Sample records for inappropriate pollutant entries

  1. Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug therapy is necessary to treat acute illness, maintain current health and prevent further decline. However, optimizing drug therapy for older patients is challenging and sometimes, drug therapy can do more harm than good. Drug utilization review tools can highlight instances of potentially inappropriate prescribing to those involved in elderly pharmacotherapy, i.e. doctors, nurses and pharmacists. We aim to provide a review of the literature on potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and also to review the explicit criteria that have been designed to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly. METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 1991 and 2006 and a manual search through major journals for articles referenced in those located through PUBMED. Search terms were elderly, inappropriate prescribing, prescriptions, prevalence, Beers criteria, health outcomes and Europe. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications to older people is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe, ranging from 12% in community-dwelling elderly to 40% in nursing home residents. Inappropriate prescribing is associated with adverse drug events. Limited data exists on health outcomes from use of inappropriate medications. There are no prospective randomized controlled studies that test the tangible clinical benefit to patients of using drug utilization review tools. Existing drug utilization review tools have been designed on the basis of North American and Canadian drug formularies and may not be appropriate for use in European countries because of the differences in national drug formularies and prescribing attitudes. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of inappropriate prescribing despite the widespread use of drug-utilization review tools, prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to identify useful interventions. Drug

  2. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.


    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  3. Inappropriate prescribing in geriatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Patrick J


    Inappropriate prescribing in older people is a common condition associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Medication use increases with age, and this, in conjunction with an increasing disease burden, is associated with adverse drug reactions. This review outlines why older people are more likely to develop adverse drug reactions and how common the problem is. The use of different tools to identify and measure the problem is reviewed. Common syndromes seen in older adults (eg, falling, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance) are considered, and recent evidence in relation to medication use for these conditions is reviewed. Finally, we present a brief summary of significant developments in the recent literature for those caring for older people.

  4. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy]. (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A


    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  5. Three Cases With Inappropriate TSH Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Sebila Dökmetaş


    Full Text Available Inappropriate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH syndrome or central hyperthyroidism is a rare disorder characterized by inappropriately normal or elevated levels of TSH and elevated levels of T3 and T4. The syndrome is associated with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma or thyroid hormone resistance (THR. Thyroid-releasing hormone stimulation test and T3 suppression test can be useful for the differential diagnosis of central hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we report three cases of inappropriate TSH syndrome diagnosed after TRH stimulation and T3 suppression tests. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 105-8

  6. Impact of a warning CPOE system on the inappropriate pill splitting of prescribed medications in outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    Full Text Available Prescribing inappropriate pill splitting is not rare in clinical practice. To reduce inappropriate pill splitting, we developed an automatic warning system linked to a computerized physician order entry (CPOE system for special oral formulation drugs in outpatient settings. We examined the impact of the warning system on inappropriate prescribing of pill splitting and assess prescribers' responses to the warnings.Drugs with extended-release or enteric-coated formulations that were not originally intended to be split were recognized as "special oral formulations". A hard-stop system which could examine non-integer doses of drugs with special oral formulations, provide warnings to interrupt inappropriate prescriptions was integrated in CPOE in a medical center since June 2010. We designed an intervention study to compare the inappropriate splitting before and after the implementation of the warning system (baseline period 2010 January to May vs. intervention period 2010 June to 2011 August. During the intervention period, prescription changes in response to a warning were logged and analyzed.A total of 470,611 prescribed drug items with 34 different drugs with special oral formulations were prescribed in the study period. During the 15-month intervention period, 909 warnings for 26 different drugs were triggered among 354,523 prescribed drug items with special oral formulations. The warning rate of inappropriate splitting in the late intervention period was lower than those in baseline period (0.16% vs. 0.61%, incidence rate ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.23-0.31, P<0.001. In respond to warnings, physicians had to make adjustments, of which the majority was changing to an unsplit pill (72.9%.The interruptive warning system could avoid the prescriptions with inappropriate pill splitting. Accordingly, physicians changed their behavior of prescribing special oral formulations regarding inappropriate pill splitting. We suggest the establishment of such system

  7. Primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with inappropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient in whom primary Sjogren's syndrome and inappropriate antiduretic hormone secretion were associated is reported. This is the first report of such an association. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed and vasculitis proposed as the underlying pathogenetic mechanism.

  8. Inappropriate prescribing: criteria, detection and prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Marie N


    Inappropriate prescribing is highly prevalent in older people and is a major healthcare concern because of its association with negative healthcare outcomes including adverse drug events, related morbidity and hospitalization. With changing population demographics resulting in increasing proportions of older people worldwide, improving the quality and safety of prescribing in older people poses a global challenge. To date a number of different strategies have been used to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Over the last two decades, a number of criteria have been published to assist prescribers in detecting inappropriate prescribing, the majority of which have been explicit sets of criteria, though some are implicit. The majority of these prescribing indicators pertain to overprescribing and misprescribing, with only a minority focussing on the underprescribing of indicated medicines. Additional interventions to optimize prescribing in older people include comprehensive geriatric assessment, clinical pharmacist review, and education of prescribers as well as computerized prescribing with clinical decision support systems. In this review, we describe the inappropriate prescribing detection tools or criteria most frequently cited in the literature and examine their role in preventing inappropriate prescribing and other related healthcare outcomes. We also discuss other measures commonly used in the detection and prevention of inappropriate prescribing in older people and the evidence supporting their use and their application in everyday clinical practice.

  9. Drug Utilization and Inappropriate Prescribing in Centenarians. (United States)

    Hazra, Nisha C; Dregan, Alex; Jackson, Stephen; Gulliford, Martin C


    To use primary care electronic health records (EHRs) to evaluate prescriptions and inappropriate prescribing in men and women at age 100. Population-based cohort study. Primary care database in the United Kingdom, 1990 to 2013. Individuals reaching the age of 100 between 1990 and 2013 (N = 11,084; n = 8,982 women, n = 2,102 men). Main drug classes prescribed and potentially inappropriate prescribing according to the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. At the age of 100, 73% of individuals (79% of women, 54% of men) had received one or more prescription drugs, with a median of 7 (interquartile range 0-12) prescription items. The most frequently prescribed drug classes were cardiovascular (53%), central nervous system (CNS) (53%), and gastrointestinal (47%). Overall, 32% of participants (28% of men, 32% of women) who received drug prescriptions may have received one or more potentially inappropriate prescriptions, with temazepam and amitriptyline being the most frequent. CNS prescriptions were potentially inappropriate in 23% of individuals, and anticholinergic prescriptions were potentially inappropriate in 18% of individuals. The majority of centenarians are prescribed one or more drug therapies, and the prescription may be inappropriate for up to one-third of these individuals. Research using EHRs offers opportunities to understand prescribing trends and improve pharmacological care of the oldest adults. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support Decreases Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion. (United States)

    Shah, Neil; Baker, Steven A; Spain, David; Shieh, Lisa; Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Maggio, Paul; Goodnough, Lawrence T


    To curtail inappropriate plasma transfusions, we instituted clinical decision support as an alert upon order entry if the patient's recent international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.7 or less. The alert was suppressed for massive transfusion and within operative or apheresis settings. The plasma order was automatically removed upon alert acceptance while clinical exception reasons allowed for continued transfusion. Alert impact was studied comparing a 7-month control period with a 4-month intervention period. Monthly plasma utilization decreased 17.4%, from a mean ± SD of 3.40 ± 0.48 to 2.82 ± 0.6 plasma units per hundred patient days (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference, -0.1 to 1.3). Plasma transfused below an INR of 1.7 or less decreased from 47.6% to 41.6% (P = .0002; odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89). The alert recommendation was accepted 33% of the time while clinical exceptions were chosen in the remaining cases (active bleeding, 31%; other clinical indication, 33%; and apheresis, 2%). Alert acceptance rate varied significantly among different provider specialties. Clinical decision support can help curtail inappropriate plasma use but needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy including audit and feedback for comprehensive, long-term changes. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig


    shocks have been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, predictors and management of inappropriate shocks in the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry, which collects S-ICD implantation information and follow-up data from clinical centers in Europe and New Zealand. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 21 ± 13...... months, 48 out of 581 S-ICD patients (71% male, age 49 ± 18 years) experienced 101 inappropriate shocks (8.3%). The most common cause was cardiac signal oversensing (73%), such as T-wave oversensing. Eighteen shocks (18%) were due to supraventricular tachycardias (SVT), of which 15 occurred in the shock......-only zone. Cox-proportional hazard modeling using time-dependent covariates demonstrated that patients with a history of atrial fibrillation (HR 2.4) and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HR 4.6) had an increased risk for inappropriate shocks, while programming the primary vector for sensing (from...

  12. Inappropriate Intensive Care Unit admissions: Nigerian doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 4, 2015 ... Conclusion: Inappropriate ICU admissions were perceived as a common event and were mainly attributed to pressure from seniors, referring clinicians, and hospital management. Further work is ..... Financial support and sponsorship. Nil. Conflicts of interest. There are no conflicts of interest. References. 1.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Inappropriate Medications Prescribing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analysis involved use of World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators, Updated 2002 Beer's criteria and DRUG-REAX® system software package of MICROMEDEX (R) Healthcare Series to assess the prescribing pattern, identify potentially inappropriate medications and potential drug-drug interactions, ...

  14. Bullying and Inappropriate Behaviour among Faculty Personnel (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka


    This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…

  15. Prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Lisbeth; Thirstrup, Steffen; Kristensen, Mogens Brandt


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing in primary care in Copenhagen County, according to the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and to identify the therapeutic areas most commonly involved. SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 212 elderly ( >65 years...

  16. Missed opportunities and inappropriately given vaccines reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage would have increased by 10% for diphtheria pertusistetanus (DPT) doses DPTI and DPT2, and 7% for DPT3. Measles immunisation coverage would have increased by 19% had missed immunisation opportunities and inappropriately administered vaccinations been avoided. The overall missed opportunities rate ...

  17. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate prescriptions: development of a tool to identify inappropriate prescribing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Prot-Labarthe

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. METHODS: A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. RESULTS: 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based -50%- or working in community -50%-. Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous. Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references. Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions. DISCUSSION CONCLUSION: POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary.

  18. Excess Entry, Entry Regulation, and Entrant's Incentive


    Kim, Jaehong


    Excess entry theorem, which shows that the free market can generate too many firms, is a theoretic base for entry regulation. When the current market is a monopoly, entry is considered as excessive if the social welfare under the post-entry Cournot-Nash equilibrium, net of entry coast, is lower than that under monopoly. However, this paper argues that, even if this is true, limiting entry is not an optimal choice of the benevolent government. The entrant has an incentive to produce more than ...

  19. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A


    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  20. US Ports of Entry (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  1. [Patients with hyperlipidemia: inappropriate nutritional intake]. (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Hottin, Delphine Mastin


    Gather knowledge on nutritional supplementation in patients with hyperlipidemia. In an observational study on patients with hyperlipidemia, nutritional intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary questionnaire, provided on the first visit to a lipid clinic. 291 patients (201 men and 90 women) were studied. Calorie intake and proportion of energetic nutrients revealed low carbohydrate intake, low intake of dietary fibres, and excessive lipid and saturated fatty acid intakes. Patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia had nutritional intake very similar to the daily allowances recommended in France. Men with type III hyperlipidemia had the highest calorie intake and those with type IV dyslipidemia had the highest alcohol intake. Triglycerides increased with total energy intake and with fat intake (%). Body mass index was inversely correlated to carbohydrate intake. The duration of dyslipidemia was related to low vitamin C and B9 intake. The existence of risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking or inactivity) was associated with less well-balanced diet and low protective micronutrient status. In the case of atherosclerosis, vitamin B9, C, E and beta-carotene intake was insufficient. Interactions existed between nutrient intake with correlations between fibres, vitamin B9, C and beta-carotene, suggesting that nutritional education should favour foodstuffs that provide them simultaneously. Nutritional intake in patients with hyperlipidemia is often far from that recommended and does not greatly differ from that in large non-selected populations. It can be considered as inappropriate because of the metabolic and cardiovascular risks in these patients. Adapted nutritional management is crucial.

  2. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts. (United States)

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward


    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by asserting the content as new information; or (b) by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it (e.g., von Fintel, 2008; Heim, 1992; Stalnaker, 2002). A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to challenge (e.g., Gazdar, 1979; van der Sandt, 1992). Under this view, we should not expect to find a difference in conversational appropriateness between asserting implausible information and presupposing it. To distinguish between these two views of linguistic information, we performed two self-paced reading experiments with an on-line stops-making-sense judgment. The results of the two experiments-using the presupposition triggers the and too-show that accommodation is inappropriate (makes less sense) relative to non-presuppositional controls when the presupposed information is implausible but not when it is plausible. These results provide support for the first view of linguistic information: the contrast in implausible contexts can only be explained if there is a presupposition-assertion distinction and accommodation is a mechanism dedicated to reasoning about presuppositions. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Inappropriate treatments for patients with cognitive decline. (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F


    Some treatments are inappropriate for patients with cognitive decline. We analyse their use in 500 patients and present a literature review. Benzodiazepines produce dependence, and reduce attention, memory, and motor ability. They can cause disinhibition or aggressive behaviour, facilitate the appearance of delirium, and increase accident and mortality rates in people older than 60. In subjects over 65, low systolic blood pressure is associated with cognitive decline. Maintaining this figure between 130 and 140 mm Hg (145 in patients older than 80) is recommended. Hypocholesterolaemia < 160 mg/dl is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, aggressiveness, and suicide; HDL-cholesterol<40 mg/dl is associated with memory loss and increased vascular and mortality risks. Old age is a predisposing factor for developing cognitive disorders or delirium when taking opioids. The risks of prescribing anticholinesterases and memantine to patients with non-Alzheimer dementia that is not associated with Parkinson disease, mild cognitive impairment, or psychiatric disorders probably outweigh the benefits. Anticholinergic drugs acting preferentially on the peripheral system can also induce cognitive side effects. Practitioners should be aware of steroid-induced dementia and steroid-induced psychosis, and know that risk of delirium increases with polypharmacy. Of 500 patients with cognitive impairment, 70.4% were on multiple medications and 42% were taking benzodiazepines. Both conditions were present in 74.3% of all suspected iatrogenic cases. Polypharmacy should be avoided, if it is not essential, especially in elderly patients and those with cognitive impairment. Benzodiazepines, opioids and anticholinergics often elicit cognitive and behavioural disorders. Moreover, systolic blood pressure must be kept above 130 mm Hg, total cholesterol levels over 160 mg/dl, and HDL-cholesterol over 40 mg/dl in this population. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurolog

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Multiply Controlled Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior (United States)

    Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Reed, Gregory K.; Rivas, Kristi D.; Kadey, Heather J.


    Functional analyses identified children whose inappropriate mealtime behavior was maintained by escape and adult attention. Function-based extinction procedures were tested individually and in combination. Attention extinction alone did not result in decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior or a significant increase in acceptance. By contrast,…

  5. Prescribing Patterns and Inappropriate Use of Medications in Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescribing Patterns and Inappropriate Use of Medications in Elderly Outpatients in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To determine the prescribing patterns and occurrence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) among elderly outpatients visiting a tertiary ...

  6. Inappropriate urinary catheter reinsertion in hospitalized older patients. (United States)

    Hu, Fang-Wen; Tsai, Chuan-Hsiu; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chang, Chia-Ming


    We investigated the incidence and rationale for inappropriate reinsertion of urinary catheters and elucidated whether reinsertion is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. A longitudinal study was adopted. Patients aged ≥65 years with urinary catheters placed within 24 hours of hospitalization were enrolled. Data collection, including demographic variables and health conditions, was conducted within 48 hours after admission. Patients with catheters in place were followed-up every day. If the patient had catheter reinsertion, the reinsertion information was reviewed from medical records. Adverse outcomes were collected at discharge. A total of 321 patients were enrolled. Urinary catheters were reinserted in 66 patients (20.6%), with 95 reinsertions; 49.5% of catheter reinsertions were found to be inappropriate. "No evident reason for urinary catheter use" was the most common rationale for inappropriate reinsertion. Inappropriate reinsertion was found to be a significant predictor for prolonged length of hospital stay, development of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and catheter-related complications, and decline in activities of daily living. This study indicates a considerable percentage of inappropriate urinary catheter reinsertions in hospitalized older patients. Inappropriate reinsertion was significantly associated with worsening outcomes. Efforts to improve appropriateness of reinsertion and setting clinical policies for catheterization are necessary to reduce the high rate of inappropriate reinsertion. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Denial of entry. 151.08 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship is... COTP may deny the entry of a ship to a port or terminal under § 158.110(b) if— (1) The port or terminal...

