventricular remodeling or decrease infarct size. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saad, Jacqueline F; Griffiths, Kristi R; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I ( n = 16) or as ADHD-C ( n = 18) and 28 matched typically developing controls, aged 8-17 years, using high-resolution T1 MRI. To quantify neuroanatomical organization we used graph theoretical analysis to assess properties of structural covariance between ADHD subtypes and controls (global network measures: path length, clustering coefficient, and regional network measures: nodal degree). As a context for interpreting network organization differences, we also quantified gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Each ADHD subtype was distinguished by a different organizational profile of the degree to which specific regions were anatomically connected with other regions (i.e., in "nodal degree"). For ADHD-I (compared to both ADHD-C and controls) the nodal degree was higher in the hippocampus. ADHD-I also had a higher nodal degree in the supramarginal gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and superior occipital cortex compared to ADHD-C and in the amygdala compared to controls. By contrast, the nodal degree was higher in the cerebellum for ADHD-C compared to ADHD-I and in the anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and putamen compared to controls. ADHD-C also had reduced nodal degree in the rolandic operculum and middle temporal pole compared to controls. These regional profiles were observed in the context of no differences in gray matter volume or global network organization. Our results suggest that the clinical distinction between the Inattentive and Combined subtypes of ADHD may also be
Molloy, Katharine; Griffiths, Timothy D; Chait, Maria; Lavie, Nilli
Due to capacity limits on perception, conditions of high perceptual load lead to reduced processing of unattended stimuli (Lavie et al., 2014). Accumulating work demonstrates the effects of visual perceptual load on visual cortex responses, but the effects on auditory processing remain poorly understood. Here we establish the neural mechanisms underlying "inattentional deafness"--the failure to perceive auditory stimuli under high visual perceptual load. Participants performed a visual search task of low (target dissimilar to nontarget items) or high (target similar to nontarget items) load. On a random subset (50%) of trials, irrelevant tones were presented concurrently with the visual stimuli. Brain activity was recorded with magnetoencephalography, and time-locked responses to the visual search array and to the incidental presence of unattended tones were assessed. High, compared to low, perceptual load led to increased early visual evoked responses (within 100 ms from onset). This was accompanied by reduced early (∼ 100 ms from tone onset) auditory evoked activity in superior temporal sulcus and posterior middle temporal gyrus. A later suppression of the P3 "awareness" response to the tones was also observed under high load. A behavioral experiment revealed reduced tone detection sensitivity under high visual load, indicating that the reduction in neural responses was indeed associated with reduced awareness of the sounds. These findings support a neural account of shared audiovisual resources, which, when depleted under load, leads to failures of sensory perception and awareness. The present work clarifies the neural underpinning of inattentional deafness under high visual load. The findings of near-simultaneous load effects on both visual and auditory evoked responses suggest shared audiovisual processing capacity. Temporary depletion of shared capacity in perceptually demanding visual tasks leads to a momentary reduction in sensory processing of auditory
Gregg, Ronald G; Kamermans, Maarten; Klooster, Jan; Lukasiewicz, Peter D; Peachey, Neal S; Vessey, Kirstan A; McCall, Maureen A
Mutations in the NYX gene that encodes the protein nyctalopin cause congenital stationary night blindness type 1. In no b-wave (nob) mice, a mutation in Nyx results in a functional phenotype that includes the absence of the electroretinogram b-wave and abnormal spontaneous and light-evoked activity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, there is no morphological abnormality in the retina at either the light or electron microscopic levels. These functional deficits suggest that nyctalopin is required for normal synaptic transmission between retinal photoreceptors and depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). However, the synaptic etiology and, specifically, the exact location and function of nyctalopin, remain uncertain. We show that nob DBCs fail to respond to exogenous application of the photoreceptor neurotransmitter, glutamate, thus demonstrating a postsynaptic deficit in photoreceptor to bipolar cell communication. To determine if postsynaptic expression of nyctalopin is necessary and sufficient to rescue the nob phenotype, we constructed transgenic mice that expressed an EYFP-nyctalopin fusion protein on the dendritic tips of the DBCs. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies verified that fusion protein expression was limited to the DBC dendritic tips. Fusion gene expression in nob mice restored normal outer and inner visual function as determined by the electroretinogram and RGC spontaneous and evoked responses. Together, our data show that nyctalopin expression on DBC dendrites is required for normal function of the murine retina.
Leonard, Melinda A.; Milich, Richard; Lorch, Elizabeth P.
Purpose: In the present study, the authors explored whether pragmatic language use was associated with, and perhaps accounted for, the social skills problems that children with varying levels of hyperactivity and inattention experience. Method: A community sample of 54 children aged 9-11 years participated. Pragmatic language use, hyperactivity…
Schmitz, Marcelo; Denardin, Daniel; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Pianca, Thiago; Hutz, Mara Helena; Faraone, Stephen; Rohde, Luis Augusto
Objective: Few previous studies assessed specifically attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in nonreferred samples. This study investigated the association between ADHD-I and prenatal exposure to nicotine. Method: In a case-control study performed between September 2002 and April 2005, we assessed a…
Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae-Won; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won
Background: The present study assessed the association between blood lead and urinary cotinine levels and inattentive and hyperactive symptoms and neurocognitive performance in children. Methods: A total of 667 children (age range 8-11) were recruited from nine schools in five Korean cities. The teachers and parents completed the Korean version of…
Bauermeister, Jose J.; Puente, Anibal; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Scandar, Ruben O.; Bauermeister, Jose A.
Objective: This study examined the impact of inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors and gender on family life. Method: We created scales for the Family Experiences Inventory (FEI) in a nonclinical sample of Spaniard families with children ages 6 to 12 years (N = 369) and analyzed the perceived impact of these…
Barrett, P Noel; Berezuk, Gregory; Fritsch, Sandor; Aichinger, Gerald; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Ehrlich, Hartmut J
The use of cell-culture technologies for the manufacture of influenza vaccines might contribute to improved strain selection and robust vaccine supplies. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine, and assessed the correlation between vaccine efficacy and haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken in 36 centres in the USA, healthy adults (aged 18-49 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one injection of either placebo or Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine during the 2008-09 season. Randomisation was done in blocks by use of the random number generator algorithm, and participants were allocated by use of a centralised telephone system. The primary objective was the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing cell-culture-confirmed influenza infection with viruses that were antigenically matched to one of the vaccine strains. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00566345. 7250 participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=3626) and placebo (n=3624). 7236 were analysed for the primary outcome (n=3619 and n=3617, respectively). Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza infection was 78·5% (95% CI 60·8-88·2). The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events. Adverse events were mainly mild and transient. An HI titre of at least 1:15 provided a reliable correlate of cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine-induced protection; no additional benefit was noted with titres greater than 1:30. The data indicate that existing correlates of protection afforded with egg-derived seasonal influenza vaccines also apply to this vaccine. Federal (US Government) funds from the Office for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under contract to DynPort Vaccine Company. Copyright
Sarveazad, Arash; Newstead, Graham L; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Babahajian, Asrin; Mahjoubi, Bahar
Anal sphincter defects are a major cause of fecal incontinence causing negative effects on daily life, social interactions, and mental health. Because human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) are easier and safer to access, secrete high levels of growth factor, and have the potential to differentiate into muscle cells, we investigated the ability of hADSCs to improve anal sphincter incontinence. The present randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on patients with sphincter defects. They were categorized into a cell group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). Either 6 × 10 6 hADSCs per 3 ml suspended in phosphate buffer saline (treatment) or 3 ml phosphate buffer saline (placebo) was injected. Two months after surgery, the Wexner score, endorectal sonography, and electromyography (EMG) results were recorded. Comparing Wexner scores in the cell group and the control group showed no significant difference. In our EMG and endorectal sonography analysis using ImageJ/Fiji 1.46 software, the ratio of the area occupied by the muscle to total area of the lesion showed a 7.91% increase in the cell group compared with the control group. The results of the current study show that injection of hADSCs during repair surgery for fecal incontinence may cause replacement of fibrous tissue, which acts as a mechanical support to muscle tissue with contractile function. This is a key point in treatment of fecal incontinence especially in the long term and may be a major step forward. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016022826316N2 . Retrospectively registered 7 May 2016.
Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Won-Suk; Lanman, Richard B; Mortimer, Stefanie; Zill, Oliver A; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Kang, Won Ki; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Park, Keunchil; Lee, Jeeyun; Talasaz, AmirAli
Sequencing of the mutant allele fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) derived from tumors is increasingly utilized to detect actionable genomic alterations in cancer. We conducted a prospective blinded study of a comprehensive cfDNA sequencing panel with 54 cancer genes. To evaluate the concordance between cfDNA and tumor DNA (tDNA), sequencing results were compared between cfDNA from plasma and genomic tumor DNA (tDNA). Utilizing next generation digital sequencing technology (DST), we profiled approximately 78,000 bases encoding 512 complete exons in the targeted genes in cfDNA from plasma. Seventy-five patients were prospectively enrolled between February 2013 and March 2014, including 61 metastatic cancer patients and 14 clinical stage II CRC patients with matched plasma and tissue samples. Using the 54-gene panel, we detected at least one somatic mutation in 44 of 61 tDNA (72.1%) and 29 of 44 (65.9%) cfDNA. The overall concordance rate of cfDNA to tDNA was 85.9%, when all detected mutations were considered. We collected serial cfDNAs during cetuximab-based treatment in 2 metastatic KRAS wild-type CRC patients, one with acquired resistance and one with primary resistance. We demonstrate newly emerged KRAS mutation in cfDNA 1.5 months before radiologic progression. Another patient had a newly emerged PIK3CA H1047R mutation on cfDNA analysis at progression during cetuximab/irinotecan chemotherapy with gradual increase in allele frequency from 0.8 to 2.1%. This blinded, prospective study of a cfDNA sequencing showed high concordance to tDNA suggesting that the DST approach may be used as a non-invasive biopsy-free alternative to conventional sequencing using tumor biopsy.
Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E
Despite the well-established association between problem gambling and ADHD core categories of impulsivity-hyperactivity and inattention, the link between parents' problem gambling and impulsivity-hyperactivity/inattention (IH/I) behaviors in children has not been investigated. This study investigated the association between parents' problem gambling and children's IH/I behaviors while controlling for potential confounding variables. A population-based prospective cohort followed-up from kindergarten to age 30, the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC), provided data over three generations. Among 1358 participants at age 30, parents with a child aged 1 year or older (N = 468; Mean age = 4.65 years; SD = 2.70) were selected. Generalized Linear Models included measures of grandparents' and parents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood, and a host of risk factors and comorbidities to predict IH/I in children. Intergenerational bivariate associations were observed between grandparents' problem gambling, parents' IH/I in childhood and problem gambling at age 30, and between parents' IH/I, problem gambling, and children's IH/I behaviors. Parents' problem gambling predicted children's IH/I behaviors above and beyond the effects of covariates such as family and socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol and drug use, depression symptoms and parents' gambling involvement. Parents' IH/I behaviors in childhood also predicted children's IH/I and had a moderating, enhancing effect on parents' problem gambling association with their offspring's IH/I behaviors. Problem gambling is a characteristic of parents' mental health that is distinctively associated with children's IH/I behaviors, above and beyond parents' own history of IH/I and of typically related addictive, psychopathological or socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities.
Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O
To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers. Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.
Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.
Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi
Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.
Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet
Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps < .001); impulsive action (r range: .65-.73, ps < .001); and inattention (r range: .38-.42, ps < .001). Additionally, the influence of day-to-day fluctuations in mood, as measured by the Profile of Mood States, was assessed in relation to variability in performance on each of the behavioral tasks. Change in performance on the delay discounting task was significantly associated with change in positive mood and arousal. No other behavioral measures were significantly associated with mood. In sum, the current analysis demonstrates that behavioral measures of impulsivity are reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.
Hess, David C; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Clark, Wayne M; Savitz, Sean I; Ford, Gary A; Chiu, David; Yavagal, Dileep R; Uchino, Ken; Liebeskind, David S; Auchus, Alexander P; Sen, Souvik; Sila, Cathy A; Vest, Jeffrey D; Mays, Robert W
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence and interactive voice and web response system to assign patients aged 18-83 years with moderately severe acute ischaemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 8-20 to treatment with intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells (400 million or 1200 million cells) or placebo between 24 h and 48 h after symptom onset. Patients were ineligible if there was a change in NIHSS of four or more points during at least a 6 h period between screening and randomisation, had brainstem or lacunar infarct, a substantial comorbid disease, an inability to undergo an MRI scan, or had a history of splenectomy. In group 1, patients were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 400 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through 7 days. In group 2, patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 1200 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through the first 7 days. In group 3, patients were enrolled, randomly assigned, and stratified by baseline NIHSS score to receive 1200 million cells or placebo in a 1:1 ratio within 24-48 h. Patients, investigators, and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. The primary safety outcome was dose-limiting toxicity effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was global stroke recovery, which combines dichotomised results from the modified Rankin scale, change in NIHSS score from baseline, and
Bazan Nicolas G.
Full Text Available The significance of the selective enrichment in omega-3 essential fatty acids in the nervous system has remained, until recently, incompletely understood. While studying mechanisms of cell survival in neurodegenerations, a new docosanoid synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] by 15-lipoxygenase-1 [15-LOX-1] was discovered. This mediator, called neuroprotectin D1 [NPD1], is a docosanoid because it is derived from a 22C precursor (DHA, unlike eicosanoids, which are derived from the 20 C arachidonic acid family member of essential fatty acids not enriched in the nervous system. NPD1 is promptly made in response to oxidative stress and brain ischemiareperfusion and in the presence of neurotrophins. NPD1 is neuroprotective in experimental brain damage, oxidative-stressed retinal pigment epithelial [RPE] cells, and in human brain cells exposed to amyloid-b peptide. Thus NPD1 is a protective sentinel, one of the very first defenses activated when cell homeostasis is threatened by neurodegenerations. This review highlights the specificity and potency of NPD1 spanning beneficial bioactivity in experimental models of stroke, in retinal cells relevant to early events in age-related macular degenerations, and studies addressing fundamental issues during initiation and early progression of neurodegenerations.
Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kreiberg, Michael; Oturai, Peter Sandor; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Daugaard, Gedske
Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed consent will be obtained. Afterwards, a 52-weeks treatment period begins in which study participants will receive a daily dose of transdermal testosterone or placebo. Dose adjustment will be made three times during the initial 8 weeks of the study to a maximal daily dose of 40 mg of testosterone in the intervention arm. Evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints will be performed at baseline, 26 weeks post-randomization, at the end of treatment (52 weeks) and 3 months after completion of treatment (week 64). This study is the first to investigate the effect of testosterone substitution in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. If positive, it may change the clinical handling of testicular cancer survivors with borderline low levels of testosterone. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02991209 (November 25, 2016).
Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.
... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, ...
Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.
Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers
Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.
Full Text Available This article presents the safety data for cell-derived inactivated subunit adjuvanted influenza vaccine «Grippol Neo» in children 3–17 years old in comparison with reference egg-derived inactivated subunit vaccine «Grippol plus». Good test vaccine tolerability and high efficacy profile is demonstrated. Based on the results obtained vaccine «Grippol Neo» is recommended for mass influenza prophylaxis in pediatry, including National Immunization Schedule.Key words: children, influenza, vaccination, «Grippol Neo».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:44-49
Scalabrino, Miranda L; Boye, Sanford L; Fransen, Kathryn M H; Noel, Jennifer M; Dyka, Frank M; Min, Seok Hong; Ruan, Qing; De Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Gregg, Ronald G; McCall, Maureen A; Peachey, Neal S; Boye, Shannon E
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) effectively targets therapeutic genes to photoreceptors, pigment epithelia, Müller glia and ganglion cells of the retina. To date, no one has shown the ability to correct, with gene replacement, an inherent defect in bipolar cells (BCs), the excitatory interneurons of the retina. Targeting BCs with gene replacement has been difficult primarily due to the relative inaccessibility of BCs to standard AAV vectors. This approach would be useful for restoration of vision in patients with complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1), where signaling through the ON BCs is eliminated due to mutations in their G-protein-coupled cascade genes. For example, the majority of CSNB1 patients carry a mutation in nyctalopin (NYX), which encodes a protein essential for proper localization of the TRPM1 cation channel required for ON BC light-evoked depolarization. As a group, CSNB1 patients have a normal electroretinogram (ERG) a-wave, indicative of photoreceptor function, but lack a b-wave due to defects in ON BC signaling. Despite retinal dysfunction, the retinas of CSNB1 patients do not degenerate. The Nyx(nob) mouse model of CSNB1 faithfully mimics this phenotype. Here, we show that intravitreally injected, rationally designed AAV2(quadY-F+T-V) containing a novel 'Ple155' promoter drives either GFP or YFP_Nyx in postnatal Nyx(nob) mice. In treated Nyx(nob) retina, robust and targeted Nyx transgene expression in ON BCs partially restored the ERG b-wave and, at the cellular level, signaling in ON BCs. Our results support the potential for gene delivery to BCs and gene replacement therapy in human CSNB1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Meral R. ÖZERK
Full Text Available ADHD is one of the widespread neurological disorders among children. While a substantial amount of research have addressed the issues related to assessment practices and diagnosis criteria among majority language speaking children, ADHD among bilingual children or linguistic minority children has not yet been addressed and discussed so much in the research circles. The percentage of bilingual children with immigrant background in main stream schools in many countries is quite high. Despite this global demographic tendency, underdiagnostisation and assessment of bilingual children with inattention, over activity and impulsivity are being considered to be a psychiatric, psychological and educational challenge. In this paper we address several critical aspects of the assessment practices and medical diagnosis of bilingual children with immigrant background based on a research project. The paper presents also some solutions as an alternative to one-sided intelligence-test based approaches. We stress the importance of multidimensional, multisource and bilingual assessment model for identifying the knowledge-related and language-related elements of the academic learning gap that these children usually experience prior to and during the assessment period.
Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J
It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.
Alexander K. Converse
Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.
Fenollar Cortés, Javier; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard
Few studies have examined whether separate dimensions of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT)-inconsistent alertness and slowness-have different external correlates from each other as well as symptoms of ADHD inattention (ADHD-IN). Participants were 131 Spanish children (ages 6-16; 72% boys) diagnosed with ADHD. In regression analyses, ADHD-IN was positively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct problems, defiance/aggression, anxiety, peer relations problems, and learning problems. SCT-inconsistent alertness was positively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity and peer relations problems. In contrast, SCT-slowness was negatively associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity and conduct problems and positively associated with depression and learning problems. Results were consistent after controlling for depression, medication status, and sex. The findings support SCT to be a construct with two dimensions that have unique correlates relative to each other as well as ADHD-IN. Future research on SCT should separate these dimensions of SCT to provide a better understanding of the construct.