  8. Preemption and entry timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier; Teece, D.; Augier, M.


    Entry timing research examines how firm performance varies, possibly non-monotonically, with the order (also known as order of entry) or elapsed time since first entry into a new market. While the pre-emption literature in economics focuses on assumptions for a first entrant to monopolize a market,

  9. Discontinuing Inappropriate Medication Use in Nursing Home Residents : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Hans; Scheper, Jessica; Koning, Hedi; Brouwer, Chris; Twisk, Jos W.; van der Meer, Helene; Boersma, Froukje; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Taxis, Katja


    Background: Inappropriate prescribing is a well-known clinical problem in nursing home residents, but few interventions have focused on reducing inappropriate medication use. Objective: To examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate medication use and to improve prescribing in nursing home

  10. Discontinuing Inappropriate Medication in Nursing Home Residents (DIM-NHR study): A cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; Scheper, J.; Koning, H.; Brouwer, C.; Twisk, J.; Van Der Meer, H.; Boersma, F.; Zuidema, S.; Taxis, K.


    Introduction: Inappropriate prescribing is a prevalent problem in nursing home residents that is associated with cognitive and physical impairment. Few interventions have been shown to reduce inappropriate prescribing. The aim was therefore to examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate

  11. Inappropriate oophorectomy at time of benign premenopausal hysterectomy. (United States)

    Mahal, Amandeep S; Rhoads, Kim F; Elliott, Christopher S; Sokol, Eric R


    We assessed rates of oophorectomy during benign hysterectomy around the release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 2008 practice bulletin on prophylactic oophorectomy, and evaluated predictors of inappropriate premenopausal oophorectomy. A cross-sectional administrative database analysis was performed utilizing the California Office of Statewide Health Planning Development Patient Discharge Database for years 2005 to 2011. After identifying all premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 diagnosis codes were reviewed to create a master list of indications for oophorectomy. We defined appropriate oophorectomy as cases with concomitant coding for ovarian cyst, breast cancer susceptibility gene carrier status, and other diagnoses. Using patient demographics and hospital characteristics to predict inappropriate oophorectomy, a logistic regression model was created. We identified 57,776 benign premenopausal hysterectomies with oophorectomies during the period studied. Of the premenopausal oophorectomies, 37.7% (21,783) were deemed "inappropriate" with no documented reason for removal. The total number of premenopausal inpatient hysterectomies with oophorectomy decreased yearly (12,227/y in 2005 to 5,930/y in 2011). However, the percentage of inappropriate oophorectomies remained stable. In multivariate analysis, Hispanic and African American ethnicity/race associated with increased odds of inappropriate oophorectomy (P Urban and at low Medi-Cal utilization hospitals showed increased odds of inappropriate oophorectomy. In premenopausal women undergoing benign hysterectomy, over one-third undergo oophorectomy without an appropriate indication documented. The rate of inappropriate oophorectomy in California has not changed since the 2008 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines. Whereas the absolute number of inpatient hysterectomies for benign

  12. Effect of the Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Medications on Medication Communication and Deprescribing. (United States)

    Fried, Terri R; Niehoff, Kristina M; Street, Richard L; Charpentier, Peter A; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Miller, Perry L; Goldstein, Mary K; O'Leary, John R; Fenton, Brenda T


    To examine the effect of the Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Medications (TRIM), a web tool linking an electronic health record (EHR) to a clinical decision support system, on medication communication and prescribing. Randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Veterans aged 65 and older prescribed seven or more medications randomized to receipt of TRIM or usual care (N = 128). TRIM extracts information on medications and chronic conditions from the EHR and contains data entry screens for information obtained from brief chart review and telephonic patient assessment. These data serve as input for automated algorithms identifying medication reconciliation discrepancies, potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), and potentially inappropriate regimens. Clinician feedback reports summarize discrepancies and provide recommendations for deprescribing. Patient feedback reports summarize discrepancies and self-reported medication problems. Primary: subscales of the Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions (PACIC) related to shared decision-making; clinician and patient communication. Secondary: changes in medications. 29.7% of TRIM participants and 15.6% of control participants provided the highest PACIC ratings; this difference was not significant. Adjusting for covariates and clustering of patients within clinicians, TRIM was associated with significantly more-active patient communication and facilitative clinician communication and with more medication-related communication among patients and clinicians. TRIM was significantly associated with correction of medication discrepancies but had no effect on number of medications or reduction in PIMs. TRIM improved communication about medications and accuracy of documentation. Although there was no association with prescribing, the small sample size provided limited power to examine medication-related outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The

  13. Prevalence and correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Kosovo. (United States)

    Tahiri, Zejdush; Kellici, Suela; Mone, Iris; Shabani, Driton; Qazimi, Musa; Burazeri, Genc


    In post-war Kosovo, the magnitude of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines is unknown to date. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of continuation of intake of benzodiazepines beyond prescription (referred to as "inappropriate use") in the adult population of Gjilan region in Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gjilan region in 2015 including a representative sample of 780 individuals attending different pharmacies and reporting use of benzodiazepines (385 men and 395 women; age range 18-87 years; response rate: 90%). A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants inquiring about the use of benzodiazepines and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, the prevalence of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was 58%. In multivariable-adjusted models, inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), middle education (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), daily use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and addiction awareness (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8). Furthermore, there was evidence of a borderline relationship with rural residence (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7). Our study provides novel evidence about the prevalence and selected correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Gjilan region of Kosovo. Health professionals and policymakers in Kosovo should be aware of the magnitude and determinants of drug misuse in this transitional society.

  14. Entry at Venus (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon


    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  15. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica


    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  16. Hypercalcemia, inappropriate calcitriol levels, and tuberculosis on hemodialysis. (United States)

    Peces, R; Pobes, A; Díaz-Corte, C; Gago, E


    We describe a female patient undergoing hemodialysis who developed tuberculosis, hypercalcemia, and inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels. These findings suggest ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas. Successful treatment of tuberculosis led to a substantial decrease in the levels of calcium and calcitriol.

  17. Inappropriate prescribing of proton pump inhibitors among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    updating physicians on the practice guidelines, participation of a clinical pharmacist in making therapeutic decisions and modifying hospital ... inappropriate overuse of PPIs include physician type, practice setting, formulary status and ... Well-trained assistants, using a structured questionnaire, recruited the study sample.

  18. [Inappropriate prescription in older patients: the STOPP/START criteria].

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delgado Silveira, Eva


    Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers\\' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person\\'s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers\\' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP\\/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people.

  19. Inappropriate Practices in Fitness Testing and Reporting: Alternative Strategies (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer; Kirk, T. Nicole; Haegele, Justin A.; Knott, Stephen E.


    Fitness education is becoming an integrated component for many physical education programs. As such, many physical educators conduct health-related fitness tests on a regular basis. Some states even mandate certain types of physical fitness tests to be administered and reported annually or by semester. Yet, inappropriate practices have been…

  20. Standard Evaluation Procedures (SEPs) and Data Entry Spreadsheet Templates (DESTs) for Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 Assays (United States)

    This page provides information and access to Standard Evaluation Procedures (SEPs) and Data Entry Spreadsheet Templates (DESTs) developed by EPA's Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP).

  1. Border Crossing Entry Data (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  2. Inappropriate prescribing in the older population: need for new criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis


    Inappropriate prescribing (IP) is a common and serious global healthcare problem in elderly people, leading to increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), polypharmacy being the main risk factor for both IP and ADRs. IP in older people is highly prevalent but preventable; hence screening tools for IP have been devised, principally Beers\\' Criteria and the Inappropriate Prescribing in the Elderly Tool (IPET). Although Beers\\' Criteria have become the most widely cited IP criteria in the literature, nevertheless, they have serious deficiencies, including several drugs that are rarely prescribed nowadays, a lack of structure in the presentation of the criteria and omission of several important and common IP instances. New, more up-to-date, systems-based and easily applicable criteria are needed that can be applied in the routine clinical setting.

  3. Factors associated with inappropriate utilisation of emergency department services. (United States)

    Selasawati, H G; Naing, L; Wan Aasim, W A; Winn, T; Rusli, B N


    This study was carried out to determine the associated factors and the reasons for inappropriate utilisation of Emergency Department (ED) services at Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. A case-control study was conducted with 170 cases from ED and 170 controls from the Outpatient Department (OPD). A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used to obtain sociodemographic data, knowledge on the functions of ED and OPD, health seeking attitude and behaviour, and reasons for seeking treatment at ED. The study found that gender, marital status, family size, shift work, perceived illness, and knowledge on the role and functions of ED and OPD were significant associated factors. The three most common reasons for inappropriate utilisation of ED were as follows: "due to severity of illness" (85%), "can't go to OPD during office hours" (42%), and "ED near my house" (27%).

  4. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J


    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  5. Requests for "inappropriate" treatment based on religious beliefs. (United States)

    Orr, R D; Genesen, L B


    Requests by patients or their families for treatment which the patient's physician considers to be "inappropriate" are becoming more frequent than refusals of treatment which the physician considers appropriate. Such requests are often based on the patient's religious beliefs about the attributes of God (sovereignty, omnipotence), the attributes of persons (sanctity of life), or the individual's personal relationship with God (communication, commands, etc). We present four such cases and discuss some of the basic religious tenets of the three Abrahamic faith traditions as they relate to such requests. We suggest that religious reasons for requesting "inappropriate" treatment are "special" and deserve serious consideration. We offer guidance to assist clinicians and clinical ethicists as they attempt to resolve these conflicts, emphasising the importance of understanding the religious beliefs of the patient/surrogate and suggesting the assistance of a religious interpreter. We suggest open discussion with patients and families of both the clinical situation and the theological basis for these requests. We also suggest that clinicians use additional religious doctrines or principles from patients' own traditions to balance the reasons behind the requests. We conclude that most persistent requests for "inappropriate" treatment should be honoured.

  6. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.


    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  7. Particle Pollution (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  8. Potentially inappropriate medications among older adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Lutz, Bárbara Heather; Miranda, Vanessa Irribarem Avena; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso


    To assess the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,451 older individuals aged 60 years or more in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. We have investigated the use of medications in the last 15 days. Using the Beers criteria (2012), we have verified the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relationship with socioeconomic and demographic variables, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease. Among the 5,700 medications used, 5,651 could be assessed as to being inappropriate. Of these, 937 were potentially inappropriate for the older adults according to the 2012 Beers criteria (16.6%). Approximately 42.4% of the older adults studied used at least one medication considered as potentially inappropriate. The group of medications for the nervous system accounted for 48.9% of the total of the potentially inappropriate medications. In the adjusted analysis, the variables female, advanced age, white race, low educational level, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease were associated with the use of potentially inappropriate medications. It is important to known the possible consequences of the use of medication among older adults. Special attention should be given to the older adults who use polypharmacy. Specific lists should be created with more appropriate medications for the older population in the National Essential Medicine List. Avaliar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inadequados entre idosos. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.451 idosos com 60 anos ou mais em Pelotas, RS, em 2014. Investigou-se o uso de medicamentos nos últimos 15 dias. Utilizando os critérios de Beers (2012), verificou-se a potencial inadequação dos medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, polifarmácia, automedicação e carga de doença. Dentre os 5.700 medicamentos utilizados, 5

  9. Cost analysis of inappropriate treatments for suspected dermatomycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fiammenghi


    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are estimated to affect more than 20-25% of the world’s population with a consistent increase over the years. Most patients referred to our clinic for suspected dermatomycoses have already been treated with pharmacotherapy, without a previous mycological examination and many show changes in the clinical manifestations. Indeed, some medications, such as steroids, antiviral, antibiotics and antihistamines are not able to erase a fungal infection, but also they can cause atypical clinical manifestations. The consequences of inappropriate treatment include delayed diagnosis, prolonged healing time, and additional costs. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate the incidence of increased costs attributable to inappropriate therapy sustained by the National Health Service and patients and (2 to highlight the importance of mycological evaluation before starting treatment, in order to improve diagnostic accuracy. An observational retrospective and prospective study was performed from September 2013 to February 2014, in 765 patients referred to our center (University Hospital “ Federico II” in Naples, Italy, for suspected mycological infection. The following treatments (alone or in combination were defined as inappropriate: (1 cortisone in a patient with at least one positive site; (2 antifungals in (a patients with all negative sites or (b ineffective antifungal treatment (in terms of drug chosen, dose or duration in those with all positive sites; or (3 antibiotics; (4 antivirals or (5 antihistamines, in patients with ≥ 1 positive site. Five hundred and fifty patients were using medications before the assessment visit. The total amount of avoidable costs related to inappropriate previous treatments was € 121,417, representing 74% of the total treatment costs. 253/550 patients received drugs also after the visit. For these patients, the cost of treatment prescribed after mycological testing was € 42,952, with a decrease

  10. Medically Inappropriate or Futile Treatment: Deliberation and Justification 1 (United States)

    Misak, Cheryl J.; White, Douglas B.; Truog, Robert D.


    This paper reframes the futility debate, moving away from the question “Who decides when to end what is considered to be a medically inappropriate or futile treatment?” and toward the question “How can society make policy that will best account for the multitude of values and conflicts involved in such decision-making?” It offers a pragmatist moral epistemology that provides us with (1) a clear justification of why it is important to take best standards, norms, and physician judgment seriously and (2) a clear justification of why ample opportunity must be made for patients, families, and society to challenge those standards and norms. PMID:26681796

  11. Mortality in enterococcal bloodstream infections increases with inappropriate antimicrobial therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, M.; Aabenhus, R.; Harboe, Z.B.


    Enterococcus species are common in nosocomial bloodstream infections and their incidence is rising. Although well recognized in several serious bacterial infections, the influence of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in enterococcal bacteraemia has not been fully settled. The aim of the study.......7-10), thrombocytopenia (3.9, 1.6-9.3), chronic liver failure (3.3, 1.1-10) and age >/=60 years (2.2, 0.99-5.0). Antibiotics not appropriately covering enterococci are frequently administered empirically in suspected bloodstream infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy was an independent risk factor for mortality...

  12. Quetiapine-Induced Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Koufakis


    Full Text Available The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH can be induced by various conditions, including malignant neoplasms, infections, central nervous system disorders, and numerous drugs. We here report a case of a 65-year-old female patient, treated with quetiapine for schizophrenia, who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and was finally diagnosed with quetiapine-induced SIADH. Quetiapine-associated hyponatremia is extremely uncommon and only a few, relevant reports can be found in the literature. This case underlines the fact that patients on antipsychotic medication and more specifically on quetiapine should be closely monitored and routinely tested for electrolyte disorders.

  13. Diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ellen Astrid; Bie, Peter; Ottesen, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a frequent condition in elderly patients. In diagnostic workup, a 24-hour urine sample is used to measure urinary osmolality and urinary sodium concentration necessary to confirm the diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH...... peptide (P = 0.007), elevated mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.03), and lower plasma levels of creatinine (P = 0.002) compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: A spot urine sample seems to be sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of SIADH....

  14. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)


    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  15. [Prevalence of potentially inappropriate drug prescription in the elderly]. (United States)

    Fajreldines, A; Insua, J; Schnitzler, E


    One of the causes of preventable adverse drug events (ADES) in older patients constitutes inappropriate prescription of drugs (PIM). The PIM is where risks exceed the clinical benefit. Several instruments can be use to measure this problem, the most used are: a) Beers criteria; b) Screening tool to Older People Potentially inappropriate Prescription (STOPP); c) Screening tool to Alert Doctors to Right Appropriate indicated Treatments (START); d) The Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). This study aims to assess the prevalence of PIM, in a population of older adults in three clinical scopes of university hospital. cross sectional study of 300 cases from a random sample of fields: hospitalization (n=100), ambulatory (n=100) and emergency (n=100), all patients over 65 years old or more who where treated at our hospital. 1355 prescription drugs were analized, finding patients hospitalized (PIM) of 57.7%, 55%, 26%, and 80% according to Beers, in ambulatory 36%, 36.5%, 5% and 52% with the same tools and in emergency 35%, 35%, 6% y 52% with the same tools. Was found significant association the PIM with polipharmacy with Beers, STOPP and MAI. results can be compare to world literature (26-80% vs 11-73.1%). The STOPP-START used in an integrated manner would be best estimating the problem of PIM. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Deployable Entry-system Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  17. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.


    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  18. Rates of inappropriate antiretroviral prescription among injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonner Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the survival benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART for the treatment of HIV infection are well established, the clinical management of HIV disease continues to present major challenges. There are particular concerns regarding access to appropriate HIV treatment among HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU. Methods In a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected IDU in Vancouver, Canada, we examined initial ART regimens vis-à-vis the provincial government's therapeutic guidelines at the time ART was initiated. Briefly, there have been four sets of guidelines: Era 1 (1992 to November 1995; double-drug (dual NRTIs ART for patients with a CD4 cell count of 350 or less; Era 2 (December 1995 to May 1996; double-drug therapy for patients with a CD4+ cell count of 500 or less; Era 3 (June 1996 to June 1997; triple-drug therapy (dual NRTIs with a PI or NNRTI for patients who had a plasma viral load of > 100,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; dual therapy with two NRTIs for those with a plasma viral load of 5,000 to 100,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; Era 4 (since July 1997; universal use of triple drug therapy as first-line treatment. Results Between May 1996 and May 2003, 431 HIV-infected individuals were enrolled into the cohort. By May 31, 2003, 291 (67.5% individuals had initiated ART. We noted instances of inappropriate antiretroviral prescription in each guideline era, with 9 (53% in Era 1, 3 (12% in Era 2, 22 (28% in Era 3, and 23 (15% in Era 4. Of the 57 subjects who received an inappropriate ART regimen initially, 14 never received the appropriate therapy; among the remaining 43, the median time to the initiation of a guideline-appropriate ART regimen was 12 months (inter-quartile range 5 – 20. Conclusion The present study identified measurable rates of guideline-inappropriate ART prescription for patients who were injection drug users. Rates were highest in the era of dual therapy, although high rates persisted into the triple

  19. Endogenous Entry in Contests


    John Morgan; Henrik Orzen; Martin Sefton


    We report the results of laboratory experiments on rent-seeking contests with endogenous participation. Theory predicts that (a) contest entry and rent-seeking expenditures increase with the size of the prize; and (b) earnings are equalized between the contest and the outside option. While the directional predictions offered in (a) are supported in the data, the level predictions are not. Prediction (b) is not supported in the data: When the prize is large, contest participants earn more than...

  20. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions in patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt


    Background Very little is known about the general appropriateness of prescribing for psychiatric patients. Aims To identify prevalence and types of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) of psychotropic and somatic medications, to assess the severity of potential clinical consequences...... and to identify possible predictive factors of PIP in a sample of adult psychiatric in-patients. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional design using medication reviews by clinical pharmacologists to identify PIP during a 3-month period. The setting was in-patient units in a psychiatric department of a Danish...... the most frequent PIP. Predictive factors for PIP were polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and having one or more somatic diagnoses. Conclusion PIP is common in psychiatric patients and potentially fatal. Particularly polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and concomitant somatic illness were associated...

  1. Inappropriate sexual behaviour experienced by speech-language therapists. (United States)

    Williams, T H; de Seriere, J; Boddington, L


    Inappropriate sexual behaviour by clients or patients of health professionals has been noted as a considerable problem in a number of professions. Similarly, sexual harassment by colleagues or employers has been identified as causing stress and harm. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the experience of speech-language therapists in New Zealand of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by colleagues, clients, and care givers of clients. A questionnaire developed by McComas and colleagues to investigate ISB directed by patients at physical therapists in Canada was adapted to meet the broader requirements of this study. This questionnaire was sent to all members of the New Zealand Speech-Language Therapists' Association and to current third- and fourth-year students in the Bachelor of Speech and Language Therapy degree programme in 1994. The overall return rate was 70%. A large number of respondents (81%) reported experiencing some level of ISB. The number of incidents of ISB from clients and colleagues was identified with equal frequency; care givers less frequently. Fewer students than qualified therapists reported ISB as sexual harassment. ISB affects work performance (e.g. absenteeism) and causes psychological reactions (e.g. stress). A majority of respondents reported being satisfied with how they handled ISB but considered there would be value in having training for both qualified and student therapists in managing such behaviour. Conclusions drawn from the study are that colleagues as well as clients are a serious source of ISB for qualified and student speech-language therapists; that negative effects in this group are similar to those in other professions; that speech-language therapists experience less ISB from clients than some other professions; and that, despite legal steps to curb sexual harassment, it continues to be an issue that requires local administrative and educative attention.

  2. Syndrome of inappropriately low-pressure acute hydrocephalus (SILPAH). (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark G; Price, Angel V


    Most patients with acute hydrocephalus have ventriculomegaly and high intracranial pressure (ICP). However, there is a subset of patients who are symptomatic with acute ventriculomegaly and inappropriately low ICP. Two patient groups were defined. Each patient presented with clinical deterioration that included a significant decrease in level of consciousness with new and significant ventriculomegaly. Patients in group 1 (n = 10) were managed without endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Group 2 was a series of patients (n = 10) managed with ETV. Treatment for both groups involved insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) with ICP <5 cmH(2)O. Further treatment consisted of either neck wrapping with a tensor bandage and/or lowering the EVD to negative levels to facilitate drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which resulted in clinical improvement and resolution of ventriculomegaly. All 20 patients had anatomical obstruction to CSF flow into the subarachnoid space (SAS) confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cine MRI studies. Group 1 patients were treated until shunt revision/insertion was possible (n = 7), ICP normalized, and the EVD could be removed (n = 2), or death (n = 1) occurred. Patients in group 2 all underwent ETV, and ICP patterns normalized in all. Group 2 patients were managed with an EVD until shunt revision/insertion was required (n = 2), ICP normalized and the EVD could be removed (n = 7), or death (n = 1) occurred. The syndrome of inappropriately low-pressure acute hydrocephalus (SILPAH) is an important entity in both children and adults. A possible hypothesis invokes loss of an effective SAS. ETV reestablishes communication between the SAS and ventricles, producing a rapid return of normal ICP dynamics and a significant decrease in the number of shunt-dependent patients.

  3. Potentially inappropriate medication use in a city of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto


    Full Text Available Potentially inappropriate medication use by the Diamantina (Minas Gerais State population was investigated by analyzing medicine consumption, self-medication, polypharmacy and drug interactions of medicines prescribed among those interviewed. Level of knowledge about rational drug use and its relationship to socio-economic variables was also evaluated using a semi-structured questionnaire. This survey was based on stratified sampling of 423 individuals selected randomly. The prevalence of prescription drug consumption was 42.32% (n=179 and cardiovascular drugs were the most prescribed. Drug interactions were found in 45.81% (n=82 of prescriptions and 92.68% (n=76 of these interactions were moderate, with co-administration of cardiovascular drugs occurring in more than half of the cases. The inappropriate use of medication, according to Beers criteria, occurred in 44.73% of prescriptions to the elderly. The prevalence of self-medication was 63.34% (n=268 while 21.99% (n=91 of individuals administered medications to their children without formal prescriptions, where this practice was associated to analgesic/antipyretic consumption. The population showed a high prevalence of inappropriate use of drugs across all strata of society, representing an issue requiring effective actions to promote rational use of medicines.O consumo inapropriado de medicamentos pela população de Diamantina-MG foi investigado através da análise do consumo de medicamentos, automedicação, polifarmácia e interações medicamentosas prescritas aos entrevistados. Também foi avaliado o nível de conhecimento sobre uso racional de medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis sócio-econômicas através de um questionário semi-estruturado. Este estudo transversal foi baseado em amostragem estratificada e contou com a participação de 423 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos prescritos foi de 42,32% (n=179, sendo os

  4. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use


    Lee, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Fong-Ching; Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chi, Hsueh-Yun; Huang, Li-Jung; Yeh, Ming-Kung


    Background While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication. Method In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factor...

  5. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in an Irish elderly population in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristín


    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: * Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people is a well-documented problem and has been associated with adverse drug reactions and hospitalization. * Beers\\' criteria, Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) are screening tools that have been formulated to help physicians and pharmacists identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and potential prescribing omissions. * The prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing and prescribing omissions in the elderly population presenting to hospital with acute illness is high according to STOPP and START criteria.

  6. Between two beds: inappropriately delayed discharges from hospitals. (United States)

    Holmås, Tor Helge; Islam, Mohammad Kamrul; Kjerstad, Egil


    Acknowledging the necessity of a division of labour between hospitals and social care services regarding treatment and care of patients with chronic and complex conditions, is to acknowledge the potential conflict of interests between health care providers. A potentially important conflict is that hospitals prefer comparatively short length of stay (LOS) at hospital, while social care services prefer longer LOS all else equal. Furthermore, inappropriately delayed discharges from hospital, i.e. bed blocking, is costly for society. Our aim is to discuss which factors that may influence bed blocking and to quantify bed blocking costs using individual Norwegian patient data, merged with social care and hospital data. The data allow us to divide hospital LOS into length of appropriate stay (LAS) and length of delay (LOD), the bed blocking period. We find that additional resources allocated to social care services contribute to shorten LOD indicating that social care services may exploit hospital resources as a buffer for insufficient capacity. LAS increases as medical complexity increases indicating hospitals incentives to reduce LOS are softened by considerations related to patients’ medical needs. Bed blocking costs constitute a relatively large share of the total costs of inpatient care.

  7. An inappropriate tool: criminal law and HIV in Asia. (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Dube, Siddharth


    Asian countries have applied criminal sanctions widely in areas directly relevant to national HIV programmes and policies, including criminalization of HIV transmission, sex work, homosexuality and drug injection. This criminalization may impede universal access to HIV prevention and treatment services in Asia and undermine vulnerable people's ability to be part of the HIV response. To review the status of application of criminal law in key HIV-related areas in Asia and analyze its impact. Review of literature and application of human rights norms to analysis of criminal law measures. Criminal laws in the areas considered here and their enforcement, while intended to reduce HIV transmission, are inappropriate and counterproductive with respect to health and human rights. Governments should remove punitive laws that impede the HIV response and should ensure meaningful participation of people living with HIV, people who use illicit drugs, sex workers and men who have sex with men in combating stigma and discrimination and developing rights-centered approaches to HIV.

  8. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  9. Water Pollution (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.


    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  10. Air Pollution


    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette


    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  11. Air Pollution (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  12. Advertising and generic market entry. (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid


    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  13. Inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug events in older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, Hilary J


    Inappropriate prescribing (IP) in older patients is highly prevalent and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs), morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. Consequently, IP is a major safety concern and with changing population demographics, it is likely to become even more prevalent in the future. IP can be detected using explicit or implicit prescribing indicators. Theoretically, the routine clinical application of these IP criteria could represent an inexpensive and time efficient method to optimise prescribing practice. However, IP criteria must be sensitive, specific, have good inter-rater reliability and incorporate those medications most commonly associated with ADEs in older people. To be clinically relevant, use of prescribing appropriateness tools must translate into positive patient outcomes, such as reduced rates of ADEs. To accurately measure these outcomes, a reliable method of assessing the relationship between the administration of a drug and an adverse clinical event is required. The Naranjo criteria are the most widely used tool for assessing ADE causality, however, they are often difficult to interpret in the context of older patients. ADE causality criteria that allow for the multiple co-morbidities and prescribed medications in older people are required. Ultimately, the current high prevalence of IP and ADEs is unacceptable. IP screening criteria need to be tested as an intervention to assess their impact on the incidence of ADEs in vulnerable older patients. There is a role for IP screening tools in everyday clinical practice. These should enhance, not replace good clinical judgement, which in turn should be based on sound pharmacogeriatric training.

  14. Inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug events in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Paul F


    Full Text Available Abstract Inappropriate prescribing (IP in older patients is highly prevalent and is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs, morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. Consequently, IP is a major safety concern and with changing population demographics, it is likely to become even more prevalent in the future. IP can be detected using explicit or implicit prescribing indicators. Theoretically, the routine clinical application of these IP criteria could represent an inexpensive and time efficient method to optimise prescribing practice. However, IP criteria must be sensitive, specific, have good inter-rater reliability and incorporate those medications most commonly associated with ADEs in older people. To be clinically relevant, use of prescribing appropriateness tools must translate into positive patient outcomes, such as reduced rates of ADEs. To accurately measure these outcomes, a reliable method of assessing the relationship between the administration of a drug and an adverse clinical event is required. The Naranjo criteria are the most widely used tool for assessing ADE causality, however, they are often difficult to interpret in the context of older patients. ADE causality criteria that allow for the multiple co-morbidities and prescribed medications in older people are required. Ultimately, the current high prevalence of IP and ADEs is unacceptable. IP screening criteria need to be tested as an intervention to assess their impact on the incidence of ADEs in vulnerable older patients. There is a role for IP screening tools in everyday clinical practice. These should enhance, not replace good clinical judgement, which in turn should be based on sound pharmacogeriatric training.

  15. The Inappropriate Symmetries of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geometric Morphometrics. (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L

    In today's geometric morphometrics the commonest multivariate statistical procedures, such as principal component analysis or regressions of Procrustes shape coordinates on Centroid Size, embody a tacit roster of symmetries -axioms concerning the homogeneity of the multiple spatial domains or descriptor vectors involved-that do not correspond to actual biological fact. These techniques are hence inappropriate for any application regarding which we have a-priori biological knowledge to the contrary (e.g., genetic/morphogenetic processes common to multiple landmarks, the range of normal in anatomy atlases, the consequences of growth or function for form). But nearly every morphometric investigation is motivated by prior insights of this sort. We therefore need new tools that explicitly incorporate these elements of knowledge, should they be quantitative, to break the symmetries of the classic morphometric approaches. Some of these are already available in our literature but deserve to be known more widely: deflated (spatially adaptive) reference distributions of Procrustes coordinates, Sewall Wright's century-old variant of factor analysis, the geometric algebra of importing explicit biomechanical formulas into Procrustes space. Other methods, not yet fully formulated, might involve parameterized models for strain in idealized forms under load, principled approaches to the separation of functional from Brownian aspects of shape variation over time, and, in general, a better understanding of how the formalism of landmarks interacts with the many other approaches to quantification of anatomy. To more powerfully organize inferences from the high-dimensional measurements that characterize so much of today's organismal biology, tomorrow's toolkit must rely neither on principal component analysis nor on the Procrustes distance formula, but instead on sound prior biological knowledge as expressed in formulas whose coefficients are not all the same. I describe the problems

  16. Inappropriate shock: a failure of SVT discriminators in a dual chamber ICD? (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Amin; Tsiperfal, Angela; Hsia, Henry H; Wang, Paul J


    Inappropriate shock remains a major issue in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. We examine an inappropriate shock delivered in a patient with atrial tachycardia that conducted 1:1. We reconstruct the device algorithms that led to therapy delivery and discuss programming changes that could be considered.

  17. Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome (United States)

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.


    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

  18. [Management of inappropriate shocks/T-wave-oversensing in S-ICD®-patients]. (United States)

    Larbig, Robert; Bettin, Markus; Motloch, Lukas J; Fischer, Alicia; Bode, Niklas; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Reinke, Florian; Loeher, Andreas; Eckardt, Lars; Köbe, Julia


    Inappropriate shocks are a feared complication after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation and have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Inappropriate shocks in patients with subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD®, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) have various underlying causes. This review summarizes the current literature on this topic and lists possible treatment options.

  19. What is inappropriate hospital use for elderly people near the end of life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Kim, James C H; Brabrand, Mikkel


    independently by two authors. RESULTS: The definition of 'Inappropriate admissions' near the end of life incorporated system factors, social and family factors. The prevalence of inappropriate admissions ranged widely depending largely on non-clinical reasons: poor availability of alternative sites of care...

  20. Pollution Probe. (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  1. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback entry. 191.143 Section 191.143 Customs... entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed under...

  2. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.42 Aircraft entry. (a) By whom. Entry shall be made by the...

  3. 19 CFR 132.24 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 132.24 Section 132.24 Customs Duties U.S... Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.24 Entry. Unless a formal entry or entry by appraisement is required, a mail entry on Customs Form 3419 shall be issued and forwarded with the package to the...

  4. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol


    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  5. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Fong-Ching; Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chi, Hsueh-Yun; Huang, Li-Jung; Yeh, Ming-Kung


    While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication. In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%), cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%), analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%), and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%). Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%), using excessive dosages (21.6%), and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy) (30.3%). The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication. Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.

  6. Inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and its association with lower medication literacy and substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available While self-medication is common, inappropriate self-medication has potential risks. This study assesses inappropriate self-medication among adolescents and examines the relationships among medication literacy, substance use, and inappropriate self-medication.In 2016, a national representative sample of 6,226 students from 99 primary, middle, and high schools completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors related to inappropriate self-medication.The prevalence of self-medication in the past year among the adolescents surveyed was 45.8%, and the most frequently reported drugs for self-medication included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pain relievers (prevalence = 31.1%, cold or cough medicines (prevalence = 21.6%, analgesics (prevalence = 19.3%, and antacids (prevalence = 17.3%. Of the participants who practiced self-medication, the prevalence of inappropriate self-medication behaviors included not reading drug labels or instructions (10.1%, using excessive dosages (21.6%, and using prescription and nonprescription medicine simultaneously without advice from a health provider (polypharmacy (30.3%. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for school level, gender, and chronic diseases, the participants with lower medication knowledge, lower self-efficacy, lower medication literacy, and who consumed tobacco or alcohol were more likely to engage in inappropriate self-medication.Lower medication literacy and substance use were associated with inappropriate self-medication among adolescents.