Elkins, R Meredith; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur in childhood. Inattention symptoms can be hallmarks of both conditions, however assessment tools of inattention may not effectively distinguish between the two conditions. The present study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the high-end specificity of the Attention Problems Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for detecting comorbid ADHD among youth with GAD (N=46). Results support the utility of the Attention Problems Scale for accurately distinguishing between the two groups (AUC=.84, SE=.06). Specifically, a cut score of 63 achieved the most favorable values across diagnostic utility indices; 74% of GAD youth with ADHD scored above this cutoff and 91% of GAD youth without ADHD scored below this cutoff. Findings provide support for the use of the CBCL Attention Problems Scale to supplement diagnostic interviews and identify inattention associated with ADHD among GAD youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa, Danielle de S; Paula, Jonas J de; Alvim-Soares Júnior, Antônio M; Diniz, Breno S; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Miranda, Débora M de
Fluid intelligence and the behavioral problems of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to academic performance, but how this association occurs is unclear. This study aimed to assess mediation and moderation models that test possible pathways of influence between these factors. Sixty-two children with ADHD and 33 age-matched, typically developing students were evaluated with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the spelling and arithmetic subtests of the Brazilian School Achievement Test. Dimensional ADHD symptomatology was reported by parents. Our findings suggest that fluid intelligence has a significant impact on academic tests through inattention. The inattentive dimension was the principal behavioral source of influence, also accounting for the association of hyperactive-impulsive manifestations with school achievement. This cognitive-to-behavioral influence path seems to be independent of diagnosis related group, and gender, but lower socioeconomic status might increase its strength. Fluid intelligence is a relevant factor in the influence of ADHD behavioral symptoms on academic performance, but its impact is indirect. Therefore, early identification of both fluid intelligence and inattentive symptoms is of the utmost importance to prevent impaired academic performance and future difficulties in functioning.
A multicenter, longitudinal, interventional, double blind randomized clinical trial in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients residing in remote areas: Lessons learned from the late cytomegalovirus prevention trial
Louise E. Kimball
Conclusion: Complex randomized, double-blind, multicenter interventional trials with treatment decisions made at a central coordinating site can be conducted safely and effectively according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines over a large geographic area.
Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L S
This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Arabacı, Gizem; Parris, Benjamin A
Research has revealed a positive relationship between types of mind wandering and ADHD at clinical and subclinical levels. However, this work did not consider the relationship between mind wandering and the core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Given that the DMS-V attributes mind wandering to inattention only, and that only inattention is thought to result from impairment to the executive function linked to mind wandering, the present research sought to examine this relationship in 80 undiagnosed adults. Using both standard and easy versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) we measured both spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering. We found that spontaneous mind wandering was related to self-reported inattentive traits when the task was cognitively more challenging (standard SART). However, hyperactive and impulsive traits were related to spontaneous mind wandering independent of task difficulty. The results suggest inattentive traits are not uniquely related to mind wandering; indeed, adults with hyperactive/impulsive traits were more likely to experience mind wandering, suggesting that mind wandering might not be useful diagnostic criteria for inattention.
Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial
Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong
BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy......: Bone marrow stem cell mobilization with subcutaneous G-CSF is safe but did not lead to further improvement in ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction compared with the recovery observed in the placebo group....... measured by both MRI (8.5 versus 8.0; P=0.9) and echocardiography (5.7 versus 3.7; P=0.7). The risk of severe clinical adverse events was not increased by G-CSF. In addition, in-stent late lumen loss and target vessel revascularization rate in the follow-up period were similar in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS...
Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A
Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.
Tang, Jean Y.; Chiou, Albert S.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Aszterbaum, Michelle; Chanana, Anita M.; Lee, Wayne; Lindgren, Joselyn A.; Raphael, Maria Acosta; Thompson, Bobbye J.; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H.
Sporadic human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are generally well managed with current surgical modalities. However in the subset of high-risk patients predisposed to developing large numbers of BCCs, there is an unmet need for effective, low morbidity chemoprevention. This population includes fair-skinned patients with extensive sun exposure and those with genodermatoses such as the basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome (BCNS). Tazarotene (Tazorac, Allergan) is a topical retinoid with relative spe...
Marty, Francisco M; Ljungman, Per; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A; Winston, Drew J; Chemaly, Roy F; Strasfeld, Lynne; Young, Jo-Anne H; Rodriguez, Tulio; Maertens, Johan; Schmitt, Michael; Einsele, Hermann; Ferrant, Augustin; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Villano, Stephen A; Chen, Hongzi; Boeckh, Michael
Available drugs against cytomegalovirus have adverse effects that compromise their prophylactic use in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of oral maribavir in such patients. In this placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase 3 study, we enrolled adult patients recipient-seropositive or donor-seropositive for cytomegalovirus who had undergone allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Patients were recruited from 90 centres in Canada, Europe, and the USA. After engraftment, patients were stratified by recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus and conditioning regimen (myeloablative or reduced-intensity) and assigned (2:1) by masked computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive maribavir 100 mg twice daily or placebo for up to 12 weeks, with weekly blood cytomegalovirus surveillance. If the virus was detected, administration of study drug was stopped and pre-emptive anticytomegalovirus treatment started. The primary endpoint was cytomegalovirus disease within 6 months of transplantation. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00411645. Between December, 2006, and May, 2008, 681 patients were enrolled and assigned to receive maribavir (454) or placebo (227). The incidence of cytomegalovirus disease within 6 months was 20 of 454 (4%) for the maribavir group and 11 of 227 (5%) for the placebo group (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.42-1.92). During the 100 days following transplantation, cytomegalovirus infection rates as measured by pp65 antigenaemia were lower in the maribavir group (26.4%) than in the placebo group (34.8%; OR 0.67; 0.47-0.95), but not when measured by plasma cytomegalovirus DNA PCR (27.8%vs 30.4%; OR 0·88; 0.62-1.25), nor by initiation of treatment against cytomegalovirus (30.6%vs 37.4%; OR 0.73, 0.52-1.03). Maribavir was well tolerated: most adverse events, including incident acute graft-versus-host disease and neutropenia
Karp, Daniel D.; Lee, Sandra J.; Keller, Steven M.; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H.; Johnston, Michael R.; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M.; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R.
Purpose Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. Results The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Conclusion Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:24002495
Karp, Daniel D; Lee, Sandra J; Keller, Steven M; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H; Johnston, Michael R; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R
Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC.
Safety and tolerability of a cell culture derived trivalent subunit inactivated influenza vaccine administered to healthy children and adolescents: A Phase III, randomized, multicenter, observer-blind study.
Nolan, Terry; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Carson, Simon; Senders, Shelly David; Jaehnig, Peter; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa
Cell culture-derived inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVc) are necessary for scale and predictability of production to meet global demand. This study compared the safety and tolerability of TIVc with an egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccine (TIVf) in 4-17 yearolds. A Phase 3 observer blind, multicenter study enrolled 2055 healthy participants randomized 2:1 to receive either TIVc or TIVf, respectively (1372 TIVc and 683 TIVf evaluable subjects). Participants received one dose each on Days 1 and 28 (4-8 year-olds not previously vaccinated [NPV]) or one dose on Day 1 (4-8 and 9-17 yearolds previously vaccinated [PV]). Solicited adverse events (AEs) occurring within 7 days after each vaccination were assessed; participants were followed up for 6 months after their last dose for safety. Most solicited and unsolicited AEs were mild to moderate with vaccine-related SAEs were reported. TIVc and TIVf were similar in percentages of participants reporting solicited reactions in 4-8 years NPV group after the 1st dose: local reactions, TIVc: 48%, TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions, TIVc: 34%, TIVf: 32%; percentages were lower following the 2nd dose in TIVc; local reactions: TIVc: 40%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 21%; TIVf: 22%. In 4-17 years PV group, solicited reactions were lower following TIVf, local reactions: TIVc: 53%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 37%, TIVf: 30%. Injection-site pain was the most common solicited reaction, and was similar following TIVc and TIVf in 4-8 yearolds (TIVc: 56%; TIVf: 55%), and lower following TIVf in 9-17 years group (TIVc: 52%; TIVf: 42%). Reporting of unsolicited AEs was similar for TIVc and TIVf across the two age groups. TIVc was well tolerated and had a safety and reactogenicity profile similar to that of TIVf in healthy 4-17 yearolds (NCT01857206). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sampath, Gadey; Banzhoff, Angelika; Deshpande, Alaka; Malerczyk, Claudius; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Vakil, Hoshang; Preiss, Scott
ABSTRACT This phase IV, single blind study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of India-manufactured purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV), compared with a German-manufactured batch obtained by the same production process. A total of 340 participants enrolled at 2 study sites in India were randomized (1:1:1:1) in 4 groups to receive a 5-dose Essen regimen with either 1 of the 3 Indian batches (PCECV-I) or the German batch (PCECV-G), administered on Days (D) 0, 3, 7, 14 and 30. The lot-to-lot consistency of PCECV-I batches in terms of induced immune response at D14 was demonstrated. The immune response elicited by PCECV-I was shown to be non-inferior to that induced by PCECV-G, as the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the ratio (PCECV-I/PCECV-G) of rabies virus neutralising antibody (RVNA) geometric mean concentrations was higher than 0.5 at D14. At least 96% of participants developed adequate RVNA concentrations (≥ 0.5 IU/mL) by D14 and all achieved RVNA concentrations ≥ 0.5 IU/mL by D90. RVNA levels were comparable across all groups throughout the entire study. Solicited local and general symptoms had a similar incidence in all groups. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were reported by 11% of participants. Only 1 serious AE (leg fracture) was reported and was not related to vaccination. No deaths and no rabies cases were recorded during the 90 days of observation. The study showed that the 3 PCECV-I and the PCECV-G batches induced a similar immune response and had a comparable safety profile when administered according to a 5-dose schedule. PMID:28406752
Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.
Migden, Michael R; Guminski, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf; Dirix, Luc; Lewis, Karl D; Combemale, Patrick; Herd, Robert M; Kudchadkar, Ragini; Trefzer, Uwe; Gogov, Sven; Pallaud, Celine; Yi, Tingting; Mone, Manisha; Kaatz, Martin; Loquai, Carmen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Plummer, Ruth; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cornélis, Frank; Lear, John T; Sellami, Dalila; Dummer, Reinhard
Patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma have limited treatment options. Hedgehog pathway signalling is aberrantly activated in around 95% of tumours. We assessed the antitumour activity of sonidegib, a Hedgehog signalling inhibitor, in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma. BOLT is an ongoing multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial. Eligible patients had locally advanced basal cell carcinoma not amenable to curative surgery or radiation or metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Patients were randomised via an automated system in a 1:2 ratio to receive 200 mg or 800 mg oral sonidegib daily, stratified by disease, histological subtype, and geographical region. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response, assessed in the primary efficacy analysis population (patients with fully assessable locally advanced disease and all those with metastatic disease) with data collected up to 6 months after randomisation of the last patient. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01327053. Between July 20, 2011, and Jan 10, 2013, we enrolled 230 patients, 79 in the 200 mg sonidegib group, and 151 in the 800 mg sonidegib group. Median follow-up was 13·9 months (IQR 10·1-17·3). In the primary efficacy analysis population, 20 (36%, 95% CI 24-50) of 55 patients receiving 200 mg sonidegib and 39 (34%, 25-43) of 116 receiving 800 mg sonidegib achieved an objective response. In the 200 mg sonidegib group, 18 (43%, 95% CI 28-59) patients who achieved an objective response, as assessed by central review, were noted among the 42 with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma and two (15%, 2-45) among the 13 with metastatic disease. In the 800 mg group, 35 (38%, 95% CI 28-48) of 93 patients with locally advanced disease had an objective response, as assessed by central review, as did four (17%, 5-39) of 23 with metastatic disease. Fewer adverse events leading to dose interruptions or reductions (25 [32%] of 79
Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; Carrillo, Jesus M; Collado, Susana; Burns, G Leonard
The objective was to examine the longitudinal correlates of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Inattention (IN) dimensions with mothers' and fathers' ratings of Spanish children. Mothers and fathers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, academic impairment, and social impairment on 3 occasions (twice in first-grade year [6-week separation] and once in the second-grade year [12 months after the first assessment]) in Spanish children (758, 746, and 718 children at the 3 time-points with approximately 55% boys). The results showed that (a) higher levels of SCT from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of depression, academic impairment, and social impairment at Assessment 3 after controlling for ADHD-IN at earlier assessments; (b) higher levels of ADHD-IN from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of depression, academic impairment, and social impairment at Assessment 3 after controlling for SCT at earlier assessments; (c) higher levels of ADHD-IN from earlier assessments predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI and ODD at Assessment 3 after controlling for SCT from earlier assessments; and (d) higher levels of SCT from earlier assessments either showed no unique relationship with ADHD-HI and ODD or predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD at Assessment 3 after controlling for ADHD-IN from earlier assessments. Initial evidence is provided of SCT's unique longitudinal relationships with depression and academic/social impairment and different longitudinal relationships with ADHD-HI and ODD relative to ADHD-IN, thus adding to a growing body of research underscoring the importance of SCT as distinct from ADHD-IN.
Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Landreville, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Savoie, Maryse; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Richard, Sylvie; Bédard, Annick
Despite its high prevalence and deleterious consequences, delirium often goes undetected in older hospitalized patients and long-term care (LTC) residents. Inattention is a core symptom of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of ten simple and objective attention tests that would enable efficient delirium screening among this population. This was a secondary analysis (n = 191) of a validation study conducted in one acute care hospital (ACH) and one LTC facility among older adults with, or without, cognitive impairment. The attention test tasks (n = 10) were drawn from the Concentration subscale the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS). Delirium was defined as meeting the criteria for DSM-5 delirium. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used to determine the presence of delirium symptoms. The Months of the Year Backward (MOTYB) test, which 57% of participants completed successfully, showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (82.6%; 95% CI [61.2-95.0], and 62.5%; 95% CI [54.7-69.8] respectively) for the entire group. Subgroup analyses revealed that no test had both sensitivity and specificity over 50% in participants with cognitive impairment indicated in their medical chart. Our results revealed that these tests varied greatly in performance and none can be earmarked to become a single-item screening tool for delirium among older patients and residents with, or without, cognitive impairment. The presence of premorbid cognitive impairment may necessitate more extensive assessments of delirium, especially when a change in general status or mental state is observed.
Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis
operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...
Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret
To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…
Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.
Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto
Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001). Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.
Rini, Brian I; Melichar, Bohuslav; Ueda, Takeshi; Grünwald, Viktor; Fishman, Mayer N; Arranz, José A; Bair, Angel H; Pithavala, Yazdi K; Andrews, Glen I; Pavlov, Dmitri; Kim, Sinil; Jonasch, Eric
Population pharmacokinetic data suggest axitinib plasma exposure correlates with efficacy in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Axitinib dose titration might optimise exposure and improve outcomes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of axitinib dose titration in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 49 hospitals and outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Russia, Spain, and USA. Patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a 4 week lead-in period. Those patients with blood pressure 150/90 mm Hg or lower, no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects, no dose reductions, and no more than two antihypertensive drugs for 2 consecutive weeks were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1), and then randomly assigned (1:1) to either masked titration with axitinib to total twice daily doses of 7 mg, and then 10 mg, if tolerated, or placebo titration. Patients who did not meet these criteria continued without titration. The primary objective was comparison of the proportion of patients achieving an objective response between randomised groups. Safety analyses were based on all patients who received at least one dose of axitinib. Between Sept 2, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, we enrolled 213 patients, of whom 112 were randomly assigned to either the axitinib titration group (56 patients) or the placebo titration group (56 patients). 91 were not eligible for titration, and ten withdrew during the lead-in period. 30 patients (54%, 95% CI 40-67) in the axitinib titration group had an objective response, as did 19 patients (34%, 22-48]) in the placebo titration group (one-sided p=0·019). 54 (59%, 95% CI 49-70) of non-randomised patients achieved an objective response. Common grade 3 or worse, all-causality adverse events in treated patients
When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...
Peachey, Neal S.; Ray, Thomas A.; Florijn, Ralph; Rowe, Lucy B.; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca; Pozdeyev, Nikita; Iuvone, P. Michael; Bojang, Pasano; Pearring, Jillian N.; Simonsz, Huibert Jan; van Genderen, Maria; Birch, David G.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Dorfman, Allison; Lopez, Irma; Ren, Huanan; Goldberg, Andrew F. X.; Nishina, Patsy M.; Lachapelle, Pierre; McCall, Maureen A.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Kamermans, Maarten; Gregg, Ronald G.
Complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal disorders characterized by nonprogressive impairment of night vision, absence of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, and variable degrees of involvement of other visual functions. We
Gregg, Ronald G.; Kamermans, Maarten; Klooster, Jan; Lukasiewicz, Peter D.; Peachey, Neal S.; Vessey, Kirstan A.; McCall, Maureen A.
Mutations in the NYX gene that encodes the protein nyctalopin cause congenital stationary night blindness type 1. In no b-wave (nob) mice, a mutation in Nyx results in a functional phenotype that includes the absence of the electroretinogram b-wave and abnormal spontaneous and light-evoked activity
Full Text Available Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls, aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention
Goel, Gautam; King, Tim; Daveson, A James; Andrews, Jane M; Krishnarajah, Janakan; Krause, Richard; Brown, Gregor J E; Fogel, Ronald; Barish, Charles F; Epstein, Roger; Kinney, Timothy P; Miner, Philip B; Tye-Din, Jason A; Girardin, Adam; Taavela, Juha; Popp, Alina; Sidney, John; Mäki, Markku; Goldstein, Kaela E; Griffin, Patrick H; Wang, Suyue; Dzuris, John L; Williams, Leslie J; Sette, Alessandro; Xavier, Ramnik J; Sollid, Ludvig M; Jabri, Bana; Anderson, Robert P
A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies at 12 community sites in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, in HLA-DQ2·5-positive patients aged 18-70 years who had coeliac disease and were on a gluten-free diet. In the screening period for ascending dose cohorts, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method to a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled oral gluten challenge. Participants with a negative interferon γ release assay to Nexvax2 peptides after the screening oral gluten challenge were discontinued before dosing. For the biopsy cohorts, the screening period included an endoscopy, and participants with duodenal histology who had a Marsh score of greater than 1 were discontinued before dosing. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either Nexvax2 or placebo in ascending dose cohorts (2:1) and in biopsy cohorts (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method. In the three-dose study, participants received either Nexvax2 60 μg, 90 μg, or 150 μg weekly, or placebo over 15 days; in a fourth biopsy cohort, patients received either Nexvax2 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or placebo. In the 16-dose study, participants received Nexvax2 150 μg or 300 μg or placebo twice weekly over 53 days; in a third biopsy cohort, patients also received either Nexvax2 at the MTD or placebo. In the 4-week post
... of tissue that protrude through the intestinal wall (diverticulosis) Certain medical conditions, including Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis, ... History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop ...
... life. Alternative Names Loss of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness Images ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...
Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn
about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...... repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...
This article discusses factors related to individuals with sudden blindness, focusing on the visually impaired client's readiness for rehabilitation, the reactions of family members and friends, and personality variables. Two cases illustrate the adjustment process and eventual rehabilitation. (DB)
Gambin Małgorzata J.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning among children with hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention using a novel approach that combined dimensional and person-centered perspectives. Executive, verbal and visuo-spatial functioning, hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were examined in 102 children (37 girls and 65 boys at risk for ADHD and 62 children (31 girls and 31 boys not at risk for ADHD in the age range of 8–10 years. We extracted seven groups with various profiles of psychopathological symptoms and cognitive functioning. We propose that symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in these groups are related to different cognitive and affective-motivational problems.
Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Gallego-Martínez, Ana; Fuentes, Luis J
Deficits in fine motor coordination have been suggested to be associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, despite the negative impact of poor fine motor skills on academic achievement, researchers have paid little attention to this problem. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ADHD dimensions and fine motor performance. Participants were 43 children with a diagnosis of ADHD aged between 7 and 14 years (M=9.61; 81% male) and 42 typically developing (TP) children in the same age range (M=10.76; 75.2% male). Children with ADHD performed worse than TP on all tasks (δ Fine_motor_tasks, -0.19 to -0.44). After controlling for age and ADHD-HY (hyperactivity/impulsivity), higher scores on ADHD-IN (inattentiveness) predicted a larger number of mistakes among all psychomotricity tasks and conditions (β 0.39-0.58, ps<0.05). The ADHD group showed poorer fine motor performance than controls across all fine motor coordination tasks. However, lower performance (more mistakes), was related to the inattention dimension but not to the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions. Authors recommend including training and enhancement of the fine motor skills for more comprehensive ADHD treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Furtado, Erikson Felipe; Roriz, Sarah Teófilo de Sá
This paper aimed to examine prenatal alcohol exposure and neuropsychological parameters and its relationship to impulsivity and inattention. Longitudinal prospective case-control cohort study starting with the risk drinking assessment of 449 third-trimester pregnant women, and a follow-up phase with 56 mother-child pairs (28 alcohol-exposed versus 28 non-exposed), with 11-12 years old children. The cohort study was followed up for 11 years. Quantity-frequency structured questions as well as AUDIT and T-ACE questionnaires were used to assess maternal alcohol consumption. A comprehensive set of neuropsychological testing instruments was used, including d2 Test, RCFT, RAVLT, WISC-III, among others. To control low IQ effects and intellectual disability diagnoses, as well differences in school skills biasing the neuropsychological comparison assessment, children with IQ children seems to be more inattentive and impulsive; they have poorer skills in verbal fluency, visuospatial working memory, and executive processing when compared to non-exposed children who were part of the same cohort sample.
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial
A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.
Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F
Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client's quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of 8/3 of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.
Arman, A R; Ersu, R; Save, D; Karadag, B; Karaman, G; Karabekiroglu, K; Karakoc, F; Dagli, E; Berkem, M
Neurobehavioural symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are common in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Prevalence rates of habitual snoring and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very similar and both have a substantial negative effect on children's behavioural health. We examined the differences for subjective attentional and hyperactivity measures reported by parents and teachers among primary school children with habitual snoring and age- and sex-matched controls in a community-based case-control study in Istanbul. Methods In 2002, a survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of snoring in 2147 primary school children. After one year, in 2003, 151 children with habitual snoring and 302 controls from this survey were studied with parental SDB questionnaire, Conners' Parent (Conners-P) and Teacher Scales, and an inattention hyperactivity scale (IHS). Exclusion criteria included history of ADHD diagnosis, controls who started to snore and habitual snorers (HS) who no longer snored in this follow-up study. Ninety-six HS and 190 control subjects (mean age: 9.4 +/- 1.3) were evaluated. HS had significantly more symptoms of hyperactivity (Conners-ADHD index) (P: 0.033), attentional (P: 0.019), and conduct and oppositional defiant in subscales (P: 0.001) of Conners-P and IHS-Parents. A pooled score of Conners-P ADHD Index > 60 and IHS-Parent score > 1.25 showed considerable difference in HS when compared with controls (5.1% vs. 1.4%) (P academic performance in HS (P behavioural parameters related to SDB were not significantly correlated with teachers' ADHD ratings in HS. Increased rates of moderate hyperactivity as well as conduct and oppositional defiant symptoms in HS reported by the parents might reflect a negative impact on overall neurobehavioural health. The teachers' scores yielded no significant results among HS and controls. This may be caused by the limitation due to shared method variance. The negative effect of
Dummer, Reinhard; Guminski, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf; Dirix, Luc; Lewis, Karl D; Combemale, Patrick; Herd, Robert M; Kaatz, Martin; Loquai, Carmen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Schulze, Hans-Joachim; Plummer, Ruth; Gogov, Sven; Pallaud, Celine; Yi, Tingting; Mone, Manisha; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cornélis, Frank; Kudchadkar, Ragini; Trefzer, Uwe; Lear, John T; Sellami, Dalila; Migden, Michael R
The hedgehog pathway inhibitor sonidegib demonstrated meaningful tumor shrinkage in more than 90% of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or metastatic BCC in the BCC Outcomes with LDE225 Treatment study. This report provides long-term follow-up data collected up to 12 months after the last patient was randomized. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase II study, patients were randomized 1:2 to sonidegib 200 or 800 mg. The primary end point was objective response rate assessed by central review. Objective response rates in the 200- and 800-mg arms were 57.6% and 43.8% in locally advanced BCC and 7.7% and 17.4% in metastatic BCC, respectively. Among the 94 patients with locally advanced BCC who responded, only 18 progressed or died and more than 50% had responses lasting longer than 6 months. In addition, 4 of 5 responders with metastatic BCC maintained an objective response. Grade 3/4 adverse events and those leading to discontinuation were less frequent with sonidegib 200 versus 800 mg (38.0% vs 59.3%; 27.8% vs 37.3%, respectively). No placebo or comparator arms were used because sonidegib demonstrated efficacy in advanced BCC in a phase I study, and the hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib was not yet approved. With longer follow-up, sonidegib demonstrated sustained tumor responses in patients with advanced BCC. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greven, Corina U.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert
A previous paper in this journal revealed substantial genetic overlap between the ADHD dimensions of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness in a sample of 8-year old twins drawn from a UK-representative population sample. Four years later, when the twins were 12 years old, more than 5,500 pairs drawn from the same sample were rated again on…
Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin
This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic achievement through changes in child behavior problems. The results demonstrated that toddler-age aggression was most consistently associated with school-age academic achievement, albeit modestly. Moreover, findings showed that the intervention predicted greater decreases in aggression from ages 2-3 to 4-5 compared to controls. The results suggest that in high-risk toddler-aged children, aggression may be a more consistent predictor of school-age academic achievement than other externalizing dimensions, which has implications for early identification and efforts to promote children's adaptation. PMID:22527610
Doorley, Rachelle; King, Judith
This article describes notable cultural, historical, and artistic elements emanating from sculptures originating in ancient Greece. The "blind bard" and its connection to the legendary Greek poet, Homer; Homer's impact on literary history; trends among Roman sculptures; and Roman replication of Greek art are described. Questions to…
Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Jickling, Glen C; Gunther, Joan R; Corbett, Blythe A; Bos-Veneman, Netty G P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Schweitzer, Julie B; Sharp, Frank R
Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the primary behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies showed that peripheral blood gene expression signatures can mirror central nervous system disease. Tourette syndrome (TS) is associated with inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms over 50% of the time. This study determined if gene expression in blood correlated significantly with IA and/or HI rating scale scores in participants with TS. RNA was isolated from the blood of 21 participants with TS, and gene expression measured on Affymetrix human U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. To identify the genes that correlated with Conners' Parents Ratings of IA and HI ratings of symptoms, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed, controlling for age, gender and batch. There were 1201 gene probesets that correlated with IA scales, 1625 that correlated with HI scales, and 262 that correlated with both IA and HI scale scores (P0.4). Immune, catecholamine and other neurotransmitter pathways were associated with IA and HI behaviors. A number of the identified genes (n=27) have previously been reported in ADHD genetic studies. Many more genes correlated with either IA or HI scales alone compared to those that correlated with both IA and HI scales. These findings support the concept that the pathophysiology of ADHD and/or its subtypes in TS may involve the interaction of multiple genes. These preliminary data also suggest gene expression may be useful for studying IA and HI symptoms that relate to ADHD in TS and perhaps non-TS participants. These results will need to be confirmed in future studies.
Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes
To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.
A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.
Antonio Vinicius Soares
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.
This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enab...
Permin, H; Norn, M
Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.
Gleichman, Sivan; Eldar, Yonina C.
The fundamental principle underlying compressed sensing is that a signal, which is sparse under some basis representation, can be recovered from a small number of linear measurements. However, prior knowledge of the sparsity basis is essential for the recovery process. This work introduces the concept of blind compressed sensing, which avoids the need to know the sparsity basis in both the sampling and the recovery process. We suggest three possible constraints on the sparsity basis that can ...
number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.
Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.
Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (PSS) mainly affects women (9:1 female:male ratio) and is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with a prevalence of 0.1 – 0.6% of adult women. For patients with PSS there is currently no effective therapy that can alter the progression of the disease. The aim of the TRACTISS study is to establish whether in patients with PSS, treatment with rituximab improves clinical outcomes. Methods/design TRACTISS is a UK multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial of 110 patients with PSS. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive two courses of either rituximab or placebo infusion in addition to standard therapy, and will be followed up for up to 48 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the extent to which rituximab improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness. Secondary outcomes include ocular dryness, salivary flow rates, lacrimal flow, patient quality of life, measures of disease damage and disease activity, serological and peripheral blood biomarkers, and glandular histology and composition. Discussion The TRACTISS trial will provide direct evidence as to whether rituximab in patients with PSS leads to an improvement in patient symptoms and a reduction in disease damage and activity. Trial registration UKCRN Portfolio ID: 9809 ISRCTN65360827. PMID:24438039
Kastrup, Jens; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Ida
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart failure (IHF) has a poor prognosis in spite of optimal therapy. We have established a new allogeneic Cardiology Stem Cell Centre adipose-derived stromal cell (CSCC_ASC) product from healthy donors. It is produced without animal products, in closed bioreactor systems...
Sanefuji, Masafumi; Craig, Michael; Parlatini, Valeria; Mehta, Mitul A; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco; Cerliani, Leonardo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel
Two core symptoms characterize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes: inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. While previous brain imaging research investigated ADHD as if it was a homogenous condition, its two core symptoms may originate from different brain mechanisms. We, therefore, hypothesized that the functional connectivity of cortico-striatal and attentional networks would be different between ADHD subtypes. We studied 165 children (mean age 10.93 years; age range, 7-17 year old) diagnosed as having ADHD based on their revised Conner's rating scale score and 170 typical developing individuals (mean age 11.46 years; age range, 7-17 year old) using resting state functional fMRI. Groups were matched for age, IQ and head motion during the MRI acquisition. We fractionated the ADHD group into predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes based on their revised Conner's rating scale score. We then analyzed differences in resting state functional connectivity of the cortico-striatal and attentional networks between these subtypes. We found a double dissociation of functional connectivity in the cortico-striatal and ventral attentional networks, reflecting the subtypes of the ADHD participants. Particularly, the hyperactive-impulsive subtype was associated with increased connectivity in cortico-striatal network, whereas the inattentive subtype was associated with increased connectivity in the right ventral attention network. Our study demonstrated for the first time a right lateralized, double dissociation between specific networks associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness in ADHD children, providing a biological basis for exploring symptom dimensions and revealing potential targets for more personalized treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Staples, Angela D
Previous research has found associations but not established mechanisms of developmental linkage between language ability and inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) behavior problems. The present study examined whether self-regulation mediates the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems among young children (N = 120) assessed at 30, 36, and 42 months of age. Cross-lagged panel models tested the direction of effect between language ability and self-regulation and longitudinal effects of language ability on later I-H problems mediated by self-regulation. Language ability was measured by children's scores on the receptive and expressive language subtests of the Differential Ability Scales. Self-regulation was measured by three behavioral tasks requiring inhibitory control. I-H problems were reported by parents and secondary caregivers. Language ability predicted later self-regulation as measured by all three tasks. There was no association, however, between self-regulation and later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect was stronger from language ability to later self-regulation. Moreover, the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems was mediated by children's self-regulation in one of the tasks (for secondary caregivers' but not parents' ratings). Findings suggest that language deficits may explain later I-H behavior problems via their prediction of poorer self-regulatory skills.
Papera, Massimiliano; Richards, Anne
When engaged in a demanding task, individuals may neglect unexpected visual stimuli presented concomitantly. Here we use a change detection task to show that propensity to inattention is associated with a flexible allocation of attentional resources to filter and represent visual information. This was reflected by N2 posterior contralateral (N2pc) and contralateral delay activity (CDA) respectively, but also during high-order reorienting of attentional resources (known as anterior directing attention negativity, ADAN). Results show that differences in noticing and failing to notice unexpected stimuli/changes are associated with different patterns of brain activity. When processing (N2) and working memory (CDA) capacities are low, resources are mostly allocated to small set-sizes and associated with a tendency to filter information during early low-level processing (N2). When resources are high, saturation is obtained with larger set-sizes. This is also associated to a tendency to select (N2) and reorient resources (ADAN) to maintain extra information (CDA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Soela; So, Jiyeon
Message fatigue refers to a state of being exhausted and tired of prolonged exposure to similarly-themed messages (e.g., anti-obesity messages; So, Kim, & Cohen, 2017). This study tests a mediational model that accounts for how one's preexisting fatigue toward anti-obesity messages may contribute to two different types of resistance-reactance and disengagement-toward an incoming anti-obesity message, which, in turn, reduce intention to adopt weight-management behaviors advocated in the message. The proposed model was tested in an experimental study (N = 312) involving a sample of overweight or obese adults in the United States. In the meditational model, reactance significantly mediated the negative effects of message fatigue on intention to adopt only one of four weight-management behaviors promoted in the message. However, inattention, which was an operationalization of disengagement, significantly mediated the negative effects of message fatigue on behavioral intention to adopt all four weight-management behaviors. This study urges future research on message fatigue and resistance to persuasion to consider disengagement with a message as a significant barrier to effective health communication and to devise ways to increase engagement with messages communicating "overtaught" health issues.
Lundwall, Rebecca A; Sgro, Jordan F; Fanger, Julia
Compared to sustained attention, only a small proportion of studies examine reflexive attention as a component of everyday attention. Understanding the significance of reflexive attention to everyday attention may inform better treatments for attentional disorders. Children from a general population (recruited when they were from 9-16 years old) completed an exogenously-cued task measuring the extent to which attention is captured by peripheral cue-target conditions. Parents completed a questionnaire reporting their child's day-to-day attention. A general linear model indicated that parent-rated inattention predicted the increase in response time over baseline when a bright cue preceded the target (whether it was valid or invalid) but not when a dim cue preceded the target. More attentive children had more pronounced response time increases from baseline. Our findings suggest a link between a basic measure of cognition (response time difference scores) and parent observations. The findings have implications for increased understanding of the role of reflexive attention in the everyday attention of children.
Lidya Oktorina Kusuma Sakti
Now there are blind people who have their formal and informal education. Even though they cannot see, they can take benefit from another sense, like sense of hearing, palpability, smell, and taste. Their senses can be a modal to study. Developer games have their build game in audio to blind people too. Their game is variation between audio games and online games, so games can be used for blind people as an education tools. In this paper, there will be an explanation about how to facilitate blind people to study with paper
Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo
We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....
Westphal-Varghese, B; Erren, M; Westphal, M; Van Aken, H; Ertmer, C; Lange, M; Booke, M
The aim of the study was to compare the potential of autotransfusion devices to reduce non-infectious complications related to transfusion of long-stored packed red blood cells (PRBC; n= 57), such as changes in electrolytes, blood cells and the load of free microaggregates. Following a baseline measurement, a blood pool of three PRBC was divided into three equal volumes and washed with either the Haemonetics Cell Saver (HCS) or the continuous autotransfusion system (C.A.T.S), using the quality (CATS(quality)) and emergency (CATS(emergency)) mode. After the washing procedure, measurements for electrolytes, blood cells and free microaggregates were repeated (n= 19 each). Compared with baseline, the investigated autotransfusion devices reduced the median load of potassium (baseline: 52 mEq L(-1); HCS: 4 mEq L(-1); CATS(quality): 4 mEq L(-1); CATS(emergency): 17 mEq L(-1); each P glucose and protein. Whereas the quantity of microaggregates was not reduced by HCS, CATS(emergency) decreased the load of cell fragments below 7.8 microm (P CATS(quality) decreased the load of cell fragments not only to a diameter below 7.8 microm (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) but also of microaggregates between 7.8 and 17.6 microm (P < 0.05 vs. baseline). In situations where long-stored PRBC have to be transfused, the procedure described here may be feasible to reduce clinically relevant side effects, i.e. hyperkalaemia and microvascular obstruction secondary to free cell fragments. This approach could be especially useful in patients undergoing massive transfusion and/or suffering from renal failure.
Ageratum conyzoides L. inhibits 5-alpha-reductase gene expression in human prostate cells and reduces symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy in otherwise healthy men in a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical study.
Detering, Matthew; Steels, Elizabeth; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Allifranchini, Elena; Bocchietto, Elena; Vitetta, Luis
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of Ageratum conyzoides in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this study, 109 men with medically diagnosed BPH, aged 41-76 years, were administered the investigational product, A. conyzoides extract at a dose of 250 mg/d or placebo, q.d. for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), daily urinary frequency and safety evaluations. The secondary outcome measures were testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels, and prostate specific antigen (PSA), lipids, blood glucose, the Aging Male's Symptom (AMS) Score and sexual function assessed by Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning-Self Report (DISF-SR). The effect of A. conyzoides L extract on gene expression of 5-alpha-reductase in human prostate cells was also investigated to elucidate a potential mechanism of action. The clinical study, showed a significant reduction in total IPSS score (p prostate epithelial cells. The overall results indicate that A. conyzoides may be an effective treatment for reducing symptoms of BPH in healthy men, in part, through inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase enzyme activity. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):789-800, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomised, double-blind, prospective pilot study.
Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena
High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey cytoprotection in non-malignant cells. This trial was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of hematological inpatients (n = 50) receiving bismuth or placebo tablets, in order to identify any potential superiority of bismuth on toxicity from chemotherapy. We show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo. Also, lymphoma patients' adverse effects were linked to gender. For the first time, bismuth is demonstrated as a safe strategy against chemotherapy's toxicity without interfering with intentional anti-cancer efficiency. Also, we show how gender significantly influences various adverse effects and response to treatment in both multiple myeloma and malignant lymphomas. These results may impact clinical prevention of chemotherapy's cytotoxicity in certain patient groups, and also, this study may direct further attention towards the impact of gender during the course and treatment outcome of malignant disorders.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years
Kastrup, Jens; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Ida
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart failure (IHF) has a poor prognosis in spite of optimal therapy. We have established a new allogeneic Cardiology Stem Cell Centre adipose-derived stromal cell (CSCC_ASC) product from healthy donors. It is produced without animal products, in closed bioreactor systems...... ventricle ejection fraction, myocardial mass, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Other secondary endpoints are change in clinical symptoms, 6-minute walking test, and the quality of life after 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSION: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate safety and the regenerative efficacy...
Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...