  7. Prevalence of inappropriate medication using Beers criteria in Japanese long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Yukari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and risk factors of potentially inappropriate medication use among the elderly patients have been studied in various countries, but because of the difficulty of obtaining data on patient characteristics and medications they have not been studied in Japan. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in 17 Japanese long-term care (LTC facilities by collecting data from the comprehensive MDS assessment forms for 1669 patients aged 65 years and over who were assessed between January and July of 2002. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified on the basis of the 2003 Beers criteria. Results The patients in the sample were similar in terms of demographic characteristics to those in the national survey. Our study revealed that 356 (21.1% of the patients were treated with potentially inappropriate medication independent of disease or condition. The most commonly inappropriately prescribed medication was ticlopidine, which had been prescribed for 107 patients (6.3%. There were 300 (18.0% patients treated with at least 1 inappropriate medication dependent on the disease or condition. The highest prevalence of inappropriate medication use dependent on the disease or condition was found in patients with chronic constipation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed psychotropic drug use (OR = 1.511, medication cost of per day (OR = 1.173, number of medications (OR = 1.140, and age (OR = 0.981 as factors related to inappropriate medication use independent of disease or condition. Neither patient characteristics nor facility characteristics emerged as predictors of inappropriate prescription. Conclusion The prevalence and predictors of inappropriate medication use in Japanese LTC facilities were similar to those in other countries.

  8. Individual and hospital-related determinants of potentially inappropriate admissions emerging from administrative records. (United States)

    Fusco, Marco; Buja, Alessandra; Piergentili, Paolo; Golfetto, Maria Teresa; Serafin, Gianni; Gallo, Silvia; Dalla Barba, Livio; Baldo, Vincenzo


    The appropriate use of health care is an important issue in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent of potentially inappropriate hospital admissions and their individual, clinical and hospital-related determinants. Medical records were analyzed for the year 2014 held by the Local Heath Unit n. 13 in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (19,000 records). The outcomes calculated were: admissions for conditions amenable to day hospital care; brief medical admissions; outlier lengths of stay for elderly patients' medical admissions; and medical admissions to surgical wards. Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to test associations with demographic, clinical and hospital ward covariates, including organizational indicators. Inappropriate reliance on acute care beds ranged from 6% to 28%, depending on the type of quality indicator analyzed. Some individual features, and wards' specific characteristics were associated with at least one of the phenomena of inappropriate hospital resource usage. In particular, male gender, younger age and transferals seemed to affect inappropriate admissions to surgical wards. Potentially avoidable admissions featuring inpatients amenable to day hospital care were associated with subjects with fewer comorbidities and lower case-mix wards, while inappropriately short medical stays were influenced by patients' higher functional status and local residency and by lower bed occupancy rates. In conclusion, inappropriately long hospital stays for elderly cases were associated with patients with multiple pathologies in wards with a low bed-occupancy. Education level and citizenship did not seem to influence inappropriate admissions. Some individual, clinical ad structural characteristics of patients and wards emerging from administrative records could be associated with inappropriate reliance on acute hospital beds. Analyzing the indicators considered in this study could generate

  9. Understanding Factors Contributing to Inappropriate Critical Care: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Medical Record Documentation. (United States)

    Neville, Thanh H; Tarn, Derjung M; Yamamoto, Myrtle; Garber, Bryan J; Wenger, Neil S


    Factors leading to inappropriate critical care, that is treatment that should not be provided because it does not offer the patient meaningful benefit, have not been rigorously characterized. We explored medical record documentation about patients who received inappropriate critical care and those who received appropriate critical care to examine factors associated with the provision of inappropriate treatment. Medical records were abstracted from 123 patients who were assessed as receiving inappropriate treatment and 66 patients who were assessed as receiving appropriate treatment but died within six months of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used mixed methods combining qualitative analysis of medical record documentation with multivariable analysis to examine the relationship between patient and communication factors and the receipt of inappropriate treatment, and present these within a conceptual model. One academic health system. Medical records revealed 21 themes pertaining to prognosis and factors influencing treatment aggressiveness. Four themes were independently associated with patients receiving inappropriate treatment according to physicians. When decision making was not guided by physicians (odds ratio [OR] 3.76, confidence interval [95% CI] 1.21-11.70) or was delayed by patient/family (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.69-12.04), patients were more likely to receive inappropriate treatment. Documented communication about goals of care (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.84) and patient's preferences driving decision making (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.27) were associated with lower odds of receiving inappropriate treatment. Medical record documentation suggests that inappropriate treatment occurs in the setting of communication and decision-making patterns that may be amenable to intervention.

  10. 19 CFR 4.9 - Formal entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal entry. 4.9 Section 4.9 Customs Duties U.S... FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.9 Formal entry. (a) General. Section 4.3 provides which vessels are subject to formal entry and where and when entry must be made. The formal entry...

  11. Knudsen-Like Scaling May Be Inappropriate for Gas Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz


    Summary We assert that a classification of gas flow regimes in shales that is widely accepted in the petroleum industry, may be inconsistent with the physics of high-pressure gas flow in capillaries. This classification follows from the 1946 work by Brown et al. (1946) that deals with the flow of gases in large industrial metal pipes, elbows and orifices under vacuum, with gas pressures of the order of 1 mm Hg or less. In another pioneering paper that year, Tsien (1946) analyzed the hypersonic flight of rockets in the thermosphere (above 50 miles of altitude), and established the widely accepted Knudsen flow regimes for the high-Reynolds, high-Mach flow of rarified gases. We show why both these papers are not quite applicable to flow of compressed gas in the hot, high-pressure shale pores with rough surfaces. In addition, it may be inappropriate to use the capillary tube metaphor to describe shale micropores or microcracks, simply because each is fed with gas by dozens or hundreds of intricately connected nanopores, which themselves may be slits rather than circular cylinders, and are charged with the dense, liquid-like gas. In the small-scale, low-velocity flows of gases, failure of the standard Navier-Stokes description (the standard Darcy law in petroleum engineering) can be quantified by the Knudsen number, ratio of the mean free path, λ, of gas molecules at the reservoir pressure and temperature to the characteristic pore radius, R. We carefully enumerate the multiple restrictive conditions that must hold for the slip-flow boundary condition to emerge. We also describe the dependence of the slip correction factor on the gas pressure and temperature, as well as the median pore size and rock roughness. In the derivation, we revisit the original approaches of Helmholtz and von Piotrowski (1860) and Maxwell, Niven (1890), which were somehow lost in the multiple translations from physics to petroleum engineering. For example, in Barnett mudrocks, naturally

  12. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  13. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.


    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  14. Currency union entries and trade


    Nitsch, Volker


    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  15. The COMPLEXity in herpesvirus entry. (United States)

    Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Chen, Jia; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S


    Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). In contrast, herpesviruses have the host receptor binding, activation and fusogenic roles distributed among multiple envelope glycoproteins (ranging from three to six), which must coordinate their functions at the site of fusion. Despite the apparent complexity in the number of viral entry proteins, herpesvirus entry is fundamentally built around two core glycoprotein entities: the gHgL complex, which appears to act as an 'activator' of entry, and the gB protein, which is thought to act as the membrane 'fusogen'. Both are required for all herpesvirus fusion and entry. In many herpesviruses, gHgL either binds host receptors directly or assembles into larger complexes with additional viral proteins that bind host receptors, conferring specificity to the cells that are targeted for infection. These gHgL entry complexes (ECs) are centrally important to activating gB-mediated membrane fusion and establishing viral tropism, forming membrane bridging intermediates before gB triggering. Here we review recent structural and functional studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gHgL complexes that provide a framework for understanding the role of gHgL in herpesvirus entry. Furthermore, a recently determined EM model of Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) gB embedded in exosomes highlights how gB conformational changes may promote viral and cellular membrane fusion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Air Pollution (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  17. Water pollution


    Institute, Marine


    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  18. Noise Pollution (United States)

    ... Us Share Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  19. Air Pollution. (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  20. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.


    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  1. Inappropriate use of urinary catheters in patients admitted to medical wards in a university hospital. (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Calvo, Beatriz; Vara, Rebeca; Villar, Rocío N; Aguado, José María


    The prevalence and predisposing factors were determined for inappropriate urinary catheterization (UC) among inpatients in medical wards. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to medical wards in a 1300-bed tertiary-care centre, and who had a urinary catheter in place on the day of the survey. Of 380 patients observed, 46 (12.1%) had a urinary catheter in place. Twelve of them (26.1%) were inappropriately catheterized. The most common indication for inappropriate UC was urine output monitoring in a cooperative, non-critically ill patient. Inappropriateness was associated with increased age, poor functional status, urinary incontinence, dementia, and admission from a long-term care facility. Further educational efforts should be focused on improving catheterization prescribing practices by physicians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Inappropriate antibiotic prescription for respiratory tract indications : most prominent in adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Anne R. J.; Verheij, Theo J. M.; van der Velden, Alike W.

    Background. Numerous studies suggest overprescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract indications (RTIs), without really authenticating inappropriate prescription; the strict criteria of guideline recommendations were not taken into account as information on specific diagnoses, patient

  3. Effects of Personality on Social Network Disclosure: Do Emotionally Intelligent Individuals Post Inappropriate Content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Viswesvaran


    Full Text Available The prevalence of individuals using social networking sites to stay connected has increased considerably in only a few years and the information posted is now being used by organizations for employee selection. The purpose of the current study was to investigating how differences on the Big Five Personality traits, honesty-integrity, and emotional intelligence influence whether individuals post inappropriate social network content. Participants were 506 college students from a large metropolitan state university in the Southeastern United States. Results suggest individuals scoring high on emotional intelligence and honesty/integrity disclosed less inappropriate social network content. Emotional intelligence was not, however, predictive of inappropriate disclosure above and beyond the Big Five Personality traits. Honest and emotionally intelligent individuals seem to understand the negative implications of disclosing inappropriate social network content. Future research should examine how social network information is being used in employee selection and the predictive validity of this method.

  4. The frequency of agitation due to inappropriate use of naltrexone in addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Siadat


    Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of agitation in the poisoning emergency department due to inappropriate use of naltrexone, more accurate planning for administration of naltrexone in addicts seems necessary.

  5. Correlates of (inappropriate) benzodiazepine use : the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J.; Stoop, Jose E.; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    AIM Results on determinants of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in general and inappropriate use were inconsistent and mostly univariate. The relative importance of sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants has never been investigated in a comprehensive, multivariate model. METHODS We

  6. Correlates of (inappropriate) benzodiazepine use: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, L.; van Veen, T.; Giltay, E.J.; Stoop, J.E.; Neven, A.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.


    AIM Results on determinants of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in general and inappropriate use were inconsistent and mostly univariate. The relative importance of sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants has never been investigated in a comprehensive, multivariate model.METHODS We

  7. Impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Abu-Zeitone, Abeer; Jons, Christian


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.......The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study....

  8. Inappropriate Detection of a Supraventricular Tachycardia as Dual Tachycardia by the PR Logic™ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Thachil, MD, DM, CCDS


    Full Text Available Tachycardia detection and therapy algorithms in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICD reduce, but do not eliminate inappropriate ICD shocks. Awareness of the pros and cons of a particular algorithm helps to predict its utility in specific situations. We report a case where PR logic™, an algorithm commonly used in currently implanted ICDs to differentiate supraventricular tachycardia (SVT from ventricular tachycardia resulted in inappropriate detection and shock for an SVT, and discuss several solutions to the problem.

  9. Correlation analysis between team communication characteristics and frequency of inappropriate communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Park, Jinkyun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun


    Highlights: • We proposed a method to evaluate team communication characteristics based on social network analysis. • We compare team communication characteristics with the frequency of inappropriate communications. • Frequency of inappropriate communications were decreased when more operators perform the same types of role as others. • Frequency of inappropriate communications were decreased for teams who provide more number of acknowledgment. - Abstract: The characteristics of team communications are important since large process systems such as nuclear power plants, airline, and railways are operated by operating teams. In such situation, inappropriate communications can cause a lack of situational information and lead to serious consequences for the systems. As a result, the communication characteristics of operating teams should be understood in order to extract meaningful insights to address the nature of inappropriate communications. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the characteristics of team communications based on social network analysis and compare them with the frequency of inappropriate communications. In order to perform the analysis, verbal protocol data, which were audio-visual recorded under training sessions by operating teams, were used and interfacing system loss of coolant accident scenarios were selected. As a result of the study, it was found that the frequency of inappropriate communications decreased when more operators perform the same types of role as other operators, since they can easily and effectively back up each other. Also, the frequency of inappropriate communication is decreased for teams which provide a relatively large communication content that acknowledge or confirm another communication content

  10. Reduction in inappropriate hospital use based on analysis of the causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria-Aledo Víctor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce inappropriate admissions and stays with the application of an improvement cycle in patients admitted to a University Hospital. The secondary objective is to analyze the hospital cost saved by reducing inadequacy after the implementation of measures proposed by the group for improvement. Methods Pre- and post-analysis of a sample of clinical histories studied retrospectively, in which the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP was applied to a representative hospital sample of 1350 clinical histories in two phases. In the first phase the AEP was applied retrospectively to 725 admissions and 1350 stays. The factors associated with inappropriateness were analysed together with the causes, and specific measures were implemented in a bid to reduce inappropriateness. In the second phase the AEP was reapplied to a similar group of clinical histories and the results of the two groups were compared. The cost of inappropriate stays was calculated by cost accounting. Setting: General University Hospital with 426 beds serving a population of 320,000 inhabitants in the centre of Murcia, a city in south-eastern Spain. Results Inappropriate admissions were reduced significantly: 7.4% in the control group and 3.2% in the intervention group. Likewise, inappropriate stays decreased significantly from 24.6% to 10.4%. The cost of inappropriateness in the study sample fell from 147,044 euros to 66,642 euros. The causes of inappropriateness for which corrective measures were adopted were those that showed the most significant decrease. Conclusions It is possible to reduce inadequacy by applying measures based on prior analysis of the situation in each hospital.

  11. Inappropriate drugs in elderly patients with severe cognitive impairment: results from the shelter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Colloca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that Nursing Home (NH residents with impaired cognitive status receive an average of seven to eight drugs daily. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with use of inappropriate drugs in elderly patients with severe cognitive impairment living in NH in Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a sample of 1449 NH residents with severe cognitive impairment, participating in the Services and Health for Elderly in Long TERm care (SHELTER study were analysed. Inappropriate drug use was defined as the use of drugs classified as rarely or never appropriate in patients with severe cognitive impairment based on the Holmes criteria published in 2008. RESULTS: Mean age of participating residents was 84.2±8.9 years, 1087 (75.0% were women. Inappropriate drug use was observed in 643 (44.9% residents. Most commonly used inappropriate drugs were lipid-lowering agents (9.9%, antiplatelet agents (excluding Acetylsalicylic Acid - ASA - (9.9%, acetylcholinesterase, inhibitors (7.2% and antispasmodics (6.9%. Inappropriate drug use was directly associated with specific diseases including diabetes (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.21-2.24, heart failure (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04-2.09, stroke (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.06-1.93, and recent hospitalization (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.20-2.39. An inverse relation was shown between inappropriate drug use and presence of a geriatrician in the facility (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.39-0.77. CONCLUSION: Use of inappropriate drugs is common among older EU NH residents. Determinants of inappropriate drug use include comorbidities and recent hospitalization. Presence of a geriatrician in the facility staff is associated with a reduced rate of use of these medications.

  12. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.


    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  13. Utilization of potentially inappropriate medications in elderly patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit N Jhaveri


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the use of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly inpatients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for cases of elderly patients admitted between January 2010 and December 2010. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, duration of hospital stay, treatment, and outcome were collected. Prescriptions were assessed for the use of potentially inappropriate medications in geriatric patients by using American Geriatric Society Beer′s criteria (2012 and PRISCUS list (2010. Results: A total of 676 geriatric patients (52.12% females were admitted in the medicine ward. The average age of geriatric patients was 72.69 years. According to Beer′s criteria, at least one inappropriate medicine was prescribed in 590 (87.3% patients. Metoclopramide (54.3%, alprazolam (9%, diazepam (8%, digoxin > 0.125 mg/day (5%, and diclofenac (3.7% were the commonly used inappropriate medications. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in heart and renal failure patients was the commonly identified drug-disease interaction. According to PRISCUS list, at least one inappropriate medication was prescribed in 210 (31.06% patients. Conclusion: Use of inappropriate medicines is highly prevalent in elderly patients.

  14. Heart failure severity, inappropriate ICD therapy, and novel ICD programming: a MADIT-RIT substudy. (United States)

    Daimee, Usama A; Vermilye, Katherine; Rosero, Spencer; Schuger, Claudio D; Daubert, James P; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina


    The effects of heart failure (HF) severity on risk of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to study the association between HF severity and inappropriate ICD therapy in MADIT-RIT. MADIT-RIT randomized 1,500 patients to three ICD programming arms: conventional (Arm A), high-rate cut-off (Arm B: ≥200 beats/min), and delayed therapy (Arm C: 60-second delay for ≥170 beats/min). We evaluated the association between New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III (n = 256) versus class I-II (n = 251) and inappropriate ICD therapy in Arm A patients with ICD-only and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D). We additionally assessed benefit of novel ICD programming in Arms B and C versus Arm A by NYHA classification. In Arm A, the risk of inappropriate therapy was significantly higher in those with NYHA III versus NYHA I-II for both ICD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.55, confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-4.30, P programming significantly reduced inappropriate therapy in patients with both NYHA III (Arm B vs Arm A: HR = 0.08, P programming with high-rate cut-off or delayed detection reduces inappropriate ICD therapies in both mild and moderate HF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Authorized Generic Entry prior to Patent Expiry: Reassessing Incentives for Independent Generic Entry


    Appelt, Silvia


    Patent holders frequently attempt to mitigate the loss of monopoly power by authorizing generic entry prior to patent expiry (early entry). Competition in off-patent pharmaceutical markets may be adversely affected if early entry substantially impairs the attractiveness of subsequent market entry. I examine generic entry decisions made in the course of recent patent expiries to quantify the impact of early entry on incentives for generic entry. Using unique micro data and accounting for th...

  16. 19 CFR 163.3 - Entry records. (United States)


    ... import transaction shall be prepared to produce or transmit to Customs, in accordance with § 163.6(a), any entry records which may be demanded by Customs. If entry records submitted to Customs not pursuant to a demand are returned by Customs, or if production of entry records at the time of entry is waived...

  17. 32 CFR 809a.3 - Unauthorized entry. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized entry. 809a.3 Section 809a.3... ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Installation Entry Policy § 809a.3 Unauthorized entry. Under Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 797), any directive issued...

  18. 19 CFR 10.78 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 10.78 Section 10.78 Customs Duties U.S... Entry. (a) No entry shall be required for fish or other marine products taken on the high seas by... foreign merchandise. (d) Products of an American fishery shall be entitled to free entry although prepared...

  19. 19 CFR 146.62 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 146.62 Section 146.62 Customs Duties U.S...) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.62 Entry. (a) General. Entry for foreign..., Customs Form 7501, or other applicable Customs forms. If entry is made on Customs Form 3461, the person...

  20. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion (United States)

    Smith, Kelly; Rea, Jeremy


    Traditional ballistic entry does not scale well to higher energy entry trajectories. Clutch algorithm is a two-stage approach with the capture stage and load relief stage. Clutch may offer expansion of the operational entry corridor. Clutch is a candidate solution for Exploration Mission-2's degraded entry mode.

  1. 19 CFR 147.11 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 147.11 Section 147.11 Customs Duties U.S...) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.11 Entry. (a) Made in name of fair operator. All entries of... Government for all duties and charges due the United States on account of such entries. (b) Merchandise...

  2. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.8 Preliminary entry. (a) Generally. Preliminary entry allows a U.S. or foreign vessel arriving under circumstances that require it to formally...

  3. Inappropriate and cloned clinical histories on radiology request forms for sick children. (United States)

    Shah, Chetan Chandulal; Linam, Leann; Greenberg, S Bruce


    An appropriate clinical history improves the perception and interpretation of radiographic examinations in children and adults. However, clinical history provided on radiology request has not been studied for its appropriateness and frequency of cloned clinical history. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of inappropriate histories and cloned histories at a tertiary-care children's hospital. We analyzed radiology request forms of 388 outpatient and inpatient radiographic examinations obtained on 3 days during the same month at a tertiary-care children's hospital. Appropriateness of the clinical history was judged by its relevance to the examination ordered and appropriate associated billable ICD-9 code. Cloning was defined as identical clinical histories appearing on the radiology request on three consecutive days. Cloned histories were further subdivided as being appropriate or inappropriate. A total of 18% (70/388) of the requests for clinical history were either inappropriate, cloned or both. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) referrals constituted the majority (82%, 9/11) of combined inappropriate history and cloning. NICU referrals accounted for 52% (28/54) of all inappropriate clinical histories, a significantly higher percentage than other inpatient locations (P = 0.006). The cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) was the second most common patient location for inappropriate clinical histories (11%, 6/54). About one-third of the radiographic requests from the NICU had inappropriate histories (35%, 28/79). Among the outpatient referrals, 50% (4/8) of the inappropriate histories were from the emergency department. The most common cloned histories included "hypoplastic left heart syndrome" (15%, 4/27), "endotracheal tube placement" (11%, 3/27) and "evaluate lung fields and bowel" (11%, 3/27). The most commonly cloned clinical history was seen on referrals from the NICU at 63% (17/27), a significantly higher percentage than other

  4. Potentially inappropriate medication use: the Beers' Criteria used among older adults with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ageing population means prescribing for chronic illnesses in older people is expected to rise. Comorbidities and compromised organ function may complicate prescribing and increase medication-related risks. Comorbid depression in older people is highly prevalent and complicates medication prescribing decisions. AIM: To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use in a community-dwelling population of older adults with depressive symptoms. METHODS: The medications of 191 community-dwelling older people selected because of depressive symptoms for a randomised trial were reviewed and assessed using the modified version of the Beers' Criteria. The association between inappropriate medication use and various population characteristics was assessed using Chi-square statistics and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean age was 81 (±4.3 years and 59% were women. The median number of medications used was 6 (range 1-21 medications. The most commonly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications were amitriptyline, dextropropoxyphene, quinine and benzodiazepines. Almost half (49% of the participants were prescribed at least one potentially inappropriate medication; 29% were considered to suffer significant depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale ≥5 and no differences were found in the number of inappropriate medications used between those with and without significant depressive symptoms (Chi-square 0.005 p=0.54. DISCUSSION: Potentially inappropriate medication use, as per the modified Beers' Criteria, is very common among community-dwelling older people with depressive symptoms. However, the utility of the Beers' Criteria is lessened by lack of clinical correlation. Ongoing research to examine outcomes related to apparent inappropriate medication use is needed.

  5. Using a social story intervention to decrease inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkhana Khantreejitranon


    Full Text Available This research investigated the inappropriate behavior of preschool children with autism in a classroom and examined the effectiveness of the use of social stories to decrease inappropriate autistic behavior. An A-B-A-B single subject design was used across the five participants selected for the study. Investigating the problematic social skills and developing a social story intervention for the preschool autistic children was completed, followed by an examination of the effectiveness of the social story intervention. Ten common problematic social skills among the autistic children in preschool were identified—walking around, making loud noises, not sharing their toys with others, showing frustration when feeling unsatisfied, having no patience, not putting toys away when finished, taking other people's belongings without permission, not knowing how to greet others, destroying things when feeling frustrated, and giving a hug to other people at inappropriate times. It was found that the social story intervention helped to decrease inappropriate behavior in children with autism. The social story intervention consisted of five social story books and five e-books (one story per child using a single subject design with an A-B-A-B pattern. The autistic children preferred social stories from the hardcopy books compared with stories from the e-books. A fourth stage time trial was used over 6 weeks, five times per week, for a total of 30 times. The findings suggested that the use of properly constructed social stories can be effective in decreasing the inappropriate behavior of children with autism. However, each story intervention should be applied with caution because of individual differences between children. The social story intervention should be designed only for autistic children who exhibit specific inappropriate social behavior. Keywords: autistic child, inappropriate behavior, social skills, social story

  6. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions for older patients in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurin Danielle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate medication use is a major healthcare issue for the elderly population. This study explored the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs in long-term care in metropolitan Quebec. Methods A cross sectional chart review of 2,633 long-term care older patients of the Quebec City area was performed. An explicit criteria list for PIPs was developed based on the literature and validated by a modified Delphi method. Medication orders were reviewed to describe prescribing patterns and to determine the prevalence of PIPs. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of PIPs. Results Almost all residents (94.0% were receiving one or more prescribed medication; on average patients had 4.8 prescribed medications. A majority (54.7% of treated patients had a potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP. Most common PIPs were drug interactions (33.9% of treated patients, followed by potentially inappropriate duration (23.6%, potentially inappropriate medication (14.7% and potentially inappropriate dosage (9.6%. PIPs were most frequent for medications of the central nervous system (10.8% of prescribed medication. The likelihood of PIP increased significantly as the number of drugs prescribed increased (odds ratio [OR]: 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 – 1.43 and with the length of stay (OR: 1.78, CI: 1.43 – 2.20. On the other hand, the risk of receiving a PIP decreased with age. Conclusion Potentially inappropriate prescribing is a serious problem in the highly medicated long-term care population in metropolitan Quebec. Use of explicit criteria lists may help identify the most critical issues and prioritize interventions to improve quality of care and patient safety.

  7. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks-incidence, effect, and implications for driver licensing. (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiichi; Okajima, Katsunori; Shimane, Akira; Ozawa, Tomoya; Manaka, Tetsuyuki; Morishima, Itsuro; Asai, Toru; Takagi, Masahiko; Honda, Toshihiro; Kasai, Atsunobu; Fujii, Eitaro; Yamashiro, Kohei; Kohno, Ritsuko; Abe, Haruhiko; Noda, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ohmori, Hiroya; Nitta, Takashi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Kiyono, Ken; Okumura, Ken


    Patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have an ongoing risk of sudden incapacitation that may cause traffic accidents. However, there are limited data on the magnitude of this risk after inappropriate ICD therapies. We studied the rate of syncope associated with inappropriate ICD therapies to provide a scientific basis for formulating driving restrictions. Inappropriate ICD therapy event data between 1997 and 2014 from 50 Japanese institutions were analyzed retrospectively. The annual risk of harm (RH) to others posed by a driver with an ICD was calculated for private driving habits. We used a commonly employed annual RH to others of 5 in 100,000 (0.005%) as an acceptable risk threshold. Of the 4089 patients, 772 inappropriate ICD therapies occurred in 417 patients (age 61 ± 15 years, 74% male, and 65% secondary prevention). Patients experiencing inappropriate therapies had a mean number of 1.8 ± 1.5 therapy episodes during a median follow-up period of 3.9 years. No significant differences were found in the age, sex, or number of inappropriate therapies between patients receiving ICDs for primary or secondary prevention. Only three patients (0.7%) experienced syncope associated with inappropriate therapies. The maximum annual RH to others after the first therapy in primary and secondary prevention patients was calculated to be 0.11 in 100,000 and 0.12 in 100,000, respectively. We found that the annual RH from driving was far below the commonly cited acceptable risk threshold. Our data provide useful information to supplement current recommendations on driving restrictions in ICD patients with private driving habits.

  8. Economics of entry into marriage


    Bowmaker, Simon W.


    This thesis contains three studies on the economics of entry into marriage; a life event that has been shown to have significant implications for the well-being (economic and otherwise) of men, women and their children. The first study examines the effect of family background on the timing of first marriage of 7,853 individuals born in 1970 in Great Britain. Hazard model analysis reveals that high levels of parental resources serve to delay entry into marriage for both males and femal...

  9. Air Pollution


    Ababsa, Myriam


    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  10. Information Pollution


    Noruzi, Alireza


    The exponential growth of information resources creates new challenges for end-users. The correct information may be polluted by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda or incorrect information via the Internet and other media. This paper defines 'information pollution' as "the contamination of information by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda and incorrect information." The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of information pollution. It is concluded that it is sometim...

  11. Enviormental Pollution


    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra


    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  12. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.


    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  13. Frequent Home Monitoring of ICD Is Effective to Prevent Inappropriate Defibrillator Shock Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bifulco


    Full Text Available Recently, in the context of telemedicine, telemonitoring services are gaining attention. They are offered, for example, to patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs. A major problem associated with ICD therapy is the occurrence of inappropriate shocks which impair patients’ quality of life and may also be arrhythmogenic. The telemonitoring can provide a valid support to intensify followup visits, in order to improve the prevention of inappropriate defibrillator shock, thus enhancing patient safety. Inappropriate shock generally depends on atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, and abnormal sensing (such as those caused by electromagnetic interferences. As a practical example, an unusual case of an ICD patient who risked an inappropriate shock while taking a shower is reported. Continuous remote telemonitoring was able to timely warn cardiologist via GSM-SMS, who were able to detect improper sensing examining the intracardiac electrogram via Web. Patient was promptly contacted and warned to not further come in contact with the hydraulic system and any electrical appliance to prevent an inappropriate defibrillator shock. This demonstrates the effectiveness and usefulness of continuous remote telemonitoring in supporting ICD patients.

  14. Healthcare providers attitudes and perceptions of 'inappropriate attendance' in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Breen, Bernadette M; McCann, Margaret


    Emergency Departments (EDs) worldwide are facing a crisis from overcrowding and a common perception exists that inappropriate use of the ED is a major contributing factor. Patients, who attend the ED with non-urgent problems, could be dealt with by a General Practitioner; such patients use time and resources that would otherwise be used for patients with more appropriate needs. To explore attitudes and perceptions of healthcare providers regarding 'inappropriate attendance' in the ED. Using a survey questionnaire, this descriptive quantitative study included ED nurses, doctors and paramedics from three regional hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 163 surveys were returned (59% response rate). There was an overwhelming agreement among respondents that inappropriate attendance in Irish ED exists and poses a considerable challenge for healthcare providers. Results suggest differences of opinion on what represents inappropriate ED use. Potential solutions to address the issue of inappropriate ED attendance include General Practitioners and Advanced Nurse Practitioners practicing within the ED setting; education and greater public awareness and faster access to a specialist opinion in the Out Patient Department. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inappropriate sexual behaviour in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: what education is recommended and why. (United States)

    Beddows, Nicola; Brooks, Rachel


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder impairing social skills and communication. Adolescents with ASD have sexual needs, but may not understand their physical and emotional development resulting in inappropriate sexual behaviour. The aim of this review is to describe the type of inappropriate behaviour that presents in these adolescents, explain why such behaviours occur, suggest what education is suitable and identify current gaps in research. The databases EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PSYCINFO were searched for relevant articles. In total, 5241 articles were found, with an additional 15 sources found via soft searches, of which 42 met inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Sexual behaviours that occur in these adolescents with ASD include hypermasturbation, public masturbation, inappropriate romantic gestures, inappropriate arousal and exhibitionism. Such behaviours are thought to be caused via a lack of understanding of normal puberty, the absence of appropriate sex education, the severity of their ASD and other associated problems. It is suggested that individualized, repetitive education should be started from an early age in an accessible form. Social skills development is also important before more technical aspects of sex education are taught. Despite being such a common problem for schools, institutions and families to manage, it is surprising how sparse literature is particularly regarding why inappropriate behaviour occurs and what education is effective. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivatkusol Y


    Full Text Available Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG.Results: Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001. The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different.Conclusion: More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes. Keywords: prevalence, pregnancy outcome, inappropriate gestational weight gain, teenage pregnancy

  17. Inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of elderly patients as determined by Beers' Criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul F


    INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used Beers\\' Criteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and Beers\\' Criteria applied. RESULTS: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking < or =5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects. CONCLUSION: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, Beers\\' Criteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.

  18. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in elderly population: A study in medicine out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Sah


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The study was conducted with objectives to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department.Materials & Methods: A prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD of a tertiary hospital of central Nepal was conducted during November 2012 to October 2013 among 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM in elderly patients was analysed using Beer’s Criteria updated to 2013. Results: In the 869 patients included, the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%, amlodipine (23.16%, paracetamol (17.6%, salbutamol (15.72% and vitamin B complex (13.26%. The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Conclusion: Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health related outcomes in these elderly.

  19. Delayed School Entry in Uganda (United States)

    Moyi, Peter


    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  1. Statin therapy reduces inappropriate shock in non-ischemic patients with mild heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine H.; Zareba, Wojciech; Jons, Christian


    BACKGROUND: The relationship between diabetes mellitus and risk of inappropriate or appropriate therapy in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and resynchronization therapy has not been investigated thoroughly. The effect of innovative ICD programming on therapy...... tachycardia zone of 170 to 199 bpm (arm A), high-rate cutoff with a ventricular tachycardia zone ≥200 bpm (arm B), or 60-second-delayed therapy (arm C). The end points of inappropriate therapy, appropriate therapy, and death were assessed among 485 patients with and 998 without diabetes mellitus. Innovative...... (hazard ratio, 4.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-11.40; P=0.005) and appropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-5.87; P=0.037) compared with those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative high-rate cutoff or delayed ICD programming was associated with a reduction in inappropriate...