Choudry, Fizzah; Hamshere, Stephen; Saunders, Natalie
Aims: Clinical trials suggest that intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) 1-7 days post-Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may improve left ventricular (LV) function. Earlier time points have not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of intracoronary...
Dong, W.; Machin, G.; Bloembergen, P.; Lowe, D.; Wang, T.
Extensive studies of platinum-carbon eutectic alloy based high temperature fixed point cells have shown that this alloy has extremely good metrological potential as a temperature reference. However, it’s possible adoption as an accepted reference standard means that its eutectic temperature value will soon be agreed with an uncertainty less than most radiation thermometry scales at that temperature. Thus it will lack credibility if used as a future scale comparison artefact. To avoid this, the fixed-point cell can be deliberately doped with an impurity to change its transition temperature by an amount sufficient to test the accuracy of the scales of the institutes, involved in the comparison. In this study dopants of palladium and iridium were added to platinum-carbon to produce ternary alloy and quaternary alloy fixed-point cells. The stability of these artefacts was demonstrated and the fixed-point cells were used to compare the ITS-90 scales of NIM and NPL. It was found that the fixed point temperatures could be changed by an appreciable amount while retaining the stability and repeatability required for comparison artefacts.
Tung CF, Peng YC, Chen GH, Chow WK, Yang DY, Hu WH. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. (HELLP) syndrome with acute cortical blindness. Chin. Med J (Taipei) 2001;64:482-5. 5. Cunningham FG, Fernandez CO, Hernandez C. Blindness associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J.
It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…
Full Text Available A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.
Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders
Background: Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated...... in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. If positive, it may change the clinical handling of testicular cancer survivors with borderline low levels of testosterone....... in the intervention arm. Evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints will be performed at baseline, 26 weeks post-randomization, at the end of treatment (52 weeks) and 3 months after completion of treatment (week 64). Discussion: This study is the first to investigate the effect of testosterone substitution...
Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...
Orinstein, Alyssa J; Stevens, Michael C
Previous functional neuroimaging studies have found brain activity abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on numerous cognitive tasks. However, little is known about brain dysfunction unique to the predominantly-inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I), despite debate as to whether DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes differ in etiology. This study compared brain activity of 18 ADHD-I adolescents (ages 12-18) and 20 non-psychiatric age-matched control participants on a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) auditory oddball attention task. ADHD-I participants had significant activation deficits to infrequent target stimuli in bilateral superior temporal gyri, bilateral insula, several midline cingulate/medial frontal gyrus regions, right posterior parietal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. To novel stimuli, ADHD-I participants had reduced activation in bilateral lateral temporal lobe structures. There were no brain regions where ADHD-I participants had greater hemodynamic activity to targets or novels than controls. Brain activity deficits in ADHD-I participants were found in several regions important to attentional orienting and working memory-related cognitive processes involved in target identification. These results differ from those in previously studied adolescents with combined-subtype ADHD, who had a lesser magnitude of activation abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and relatively more discrete regional deficits to novel stimuli. The divergent findings suggest different etiological factors might underlie attention deficits in different DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes, and they have important implications for the DSM-V reconceptualization of subtypes as varying clinical presentations of the same core disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the
Reparative therapy for acute ischemic stroke with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue: a safety assessment: a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial.
Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Lara, Manuel Lara; Gimeno, Blanca Fuentes
Few studies have evaluated the possible beneficial effect of the administration of stem cells in the early stages of stroke. Intravenous administration of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue in patients with acute stroke could be a safe therapy for promoting neurovascular unit repair, consequently supporting better functional recovery. We aim to assess the safety and efficacy of MSC administration and evaluate its potential as a treatment for cerebral protection and repair. A Phase IIa, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center, pilot clinical trial. Twenty patients presenting acute ischemic stroke will be randomized in a 1:1 proportion to treatment with allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue or to placebo (or vehicle) administered as a single intravenous dose within the first 2 weeks after the onset of stroke symptoms. The patients will be followed up for 2 years. Primary outcomes for safety analysis: adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs; neurologic and systemic complications, and tumor development. Secondary outcomes for efficacy analysis: modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS; infarct size; and biochemical markers of brain repair (vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and matrix metalloproteinases 9). To our knowledge, this is the first, phase II, pilot clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of allogeneic MSCs from adipose tissue within the first 2 weeks of stroke. In addition, its results will help us define the best criteria for a future phase III study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.
Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.
Klauer, Sheila G.; Dingus, Thomas A.; Neale, Vicki L.; Sudweeks, Jeremy D.; Ramsey, D. J.
The purpose of this report was to conduct in-depth analyses of driver inattention using the driving data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study. An additional database of baseline epochs was reduced from the raw data and used in conjunction with the crash and near-crash data identified as part of the original 100-Car Study to account for exposure and establish near-crash/crash risk. The analyses presented in this report are able to establish direct relationships between driving b...
Ly, Christine; Gehricke, Jean-G
The study examined the association between marijuana use, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and sleep quality in 56 men and 20 women with ADHD. Participants, ages 18-45, were assessed with the Assessment of Hyperactivity and Attention, drug use survey, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Moderate to strong correlations were found between marijuana use and inattentive symptoms in men, and marijuana use and decreased sleep quality in women. Men and women with ADHD may use marijuana for different reasons. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not
Boehringer, Alexandra; Adam, Patrick; Schnabl, Saskia; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Breuninger, Helmut
Basal-cell carcinomas may show irregular, asymmetric subclinical growth. This study analyzed the efficacy of 'breadloaf' microscopy (serial sectioning) and three-dimensional (3D) microscopy in detecting positive tumor margins. Two hundred eighty-three (283) tumors (51.2%) were put into the breadloaf microscopy group; 270 tumors (48.8%) into the 3D microscopy group. The position of any detected tumor outgrowths was identified in clock face fashion. The time required for cutting and embedding the specimens and the examination of the microscopic slides was measured. Patient/tumor characteristics and surgical margins did not differ significantly. Tumor outgrowths at the excision margin were found in 62 of 283 cases (21.9%) in the breadloaf microscopy group and in 115 of 270 cases (42.6%) in the 3D microscopy group, constituting a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). This difference held true with incomplete excision of fibrosing (infiltrative/sclerosing/morpheaform) tumors [32.9% in the breadloaf microscopy group and 57.5% in the 3D microscopy group (p = 0.003)] and also with solid (nodular) tumors [16.1 and 34.2%, respectively (p < 0.001)]. The mean overall examination time required showed no important difference. In summary, for detection of tumor outgrowths, 3D microscopy has almost twice the sensitivity of breadloaf microscopy, particularly in the situation of aggressive/infiltrative carcinomas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Becker, Stephen P.; Pfiffner, Linda J.; Stein, Mark A.; Burns, G. Leonard; McBurnett, Keith
Objectives Much of what is currently known about the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on samples of children with ADHD Combined Type, and no study to date has examined the association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and sleep functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to (1) describe the sleep habits of children diagnosed with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I), and (2) examine whether comorbid internalizing, oppositional, and/or sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with poorer sleep functioning in children with ADHD-I. This study extends the current literature by using a large, clinical sample of children with ADHD-I to examine the association between SCT and other psychopathology symptoms with children’s sleep functioning. Methods Participants were 147 children (ages 6–11; 59% male; 55% White) diagnosed with ADHD-I using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Parents completed measures assessing their child’s sleep habits as well as comorbid anxiety, depression, oppositionality, and SCT symptoms. Results Fourteen percent of children obtain less sleep than recommended and 31% have a sleep onset latency of greater than 20 minutes. The few children taking medication for ADHD had a longer sleep onset latency than unmedicated children. Twenty-seven percent of parents indicated that it is “difficult” to get their child out of bed on school days and 41% of parents indicated that their child needs to catch-up on sleep on the weekend “at least a little”. Regression analyses found anxiety and SCT sleepy/tired symptoms to be the most consistent dimensions of psychopathology associated with sleep functioning, with little support for depression or oppositionality being associated with sleep. Conclusions A sizeable minority of children with ADHD-I experience impaired sleep. Comorbid anxiety, in addition to SCT sleepy
Becker, Stephen P; Pfiffner, Linda J; Stein, Mark A; Burns, G Leonard; McBurnett, Keith
Much of what is currently known about the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on samples of children with ADHD combined type, and no study to date has examined the association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and sleep functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to (1) describe the sleep habits of children diagnosed with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and (2) examine whether comorbid internalizing, oppositional, and/or SCT symptoms are associated with poorer sleep functioning in children with ADHD-I. This study extends the current literature by using a large, clinical sample of children with ADHD-I to examine the association between SCT and other psychopathology symptoms with children's sleep functioning. Participants included 147 children (age: 6-11, 59% male, 55% White) diagnosed with ADHD-I using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Parents completed measures assessing their child's sleep habits as well as comorbid anxiety, depression, oppositionality, and SCT symptoms. Fourteen percent of children with ADHD-I obtain less sleep than recommended and 31% have a sleep onset latency of greater than 20 minutes. The few children taking medication for ADHD had a longer sleep onset latency than those without medication. Twenty-seven percent of parents indicated that it is "difficult" to get their child out of bed on school days and 41% of parents indicated that their child needs to catch-up on sleep on the weekend "at least a little". Regression analyses found anxiety and SCT sleepy/tired symptoms to be the most consistent dimensions of psychopathology associated with sleep functioning, with little support for depression or oppositionality being associated with sleep. A sizeable minority of children with ADHD-I experience impaired sleep. In addition to SCT sleepy/tired symptoms, comorbid anxiety was most consistently associated with poorer sleep
Spigel, David R; Burris, Howard A; Greco, F Anthony; Shipley, Dianna L; Friedman, Elke K; Waterhouse, David M; Whorf, Robert C; Mitchell, R Brian; Daniel, Davey B; Zangmeister, Jeffrey; Bass, J David; Hainsworth, John D
Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, has shown preliminary activity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with erlotinib with or without sorafenib in this multicenter phase II trial. Key eligibility criteria included the following: stage IIIB or IV NSCLC; one to two prior regimens; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2; and measurable disease. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to sorafenib (400 mg orally twice a day) plus erlotinib (150 mg orally daily) or placebo plus erlotinib and stratified by squamous/nonsquamous histology and prior bevacizumab. Treatment efficacy, measured by progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response rate (ORR), was compared. Treatment of 168 patients allowed detection of 40% improvement in the historical PFS of 2.2 months with single-agent erlotinib. One hundred sixty-eight patients enrolled from February 2008 to February 2009. Clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. ORRs for sorafenib/erlotinib and placebo/erlotinib were 8% and 11%, respectively (P = .56); disease control rates were 54% and 38%, respectively (P = .056). Median PFS was 3.38 months for sorafenib/erlotinib versus 1.94 months for placebo/erlotinib (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.22; P = .196). Seventy-two patients consented to analyses of tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In 67 patients with EGFR wild-type (WT) tumors, median PFS was 3.38 months for sorafenib/erlotinib versus 1.77 months for placebo/erlotinib (P = .018); median overall survival (OS) was 8 months for sorafenib/erlotinib versus 4.5 months for placebo/erlotinib (P = .019). An OS advantage for sorafenib/erlotinib was suggested among 43 patients with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) EGFR-negative tumors (P = .064). Both regimens were tolerable, with modest toxicity increase with sorafenib. Although there was little difference in ORR or PFS, subset analyses in EGFR WT and EGFR FISH
Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...
To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...
The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study
Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, Varese, 2Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan, Milan, Italy Introduction: Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid. Study aim: To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Results: Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher (P=0.001; Mann–Whitney U test in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant (P=0.0001 increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours in comparison with both baseline (P=0.0001 and non-treated control site (P=0
Haas, Naomi B; Manola, Judith; Uzzo, Robert G; Flaherty, Keith T; Wood, Christopher G; Kane, Christopher; Jewett, Michael; Dutcher, Janice P; Atkins, Michael B; Pins, Michael; Wilding, George; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne; Matin, Surena; Kuzel, Timothy M; Sexton, Wade J; Wong, Yu-Ning; Choueiri, Toni K; Pili, Roberto; Puzanov, Igor; Kohli, Manish; Stadler, Walter; Carducci, Michael; Coomes, Robert; DiPaola, Robert S
Summary Background Renal-cell carcinoma is highly vascular, and proliferates primarily through dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We tested sunitinib and sorafenib, two oral anti-angiogenic agents that are effective in advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in patients with resected local disease at high risk for recurrence. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients at 226 study centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients had pathological stage high-grade T1b or greater with completely resected non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma and adequate cardiac, renal, and hepatic function. Patients were stratified by recurrence risk, histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and surgical approach, and computerised double-blind randomisation was done centrally with permuted blocks. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 54 weeks of sunitinib 50 mg per day orally throughout the first 4 weeks of each 6 week cycle, sorafenib 400 mg twice per day orally throughout each cycle, or placebo. Placebo could be sunitinib placebo given continuously for 4 weeks of every 6 week cycle or sorafenib placebo given twice per day throughout the study. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival between each experimental group and placebo in the intention-to-treat population. All treated patients with at least one follow-up assessment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326898. Findings Between April 24, 2006, and Sept 1, 2010, 1943 patients from the National Clinical Trials Network were randomly assigned to sunitinib (n=647), sorafenib (n=649), or placebo (n=647). Following high rates of toxicity-related discontinuation after 1323 patients had enrolled (treatment discontinued by 193 [44%] of 438 patients on sunitinib, 199 [45%] of 441 patients on sorafenib), the starting dose of each
Rationale and Design of a Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intracoronary Infusion of Allogeneic Human Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction: The Randomized Multicenter Double-Blind Controlled CAREMI Trial (Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction).
Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Casado Plasencia, Ana; Borlado, Luis R; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Al-Daccak, Reem; Claus, Piet; Palacios, Itziar; Sádaba, Rafael; Charron, Dominique; Bogaert, Jan; Mulet, Miguel; Yotti, Raquel; Gilaberte, Immaculada; Bernad, Antonio; Bermejo, Javier; Janssens, Stefan; Fernández-Avilés, Franciso
Stem cell therapy has increased the therapeutic armamentarium in the fight against ischemic heart disease and heart failure. The administration of exogenous stem cells has been investigated in patients suffering an acute myocardial infarction, with the final aim of salvaging jeopardized myocardium and preventing left ventricular adverse remodeling and functional deterioration. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous and first-generation stem cells have yielded inconsistent benefits and mixed results. In the search for new and more efficient cellular regenerative products, interesting cardioprotective, immunoregulatory, and cardioregenerative properties have been demonstrated for human cardiac stem cells. On the other hand, allogeneic cells show several advantages over autologous sources: they can be produced in large quantities, easily administered off-the-shelf early after an acute myocardial infarction, comply with stringent criteria for product homogeneity, potency, and quality control, and may exhibit a distinctive immunologic behavior. With a promising preclinical background, CAREMI (Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction) has been designed as a double-blind, 2:1 randomized, controlled, and multicenter clinical trial that will evaluate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of intracoronary delivery of allogeneic human cardiac stem cell in 55 patients with large acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, and at high risk of developing heart failure. This phase I/II clinical trial represents a novel experience in humans with allogeneic cardiac stem cell in a rigorously imaging-based selected group of acute myocardial infarction patients, with detailed safety immunologic assessments and magnetic resonance imaging-based efficacy end points. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02439398. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD
Full Text Available Content validity of the 18-item Investigator-Rated Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Rating Scale IV (I-ADHD RS-IV with adult prompts was investigated using qualitative interviews of US clinicians who had prior experience rating adults with phenylketonuria (PKU using the I-ADHD RS-IV. Fourteen qualitative interviews were conducted to obtain key symptom experiences of adults with PKU and assessed the relevance, clarity, and administration of the I-ADHD RS-IV. Participants (n = 13, 92.9% endorsed the inattention symptoms as key experiences by adults with PKU and endorsed the instrument as fit for purpose for adults with PKU. Participants generally reported low frequencies of occurrence for the 9 I-ADHD RS-IV hyperactivity/impulsivity items. Despite some clinicians’ concerns for the lack of patient self-awareness, the participants reported no difficulty selecting a rating on these items. This in-depth study of the content validity of the I-ADHD RS-IV provides evidence that this clinician-reported instrument captures the severity of important inattention symptoms in adults with PKU.
Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.
Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo
An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.
Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.
Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka
Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to predict response to vinorelbine-cisplatin alone or with rh-endostatin in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and bone metastases: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Yue-Hua; Lu, Yao-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Yu, Wen-Xi; Zhao, Hui
Metastatic bone disease is a frequent complication of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and causes skeletal-related events which result in a poor prognosis. A standard method to assess the therapeutic response of bone metastases does not currently exist. We used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to obtain quantitative measures to assess the suitability of this technique to gauge therapeutic response to vinorelbine-cisplatin plus rh-endostatinfor previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer with bone metastases. We did a phase 4, randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China. Inclusion criteria were non-small-cell lung cancer patients with bone metastases confirmed by pathology or cytology; available imaging data of pelvic metastatic lesions; aged 18 to 75 years old; expected survival at least 3 months; not receiving taxane, bevacizumab, thalidomide, rh-endostatin, or bisphosphonate; not having radiation therapy within 3 months of enrollment into study; normal results of routine blood tests, liver and kidney function, and electrocardiogram; absence of cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, vasculitis, severe infection, diabetes, and other concomitant disease; and signed informed consent. Exclusion criteria were receiving granulocyte colony stimulating factor or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor during chemotherapy, intolerance to adverse reaction, and allergy to contrast agents. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment group and control group at a ratio of 2:1 by random code generation by an independent biostatistician in a double-blind fashion. Participants received either vinorelbine-cisplatin plus rh-endostatin or vinorelbine-cisplatin plus placebo. Vinorelbine (25 mg/m 2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 ) were administered intravenously on the first day of a 21 day cycle. Patients received rh-endostatin (7·5 mg/m 2 ) or placebo on days 1-14 of a cycle. The primary
Ahmmed, Ansar Uddin
To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Auditory Figure Ground sub-tests of the SCAN-3 battery, using signal to noise ratio (SNR) of +8 dB (AFG+8) and 0 dB (AFG0), in identifying auditory processing disorder (APD). A secondary objective was to evaluate any difference in auditory processing (AP) between children with symptoms of inattention versus combined sub-types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Data from 201 children, aged 6 to 16 years (mean: 10 years 6 months, SD: 2 years 8 months), who were assessed for suspected APD were reviewed retrospectively. The outcomes of the SCAN-3 APD test battery, Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV parental rating (SNAP-IV) and Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) were analysed. AFG0 had a sensitivity of 56.3% and specificity of 100% in identifying children performing poorly in at least two of six SCAN-3 sub-tests or one of the two questionnaires, in contrast to 42.1% and 80% respectively for AFG+8. Impaired AP was mostly associated with symptoms of ADHD and /or language impairment (LI). LI was present in 92.9% of children with ADHD symptoms. Children with symptoms of combined ADHD plus LI performed significantly poorly (p < 0.05) compared to inattention ADHD plus LI in Filtered Words (FW) sub-test, but not in the rest of the SCAN-3 sub-tests. Speech in noise tests using SNR of 0 dB is better than +8 dB in assessing APD. The better FW performance of the inattention ADHD plus LI group can be speculated to be related to known difference in activity in a neural network between different sub-types of ADHD. The findings of the study and existing literature suggest that neural networks connecting the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia and cerebellum are involved in APD, ADHD and LI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Awad S. Alsamghan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks
Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.
Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…
Cordellos, Harry C.
The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…
Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio
This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…
Mohammad, A Muhit
Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.
Mohammad A Muhit
Full Text Available Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.
Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.
A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)
Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...
... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers ... your clothes don't match, someone might have teased you about being color blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean ...
Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues
Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.
Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.
Agarwal, Rita; Piplani, Rashmi
This study examined the perception of parental attitudes of 50 blind adolescents in northern India. Results indicated that blind girls perceived their parents as being more accepting and less rejecting than did blind boys, a result explained by culturally determined differences in social sex roles. (DB)
Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida
Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...
Anderson, D. W.; Fisher, K. P.
The study of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children (ages 3 through 9) indicated that preoperational thought patterns of nominal realism remain longer for blind than for sighted children indicating a delay in (Piagetian) cognitive development of congenitally blind children and their need for appropriate cognitive and linguistic experiences.…
Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Lee, Hyelim; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly treated with psychostimulants that typically begins during childhood and lasts for an extended period of time. However, there are concerns regarding the consequences of chronic psychostimulant treatment; thus, there is a growing search for an alternative management for ADHD. One non-pharmacological management that is gaining much interest is environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the effects of rearing in an enriched environment (EE) on the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. SHRs were reared in EE or standard environment (SE) from post-natal day (PND) 21 until PND 49. Thereafter, behavioral tests that measure hyperactivity (open field test [OFT]), inattention (Y-maze task), and impulsivity (delay discounting task) were conducted. Additionally, electroencephalography (EEG) was employed to assess the effects of EE on rat's brain activity. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the normotensive counterpart of the SHRs, were used to determine whether the effects of EE were specific to a particular genetic background. EE improved the performance of the SHRs and WKY rats in the OFT and Y-maze task, but not the delay discounting task. Interestingly, EE induced significant EEG changes in WKY rats, but not in the SHRs. These findings show that rearing environment may play a role in the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the SHRs and that EE may be considered as a putative complementary approach in managing ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vélez-Galarraga, Rosario; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío
To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in a control population. To examine the relationship between sleep disorders and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and executive dysfunction. We studied 126 children with ADHD and 1036 control children aged between 5 and 18 years old. Caregivers completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Children with ADHD were subsequently assessed for executive function with the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) or with AULA Nesplora. Children with ADHD slept less at night and were more likely to display sleep-related rhythmic movements. Children in the ADHD group who were under 12 years old and who had total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile had more difficulty falling asleep than other children; there was also a relationship between total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile and certain parasomnias in the control population. There was a correlation between shorter duration of night-time sleep and omission errors in children who were 12 or older and who were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD. Bedtime resistance and difficulty falling sleep were more frequent in children with ADHD whose symptoms were not treated pharmacologically, than in children receiving treatment. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are correlated with impaired sleep duration and quality; specifically, there is an association between ADHD symptoms and problems falling asleep and parasomnias, however, the current study does not address the nature and direction of causality. Children with ADHD and receiving methylphenidate had fewer sleep disorders, suggesting that, at least in some children, stimulant treatment is associated with improvement of some aspects of sleep. Shorter sleep duration in adolescents under pharmacological treatment for ADHD tended to result in more errors of omission, suggesting that it is
Thomas, Benjamin J; Sanders, David S; Oliva, Matthew S; Orrs, Mark S; Glick, Peter; Ruit, Sanduk; Chen, Wei; Luoto, Jill; Tasfaw, Alemu Kerie; Tabin, Geoffrey C
To examine the relationships between blindness, the intervention of cataract surgery and all-cause mortality in a rural Ethiopian population. Population-based, interventional prospective study. Community-based detection methods identified blind Ethiopian persons from two selected kebeles in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data from 1201 blind patients were collected-628 cataract-blind and 573 blind from other conditions. Free cataract surgery was provided for consenting, cataract-blind patients. Follow-up surveys were conducted after 12 months (±1 month)-the main outcome measure for this report is all-cause mortality at 1 year. During the follow-up period, 110 persons died from the selected population (mortality 9.2%), which consisted of those cataract-blind patients who received cataract surgery (N=461), cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (N=167) and all non-cataract-blind patients (N=573). Of the 461 patients who received cataract surgery, 44 patients died (9.5%). Of the 740 patients who did not receive surgery, 66 died (8.9%)-28 patients from the cohort of cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (16.8%) and 38 patients from the cohort of non-cataract blind (6.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly increased odds of mortality for cataract-blind patients over 75 years of age who did not receive surgery and for unmarried patients of all age groups. In this population, mortality risk was significantly elevated for older cataract-blind patients when compared with non-cataract-blind patients-an elevation of risk that was not noted in an age-matched cohort of cataract-blind patients who underwent cataract surgery as early as 1-year follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Rowe, K S
Of 220 children referred for suspected 'hyperactivity', 55 were subjected to a 6 week trial of the Feingold diet. Forty (72.7%) demonstrated improved behaviour and 26 (47.3%) remained improved following liberalization of the diet over a period of 3-6 months. The parents of 14 children claimed that a particular cluster of behaviours was associated with the ingestion of foods containing synthetic colourings. A double-blind crossover study, employing a single-subject repeated measures design was conducted, using eight of these children. Subjects were maintained on a diet free from synthetic additives and were challenged daily for 18 weeks with either placebo (during lead-in and washout periods) or 50 mg of either tartrazine or carmoisine, each for 2 separate weeks. Two significant reactors were identified whose behavioural pattern featured extreme irritability, restlessness and sleep disturbance. One of the reactors did not have inattention as a feature. The findings raise the issue of whether the strict criteria for inclusion in studies concerned with 'hyperactivity' based on 'attention deficit disorder' may miss children who indicate behavioural changes associated with the ingestion of food colourings. Moreover, for further studies, the need to construct a behavioural rating instrument specifically validated for dye challenge is suggested.
Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.
Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah
The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures.
Bartley, G B
John Milton (1608-1674) often has been regarded as the greatest poet of his time, yet he did not compose his most famous work, Paradise Lost, until after he had become blind in both eyes. On the basis of clues in Milton's writings, several possible diagnoses have been advanced to explain his loss of vision. The evidence for and against each theory is presented.
Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030104.pdf
Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip
Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/kotera-0474858.pdf
Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul
To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few cases of malignant tumors arising in a blind painful eye have previously been described. We described two cases of a blind painful eye containing an unsuspected tumor, which were enucleated to relieve the pain. Case presentations Case 1: A 57 year-old Caucasian man presented with recurrent orbital cellulitis and endophthalmitis in the left eye (OS. The OS was blind and painful and an enucleation was performed showing a uveal melanoma by histopathological exam. Case 2: A 54 year-old Caucasian man with previous history of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in his left eye presented a blind painful eye. Enucleation was performed revealing a well-differentiated B-cell lymphoma of uveal tract with extra ocular extension. Conclusion In the management of a blind painful eye, it is extremely important to rule out an intraocular malignancy particularly in those patients who have not been followed by an ophthalmologist.
Silke Manuela Kärcher
Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of
Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, JonDavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P.
Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d′). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving. PMID:19051127
Luciana Azevedo Rodrigues
Full Text Available Este artigo discute como a virtualização do real, promovida pela atual indústria cultural, vem conduzindo ao enfraquecimento da capacidade das pessoas de prestarem atenção na leitura de textos. O trabalho argumenta que a paixão pelo real produz, como um de seus resíduos, a dificuldade das pessoas em se deterem perante algo, ao mesmo tempo em que torna a desatenção um índice da angústia do particular, que não encontra formas de expressão. A primeira parte aborda as reflexões adornianas sobre o pseudorrealismo; a segunda retoma as explicações freudianas sobre o sistema perceptivoconsciente e a abordagem de Zuin acerca delas; a terceira parte discute as análises de Zizek sobre o efeito espetacular do Real; e a quarta parte, além da abordagem de Türcke sobre o processo da leitura, reflete os ecos da universalização da irrealidade sobre a desatenção na leitura de textos.This article discusses how reality has become (intentionally "virtualized", or rather turned into something virtual, by our contemporary Culture Industry, and how this, in turn, has been leading to a weakening of people's reading attention-spans. The work argues that in their passion for something real a residue is left (or a side-effect is felt, of a reduced ability to give anything one's full attention, while, at the same time, this inattention becomes a measure of a person's anguish as he/she fails to find a way of expression (a way to express him or herself. The first part is about Adornian's reflections on pseudorealism; the second, summarizes Freudian explanations concerning the perception-consciousness system, and Zuin's approach to them; the third part discusses Zizek's analyses of the outstanding effect of "The Real"; the fourth, as well as exploring Türcke's approach towards the process of reading, reflects on the universal/ubiquitous echoes of unreality (or pseudo-reality where inattention to the reading of texts, is concerned.
Levitan, R D; Masellis, M; Lam, R W; Muglia, P; Basile, V S; Jain, U; Kaplan, A S; Tharmalingam, S; Kennedy, S H; Kennedy, J L
There is significant evidence that altered dopamine activity plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The current study examined three separate genetic hypotheses for SAD related to the 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), a variant associated with decreased affinity for dopamine. We examined the possible contribution of 7R to the overall expression of SAD, attention deficit disorder (ADD) comorbidity, and body weight regulation. As part of an ongoing genetic study of increased eating behavior and mood in female subjects, 108 women with winter SAD and carbohydrate craving/weight gain were administered the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to measure childhood ADD symptomatology, and a questionnaire to assess maximal lifetime body mass index (BMI). To test for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used in a subsample of probands providing familial DNA. Standard parametric tests were used to compare childhood ADD symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI across the two genotypic groups defined by the presence or absence of 7R. The TDT found no initial evidence for an association between 7R and the categorical diagnosis of SAD. However, 7R carriers reported significantly greater inattention and dysphoria in childhood (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and a higher maximal lifetime BMI (p=0.007) than did probands without this allele. Furthermore, excluding probands with extreme obesity (maximal BMI >40), a strong correlation was found linking childhood inattentive symptoms and maximal lifetime BMI (r=0.35, p=0.001). In overeating women with SAD, the 7R allele of DRD4 may be associated with a unique developmental trajectory characterized by attentional deficits and dysphoria in childhood and mild to moderate obesity in adulthood. This developmental course may reflect different manifestations of the same underlying vulnerability related to central dopamine dysfunction. Given the
Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi
Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...
Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.
Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George
...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...
Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina
...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...
Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice
thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...
Rationale and design of the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intramyocardial injection of autologous bone-marrow derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in chronic ischemic Heart Failure (MSC-HF Trial)
Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Jørgensen, Erik; Qayyum, Abbas Ali
Stem cell therapy is an emerging treatment modality in cardiovascular disease. The best cell type and delivery method in different cardiovascular diseases remain to be determined.......Stem cell therapy is an emerging treatment modality in cardiovascular disease. The best cell type and delivery method in different cardiovascular diseases remain to be determined....
Background: The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among ...
Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.
The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…
Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck
This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.
Paula María Jiménez Palomar
Full Text Available The sport is a phenomenon that contributes to physical health, mental balance and social welfare of the user, and promotes a range of habits and values that impact on the further integration of the individual in their environment. People suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, these abilities are impaired and currently studies are needed to support the hypothesis that physical exercise can be an effective adjunct to this problem. This will do a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a sports program, which seeks to alter the predominant symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hypeeractivity. The study will be conducted in the Unit of Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Ciudad Real, and participants will be children between 6 and 12 years with this disorder. It shall consist of the comparison of two groups: one that will only receive the normal care given in the unit and another that will be applied also a sports program. The second will be divided into two groups who will implement the program outdoors or indoors, in order to observe any difference between an environment and another. We will assess impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity using the Conners scale for teachers, school performance, taking into account the quarterly grades and behavior at home with the Conners scale for parents.
Recently, there has been increased research into the etiology of the comorbidity between hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIP) and conduct problems (CP). However, the nature of the etiology of the comorbidity has remained unclear. Mothers of 507 pairs of twins, comprised of 221 monozygotic (MZ) and 286 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged from 6 to 13 years (mean = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0 years), completed the HIP and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) via a telephone interview. The phenotypic correlation between HIP and CP was 0.43 (p environmental correlation (r e = 0.37) between HIP and CP. CP was additionally influenced by shared family environmental influences. While the results of the present study are generally consistent with the findings from Western twin studies of the relationship between HIP and CP, they add a new finding to the extant literature by showing that it is additive rather than non-additive genetic factors that are responsible for the co-occurrence of HIP and CP.
Rolan, Paul E; O'Neill, Gilmore; Versage, Eve; Rana, Jitesh; Tang, Yongqiang; Galluppi, Gerald; Aycardi, Ernesto
To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BG00010 (neublastin, artemin, enovin) in subjects with unilateral sciatica. This was a single-center, blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized Phase 1 sequential-cohort, dose-escalation study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00961766; funded by Biogen Idec). Adults with unilateral sciatica were enrolled at The Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia. Four subjects were assigned to each of eleven cohorts (intravenous BG00010 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 μg/kg, or subcutaneous BG00010 50 μg/kg) and were randomized 3:1 to receive a single dose of BG00010 or placebo. The primary safety and tolerability assessments were: adverse events; clinical laboratory parameters and vital signs; pain as measured by a Likert rating scale; intra-epidermal nerve fiber density; and longitudinal assessment of quantitative sensory test parameters. Blood, serum, and plasma samples were collected for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Subjects were blinded to treatment assignment throughout the study. The investigator was blinded to treatment assignment until the Data Safety Review Committee review of unblinded data, which occurred after day 28. Beyond the planned enrollment of 44 subjects, four additional subjects were enrolled into to the intravenous BG00010 200 μg/kg cohort after one original subject experienced mild generalized pruritus. Therefore, a total of 48 subjects were enrolled between August 2009 and December 2011; all were included in the safety analyses. BG00010 was generally well tolerated: in primary analyses, the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were changes in temperature perception, pruritus, rash, or headache; no trends were observed in clinical laboratory parameters, vital signs, intra-epidermal nerve fiber density, or quantitative sensory testing. BG00010 was not associated with any clear, dose-dependent trends in Likert pain scores. BG00010 was
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.
Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.
Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik
During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...
Seeber, Marco; Bacchelli, A.
Several fields of research are characterized by the coexistence of two different peer review modes to select quality contributions for scientific venues, namely double blind (DBR) and single blind (SBR) peer review. In the first, the identities of both authors and reviewers are not known to each
May 4, 1991 ... Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness. A case report. P. RHEEDER, W. L. SIELlNG. Summary auinine-induced blindness arising during empirical treatment for malaria in a young man is reported. The condition was noteworthy because it was total and permanent, which is at varia.nce with other ...
... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.
Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C
and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes...
Full Text Available ... blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to Watch Do fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch Why ...
Jun 15, 2011 ... a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in. Ilorin metropolis. .... visually impaired.. Ideally for any blind patient, the eye doctor should look for maladjustment in social-economic functioning (unemployment, difficulty in unaided mobility ...
Eichel, Valerie J.
The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)
Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham
Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.
Phong, Le Trieu; Ogata, Wakaha
We explicitly describe and analyse blind hierachical identity-based encryption (blind HIBE) schemes, which are natural generalizations of blind IBE schemes . We then uses the blind HIBE schemes to construct: (1) An identity-based blind signature scheme secure in the standard model, under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, and with much shorter signature size and lesser communication cost, compared to existing proposals. (2) A new mechanism supporting a user to buy digital information over the Internet without revealing what he/she has bought, while protecting the providers from cheating users.
Burlage, Fred R.; Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Luijk, Peter; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan
Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with
Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.
Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul
, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.
Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul
To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.
Rationale and design of the Transendocardial Injection of Autologous Human Cells (bone marrow or mesenchymal) in Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Heart Failure Secondary to Myocardial Infarction (TAC-HFT) trial: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy.
Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L; Williams, Adam R; McNiece, Ian; Fishman, Joel; Nguyen, Kim; Rouy, Didier; Altman, Peter; Schwarz, Richard; Mendizabal, Adam; Oskouei, Behzad; Byrnes, John; Soto, Victor; Tracy, Melissa; Zambrano, Juan Pablo; Heldman, Alan W; Hare, Joshua M
Although there is tremendous interest in stem cell (SC)-based therapies for cardiomyopathy caused by chronic myocardial infarction, many unanswered questions regarding the best approach remain. The TAC-HFT study is a phase I/II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to address several of these questions, including the optimal cell type, delivery technique, and population. This trial compares autologous mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) and whole bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs). In addition, the study will use a novel helical catheter to deliver cells transendocardially. Although most trials have used intracoronary delivery, the optimal method is unknown and data suggest that the transendocardial approach may have important advantages. Several trials support the benefit of SCs in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP), although the sample sizes have been small and the number of trials sparse. After a pilot phase of 8 patients, 60 patients with ICMP (left ventricular ejection fraction 15%-50%) will be randomized to group A (30 patients further randomized to receive MSC injection or placebo in a 2:1 fashion) or group B (30 patients further randomized to BMCs or placebo in a 2:1 fashion). All patients will undergo bone marrow aspiration and transendocardial injection of SCs or placebo. The primary and secondary objectives are, respectively, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy (determined primarily by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) of BMCs and MSCs administered transendocardially in patients with ICMP. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with school failure. Inattention has been mainly implicated for this association. Oppositional-defiant disorder's (ODD impact on academic performance remains controversial, because of the high comorbidity between ODD and ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of inattention (IN, hyperactivity (H/I and ODD in school failure. METHOD: Parents and teachers filled out SNAP-IV questionnaires for 241 / 6th grade students. The associations of the scores of oppositional-defiant (OP, H/I and IN symptoms with school year failure were calculated. RESULTS: IN was strongly correlated with school failure. H/I and OP were not associated with school failure, when controlled for IN. CONCLUSION: OP and H/I symptoms do not play an important role in school failure, when controlled for IN symptoms. Our study supports the cross-cultural role of IN as a major predictor of school failure.Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH está fortemente correlacionado a fracasso escolar. Desatenção (DA parece ser primordialmente responsável por essa associação. A influência de transtorno desafiador de oposicão (TDO sobre o desempenho acadêmico continua a ser controversa, principalmente devido à alta comorbidade entre TDO e TDAH. OBJETIVO: Entender melhor o papel da DA, hiperatividade/impulsividade (H/I e sintomas opositivo-desafiadores (OP no fracasso escolar. MÉTODO: Duzentos e quarenta e um estudantes da 6ª série foram avaliados com os questionários de Swanson, Nolan e Pelham (SNAP-IV, preenchidos pelos pais e professores. As associações entre as sub-escalas de OP, H/I e DA, com o número de notas "I" ("insuficiente" e com reprovação escolar foram calculadas. RESULTADOS: Sintomas OP não foram correlacionados com o número de notas "I", após o controle para a sua associação com H/I e DA. DA se associou com fracasso escolar. H/I não se correlacionou com fracasso
Tollner-Burngasser, Alison; Riley, Michael A; Nelson, W Todd
Individual operators in command and control environments are susceptible to change blindness. Change blindness by teams of operators, which is typical in military command and control, has not been extensively studied. This experiment investigated change blindness in individuals and teams in a simulated military command and control situation display. Subjects completed a change-detection task individually or in three-person teams. In one team condition team members could actively communicate with each other, but in another condition they could not. The change-detection task involved monitoring flicker sequences of displays containing 6, 12, 24, or 48 icons for changes in icon position. Results revealed a team advantage that was more pronounced when teams communicated. Communicating teams had higher overall correct detection rates (mean = 95%) than both non-communicating triads (mean = 80%) and individuals (mean = 79%). Teams were susceptible to change blindness just as individuals were, but teamwork and communication were beneficial in reducing change blindness susceptibility. Communicating teams also experienced lower global workload (mean = 24.08) than non-communicating triads (mean = 38.44) and individuals (mean = 47.18). This research highlights the importance of teamwork and communication in reducing change blindness and workload in a command and control environment. The findings can be used to facilitate development of methods and tools for reducing individual and team change blindness susceptibility.
Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo; Damiano, Mario; Tinetti, Giovanna
In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of chemical species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a powerful blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, thence it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/WFC3, Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS and Hubble/WFC3 in spectroscopy (Damiano, Morello et al., in prep., Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013) with excellent
Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria
This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ferrin, Maite; Vance, Alasdair
Working memory (WM) deficits have been shown to be associated with core ADHD symptoms, worse academic achievement and peer-relationship problems. Internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, have also been associated with impaired WM performance. However, the association of anxiety and depression and WM performance remains unclear for children and adolescents with ADHD. Further, it is unknown how these comorbid conditions might affect WM performance in the two main ADHD subtypes. The association of anxiety and depression and the specific components of spatial (SWM) and verbal working memory (VWM) were examined in 303 children and adolescents with ADHD, combined type (ADHD-CT) and 77 ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD-IA) compared to 128 age- and gender-matched typically developing participants. The relationship between anxiety and depression and WM was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses and separate simple regression analyses. Higher levels of anxiety/depression were associated with (1) increased between-search errors in the typically developing participants alone, (2) a better strategy performance in the ADHD-CT group, and (3) a better spatial span performance in the ADHD-IA group. VWM was equally impaired in the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA groups, independent of the levels of anxiety and depression. The results suggest that the effects of internalizing symptoms on WM differ in typically developing children and adolescents compared to those with ADHD. Further, high levels of anxiety and depression modified WM performance differently according to the specific ADHD subtypes. This might help explain contradictory findings observed in previous studies of mixed samples of participants with ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA.
Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu
Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the
Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.
Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli
Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. © 2012 The Author. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Marson, Stephen M.; Harrington, Charles F.; Walls, Adam
The challenges of learning statistics, particularly distributions and their characteristics, can be potentially monumental for vision impaired and blind students. The authors provide some practical advice for teaching these students.
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Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang
As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.
Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F
Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements.
T. S. Ajay
Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.
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Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng
Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressi...
This article presents a number of ways of communicating astronomy topics, ranging from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics, to the blind and visually impaired. A major aim of these projects is to provide access which goes beyond the use of the tactile sense to improve knowledge transfer for blind and visually impaired students. The models presented here are especially suitable for young people of secondary school age.
Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara
Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development.
Schinazi, Victor R.; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel?Robert
Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergen...
Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara
Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of t...
Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara
Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226
Balata , Jan; Mikovec , Zdenek; Maly , Ivo
International audience; We raise a question whether it is possible to build a large-scale navigation system for blind pedestrians where a blind person navigates another blind person remotely by mobile phone. We have conducted an experiment, in which we observed blind people navigating each other in a city center in 19 sessions. We focused on problems in the navigator’s attempts to direct the traveler to the destination. We observed 96 problems in total, classified them on the basis of the typ...
Gaber, Tarek A-Z K
Cortical blindness is a rare complication of posterior circulation stroke. However, its complex presentation with sensory, physical, cognitive and behavioural impairments makes it one of the most challenging. Appropriate approach from a rehabilitation standpoint was never reported. Our study aims to discuss the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of a cohort of patients with cortical blindness. The notes of all patients with cortical blindness referred to a local NHS rehabilitation service in the last 6~years were examined. Patients' demographics, presenting symptoms, scan findings, rehabilitation programmes and outcomes were documented. Seven patients presented to our service, six of them were males. The mean age was 63. Patients 1, 2 and 3 had total blindness with severe cognitive and behavioural impairments, wandering and akathisia. All of them failed to respond to any rehabilitation effort and the focus was on damage limitation. Pharmacological interventions had a modest impact on behaviour and sleep pattern. The 3 patients were discharged to a nursing facility. Patients 4, 5, 6 and 7 had partial blindness with variable severity. All of them suffered from significant memory impairment. However, none suffered from any behavioural, physical or other cognitive impairment. Rehabilitation efforts on 3 patients were carried out collaboratively between brain injury occupational therapists and sensory disability officers. All patients experienced significant improvement in handicap and they all maintained community placements. This small cohort of patients suggests that the rehabilitation philosophy and outcomes of these 2 distinct groups of either total or partial cortical blindness differ significantly.
Schinazi, Victor R; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel-Robert
Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergent, cumulative, and persistent). Recent advances in neuroscience and technological devices have provided novel insights into the different neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation by blind and sighted people and the potential for functional reorganization. Despite these advances, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which locomotion and wayfinding depend on amodal spatial representations. This challenge largely stems from methodological limitations such as heterogeneity in the blind population and terminological ambiguity related to the concept of cognitive maps. Coupled with an over-reliance on potential technological solutions, the field has diffused into theoretical and applied branches that do not always communicate. Here, we review research on navigation by congenitally blind individuals with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroscientific evidence, as well as the potential of technological assistance. Throughout the article, we emphasize the need to disentangle strategy choice and performance when discussing the navigation abilities of the blind population. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conclusions: A 8-week multispecies probiotics supplementation had nonsignificantly beneficial effect on pancreatic b-cell function and CRP in PCOS patients. After adjustment for some covariates, serum insulin changes were significantly different between groups.
Profile of Blindness and Low Vision at Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH) Abakaliki. ... Conclusion: Cataract and glaucoma were the commonest causes of blindness in this study population accounting for 85 % of the burden of blindness. The glaucoma blindness of 42% is higher than that obtained from ...
The major causes of binocular blindness were cataract (34.4%), glaucoma (25%) and age related macula degeneration (8.59%). The main causes of uniocular blindness were cataract (23.79%), glaucoma (22.58%) and trauma (11.69%). Conclusion: Avoidable causes of blindness remain the leading causes of blindness ...
World's blind live in developing countries where infections, malnutrition and lack of eye care give rise to a high proportion of blindness, particularly in rural population of blindness, particularly in rural populations in contrast to industrialized countries, where blindness is due mainly to degenerative and metabolic disorders ...
Background: Uniocular blindness causes loss of binocular single vision. People with uniocular blindness are potentially at risk of developing binocular blindness. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factors for uniocular blindness in a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria over a one-year period. Methods: ...
Key words: Blindness; Prevalence; Causes; Ikwere. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Blindness is a major public ..... Deafness .WHO/PBL/97.61. 1997. 3. Foster A, Johnson GJ. Magnitude and causes of blindness in developing world. Int Ophthalmol 1990;. 14:135-140. 4. World Health Organisation. Available data on blindness ...
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Postma, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08621182X; Zuidhoek, S.; Noordzij, M.L.; Kappers, A.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07445370X
Early-blind, late-blind, and blindfolded sighted participants were presented with two haptic allocentric spatial tasks: a parallel-setting task, in an immediate and a 10-sec delay condition, and a task in which the orientation of a single bar was judged verbally. With respect to deviation size, the
Kef, S.; Bos, H.
In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological
0.3 million in Africa, 0.1 million in Latin America and 0.1 million in the rest of the World.[3,4]. Studies from blind school in some parts of Nigeria[5-7] shows that most of theblindness are from avoidable causes like cataract, glaucoma, corneal infection and measles. This study sets to identify the causes of blindness.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.
Desai, Mitesh A; Okal, Dancun O; Rose, Charles E; Ndivo, Richard; Oyaro, Boaz; Otieno, Fredrick O; Williams, Tiffany; Chen, Robert T; Zeh, Clement; Samandari, Taraz
HIV disease staging with referral laboratory-based CD4 cell count testing is a key barrier to the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Point-of-care CD4 cell counts can improve linkage to HIV care among people living with HIV, but its effect has not been assessed with a randomised controlled trial in the context of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBCT). We did a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled efficacy trial in two districts of western Kenya with ongoing HBCT. Housing compounds were randomly assigned (1:1) to point-of-care CD4 cell counts (366 compounds with 417 participants) or standard-of-care (318 compounds with 353 participants) CD4 cell counts done at one of three referral laboratories serving the study catchment area. In each compound, we enrolled people with HIV not engaged in care in the previous 6 months. All participants received post-test counselling and referral for HIV care. Point-of-care test participants received additional counselling on the result, including ART eligibility if CD4 was less than 350 cells per μL, the cutoff in Kenyan guidelines. Participants were interviewed 6 months after enrolment to ascertain whether they sought HIV care, verified through chart reviews at 23 local clinics. The prevalence of loss to follow-up at 6 months (LTFU) was listed as the main outcome in the study protocol. We analysed linkage to care at 6 months (defined as 1-LTFU) as the primary outcome. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02515149. We enrolled 770 participants between July 1, 2013, and Feb 28, 2014. 692 (90%) had verified linkage to care status and 78 (10%) were lost to follow-up. Of 371 participants in the point-of-care group, 215 (58%) had linked to care within 6 months versus 108 (34%) of 321 in the standard-of-care group (Cox proportional multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 2·14, 95% CI 1·67-2·74; log rank pPoint-of-care CD4 cell counts in a resource-limited HBCT
Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke
Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3 × 10(-3), which is comparable to that (7.5 × 10(-3)) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10(-3) was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.
Matthew S Oliva
Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.
Kotb, Amgad A; Hammouda, Ehab F; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the major causes of eye diseases leading to visual loss and blindness among children attending a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 217 school children with visual disabilities attending a school for the blind in Riyadh were included. All children were brought to The Eye Center, Riyadh, and had complete ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and laboratory investigations. In addition, some patients were subjected to electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), measurement of visual evoked potentials (VEP), and laboratory work-up for congenital disorders. There were 117 male students with an age range of 6-19 years and a mean age of 16 years. In addition, there were 100 females with an age range of 6-18 years and a mean age of 12 years. Of the 217 children, 194 (89%) were blind from genetically determined diseases or congenital disorders and 23 (11%) were blind from acquired diseases. The major causes of bilateral blindness in children were retinal degeneration, congenital glaucoma, and optic atrophy. The most common acquired causes of childhood blindness were infections and trauma. The etiological pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia has changed from microbial keratitis to genetically determined diseases of the retina and optic nerve. Currently, the most common causes of childhood blindness are genetically determined causes. Consanguineous marriages may account for the autosomal recessive disorders. Public education programs should include information for the prevention of trauma and genetic counseling. Eye examinations for preschool and school children are mandatory for the prevention and cure of blinding disorders.
The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent-Child Relationship Quality.
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret
We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.
Arthur I. Karshmer
Full Text Available The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to enter careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics is the paucity of tools to help them read and write equations. Over the years there have been numerous projects around the world with the goal of building special tools to help the visually impaired student read and write equations. In the current work, we describe some of the most interesting work in this domain and then attempt to make recommendations and/or predictions about the future.
Cochlear implant technology has altered the landscape for the Deaf and for those who provide services to the profoundly hearing impaired. As indicated by Teagle in one of the companion articles, cochlear implants afford the profoundly hearing impaired child the ability to circumvent the effects of deafness. Cochlear implants, as indicated by Lee in the other companion article, are regarded differently by members of the Deaf Community where some see the technology as a threat to Deaf Culture. Members of a different community, which comprises the visually impaired, cite lack of a common language as the main argument against the existence of a "Blind Culture." As indicated by Pierce "We [the blind] often enjoy each other's company, and we certainly spend time together working on the problems that face what we often call the 'blind community,' but I would argue that this community is different from an actual culture."
Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.
Bin Saeed, Muhammad O.; Zerguine, Azzedine; Zummo, Salam A.
Until recently, a lot of work has been done to develop algorithms that utilize the distributed structure of an ad hoc wireless sensor network to estimate a certain parameter of interest. However, all these algorithms assume that the input regressor data is available to the sensors, but this data is not always available to the sensors. In such cases, blind estimation of the required parameter is needed. This work formulates two newly developed blind block-recursive algorithms based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and Cholesky factorization-based techniques. These adaptive algorithms are then used for blind estimation in a wireless sensor network using diffusion of data among cooperative sensors. Simulation results show that the performance greatly improves over the case where no cooperation among sensors is involved.
Angeline M. Nguyen
Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling.
Farcy, Rene; Damaschini, Roland M.
We propose navigational aid systems for the blind relying on active laser profilometry and infrared proximetry with a real time vibrotactile interface. The Teletact and the Vigitact are small hand held or badge worn devices to improve the spatial perception, the mobility and the security of blind people. The Teletact is a hand held laser telemeter and gives an accurate 3D spatial perception up to ten meters. The Vigitact is an infrared scanner and provides an automatic vigilance from knees to head up to two meters. Both devices are now commercially available. We will report on the basic functional parts of these devices, the results of everyday use by blind people, and future technological improvements.
Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Full Text Available Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1 formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults.HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5:1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay.47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.015. Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-α and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells.H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR PACTR201105000289276.
This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.
Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong
A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers
Full Text Available Blindness has been interpreted in different, often controversial ways, since ancient times. It has been stereotyped and labeled by sighted people and has thus affected the acceptance of Visually Impaired persons, the tolerance towards them and their integration into societal life. The main purpose of this study is to find out the contemporary beliefs and social attitudes of Greek sighted people towards blindness and blind persons. 115 sighted Greek people, most of them from urban and rural areas of Athens and Crete, were asked to fill in a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions. Our results showed that firstly, visually impaired people are still treated with some prejudice concerning the size of their disability, their education and their integration into society. However, they have ceased to apply antiquated perceptions based on fear or ignorance. Sighted people no longer believe that blind individuals are beggars, evil or blinded because of a punishment. Secondly, sighted people still believe that blind persons possess some extra powers and abilities such as better sense of things, especially of hearing, sixth sense or better judgment abilities. Finally, the common belief about associating blind people with their musical talents and skills is no longer in actual existence.
Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron
We aimed to assess dream content in groups of congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB), and age- and sex-matched sighted control (SC) participants. We conducted an observational study of 11 CB, 14 LB, and 25 SC participants and collected dream reports over a 4-week period. Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression and anxiety levels. All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory dream components compared to SC participants. In contrast, LB participants only reported more tactile dream impressions. Blind and SC participants did not differ with respect to emotional and thematic dream content. However, CB participants reported more aggressive interactions and more nightmares compared to the other two groups. Our data show that blindness considerably alters the sensory composition of dreams and that onset and duration of blindness plays an important role. The increased occurrence of nightmares in CB participants may be related to a higher number of threatening experiences in daily life in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.
Balarabe, Aliyu Hamza; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir Ayansiji
To determine the causes of blindness and the barriers to accessing rehabilitation services (RS) among blind street beggars (bsb) in Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 202 bsb (VA blindness were diagnosed by clinical ophthalmic examination. There were 107 (53%) males and 95 (47%) females with a mean age of 49 years (SD 12.2). Most bsb 191 (94.6%) had non-formal education. Of 190 (94.1%) irreversibly bsb, 180/190 (94.7%) had no light perception (NPL) bilaterally. The major causes of blindness were non-trachomatous corneal opacity (60.8%) and trachoma corneal opacity (12.8%). There were 166 (82%) blind from avoidable causes and 190 (94.1%) were irreversibly blind with 76.1% due to avoidable causes. The available sub-standard RS were educational, vocational and financial support. The barriers to RS in the past included non-availability 151 (87.8%), inability to afford 2 (1.2%), unfelt need 4 (2.3%), family refusal 1 (0.6), ignorance 6 (3.5%) and being not linked 8 (4.7%). The barriers to RS during the study period included inability of 72 subjects (35.6%) to access RS and 59 (81.9%) were due to lack of linkage to the existing services. Corneal opacification was the major cause of blindness among bsb. The main challenges to RS include the inadequate services available, societal and users factors. Renewed efforts are warranted toward the prevention of avoidable causes of blindness especially corneal opacities. The quality of life of the blind street beggar should be improved through available, accessible and affordable well-maintained and sustained rehabilitation services.
Schulze Schwering, M; Nyrenda, M; Spitzer, M S; Kalua, K
The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic sites of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi, and to compare the results with those of previous Malawian blind school studies. Children attending an integrated school for the blind in Malawi were examined in September 2011 using the standard WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision. Visual acuity [VA] of the better eye was classified using the standardised WHO reporting form. Fifty-five pupils aged 6 to 19 years were examined, 39 (71 %) males, and 16 (29 %) females. Thirty eight (69%) were blind [BL], 8 (15 %) were severely visually impaired [SVI], 8 (15 %) visually impaired [VI], and 1 (1.8 %) was not visually impaired [NVI]. The major anatomic sites of visual loss were optic nerve (16 %) and retina (16 %), followed by lens/cataract (15 %), cornea (11 %) and lesions of the whole globe (11 %), uveal pathologies (6 %) and cortical blindness (2 %). The exact aetiology of VI or BL could not be determined in most children. Albinism accounted for 13 % (7/55) of the visual impairments. 24 % of the cases were considered to be potentially avoidable: refractive amblyopia among pseudophakic patients and corneal scaring. Optic atrophy, retinal diseases (mostly albinism) and cataracts were the major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi. Corneal scarring was now the fourth cause of visual impairment, compared to being the commonest cause 35 years ago. Congenital cataract and its postoperative outcome were the commonest remedial causes of visual impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available A large number of blind people use smartphone-based assistive technology to perform their common activities. In order to provide a better user experience the existing user interface paradigm needs to be revisited. A new user interface model has been proposed in this paper. A simplified, semantically consistent, and blind-friendly adaptive user interface is provided. The proposed solution is evaluated through an empirical study on 63 blind people leveraging an improved user experience in performing common activities on a smartphone.
Cerebral malaria is a severe manifestation of a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The sequelae of this disease such as blindness, deafness, loss of motor function could be emotionally traumatic and physically disabling. We, therefore, present this case of an 8‑year‑old boy who presented with high‑grade ...
Hayashi, Kazunori; Matsushima, Hiroki; Sakai, Hideaki
The paper proposes a subspace based blind sparse channel estimation method using 1–2 optimization by replacing the 2–norm minimization in the conventional subspace based method by the 1–norm minimization problem. Numerical results confirm that the proposed method can significantly improve...
Tydskrif vir letterkunde. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 51, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Review: Siende blind. D Koen. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text:.
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.
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Sikl, Radovan; Simecček, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, Michaela; Bezdíček, Ondřej; Kremláček, Jan; Stodůlka, Pavel; Fine, Ione; Ostrovsky, Yuri
Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.