  2. The Effect of ICD Programming on Inappropriate and Appropriate ICD Therapies in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedláček, Kamil; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina


    INTRODUCTION: The MADIT-RIT trial demonstrated reduction of inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies and mortality by high-rate cut-off and 60-second-delayed VT therapy ICD programming in patients with a primary prophylactic ICD indication. The aim of this analysis was to study effects of MADIT......-RIT ICD programming in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: First and total occurrences of both inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies were analyzed by multivariate Cox models in 791 (53%) patients with ischemic and 707 (47%) patients with nonischemic......-rate cut-off (arm B) and delayed VT therapy ICD programming (arm C) compared with conventional (arm A) ICD programming were associated with a significant risk reduction of first inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (HR range 0.11-0.34, P

  3. Prevalence of inappropriate medication using Beers criteria in Japanese long-term care facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niwata, Satoko; Yamada, Yukari; Ikegami, Naoki


    Background The prevalence and risk factors of potentially inappropriate medication use among the elderly patients have been studied in various countries, but because of the difficulty of obtaining data on patient characteristics and medications they have not been studied in Japan. Methods We...... conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in 17 Japanese long-term care (LTC) facilities by collecting data from the comprehensive MDS assessment forms for 1669 patients aged 65 years and over who were assessed between January and July of 2002. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified...... on the basis of the 2003 Beers criteria. Results The patients in the sample were similar in terms of demographic characteristics to those in the national survey. Our study revealed that 356 (21.1%) of the patients were treated with potentially inappropriate medication independent of disease or condition...

  4. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà


    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high adaptive potential in old age.

  5. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà


    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high potential for adaptation in old age.

  6. Inappropriate shock for myopotential over-sensing in a patient with subcutaneous ICD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Corzani


    Full Text Available Inappropriate ICD shocks are common adverse events; they are mainly due to supraventricular arrhythmias and secondly are related to noise, undersensing, oversensing, device malfunctions. We present a case of inappropriate device therapy due to myopotential oversensing in a patient with a subcutaneous ICD (s-ICD. A 58 years old male with an s-ICD during the device interrogation showed a previous episode of suspected sustained ventricular tachycardia at 210 bpm, which was effectively treated with ICD shock. The patient experienced the electrical shock while holding a big gas-cylinder in his arms. The EGM analysis revealed many irregular ventricular signals of low amplitude lasting for 24 s and interrupted by the shock. The device showed no malfunctions. This is the first case report of inappropriate S-ICD shock related to myopotential over-sensing. By recording intracardiac EGM, we demonstrated that the noise was created by the activity of the pectorals muscles.

  7. Elevator talk: observational study of inappropriate comments in a public space. (United States)

    Ubel, P A; Zell, M M; Miller, D J; Fischer, G S; Peters-Stefani, D; Arnold, R M


    We conducted a study to determine the type and frequency of inappropriate comments made by hospital employees while riding hospital elevators. Four observers rode in elevators at five hospitals, listening for any comments made by hospital employees that might be deemed inappropriate. All potentially inappropriate comments were reviewed by the research team and were classified as inappropriate if they met at least one of the following criteria: violated patient confidentiality, raised concerns about the speaker's ability or desire to provide high-quality patient care, raised concerns about poor quality of care in the hospital (by persons other than the speaker), or contained derogatory remarks about patients or their families. We observed 259 one-way elevator trips offering opportunity for conversation. We overheard a total of 39 inappropriate comments, which took place on 36 rides (13.9% of the trips). The most frequent comments (18) were violations of patients confidentiality. Next most frequent (10 comments) were unprofessional remarks in which clinicians talked about themselves in ways that raised questions about their ability or desire to provide high-quality patient care. Other comments included derogatory statements about the general quality of hospital care (8) and derogatory remarks about patients (5). Physicians were involved in 15 of the comments, nurses in 10, and other hospital employees in the remainder. Inappropriate comments took place with disturbing frequency in the elevator rides we sampled. These comments did not exclusively involve violations of patient confidentiality, but encompassed a range of discussions that health care employees must be careful to avoid.

  8. The inappropriate use of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging in a health service area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Recio, F. J.; Sanz, J. C.; Vera, S.; Peiro, S.


    To identify the percentage of inappropriate lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in the Soria Health Service, to quantify the costs and the possible association between inadequate use, the characteristics of the patient and the services requested. A descriptive study of the inappropriate use of MRI of the lumbar spine, taken from the retrospective examination, carried out by a radiologist, of the 233 MRI's requested between 1995 and 1998. For the valuation, the criteria of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Basque Agency for the Evaluation of Technologies (OSTEBA) were used. All the MRI's were carried out at an approved centre, the costs were calculated taken form the expenses paid by the Insalud, including the transport costs, calculated at prices applicable for the year in question. 11.7% of the studies were values as inappropriate, 2.1% debatable and the remainder adequate according to the ACR criteria, concentrating the inadequacy on studies for lumbago, that reached 80% of the inappropriate requests. The ACR and OSTEBA criteria coincided to a high degree (kappa statistics: 0.87). The expense related to the unnecessary studies was a litter higher than a million pesetas. No differences were found in the proportion of inappropriate studies according to the characteristics of the patient or the service requested, except the one already mentioned for the supposition diagnosis. Although the results of the study cannot be generalised to other environments, they suggest the possibility of a significant proportion of inappropriate use of lumbar spine MRI that could have an important repercussion on health care expenses. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Correlates of (inappropriate) benzodiazepine use: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). (United States)

    Manthey, Leonie; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J; Stoop, José E; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G


    Results on determinants of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in general and inappropriate use were inconsistent and mostly univariate. The relative importance of sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants has never been investigated in a comprehensive, multivariate model. We included 429 BZD users and 2423 non-users from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in order to investigate sociodemographic, psychological and physical determinants of BZD use and inappropriate use by logistic and linear regression analyses. BZDs were used by a considerable proportion of the 2852 NESDA participants (15.0%). BZD use was independently associated with older age, singleness, unemployment, treatment in secondary care, higher medical consumption (more severe) anxiety, depression (OR [95% CI]=1.95 [1.29, 2.93]), comorbidity, insomnia, SSRI (OR [95% CI]=2.05 [1.55, 2.70]), TCA and other antidepressant (OR [95% CI]=2.44 [1.64, 3.62]) use. Overall, BZD use was rarely in accordance with all guidelines, mainly because most users (82.5%) exceeded the recommended duration of safe use. Inappropriate use was independently associated with older age (β=0.130) and chronic illnesses (β=0.120). Higher scores on agreeableness were associated with less inappropriate use. Mentally or physically vulnerable subjects were most likely to use BZDs. The most vulnerable (i.e. the old and physically ill) BZD users were at highest risk of inappropriate BZD use. Without further evidence of the effectiveness of BZDs in long-term use, caution in initiating BZD prescriptions is recommended, particularly when patients are chronically ill and old, as those are most likely to display inappropriate use. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Reducing inappropriate testing in the diagnosis of the menopause and peri-menopause. (United States)

    Williams, Jac; Currie, Heather; Foster, Adele; Anderson, Julia


    The menopause should be diagnosed based on age, menstrual history and clinical symptoms, and as such, follicle stimulating hormone testing may be considered inappropriate when diagnosing the menopause or peri-menopause in women aged 45 and over. As part of a demand optimisation programme, the number of follicle stimulating hormone tests requested to diagnose the menopause in this age group was quantified and educational interventions were implemented to reduce inappropriate testing. The number of follicle stimulating hormone tests requested to diagnose the menopause in women aged 45 and over was successfully and sustainably reduced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Prevalence of inappropriate medication using Beers criteria in Japanese long-term care facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niwata, Satoko; Yamada, Yukari; Ikegami, Naoki


    Background The prevalence and risk factors of potentially inappropriate medication use among the elderly patients have been studied in various countries, but because of the difficulty of obtaining data on patient characteristics and medications they have not been studied in Japan. Methods We...... dependent on the disease or condition was found in patients with chronic constipation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed psychotropic drug use (OR = 1.511), medication cost of per day (OR = 1.173), number of medications (OR = 1.140), and age (OR = 0.981) as factors related to inappropriate...

  12. 19 CFR 141.68 - Time of entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of entry. 141.68 Section 141.68 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.68 Time of entry. (a) When entry documentation is filed without entry summary. When the entry documentation is filed in proper form without an...

  13. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin


    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  14. 27 CFR 19.321 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 19.321 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.321 Entry. Pursuant to the production gauge, the proprietor shall make appropriate entry for (a) deposit of the spirits on bonded premises for storage or...

  15. 10 CFR 1048.3 - Unauthorized entry. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized entry. 1048.3 Section 1048.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.3 Unauthorized entry. Unauthorized entry into or upon an SPR facility or real property...

  16. Sunk costs, entry deterrence, and financial constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Diaw, K.M.


    This paper studies how sunk costs affect a financially constrained incumbent's ability to deter entry into its market. Sunk costs make it less attractive to the incumbent to accommodate entry by liquidating assets in place and exiting the market. This may render entry by a prospective rival

  17. 46 CFR 147A.25 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entry. 147A.25 Section 147A.25 Shipping COAST GUARD... During Fumigation § 147A.25 Entry. (a) No person may enter the spaces that immediately adjoin the space that is fumigated during fumigation unless entry is for emergency purposes or the space is tested and...

  18. Development of new taxonomy of inappropriate communication and its application to operating teams in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, In Seok; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun


    Inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this regard, various kinds of taxonomies of inappropriate communications have been developed to prevent inappropriate communications. However, there seems to be difficult to identify inappropriate communications from verbal protocol data between operators. Because the existing taxonomies were developed for use in report analysis, there is a problem of 'uncertainty'. In consequence, this paper proposes a new taxonomy of inappropriate communications and provides some insights to prevent inappropriate communications. In order to develop the taxonomy, existing taxonomies for four industries from 1980 to 2010 were collected and a new taxonomy is developed based on the simplified one-way communication model. In addition, the ratio of inappropriate communications from 8 samples of audio-visual format verbal protocol data recorded during emergency training sessions by operating teams is compared with performance scores calculated based on the task analysis. As a result, inappropriate communications can be easily identified from the verbal protocol data using the suggested taxonomy, and teams with a higher ratio of inappropriate communications tend to have a lower performance score.

  19. Using an Electronic Highlighter to Eliminate the Negative Effects of Pre-Existing, Inappropriate Highlighting (United States)

    Gier, Vicki; Kreiner, David; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Herring, Daniel


    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether using an active learning technique, electronic highlighting, can eliminate the negative effects of pre-existing, poor highlighting on reading comprehension. Participants read passages containing no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, or inappropriate highlighting. We hypothesized…

  20. [Characteristics of potentially inappropriate prescribing of drugs in elderly polypathological patients]. (United States)

    Rivas-Cobas, Paula Carlota; Ramírez-Duque, Nieves; Gómez Hernández, Mercedes; García, Juana; Agustí, Antonia; Vidal, Xavier; Formiga, Francesc; López-Soto, Alfonso; Torres, Olga H; San-José, Antonio

    To analyse potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in elderly polypathological patients (PP). Multicentre observational, prospective study of 672 patients aged 75 years and older hospitalised in Internal Medicine between April 2011 and March 2012. The Beers, STOPP-START and ACOVE criteria were used to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing and the results of PP and non-PP patients were compared. Of the 672 patients included, 419 (62%) were polypathological, of which 89.3% met PIP criteria versus 79.4% of non-polypathological patients (p <0.01). 40.3% of polypathological patients met at least one Beers criteria, 62.8% at least one STOPP criteria, 62.3% at least one START criteria and 65.6% at least one ACOVE criteria. The rate of potentially inappropriate prescribing was higher in polypathological patients regardless of the tool used. Given the high rate of potentially inappropriate prescribing in polypathological patients, strategies to improve prescribing adequacy must be developed. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in Brugada syndrome: Pattern in primary and secondary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Bonny


    Conclusion: Inappropriate shock is common in Brugada syndrome during the early periods after an ICD implantation, and seems to be more likely in asymptomatic patients. This finding may warrant a review of the indications for ICD implantation, especially in the young and apparently healthy population of patients with Brugada syndrome.

  2. Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use Among Elderly Home Care Patients in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Topinková, E.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Jónsson, P.; Carpenter, I.; Schroll, M.; Onder, G.; Sorbye, L.W.; Wagner, C.; Reissigová, Jindra; Bernabei, R.


    Roč. 293, č. 11 (2005), s. 1348-1358 ISSN 0098-7484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : potentially inappropriate medication * prevalence * independent correlates Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 23.332, year: 2005

  3. Unveiling common responses of Medicago truncatula to appropriate and inappropriate rust species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota eVaz Patto


    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature of effective defense mechanisms in legumes to pathogens of remotely related plant species. Some rust species are among pathogens with broad host range causing dramatic losses in various crop plants. To understand and compare the different host and nonhost resistance responses of legume species against rusts, we characterized the reaction of the model legume Medicago truncatula to one appropriate (Uromyces striatus and two inappropriate (U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus rusts. We found that similar pre and post-haustorial mechanisms of resistance appear to be operative in M. truncatula against appropriate and inappropriate rust fungus. The appropriate U. striatus germinated better on M. truncatula accessions then the inappropriate U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus, but once germinated, germ tubes of the three rusts had a similar level of success in finding stomata and forming an appressoria over a stoma. However responses to different inappropriate rust species also showed some specificity, suggesting a combination of non specific and specific responses underlying this legume nonhost resistance to rust fungi. Further genetic and expression analysis studies will contribute to the development of the necessary molecular tools to use the present information on host and nonhost resistance mechanisms to breed for broad-spectrum resistance to rust in legume species.

  4. Inappropriate use of urinary catheters and its common complications in different hospital wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Davoodian


    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs and their related complications is one of the most important problems in hospital wards. The aim of this study was to evaluate inappropriate use of IUCs and their complications among patients in Tehran, Iran. Two hundred and six consecutive patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU as well as medical and surgical wards at the Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandarabbas from September 1 to 30, 2005 and in whom IUCs were used, were studied. Data collected included age of the patients, diagnoses, reason for use of IUC and the complications related to it. Overall, 164 patients (79.6% had IUCs used appropriately while 42 of them (20.6% were catheterized unjustifiably. Inappropriate use of IUCs in the ICU, medical and surgical wards was reported in 12 (18.5%, 16 (19.0% and 14 patients (24.6%, respectively. The most common complication of IUCs was urinary tract infection, which occurred in 91 patients (44.2% and hematuria, which was seen in 3.9% of the patients. Our study suggests that inappropriate use of IUCs is prevalent, particularly in the surgical wards, and the most common complication observed was catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

  5. Potentially inappropriate medication use among institutionalized elderly individuals in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the elderly population in Brazil has grown rapidly, as has concern for the health of this population. Institutionalization in nursing homes has appeared as an alternative form of health care for frail elderly that live alone. The present study evaluated the pharmacotherapy and inappropriate drug prescriptions for institutionalized elderly patients living in long-term institutions in southeastern Brazil. This research was conducted at five institutions with a total sample of 151 individuals aged at least 60 years. Databases were used to identify drug interactions, defined daily dose and inappropriate prescriptions. The prevalence of drug intake among the elderly was 95.36%, and there were an average of 3.31 ± 1.80 drug prescriptions per individual. Based on Beers criteria, the prevalence of inappropriate prescriptions was 25.83%. In addition, 70.2% of prescriptions were prescribed at a higher dosage than the defined daily dose (ATC/WHO. Potential drug interactions were identified for 54.11% of prescriptions; 81.42% of these were of moderate severity. The main inappropriate drugs were prescribed for cardiovascular and nervous system problems. Institutionalized elderly individuals presented a high consumption and misuse of medications, requiring professional intervention to monitor prescriptions and improve the quality of service for this population.

  6. College Student Perceptions of the (In)Appropriateness and Functions of Teacher Disclosure (United States)

    Hosek, Angela M.; Presley, Rachel


    This study investigated college student perceptions of the (in)appropriateness of instructor disclosures and perceived functions of instructor disclosures. An interpretive analysis of 35 college students identified that family relationships, life experiences and background, and everyday talk and activities were forms of appropriate disclosures;…

  7. Inappropriate Care in European ICUs Confronting Views From Nurses and Junior and Senior Physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Ruth D.; Azoulay, Elie; Ricou, Bara; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Max, Adeline; Michalsen, Andrej; Maia, Paulo Azevedo; Owczuk, Radoslaw; Rubulotta, Francesca; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Reyners, Anna K.; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique D.

    BACKGROUND: ICU care providers oft en feel that the care given to a patient may be inconsistent with their professional knowledge or beliefs. This study aimed to assess differences in, and reasons for, perceived inappropriate care (PIC) across ICU care providers with varying levels of

  8. Electromagnetic Interference from Swimming Pool Generator Current Causing Inappropriate ICD Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Samuel Roberto


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI includes any electromagnetic field signal that can be detected by device circuitry, with potentially serious consequences: incorrect sensing, pacing, device mode switching, and defibrillation. This is a unique case of extracardiac EMI by alternating current leakage from a submerged motor used to recycle chlorinated water, resulting in false rhythm detection and inappropriate ICD discharge. A 31-year-old female with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and Medtronic dual-chamber ICD placement presented after several inappropriate ICD shocks at the public swimming pool. Patient had never received prior shocks and device was appropriate at all regular follow-ups. Intracardiac electrograms revealed unique, high-frequency signals at exactly 120 msec suggestive of EMI from a strong external source of alternating current. Electrical artifact was incorrectly sensed as a ventricular arrhythmia which resulted in discharge. ICD parameters including sensing, pacing thresholds, and impedance were all normal suggesting against device malfunction. With device failure and intracardiac sources excluded, EMI was therefore strongly suspected. Avoidance of EMI source brought complete resolution with no further inappropriate shocks. After exclusion of intracardiac interference, device malfunction, and abnormal settings, extracardiac etiologies such as EMI must be thoughtfully considered and excluded. Elimination of inappropriate shocks is to “first, do no harm.”

  9. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.


    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  10. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes. (United States)

    Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn


    To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG. Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.


    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  12. Performance Costs when Emotion Tunes Inappropriate Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Mental Resources and Behavior (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin


    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…

  13. Inappropriate behaviors and hypersexuality in individuals with dementia: An overview of a neglected issue. (United States)

    Torrisi, Michele; Cacciola, Alberto; Marra, Angela; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore


    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are very common in patients affected by dementia, and are associated with high rates of institutionalization. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia consist of aggressive behavior, delusions, hallucinations, depression, apathy, wandering, stereotyped and inappropriate sexual behavior. Interestingly, the latter has been reported to be relatively uncommon, but causing immense distress to patients and their caregivers. The genesis of inappropriate behavior is considered a combination of neurological, psychological and social factors. Although assessment is mainly carried out by clinical observation and interviews with caregivers, the most appropriate management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including hypersexuality, is a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, according to specific symptoms, degree of cognitive dysfunction and subtype of dementia. The present narrative review will mainly focus on aggressiveness, disinhibition, aberrant motor, and sexually inappropriate behavior diagnostic work-up and treatment, in an attempt to provide both the patients and their caregivers with useful information to better manage these symptoms and improve their quality of life. Space is particularly dedicated to inappropriate sexual behavior, which is still considered a neglected issue. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 865-874. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Ozone Pollution (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  15. Light Pollution (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.


    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  16. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.


    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  17. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun


    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  18. Healthcare Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Appropriate and Inappropriate Implantable Defibrillator Shocks. (United States)

    Turakhia, Mintu P; Zweibel, Steven; Swain, Andrea L; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R


    In patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, healthcare utilization (HCU) and expenditures related to shocks have not been quantified. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators identified from commercial and Medicare supplemental claims databases linked to adjudicated shock events from remote monitoring data. A shock event was defined as ≥1 spontaneous shocks delivered by an implanted device. Shock-related HCU was ascertained from inpatient and outpatient claims within 7 days following a shock event. Shock events were adjudicated and classified as inappropriate or appropriate, and HCU and expenditures, stratified by shock type, were quantified. Of 10 266 linked patients, 963 (9.4%) patients (61.3±13.6 years; 81% male) had 1885 shock events (56% appropriate, 38% inappropriate, and 6% indeterminate). Of these events, 867 (46%) had shock-related HCU (14% inpatient and 32% outpatient). After shocks, inpatient cardiovascular procedures were common, including echocardiography (59%), electrophysiology study or ablation (34%), stress testing (16%), and lead revision (11%). Cardiac catheterization was common (71% and 51%), but percutaneous coronary intervention was low (6.5% and 5.0%) after appropriate and inappropriate shocks. Expenditures related to appropriate and inappropriate shocks were not significantly different. After implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock, related HCU was common, with 1 in 3 shock events followed by outpatient HCU and 1 in 7 followed by hospitalization. Use of invasive cardiovascular procedures was substantial, even after inappropriate shocks, which comprised 38% of all shocks. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks seem to trigger a cascade of health care. Strategies to reduce shocks could result in cost savings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. [Reasons for inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics in a high-complexity pediatric hospital]. (United States)

    Ruvinsky, Silvina; Mónaco, Andrea; Pérez, Guadalupe; Taicz, Moira; Inda, Laura; Kijko, Ivana; Constanzo, Patricia; Bologna, Rosa


    Determine the reasons for inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and identify opportunities to improve prescription of these drugs in pediatric patients hospitalized in intermediate and intensive care units. A prospective, descriptive longitudinal study was conducted of pediatric patients in intermediate and intensive care units who received parenteral administration of antibiotics, with the exception of newborns, burn unit patients, and surgical prophylaxis patients. A univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed. A total of 376 patients with a median of age of 50 months were studied (interquartile range [IQR] 14.5-127 months). Out of the total patients studied, 75% had one or more underlying conditions. A total of 40.6% of these patients had an oncologic pathology and 33.5% had neurological conditions. The remaining 25.9% had other underlying conditions. Antibiotic treatment was inappropriate in 35.6% of the patients studied (N = 134). In 73 (54.4%) of the 134 cases, inappropriate use was due to the type of antibiotic prescribed, the dose administered, or the treatment period. The 61 (45.5%) remaining cases did not require antibiotic treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for inappropriate use of antibiotics were: administration of ceftriaxone OR 2 (95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P = 0.02); acute lower respiratory tract infection OR 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.3; P < 0.04); onset of fever of unknown origin in hospital inpatients OR 5.55 (95% CI, 2.5-12; P < 0.0001); and febrile neutropenia OR 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7; P = 0.009). Inappropriate use of antibiotics was less common in the clinical conditions that were well-characterized. Prescribing practices that could be improved were identified through the preparation and circulation of guidelines for antibiotic use in hospital inpatients.

  20. Potentially Inappropriate Antihypertensive Prescriptions to Elderly Patients: Results of a Prospective, Observational Study. (United States)

    Márquez, Paola H Ponte; Torres, Olga H; San-José, Anonio; Vidal, Xavier; Agustí, Antonia; Formiga, Francesc; López-Soto, Alfonso; Ramírez-Duque, Nieves; Fernández-Moyano, Antonio; Garcia-Moreno, Juana; Arroyo, Juan A; Ruiz, Domingo


    Previous studies of antihypertensive treatment of older patients have focused on blood pressure control, cardiovascular risk or adherence, whereas data on inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients are scarce. The aim of the study was to assess inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients. An observational, prospective multicentric study was conducted to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of antihypertensive drugs, in patients aged 75 years and older with arterial hypertension (HTN), in the month prior to hospital admission, using four instruments: Beers, Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment (START) and Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders 3 (ACOVE-3). Primary care and hospital electronic records were reviewed for HTN diagnoses, antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure readings. Of 672 patients, 532 (median age 85 years, 56% female) had HTN. 21.6% received antihypertensive monotherapy, 4.7% received no hypertensive treatment, and the remainder received a combination of antihypertensive therapies. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs were diuretics (53.5%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (41%), calcium antagonists (32.2%), angiotensin receptor blockers (29.7%) and beta-blockers (29.7%). Potentially inappropriate prescription was observed in 51.3% of patients (27.8% overprescription and 35% underprescription). The most frequent inappropriately prescribed drugs were calcium antagonists (overprescribed), ACEIs and beta-blockers (underprescribed). ACEI and beta-blocker underprescriptions were independently associated with heart failure admissions [beta-blockers odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.71, p treatment. Underprescription was more frequent than overprescription. ACEIs and beta-blockers were frequently underprescribed and were associated with heart failure admissions.

  1. Echocardiographic assessment of inappropriate left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shemirani


    Full Text Available Background: early diagnosis of left ventricular mass (LVM inappropriateness and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH can result in preventing diastolic left ventricular dysfunction and its related morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to determine if diastolic dysfunction is associated with LVH and inappropriate LVM. Materials and Methods: one hundred and twenty five uncomplicated hypertension from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program underwent two-dimensional echocardiography. Inappropriate LVM was defined as an LVM index greater than 88 g/m2 of body-surface area in women and greater than 102 g/m2 in men. LVH-defined septal and posterior wall thickness greater than 0/9 cm in women and greater than 1 cm in men, respectively. Echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic peak velocity (E/late diastolic peak velocity (A, deceleration time (DT, and E/early mitral annulus velocity (E′ were measured. Results: the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the patients′ admission day were 142.87 ± 18.12 and 88.45 ± 9.18 mmHg, respectively. Totally, 21.7% of subjects had inappropriate LV mass that moderate and severe abnormal LV mass was revealed in 5.6% and 5.6%, respectively. The mean of age and BMI was significantly higher in patients with moderate left ventricular hypertrophy (P 0.05. Spearman′s Rank test was used to test the correlation between diastolic dysfunction and LV mass (P = 0.025. Conclusion: LVH is correlated with the severity of diastolic dysfunction manifested by the E/A value and deceleration time, but inappropriate LVM can slightly predict diastolic dysfunction severity in uncomplicated hypertension.

  2. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.


    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  3. Potentially inappropriate medication use in nursing homes: an observational study using the NORGEP-NH criteria. (United States)

    Nyborg, Gunhild; Brekke, Mette; Straand, Jørund; Gjelstad, Svein; Romøren, Maria


    Frail residents in the nursing home sector call for extra care in prescribing. The Norwegian General Practice Nursing Home (NORGEP-NH) list of 34 explicit criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in nursing homes was developed explicitly for this population. The aim of this study was to employ the NORGEP-NH Criteria to study the extent of potentially inappropriate medication use among nursing home residents and explore possible associated factors. Cross-sectional observational pharmacoepidemiological study from residents in nursing homes in the county of Vestfold, Norway. Data collected 2009-11 included residents' demographic and clinical status and all medications, regular and on demand. 881 patients from 30 institutions (mean 85.9 years, 68.6% female), were included. According to NORGEP-NH, 43.8% were prescribed at least one potentially inappropriate regular medication, and 9.9% regularly received three or more potentially inappropriate medications. When also including a) the NORGEP-NH Deprescribing Criteria and b) including drugs prescribed for use as needed, 92.7% of all residents received medication that needs particular surveillance according to the NORGEP-NH. 69.7% of the nursing home residents used at least one psychotropic drug regularly. Female residents received more often than males at least one potentially inappropriate regular medication (OR 1.60, p=0.007). Regarding the prescription of three or more concomitant psychotropic medications, odds ratio for females was 1.79 (p=0.03) compared to males. Residents with the best performance in activities of daily living, and residents residing in long-term wards, had higher risk of using three or more psychotropic drugs. Use of multiple psychoactive drugs increased the risk of falls in the course of an acute episode of infection or dehydration (odds ratio 1.70, p=0.009). Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications in nursing homes according to the NORGEP-NH was extensive, and especially

  4. Potentially inappropriate medications defined by STOPP criteria and the risk of adverse drug events in older hospitalized patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, Hilary


    Previous studies have not demonstrated a consistent association between potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) in older patients as defined by Beers criteria and avoidable adverse drug events (ADEs). This study aimed to assess whether PIMs defined by new STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) criteria are significantly associated with ADEs in older people with acute illness.

  5. 19 CFR 143.12 - Form of entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of entry. 143.12 Section 143.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Appraisement Entry § 143.12 Form of entry. Application for an entry by appraisement shall be made in triplicate on the entry summary, Customs Form 7501. ...

  6. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of entry. 143.23 Section 143.23 Customs... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.23 Form of entry. Except for the types of... section) and all conditions for free entry are met at the time of entry, which may be released upon the...

  7. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.


    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)



    Reyna Ramos, julio


    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  9. Clinical analysis of asthenopia caused by wearing inappropriate glasses in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang


    Full Text Available AIM: To proposed control measures by exploring visual fatigue caused by college students wearing inappropriate glasses.METHODS: A total of 124 cases of asthenopia patients underwent optometry students audition, checked the original spectacles; TOPCON-CL100 computer center was used to checked the original mirror glasses(glasses, the distance between the optical center; with near vision as the standard examination table nearly with vergence and regulation near point, and checked the visual function. RESULTS: All 124 cases(248 eyeshad refractive errors, 77% were spherical mirror and 69% column mirror with error ≥±0.50D, and the pupil center distance from the lens had significant difference(U=5.27, PCONCLUSION: Students wearing inappropriate spectacle asthenopia is caused by one of the main scientific wearing glasses can effectively control asthenopia.

  10. Collecting duct renal cell carcinoma with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: An autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Yasuda


    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with a moist cough. Chest radiographic imaging showed a left hilar shadow. Adenocarcinoma cells were found on cytologic screening of fresh sputum. Although multiple metastases including brain were detected, no tumor was observed in the kidneys. The patient underwent whole-brain irradiation and chemotherapy for advanced-stage lung cancer. One month before his death, carcinomatous meningitis was detected. Hyponatremia, hypo-osmolality, and hypertonic urine suggested the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Restricting water intake improved the hyponatremia; however, he developed fever and hematuria. Despite systemic administration of an antibacterial drug, he died. Primary tumor in the lung was absent, but adenocarcinoma of the right kidney was evident on autopsy. Lectin histochemical analysis of the carcinoma revealed its distal nephron origin, confirming collecting duct carcinoma. Severe carcinomatous meningitis, which is possibly caused the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, was observed, with no cancer involvement of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.

  11. Impact of oncology-related direct-to-consumer advertising: association with appropriate and inappropriate prescriptions. (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A; Chen, Kun; Taback, Nathan; Hassett, Michael J; Schrag, Deborah; Weeks, Jane C


    Little is known about the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on appropriate versus inappropriate prescribing. Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy for breast cancer provides an ideal paradigm for studying this issue, because AIs have been the focus of substantial DTCA, and because they should only be used in postmenopausal women, age can serve as a simple surrogate marker of appropriateness. Data regarding national DTCA spending for the AIs were obtained from TNS Multimedia; hormonal therapy prescription data were obtained from IMS Health. Time series analyses were performed to characterize the association between monthly changes in DTCA spending for the AIs and monthly changes in the proportion of all new hormonal therapy prescriptions represented by the AIs from October 2005 to September 2007. Analyses were stratified by age, considering prescriptions for women ≤ 40 (likely premenopausal) to be inappropriate and those for women > 60 (likely postmenopausal) to be appropriate. Monthly dollars spent on AI-associated DTCA varied considerably ($118,600 to $22,019,660). Time series analysis revealed that for every million dollars spent on DTCA for the AIs, there was an associated increase 3 months later in the new AI prescription proportion of 0.15% for all ages (P 60 years (P < .0001), but no significant change for those ≤ 40 at any time from 0 to 6 months. DTCA for the AIs was associated with increases in appropriate prescriptions with no significant effect on inappropriate prescriptions, suggesting that DTCA may not foster inappropriate medication use for certain drug classes. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  12. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria. (United States)

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J


    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. A case of appropriate inappropriate device therapy: Hyperkalemia-induced ventricular oversensing


    Oudit, Gavin Y; Cameron, Doug; Harris, Louise


    The present case describes a patient who received inappropriate, but potentially life-saving, therapy from her implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the setting of acute hyperkalemia (plasma potassium concentration = 8 mM). Hyperkalemia was associated with the development of a slow sinusoidal ventricular tachycardia, at a rate of 100 beats/min to 125 beats/min (610 ms to 480 ms) in a patient who is pacemaker-dependent. There was associated fractionation of the ICD electrogram and T ...

  14. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a national population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahir, Caitriona


    Optimization of drug prescribing in older populations is a priority due to the significant clinical and economic costs of drug-related illness. This study aimed to: (i) estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in a national Irish older population using European specific explicit prescribing criteria; (ii) investigate the association between PIP, number of drug classes, gender and age and; (iii) establish the total cost of PIP.