A diagnosis of cerebral malaria was made, and the patient was commenced on intravenous quinine and parenteral paracetamol. He was transfused while on admission in the emergency room. The patient regained consciousness after 12 days of treatment but was found to have blindness and deafness following reviews by.
Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.
The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…
Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.
Smith, Benjamin F.
Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…
Fatema El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou
Full Text Available The research reviews some of blinds software used in libraries, it reviews the following software : JAWS, Zoomtext, Kurzuail. Then deals the services offered by the software in libraries, these services are : pronouncing the written texts, printing in Brail method, educational software for computer, browsing the internet, and enlarging texts on the screen.
Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the ... Ophthalmologists from other areas conduct cataract operations once or twice each ... Some patients may have two eyes disorder causing visual impairment. The accepted ...
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Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong
Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.
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overall function, psychology and well‑being of a child is not well‑understood, ... Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, 1Division of ... Keywords: Child eye care services, monocular blindness, monocular severe visual impairment, Nigeria, ocular trauma.
The vocabularies of five- to eight-year-old blind children were sampled to help develop a graded series of braille reading books. Lists of words in alphabetic and frequency order are presented. (See TM 504 595 for availability). (Author/CTM)
Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.
To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…
Vol. 12 No. 1 December, 2010. Refractive Error Blindness in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 39. (PVA) was measured using a snellen visual acuity chart and a full ocular examination was carried out including anterior segment examination using a. Haag-Streit slit lamp biomicroscope and a posterior segment examination.
Memon, I.; Kalhoro, M.S.
Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)
Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Bezdíček, O.; Kremláček, J.; Stodůlka, P.; Fine, I.; Ostrovsky, Y.
Roč. 4, č. 8 (2013), s. 498-507 ISSN 2041-6695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2528 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sight recovery * blindness * visual deprivation * object agnosia * prosopagnosia Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://i-perception.perceptionweb.com/fulltext/i04/i0611.pdf
In this work we consider one-dimensional blind deconvolution with prior knowledge of signal autocorrelations in the classical framework of polynomial factorization. In particular this univariate case highly suffers from several non-trivial ambiguities and therefore blind deconvolution is known to be ill-posed in general. However, if additional autocorrelation information is available and the corresponding polynomials are co-prime, blind deconvolution is uniquely solvable up to global phase. Using lifting, the outer product of the unknown vectors is the solution to a (convex) semi-definite program (SDP) demonstrating that -theoretically- recovery is computationally tractable. However, for practical applications efficient algorithms are required which should operate in the original signal space. To this end we also discuss a gradient descent algorithm (Wirtinger flow) for the original non-convex problem. We demonstrate numerically that such an approach has performance comparable to the semidefinite program in the noisy case. Our work is motivated by applications in blind communication scenarios and we will discuss a specific signaling scheme where information is encoded into polynomial roots.
Full Text Available Blind people face difficulties when navigating unfamiliar environments. The information displayed on indoor signs and notice boards is of no use to them. In order to assist them with this challenge, we propose a real time system that can recognise a...
Chakravarthy, Usha; Biundo, Eliana; Saka, Rasit Omer; Fasser, Christina; Bourne, Rupert; Little, Julie-Anne
To estimate the annual loss of productivity from blindness and moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI) in the population aged >50 years in the European Union (EU). We estimated the cost of lost productivity using three simple models reported in the literature based on (1) minimum wage (MW), (2) gross national income (GNI), and (3) purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP-PPP) losses. In the first two models, assumptions included that all individuals worked until 65 years of age, and that half of all visual impairment cases in the >50-year age group would be in those aged between 50 and 65 years. Loss of productivity was estimated to be 100% for blind individuals and 30% for those with MSVI. None of these models included direct medical costs related to visual impairment. The estimated number of blind people in the EU population aged >50 years is ~1.28 million, with a further 9.99 million living with MSVI. Based on the three models, the estimated cost of blindness is €7.81 billion, €6.29 billion and €17.29 billion and that of MSVI €18.02 billion, €24.80 billion and €39.23 billion, with their combined costs €25.83 billion, €31.09 billion and €56.52 billion, respectively. The estimates from the MW and adjusted GDP-PPP models were generally comparable, whereas the GNI model estimates were higher, probably reflecting the lack of adjustment for unemployment. The cost of blindness and MSVI in the EU is substantial. Wider use of available cost-effective treatment and prevention strategies may reduce the burden significantly.
Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.
Language Arts, 1982
Provides teachers with an understanding of how sighted children develop concepts about print and how blind children develop concepts about braille. Prereading activities designed to extend young children's concepts about print are adapted for blind children. (HTH)
Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda.Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment.The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in this postconflict
Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice
and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile....... Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...
Cognitive abilities of blind and partially sighted children develop in the context of altered perceptual organization. The aim of the study – analyze the peculiarities and factors of intellectual performance of blind and partially sighted children. ITVIC (Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children) adaptation for the assessment of intelligence of Lithuanian blind children was performed as part of the study. Possibilities of using WISC-III for the assessment of intelligence of blind and ...
Tafida, A; Kyari, F; Abdull, M M; Sivasubramaniam, S; Murthy, G V S; Kana, I; Gilbert, Clare E
Poverty can be a cause and consequence of blindness. Some causes only affect the poorest communities (e.g. trachoma), and poor individuals are less likely to access services. In low income countries, cataract blind adults have been shown to be less economically active, indicating that blindness can exacerbate poverty. This study aims to explore associations between poverty and blindness using national survey data from Nigeria. Participants ≥40 years were examined in 305 clusters (2005-2007). Sociodemographic information, including literacy and occupation, was obtained by interview. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed using a reduced tumbling E LogMAR chart. Full ocular examination was undertaken by experienced ophthalmologists on all with PVA Health Organization guidelines. Households were categorized into three levels of poverty based on literacy and occupation at household level. A total of 569/13,591 participants were blind (PVA poor households (25.3%). Spectacle coverage was 3 times lower in poor than affluent households (2.4% vs. 7.5%). In Nigeria, blindness is associated with poverty, in part reflecting lower access to services. Reducing avoidable causes will not be achieved unless access to services improves, particularly for the poor and women.
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... the requirement for National Deaf Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) certified programs to... to better enable selected participants to fully meet the needs of eligible low- income, deaf-blind...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Order... Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210. Form Number: N/A. Type of Review: Revision of a...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... to establish the National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) pilot program in... environments shall be considered when determining whether the individual is deaf-blind under clauses (c)(2)(i...
Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody
Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…
Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei
Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are
Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim
The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…
Brambring, M.; Troster, H.
This study evaluated the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers by comparing cognitive performance of blind and sighted children (ages three and four). Results indicated that even this test (with "blind-neutral" items) did not permit a fair comparative assessment, though it did prove suitable for within-group…
Odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness: A case report. ... Abstract. Blindness secondary to odontogenic orbital cellulitis is a rarity. We report a case of a 38-year-old man who presented ... the right eye was not recovered. Dental infections may lead to blindness; therefore, dental infections should be promptly treated.
Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.
Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object
Simmons, Joyce Nesker; Davidson, Iain F. W. K.
A review of research on the ways blind children develop and mediate the environment focuses on questions of comparative studies of blind and normal children's development and on issues in blind children's unique development. Three stages of mediation are noted (access, exploration, and interpretation). (CL)
Onakpoya, O H; Adegbehingbe, B O; Omotoye, O J; Adeoye, A O
Blind children and young adults have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties. They employ non-vision dependent methods for education. To assess the causes of blindness in a special school in southwestern Nigeria to aid the development of efficient blindness prevention programmes. A cross-sectional survey of the Ekiti State Special Education School, Nigeria was conducted in May-June 2008 after approval from the Ministry of Education. All students in the blind section were examined for visual acuity, pen-torch eye examination and dilated fundoscopy in addition to taking biodata and history. Thirty blind students with mean age of 18±7.3 years and male: female ratio of 1.7:1 were examined. Blindness resulted commonly from cataract eight (26.7%), glaucoma six (20%) retinitis pigmentosa four (16.7%) and posttraumatic phthysis bulbi two (6.7%). Blindness was avoidable in 18 (61%) of cases. Glaucoma blindness was associated with redness, pain, lacrimation and photophobia in 15 (50%) and hyphaema in 16.7% of students; none of these students were on any medication at the time of study. The causes of blindness in rehabilitation school for the blind are largely avoidable and glaucoma-blind pupils face additional painful eye related morbidity during rehabilitation. While preventive measures and early intervention are needful against childhood cataract and glaucoma, regular ophthalmic consultations and medications are needed especially for glaucoma blind pupils.
All students in the blind section were examined for visual acuity, pen-torch eye examination and dilated fundoscopy in addition to taking biodata and history. RESULTS: Thirty blind students with mean age of 18±7.3 years and male: female ratio of 1.7:1 were examined. Blindness resulted commonly from cataract eight ...
WRITTEN AS AN AID TO PARENTS, THIS BOOK PRESENTS FACTS ON BLINDNESS AND PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE REARING OF BLIND CHILDREN FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ABOUT TEACHING BLIND CHILDREN SKILLS AND HABITS RELATED TO EATING, TOILET TRAINING, SLEEPING, DRESSING, WALKING, TALKING, AND PLAYING. SCHOOLING AND RELATED QUESTIONS…
Sherrill, C.; And Others
This study used the Personal Orientation Inventory to compare self-actualization of 52 elite blind athletes with sighted athletes. Self-actualization profiles of blind athletes were lower for measures of existentiality and self-acceptance but otherwise identical to those of sighted athletes. Both sighted and blind athletes scored below test-manual…
Topical Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor for Oral Mucositis Induced by Intensive Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Final Analysis of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF oral spray for oral mucositis (OM induced by intensive chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this phase 2 study, patients were randomized to either rhEGF (50 microg/mL or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was incidence of National Cancer Institute (NCI grade ≥2 OM. A total of 138 patients were enrolled in this study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, rhEGF did not reduce the incidence of NCI grade ≥2 OM (p = 0.717 nor reduce its duration (p = 0.725. Secondary endpoints including the day of onset and duration of NCI grade ≥2 OM, the incidence of NCI grade ≥3 OM and its duration, and patient-reported quality of life were also similar between the two groups. In the per-protocol analysis, however, the duration of opioid analgesic use was shorter in the rhEGF group (p = 0.036, and recipients in the rhEGF group required a lower cumulative dose of opioid analgesics than those in the placebo group (p = 0.046, among patients with NCI grade ≥2 OM. Adverse events were mild and transient. This study found no evidence to suggest that rhEGF oral spray reduces the incidence of OM. However, further studies are needed to investigate the effect of rhEGF on OM-induced pain reduction after intensive chemotherapy.
Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee
This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...
Apostolos Meliones; Demetrios Sampson
Notably valuable efforts have focused on helping people with special needs. In this work, we build upon the experience from the BlindHelper smartphone outdoor pedestrian navigation app and present Blind MuseumTourer, a system for indoor interactive autonomous navigation for blind and visually impaired persons and groups (e.g., pupils), which has primarily addressed blind or visually impaired (BVI) accessibility and self-guided tours in museums. A pilot prototype has been developed and is curr...
Pliszka, S R; Browne, R G; Olvera, R L; Wynne, S K
While Adderall has been available for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for several years, there are few controlled studies comparing it to methylphenidate. Fifty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 8.1 +/- 1.4 years) were randomly assigned to receive placebo, methylphenidate, or Adderall in a double-blind, parallel-group design for 3 weeks. Dosage was adjusted at the end of weeks 1 and 2 via an algorithm based on teacher and parent ratings. Final doses were 12.5 +/- 4.1 mg/day for Adderall and 25.2 +/- 13.1 mg/day for methylphenidate. Teacher and parent ratings, as well as the psychiatrist's Clinical Global Impression (CGI), were the final outcome measures at the end of week 3. Both medications were superior to placebo at reducing inattentive and oppositional symptoms in the classroom and on the CGI. Adderall produced significantly more improvements on teacher ratings and the CGI than methylphenidate, although the algorithm may have limited dosing in the methylphenidate group. Seventy percent of children in the Adderall group were given medication once a day, compared with 15% of the subjects receiving methylphenidate. Adderall compared favorably to methylphenidate, and the behavioral effects of Adderall appear to persist longer than those of methylphenidate after individual doses.
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [CG Docket No. 10-145; DA 10-1324] Accessible Mobile Phone... captioned ``Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who are Blind, Deaf-blind, or Have Low Vision,'' and... phone features and functions in the current marketplace that are not accessible for people who are blind...
BEYOND: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Phase III Study of First-Line Carboplatin/Paclitaxel Plus Bevacizumab or Placebo in Chinese Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Zhou, Caicun; Wu, Yi-Long; Chen, Gongyan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Yunzhong; Lu, Shun; Feng, Jifeng; He, Jianxing; Han, Baohui; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Guoliang; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Gang; Song, Xiangqun; Lu, You; Pan, Hongming; Zheng, Wenjuan; Yin, Anny-Yue
The phase III BEYOND trial was undertaken to confirm in a Chinese patient population the efficacy seen with first-line bevacizumab plus platinum doublet chemotherapy in globally conducted studies. Patients age ≥ 18 years with locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin (area under the curve, 6) intravenously and paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) intravenously (CP) on day 1 of each 3-week cycle, for ≤ six cycles, plus placebo (Pl+CP) or bevacizumab (B+CP) 15 mg/kg intravenously, on day 1 of each cycle, until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or death. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points were objective response rate, overall survival, exploratory biomarkers, safety. A total of 276 patients were randomly assigned, 138 to each arm. PFS was prolonged with B+CP versus Pl+CP (median, 9.2 v 6.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.54; P CP compared with Pl+CP (54% v 26%, respectively). Overall survival was also prolonged with B+CP compared with Pl+CP (median, 24.3 v 17.7 months, respectively; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93; P = .0154). Median PFS was 12.4 months with B+CP and 7.9 months with Pl+CP (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.63) in EGFR mutation-positive tumors and 8.3 and 5.6 months, respectively (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.53), in wild-type tumors. Safety was similar to previous studies of B+CP in NSCLC; no new safety signals were observed. The addition to bevacizumab to carboplatin/paclitaxel was well tolerated and resulted in a clinically meaningful treatment benefit in Chinese patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
James, D M; Stojanovik, V
There are anecdotal reports that blind children sometimes use language inappropriately, but there has been no recent systematic investigation of the communication skills of children with congenital blindness. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the communication skills of a group of children with congenital blindness. The parents of eight congenitally blind children completed the Children's Communication Checklist-2. The checklist ratings showed that the communication profiles of a large proportion of the group warranted clinical investigation or were indicative of a communication disorder. The results from this preliminary investigation support the need for a larger study on the communication skills of children with congenital blindness.
Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol
Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.
Kennedy, John M
Gaia, a totally blind girl, was asked to make raised-line drawings. Gaia's vision at best was peripheral. She draws out of interest, and has drawn since preschool with encouragement from her mother. She was asked to draw objects and scenes involving depth from a vantage point, eg a table from below, two cars (one behind the other), and two parallel rows of apples (receding from her, on a table top). Gaia represented space in her drawings using T-junctions for overlap, height in the picture plane, parallel projection, and inverse projection. That is, Gaia uses features of systems common in sighted children's drawings. The development of drawing in blind and sighted children may be similar in good measure because haptics provides access to many of the same spatial principles as vision.
Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.
Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: email@example.com [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: email@example.com; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: email@example.com [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)
A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.
James Paul Gee
Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.
Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael
This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.
Larisa Dunai Dunai
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.
Axer, Steffen; Belz, Jörg; Leske, Kathrin; Friedrich, Bernhard; Hesse, Tobias; Vollrath, Mark
The mobility of the blind and visually impaired is associated with many barriers and risks. To secure crossings, signalized intersections are partially equipped with acoustic or tactile indicators. However, environmental conditions might interfere with the acoustic identification of the green time. Furthermore, information such as intersection topology, bicycle traffic or the curb structure is not accessible to visually impaired road users. Therefore, most trips are limited to trained routes....
Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.
Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf
Full Text Available Colour vision is important for aeroplane pilots, motor drivers, seamen and signal men for their professional work Not much of attention has been paid to population studies of colour blindness as there is no interference with daily routine in majority of persons However there is a need to undertake community wide prevalence surveys which could be useful in study of other genetically transmitted diseases
The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathe...
Alenka Tatjana Sterle
Full Text Available Background. The authors present a preventive physiotherapy programme intended to improve the well-being of persons who have been blind or visually impaired since birth or experience partial or complete loss of vision later in life as a result of injury or disease.Methods. Different methods and techniques of physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and relaxation used in the rehabilitation of visually impaired persons are described.Results. The goals of timely physical treatment are to avoid unnecessary problems, such as improper posture, tension of the entire body, face and eyes, and deterioration of facial expression, that often accompany partial or complete loss of vision. Regular training improves functional skills, restores the skills that have been lost, and prevents the development of defects and consequent disorders of the locomotor apparatus.Conclusions. It is very difficult to change the life style and habits of blind and visually imapired persons. Especially elderly people who experience complete or partial loss of vision later in their lives are often left to their fate. Therefore blind and visually impaired persons of all age groups should be enrolled in a suitable rehabilitation programme that will improve the quality of their life.
Wanicha Chuenkongkaew, M.D.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe three patients with occupational blindness from chronic methanol intoxication. Case presentation: Three patients who worked in the same industry of methylated spirit manufacture for more than 1 year developed bilateral visual loss from inhaled methanol intoxication. Ophthalmological, neurological examinations and blood methanol levels were undertaken. Two male and one female patients developed a sudden onset of bilateral blindness. Blood and urine methanol levels obtained from the male patients at 48 and 72 hours after their cessation to methanol exposure were negative. Those from the female patient at 9 hours after their cessation to methanol exposure were 73.78 mg/dl. Their final visual acuity was not improved after the treatment. Conclusion: Chronic methanol intoxication from inhalation is likely to produce ocular problems with mild systemic toxicity with severe ocular problems which eventually result in permanent blindness. The risk assessment of occupational health and safety should be seriously taken into account to avoid harmful effect of hazards in the workplace.
Full Text Available This paper uses archival documents, literature, and art to sketch the history of the blind in Spain. Traditionally, certain occupations, such as singing and playing musical instruments, saying prayers and selling chapbooks were reserved for the blind. Spanish artists and writers have portrayed the blind engaged in these occupations. Starting in the Middle Ages, the blind established powerful brotherhoods through which they controlled these professions. The changing roles that the blind played in the creation, production, performance and sale of popular literature known as literatura de cordel show their successful adaptation to an emerging print culture. The situation of the blind today and the success of the National Organization of the Spanish Blind (ONCE are also discussed.
Tekcan, Ali Í; Yılmaz, Engin; Kızılöz, Burcu Kaya; Karadöller, Dilay Z; Mutafoğlu, Merve; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan
Although visual imagery is argued to be an essential component of autobiographical memory, there have been surprisingly few studies on autobiographical memory processes in blind individuals, who have had no or limited visual input. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how blindness affects retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories. We asked 48 congenital/early blind and 48 sighted participants to recall autobiographical memories in response to six cue words, and to fill out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire measuring a number of variables including imagery, belief and recollective experience associated with each memory. Blind participants retrieved fewer memories and reported higher auditory imagery at retrieval than sighted participants. Moreover, within the blind group, participants with total blindness reported higher auditory imagery than those with some light perception. Blind participants also assigned higher importance, belief and recollection ratings to their memories than sighted participants. Importantly, these group differences remained the same for recent as well as childhood memories.
D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul
Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.
Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind
Reddy, S C; Tan, B C
A national study was conducted in children attending six schools for the blind in Malaysia to identify the anatomical site and underlying causes of blindness (BL) and severe visual impairment (SVI), with a view to determine the potentially preventable and treatable causes so that appropriate control measures can be implemented in the future. The standardized clinical examination of eyes was performed and the findings were recorded on the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision. A total of 358 children aged between 7 and 17 years were examined, of whom 332 (92.7%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The results relate to these 332 children. Lens was the major anatomical site (22.3%) of visual loss followed by retina (20.8%), whole globe (17.2%), cornea (15.1%), optic nerve (8.7%) and uvea (5.1%). Glaucoma was responsible for BL/SVI in 7.2% and others in 3.6% of cases. Hereditary diseases were responsible for visual loss in 29.5%, intrauterine factors in 4.5%, perinatal factors in 9% and childhood factors in 7.8% of cases. However, the aetiology was unknown in 49.1% of cases which included congenital anomalies of the globe. Childhood cataract and corneal scarring are major treatable causes of BL/SVI that can benefit from future intervention strategies. Perinatal screening for intrauterine factors and hereditary eye diseases, and appropriate interventional therapy will help in reducing the prevalence of childhood blindness.
Shrestha, Jyoti Baba; Gnyawali, Subodh; Upadhyay, Madan Prasad
To identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment among students in integrated schools for the blind in Nepal. A total of 778 students from all 67 integrated schools for the blind in Nepal were examined using the World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision during the study period of 3 years. Among 831 students enrolled in the schools, 778 (93.6%) participated in the study. Mean age of students examined was 13.7 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Among the students examined, 85.9% were blind, 10% had severe visual impairment and 4.1% were visually impaired. The cornea (22.8%) was the most common anatomical site of visual impairment, its most frequent cause being vitamin A deficiency, followed by the retina (18.4%) and lens (17.6%). Hereditary and childhood factors were responsible for visual loss in 27.9% and 22.0% of students, respectively. Etiology could not be determined in 46% of cases. Overall, 40.9% of students had avoidable causes of visual loss. Vision could be improved to a level better than 6/60 in 3.6% of students refracted. More than one third of students were visually impaired for potentially avoidable reasons, indicating lack of eye health awareness and eye care services in the community. The cause of visual impairment remained unknown in a large number of students, which indicates the need for introduction of modern diagnostic tools.
Krumpaszky, H G; Haas, A; Klauss, V; Selbmann, H K
Blindness causes human suffering and high social costs. Preventive measures are necessary. Virtually all blind people are registered with the social services. Data from these institutions may help in (long-term) planning for blindness prevention. The present investigation analysed data from the social services of the region Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The files contained information on ocular status, year of birth, district, and sex of newly blind subjects of the year 1994. Two thirds (66.8%) of newly blind subjects are women. About half (47.8%) of all subjects are over 80 years of age. The most frequent causes of blindness are: macular degeneration, 33.7%; diabetic retinopathy, 17.3%; glaucoma, 13.8%; and high myopia, 6.6%. Blindness is increasingly a problem of high age. Diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are still major causes of blindness. For these diseases blindness prevention is conceivable. Thus co-ordinated blindness prevention activities should focus on diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.
Kirsten L Armstrong
Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.
Chu, Ying; Mou, Xuanqin; Ji, Zhen
State of the art blind image quality assessment (IQA) methods generally extract perceptual features from the training images, and send them into support vector machine (SVM) to learn the regression model, which could be used to further predict the quality scores of the testing images. However, these methods need complicated training and learning, and the evaluation results are sensitive to image contents and learning strategies. In this paper, two novel blind IQA metrics without training and learning are firstly proposed. The new methods extract perceptual features, i.e., the shape consistency of conditional histograms, from the joint histograms of neighboring divisive normalization transform coefficients of distorted images, and then compare the length attribute of the extracted features with that of the reference images and degraded images in the LIVE database. For the first method, a cluster center is found in the feature attribute space of the natural reference images, and the distance between the feature attribute of the distorted image and the cluster center is adopted as the quality label. The second method utilizes the feature attributes and subjective scores of all the images in the LIVE database to construct a dictionary, and the final quality score is calculated by interpolating the subjective scores of nearby words in the dictionary. Unlike the traditional SVM based blind IQA methods, the proposed metrics have explicit expressions, which reflect the relationships of the perceptual features and the image quality well. Experiment results in the publicly available databases such as LIVE, CSIQ and TID2008 had shown the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the performances are fairly acceptable.
Armstrong, Kirsten L; Jovic, Martin; Vo-Phuoc, Jennifer L; Thorpe, Jeremy G; Doolan, Brian L
Aims: To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ‘backlog’ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results: The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$). As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world's inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions: This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector. PMID:22944763
Bijaoui, Albert; Nuzillard, Danielle
Multispectral images lead to classify pixels, but often with the drawback that each pixel value is the result of a combination of different sources. We examined the ability of Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods to restore the independent sources. We tested different tools on HST images of the Seyfert galaxy 3C120: the Karhunen-Loéve expansion based on the diagonalization of the cross correlation matrix, algorithms which maximize contrast functions and programs which take into account the cross correlation between shift sources. With the last tools we obtained similar decompositions corresponding mainly to real phenomena. BSS can be considered as an interesting exploratory tool for astronomical data mining.
Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano
Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds...... that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing....
Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak
Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/saic-using%20noise%20inconsistencies%20for%20blind%20image%20forensics.pdf
Cornelio, A; Piccolomini, E Loli; Nagy, J G
This paper is focused on the solution of the blind deconvolution problem, here modeled as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. The well known ill-posedness, both on recovering the blurring operator and the true image, makes the problem really difficult to handle. We show that, by imposing appropriate constraints on the variables and with well chosen regularization parameters, it is possible to obtain an objective function that is fairly well behaved. Hence, the resulting nonlinear minimization problem can be effectively solved by classical methods, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm.
Full Text Available Computer games have undoubtedly become an integral part of educational activities of children. However, since computer games typically abound with audio and visual effects, most of them are completely useless for children with disabilities. Specifically, computer games dealing with the basics of geometry can contribute to mathematics education, but they require significant modifications in order to be suitable for the visually impaired children. The paper presents the results of research and adaptation of the educational computer game Lugram to the needs of completely blind children, as well as the testing of the prototype, whose results are encouraging to further research and development in the same direction.
Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.
Dandona, R; Dandona, L
Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433
Godfrey, A. Jonathan R.; Loots, M. Theodor
Blind students are bound to make up a very small part of the population most university lecturers will encounter during their careers. Research to date shows that good communication between staff and student improves the chances of a successful outcome for both parties. The research does show, however, that the exercise seems to be one of…
Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…
Mostert, J. P.; Admiraal-Behloul, F.; Hoogduin, J. M.; Luyendijk, J.; Heersema, D. J.; van Buchem, M. A.; De Keyser, J.
Background: Suppressing the antigen-presenting capacity of glial cells could represent a novel way of reducing inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Aims: To evaluate the effects of fluoxetine on new lesion formation in patients with relapsing MS. Methods: In a double-blind,
Ševala Tulumović; Branka Eškirović; Izeta Husić-Đuzić
Aim of this research was to get insight into mistakes that occur while blind and visually impaired students, and students with no visual disabilities, when writing by dictation. Respondents sample was consisted of three groups of students: blind (N = 51), visually impaired (N = 42) and students with no visual disabilities (N = 123). Respondents sample included students from first to fourth grade of elementary schools in Tuzla Canton as well as blind and visually impaired students ...
Viergever Roderik F
Full Text Available Abstract Information on blinding is part of the data that should be provided upon registration of a trial at a clinical trials registry. Reporting of blinding is often absent or of low quality in published articles of clinical trials. This study researched the presence and quality of information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials and highlights the important role of data-recording formats at clinical trial registries in ensuring high-quality registration.
Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.
Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.
Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi
Blind deconvolution is an ubiquitous non-linear inverse problem in applications like wireless communications and image processing. This problem is generally ill-posed, and there have been efforts to use sparse models for regularizing blind deconvolution to promote signal identifiability. Part I of this two-part paper characterizes the ambiguity space of blind deconvolution and shows unidentifiability of this inverse problem for almost every pair of unconstrained input signals. The approach in...
PrachiPhursutkar; Apurva Bajaj; Priyanka Veer; Tai Chormale; Prof.G.M.Bhandari
Visionless people face many difficulties in their daily activities. This paper is basically designed to facilitate blind people for autonomous navigation. It is based on ‘image to sound’ conversion. The mobile camera is used to captures the image in front of the blind user. This image is then equated with the database and the processed information is fetched by blind user through a set of earphones. Color information of the object is also measured and it is informed...
Jablan, Branka; Stanimirov, Ksenija
The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children...
Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick
...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...
Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George
...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...
Katrine D. Iversen
Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants’ abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness.
Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.
AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.
Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan
In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.
Flynn, C T
During May 1978 to April 1983 this renal dialysis unit treated 65 patients by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Of these, 24 had type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, of whom 20 were blind; eight had type II (non-insulin dependent) diabetes, of whom three were blind; and 33 did not have diabetes and were not blind. The cumulative actuarial survival rates of these patients at five years were 60% for blind diabetics, 40% for sighted diabetics, and 46% for the non-diabetics. Of the 23 bl...
Amjed S. Al-Fahoum
Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.
Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.
Biggs, David S. C.; Andrews, Mark
Imaging through a stochastically varying distorting medium, such as a turbulent atmosphere, requires multiple short-exposure frames to ensure maximum resolution of object features. Restoration methods are used to extract the common underlying object from the speckle images, and blind deconvolution techniques are required as typically there is little prior information available about either the image or individual PSFs. A method is presented for multiframe restoration based on iterative blind deconvolution, which alternates between restoring the image and PSF estimates. A maximum-likelihood approach is employed via the Richardson-Lucy (RL) method which automatically ensures positively and conservation of the total number of photons. The restoration is accelerated by applying a vector sequence is treated as a 3D volume of data and processed to produce a 3D stack of PSFs and a single 2D image of the object. The problem of convergence to an undesirable solution, such as a delta function, is addressed by weighting the number of image or PSF iterations according to how quickly each is converging, this leads to the asymmetrical nature of the algorithm. Noise artifacts are suppressed by using a dampened RL algorithm to prevent over fitting of the corrupted data. Results are presented for real single frame and simulated multiframe speckle imaging.
Chen, Zhili; Huang, Liusheng; Meng, Peng; Yang, Wei; Miao, Haibo
Translation based steganography (TBS) is a kind of relatively new and secure linguistic steganography. It takes advantage of the "noise" created by automatic translation of natural language text to encode the secret information. Up to date, there is little research on the steganalysis against this kind of linguistic steganography. In this paper, a blind steganalytic method, which is named natural frequency zoned word distribution analysis (NFZ-WDA), is presented. This method has improved on a previously proposed linguistic steganalysis method based on word distribution which is targeted for the detection of linguistic steganography like nicetext and texto. The new method aims to detect the application of TBS and uses none of the related information about TBS, its only used resource is a word frequency dictionary obtained from a large corpus, or a so called natural frequency dictionary, so it is totally blind. To verify the effectiveness of NFZ-WDA, two experiments with two-class and multi-class SVM classifiers respectively are carried out. The experimental results show that the steganalytic method is pretty promising.
Ashmead, D H; Hill, E W; Talor, C R
The ability to perceive objects from a distance and navigate without vision depends principally on auditory information. Two experiments were conducted in order to assess this ability in congenitally blind children aged 4 to 12 years who had negligible amounts of visual experience or formal mobility training. In Experiment 1, children walked along a sidewalk toward a target location to get some candy. A box was placed along the path on some trials, and the children were instructed to avoid the box if it was present. The children spent more time in the region just in front of the box than in the region just behind it, indicating that they perceived the box and acted so as to navigate around it. In Experiment 2, children attempted to discriminate whether a nearby disk was on their left or on their right. The children performed at above-chance levels, again indicating distal perception of objects. The results of both experiments suggest that blind children with little or no visual experience or formal training utilize nonvisual information, presumably auditory, to perceive objects. The specific nature of this auditory information requires further investigation, but these findings imply that the underlying perceptual ability does not require experience in spatial vision or deliberate training and intervention.
Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H
This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system
Treatment rationale and study design for a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care immediately following induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer
Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, additional maintenance chemotherapy may be given after initial induction chemotherapy in patients who did not progress during the initial treatment, rather than waiting for disease progression to administer second-line treatment. Maintenance therapy may consist of an agent that either was or was not present in the induction regimen. The antifolate pemetrexed is efficacious in combination with cisplatin for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC and has shown efficacy as a maintenance agent in studies in which it was not included in the induction regimen. We designed a phase III study to determine if pemetrexed maintenance therapy improves progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS after cisplatin/pemetrexed induction therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Furthermore, since evidence suggests expression levels of thymidylate synthase, the primary target of pemetrexed, may be associated with responsiveness to pemetrexed, translational research will address whether thymidylate synthase expression correlates with efficacy outcomes of pemetrexed. Methods/Design Approximately 900 patients will receive four cycles of induction chemotherapy consisting of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 who have not progressed during induction therapy will randomly receive (in a 2:1 ratio one of two double-blind maintenance regimens: pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle plus best supportive care (BSC or placebo plus BSC. The primary objective is to compare PFS between treatment arms. Secondary objectives include a fully powered analysis of OS, objective tumor response rate, patient-reported outcomes, resource utilization, and toxicity. Tumor specimens for translational research will be obtained from
Treatment rationale and study design for a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care immediately following induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer
Paz-Ares, Luis G; Altug, Sedat; Vaury, Alexandra Thareau; Jaime, Jesús Corral; Russo, Francesca; Visseren-Grul, Carla
To improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), additional maintenance chemotherapy may be given after initial induction chemotherapy in patients who did not progress during the initial treatment, rather than waiting for disease progression to administer second-line treatment. Maintenance therapy may consist of an agent that either was or was not present in the induction regimen. The antifolate pemetrexed is efficacious in combination with cisplatin for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC and has shown efficacy as a maintenance agent in studies in which it was not included in the induction regimen. We designed a phase III study to determine if pemetrexed maintenance therapy improves progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after cisplatin/pemetrexed induction therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Furthermore, since evidence suggests expression levels of thymidylate synthase, the primary target of pemetrexed, may be associated with responsiveness to pemetrexed, translational research will address whether thymidylate synthase expression correlates with efficacy outcomes of pemetrexed. Approximately 900 patients will receive four cycles of induction chemotherapy consisting of pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 ) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 who have not progressed during induction therapy will randomly receive (in a 2:1 ratio) one of two double-blind maintenance regimens: pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle) plus best supportive care (BSC) or placebo plus BSC. The primary objective is to compare PFS between treatment arms. Secondary objectives include a fully powered analysis of OS, objective tumor response rate, patient-reported outcomes, resource utilization, and toxicity. Tumor specimens for translational research will be obtained from consenting patients before induction
Does Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Peripheral Electrical Stimulation Have an Additive Effect in the Control of Hip Joint Osteonecrosis Pain Associated with Sickle Cell Disease? A Protocol for a One-Session Double Blind, Block-Randomized Clinical Trial
Tiago da Silva Lopes
Full Text Available Chronic pain in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD is probably related to maladaptive plasticity of brain areas involved in nociceptive processing. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES can modulate cortical excitability and help to control chronic pain. Studies have shown that combined use of tDCS and PES has additive effects. However, to date, no study investigated additive effects of these neuromodulatory techniques on chronic pain in patients with SCD. This protocol describes a study aiming to assess whether combined use of tDCS and PES more effectively alleviate pain in patients with SCD compared to single use of each technique. The study consists of a one-session double blind, block-randomized clinical trial (NCT02813629 in which 128 participants with SCD and femoral osteonecrosis will be enrolled. Stepwise procedures will occur on two independent days. On day 1, participants will be screened for eligibility criteria. On day 2, data collection will occur in four stages: sample characterization, baseline assessment, intervention, and post-intervention assessment. These procedures will last ~5 h. Participants will be divided into two groups according to homozygous for S allele (HbSS (n = 64 and heterozygous for S and C alleles (HbSC (n = 64 genotypes. Participants in each group will be randomly assigned, equally, to one of the following interventions: (1 active tDCS + active PES; (2 active tDCS + sham PES; (3 sham tDCS + active PES; and (4 sham tDCS + sham PES. Active tDCS intervention will consist of 20 min 2 mA anodic stimulation over the primary motor cortex contralateral to the most painful hip. Active PES intervention will consist of 30 min sensory electrical stimulation at 100 Hz over the most painful hip. The main study outcome will be pain intensity, measured by a Visual Analogue Scale. In addition, electroencephalographic power density, cortical maps of the gluteus maximus muscle elicited by
Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter
Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment. PMID:25747157
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The State Committee of Blind Vendors. 395.14 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.14 The State Committee of Blind... Blind Vendors which, to the extent possible, shall be fully representative of all blind vendors in the...
Lee, Kyung Mook; Han, Sang Chul; Ho, Samuel Y M; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan
Ophthalmic complications occurring after non-ophthalmic surgery are rare. We present a case of orbital cellulitis in a 24-year-old woman, who had undergone augmentation rhinoplasty in combination with breast augmentation. Symptoms included pain, swelling, erythema and eventual loss of vision in the left eye. Intravenous administration of antibiotics did not halt the rapid progression of this infection. On the sixth postoperative day, the patient underwent left-orbital evisceration to prevent the spread of infection to other organ systems. Despite aggressive therapy, the sequela was permanent, unilateral blindness. Orbital cellulitis in aesthetic surgery is extremely rare. In patients undergoing rhinoplasties that may be prolonged due to other concomitant cosmetic procedures, aseptic preoperative preparation and careful monitoring for signs of orbital infection are recommended. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A
Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions.
Ballestrín, J.; Marzo, A.; Cañadas, I.; Rodríguez, J.
Surface temperatures are key parameters in many concentrated solar radiation applications. Pyrometric temperature measurement of solar irradiated material surfaces is the alternative to contact measurement techniques, which are inadequate for measuring the temperatures of such surfaces. However, reflected solar radiation is an important uncertainty variable in this non-contact methodology. A promising method for eliminating this solar perturbation is by using centred passband filters on the atmospheric solar absorption bands, creating solar-blind pyrometric systems. A commercial pyrometer has been tested in the wavelength band at around 1.4 µm in the solar furnace at Plataforma Solar de Almería, showing its advantages and limitations. An estimation of temperature measurement uncertainty for a real case is presented with theory and experiment in agreement: the higher the temperature, the lower the uncertainty. Another experiment has shown that the pyrometer measures temperature properly even through quartz windows in this spectral range.