  15. An automated technique to identify potential inappropriate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions. (United States)

    Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Lin, Shen-Hsien; Huang, Chih-Wei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan


    Medication errors such as potential inappropriate prescriptions would induce serious adverse drug events to patients. Information technology has the ability to prevent medication errors; however, the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is not as clear as in western medicine. The aim of this study was to apply the appropriateness of prescription (AOP) model to identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. We used the association rule of mining techniques to analyze 14.5 million prescriptions from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The disease and TCM (DTCM) and traditional Chinese medicine-traditional Chinese medicine (TCMM) associations are computed by their co-occurrence, and the associations' strength was measured as Q-values, which often referred to as interestingness or life values. By considering the number of Q-values, the AOP model was applied to identify the inappropriate prescriptions. Afterwards, three traditional Chinese physicians evaluated 1920 prescriptions and validated the detected outcomes from the AOP model. Out of 1920 prescriptions, 97.1% of positive predictive value and 19.5% of negative predictive value were shown by the system as compared with those by experts. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the negative predictive value could improve up to 27.5% when the model's threshold changed to 0.4. We successfully applied the AOP model to automatically identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. This model could be a potential TCM clinical decision support system in order to improve drug safety and quality of care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Beers Criteria as a Proxy for Inappropriate Prescribing of Other Medications Among Older Adults (United States)

    Lund, Brian C; Steinman, Michael A; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Kaboli, Peter J


    BACKGROUND The Beers criteria are a compilation of medications deemed potentially inappropriate for older adults, and widely used a prescribing quality indicator. OBJECTIVE To determine whether Beers criteria serve as a proxy measure for other forms of inappropriate prescribing, as measured by comprehensive implicit review. METHODS Data for patients 65 years and older were obtained from the VA Enhanced Pharmacy Outpatient Clinic (EPOC) and the Iowa Medicaid Pharmaceutical Case Management (PCM) studies. Comprehensive measurement of prescribing quality was conducted using expert clinician review of medical records according to the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). MAI scores attributable to non-Beers medications (non-Beers MAI) were contrasted between patients who did and did not receive a Beers criteria medication. RESULTS Beers criteria medications accounted for 12.9% and 14.0% of total MAI scores in the two studies. Importantly, non-Beers MAI scores were significantly higher in patients receiving a Beers criteria medication in both studies (EPOC: 15.1 vs. 12.4, p = 0.02; PCM: 11.1 vs. 8.7, p = 0.04), after adjusting for important confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS Beers criteria utility extended beyond direct measurement of a limited set of inappropriate prescribing practices by serving as a clinically meaningful proxy for other inappropriate practices. Using prescribing quality indicators to guide interventions should thus identify patients for comprehensive medication review, rather than identifying specific targets for discontinuation. Future research should explore both the quality measurement and the intervention targeting applications of the Beers criteria, particularly when integrated with other indicators. PMID:21972251

  17. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone caused by continuous lumbar spinal fluid drainage after transphenoidal surgery. (United States)

    Norlela, S; Azmi, K N; Khalid, B A K


    A 53-year-old acromegalic woman had cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea following transphenoidal surgery for a pituitary microadenoma. A continuous lumbar spinal fluid drainage catheter was inserted and on the sixth postoperative day, she developed hyponatremia with features of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) requiring hypertonic saline administration. Over-drainage is potentially hazardous and close biochemical monitoring is required. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SIADH caused by continuous lumbar drainage in an adult.

  18. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes


    Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn


    Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse preg...

  19. Short notes and reviews Simplifying hydrozoan classification: inappropriateness of the group Hydroidomedusae in a phylogenetic context


    Marques, Antonio C.


    The systematics of Hydrozoa is considered from the viewpoint of logical consistency between phylogeny and classification. The validity of the nominal taxon Hydroidomedusae (including all groups of Hydrozoa except the Siphonophorae) is discussed with regard to its distinctness and inclusive relationships. In general, phylogenetic systematic evidence suggest that the use of the term Hydroidomedusae is inappropriate given our current level of understanding. It is concluded that no new, or resurr...

  20. Evaluation of potentially inappropriate medications among older residents of Malaysian nursing homes. (United States)

    Chen, Li Li; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad


    There is an increasing evidence of medicines related issues such as inappropriate prescribing among older people. Inappropriate prescribing is an important risk factor for adverse drug reactions and hospitalizations in the older people. To assess and characterize the prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) in nursing home care in Malaysia as defined by Screening Tool of Older Peoples Prescriptions (STOPP) and Beers criteria. Four Nursing Homes situated in Penang, Malaysia. A multicenter and cross-sectional study was conducted over 2 months period at four large non-governmental organizations nursing homes in Penang, Malaysia. The study population included older residents (≥65 years old) taking at least one medication. Residents who had been diagnosed with dementia or taking anti dementia drugs, delirium, too frail or refused to give consent were excluded. Demographic, clinical data and concurrent medications were collected through direct interview and also by reviewing medical records. STOPP and Beers criteria were applied in the medical review to screen for PIMs. Potentially Inappropriate Medication using STOPP and Beers criteria. Two hundred eleven residents were included in the study with the median age of 77 (inter quartile range (IQR) 72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 4 (IQR 1-14). STOPP identified less residents (50 residents, 23.7 %) being prescribed on PIMs compared with Beers criteria (69 residents, 32.7 %) (p older residents living in the nursing homes and are associated with number of medications and longer nursing home stay. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health related outcomes in these elderly.

  1. Reduction of the inappropriate ICD therapies by implementing a new fuzzy logic-based diagnostic algorithm. (United States)

    Lewandowski, Michał; Przybylski, Andrzej; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Szwed, Hanna


    The aim of the study was to analyze the value of a completely new fuzzy logic-based detection algorithm (FA) in comparison with arrhythmia classification algorithms used in existing ICDs in order to demonstrate whether the rate of inappropriate therapies can be reduced. On the basis of the RR intervals database containing arrhythmia events and controls recordings from the ICD memory a diagnostic algorithm was developed and tested by a computer program. This algorithm uses the same input signals as existing ICDs: RR interval as the primary input variable and two variables derived from it, onset and stability. However, it uses 15 fuzzy rules instead of fixed thresholds used in existing devices. The algorithm considers 6 diagnostic categories: (1) VF (ventricular fibrillation), (2) VT (ventricular tachycardia), (3) ST (sinus tachycardia), (4) DAI (artifacts and heart rhythm irregularities including extrasystoles and T-wave oversensing-TWOS), (5) ATF (atrial and supraventricular tachycardia or fibrillation), and 96) NT (sinus rhythm). This algorithm was tested on 172 RR recordings from different ICDs in the follow-up of 135 patients. All diagnostic categories of the algorithm were present in the analyzed recordings: VF (n = 35), VT (n = 48), ST (n = 14), DAI (n = 32), ATF (n = 18), NT (n = 25). Thirty-eight patients (31.4%) in the studied group received inappropriate ICD therapies. In all these cases the final diagnosis of the algorithm was correct (19 cases of artifacts, 11 of atrial fibrillation and 8 of ST) and fuzzy rules algorithm implementation would have withheld unnecessary therapies. Incidence of inappropriate therapies: 3 vs. 38 (the proposed algorithm vs. ICD diagnosis, respectively) differed significantly (p fuzzy logic based algorithm seems to be promising and its implementation could diminish ICDs inappropriate therapies. We found FA usefulness in correct diagnosis of sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and artifacts in comparison with tested ICDs.

  2. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.


    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Water Pollution (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  4. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois


    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  5. Congenital short QT syndrome and implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment: inherent risk for inappropriate shock delivery. (United States)

    Schimpf, Rainer; Wolpert, Christian; Bianchi, Francesca; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Florenzo; Bauersfeld, Urs; Borggrefe, Martin


    A congenital short QT interval constitutes a new primary electrical abnormality associated with syncope and/or sudden cardiac death. We report on the initial use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients with inherited short QT interval and discuss sensing abnormalities and detection issues. In five consecutive patients from two unrelated European families who had structurally normal hearts, excessively shortened QT intervals, and a strong positive family history of sudden cardiac death, ICDs were placed for primary and secondary prevention. Mean QT intervals were 252 +/- 13 ms (QTc 287 +/- 13 ms). Despite normal sensing behavior during intraoperative and postoperative device testing, 3 of 5 patients experienced inappropriate shock therapies for T wave oversensing 30 +/- 26 days after implantation. Programming lower sensitivities and decay delays prevented further inappropriate discharges. The congenital short QT syndrome constitutes a new clinical entity with an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Currently, ICD treatment is the only therapeutic option. In patients with short QT interval and implanted ICD, increased risk for inappropriate therapy is inherent due to the detection of short-coupled and prominent T waves. Careful testing of ICD function and adaptation of sensing levels and decay delays without sacrificing correct arrhythmia detection are essential.

  6. Inappropriate Dexamethasone Use by a Trekker in Nepal: A Case Report. (United States)

    Haslam, Nicholas R; Garth, Rachel; Kelly, Nicola


    We present a case of inappropriate dexamethasone use in a trekker in the Everest region of Nepal. We aim to increase awareness among health professionals of the possible use of this medication by trekkers and promote knowledge of potential complications. In this case, a previously altitude-naive trekker was prescribed prophylactic dexamethasone by physicians in a Western travel clinic before high-altitude trekking in Nepal. There were no indications for prophylactic medication nor for the use of dexamethasone. The trekker reported that no discussion regarding risks and benefits, alternatives, side effects, contraindications, or dose tapering on completion of the course had occurred before travel. Side effects were temporary, but serious complications may have ensued if it not for timely interventions by doctors at the International Porter Protection Group rescue post. The events leading to inappropriate dexamethasone use in this case cannot be known for certain. However, it is clear that the trekker lacked the knowledge to use the medication safely. Although the efficacy of dexamethasone in the prevention of acute mountain sickness is undisputed, associated side effects and other limitations make acetazolamide the prophylactic drug of choice. Inappropriate use of dexamethasone can lead to severe complications, and such a case has been reported from Mount Everest. Clinicians prescribing dexamethasone must understand the indications and risks, and health professionals at altitude should be aware of its use by trekkers and the potential complications. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phantom movements from physiologically inappropriate muscles: A case study with a high transhumeral amputee. (United States)

    Gade, Julie; Hugosdottir, Rosa; Kamavuako, Ernest N


    Individuals with high-level amputation have a great need for functional prostheses because of their vast functional deficits. Conventional techniques are considered inappropriate for high-level amputees due to the lack of physiologically appropriate muscles. This study investigates how accurate phantom movements (PMs) can be classified from physiologically inappropriate muscles. The study involves a case study of a 42-year-old transhumeral amputee. Suitable PMs and best electrode configuration were identified using the sequential forward selection method and brute-force technique. Using linear discriminant analysis, the best PMs (elbow extension/flexion, wrist supination/pronation) and rest were classified with error ranging from 3% to 0.18% when using 3 to 8 EMG channels respectively. A completion rate of 93 % was obtained during a targeted achievement control test in a virtual reality environment. This case indicates that a proximal transhumeral amputee can generate muscle activation patterns related to distinct PMs; and these PMs can be decoded from physiologically inappropriate muscles.

  8. Amusia results in abnormal brain activity following inappropriate intonation during speech comprehension. (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J; Chen, Xuhai; Yang, Yufang


    Pitch processing is a critical ability on which humans' tonal musical experience depends, and which is also of paramount importance for decoding prosody in speech. Congenital amusia refers to deficits in the ability to properly process musical pitch, and recent evidence has suggested that this musical pitch disorder may impact upon the processing of speech sounds. Here we present the first electrophysiological evidence demonstrating that individuals with amusia who speak Mandarin Chinese are impaired in classifying prosody as appropriate or inappropriate during a speech comprehension task. When presented with inappropriate prosody stimuli, control participants elicited a larger P600 and smaller N100 relative to the appropriate condition. In contrast, amusics did not show significant differences between the appropriate and inappropriate conditions in either the N100 or the P600 component. This provides further evidence that the pitch perception deficits associated with amusia may also affect intonation processing during speech comprehension in those who speak a tonal language such as Mandarin, and suggests music and language share some cognitive and neural resources.

  9. Amusia results in abnormal brain activity following inappropriate intonation during speech comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Pitch processing is a critical ability on which humans' tonal musical experience depends, and which is also of paramount importance for decoding prosody in speech. Congenital amusia refers to deficits in the ability to properly process musical pitch, and recent evidence has suggested that this musical pitch disorder may impact upon the processing of speech sounds. Here we present the first electrophysiological evidence demonstrating that individuals with amusia who speak Mandarin Chinese are impaired in classifying prosody as appropriate or inappropriate during a speech comprehension task. When presented with inappropriate prosody stimuli, control participants elicited a larger P600 and smaller N100 relative to the appropriate condition. In contrast, amusics did not show significant differences between the appropriate and inappropriate conditions in either the N100 or the P600 component. This provides further evidence that the pitch perception deficits associated with amusia may also affect intonation processing during speech comprehension in those who speak a tonal language such as Mandarin, and suggests music and language share some cognitive and neural resources.

  10. The Impact of a Computerized Clinical Decision Support Tool on Inappropriate Clostridium difficile Testing. (United States)

    White, Duncan R; Hamilton, Keith W; Pegues, David A; Hanish, Asaf; Umscheid, Craig A


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized clinical decision support intervention aimed at reducing inappropriate Clostridium difficile testing DESIGN Retrospective cohort study SETTING University of Pennsylvania Health System, comprised of 3 large tertiary-care hospitals PATIENTS All adult patients admitted over a 2-year period INTERVENTION Providers were required to use an order set integrated into a commercial electronic health record to order C. difficile toxin testing. The order set identified patients who had received laxatives within the previous 36 hours and displayed a message asking providers to consider stopping laxatives and reassessing in 24 hours prior to ordering C. difficile testing. Providers had the option to continue or discontinue laxatives and to proceed with or forgo testing. The primary endpoint was the change in inappropriate C. difficile testing, as measured by the number of patients who had C. difficile testing ordered while receiving laxatives. RESULTS Compared to the 1-year baseline period, the intervention resulted in a decrease in the proportion of inappropriate C. difficile testing (29.6% vs 27.3%; P=.02). The intervention was associated with an increase in the number of patients who had laxatives discontinued and did not undergo C. difficile testing (5.8% vs 46.4%; Ptesting (5.4% vs 35.2%; Ptesting and improving the timely discontinuation of laxatives. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1204-1208.

  11. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.


    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  12. Preventing re-entry to foster care. (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J


    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  13. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry (United States)

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan


    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  14. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry. (United States)

    Kort, Peter M; Wrzaczek, Stefan


    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent's capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped.

  15. The Impact of Environmental Taxes on Firm’s Technology and Entry Decisions


    Ana Espinola-Arredondo; Boying Liu


    This paper investigates conditions under which the regulator can strate- gically set an emission fee as a tool to induce Örms to adopt a green tech- nology and, also, promote (or hinder) entry deterrence. We consider a market in which a monopolistic incumbent faces the threat of entry, and Örms can choose between a dirty and a green technology. Our results show that, despite the fact of facing a polluting incumbent, an entrant might Önd it proÖtable to join the market and acquire a clean tech...

  16. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  17. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel


    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...

  18. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu


    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  19. Air pollution and brain damage. (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry


    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  20. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  2. Spectral Pollution


    Davies, E B; Plum, M


    We discuss the problems arising when computing eigenvalues of self-adjoint operators which lie in a gap between two parts of the essential spectrum. Spectral pollution, i.e. the apparent existence of eigenvalues in numerical computations, when no such eigenvalues actually exist, is commonplace in problems arising in applied mathematics. We describe a geometrically inspired method which avoids this difficulty, and show that it yields the same results as an algorithm of Zimmermann and Mertins.

  3. 76 FR 82315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry/Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Entry/Immediate...

  4. Influence of diabetes mellitus on inappropriate and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and mortality in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H.; Zareba, Wojciech; Jons, Christian


    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and risk of inappropriate or appropriate therapy in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and resynchronization therapy has not been investigated thoroughly. The effect of innovative ICD programming on therapy delivery...

  5. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  6. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.


    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  7. 32 CFR 245.27 - Data entry. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data entry. 245.27 Section 245.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Under ESCAT § 245.27 Data entry. Aircraft will file IFR or VFR flight plans, assigned a discrete...

  8. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders


    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information...

  9. 21 CFR 1316.05 - Entry. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 1316.05 Section 1316.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.05 Entry. An inspection shall be carried out by an inspector. Any such...

  10. 46 CFR 197.482 - Logbook entries. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook entries. 197.482 Section 197.482 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.482 Logbook entries. (a) The person-in...

  11. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP. (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  12. Inappropriate pharmacological treatment in older adults affected by cardiovascular disease and other chronic comorbidities: a systematic literature review to identify potentially inappropriate prescription indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucenteforte E


    Full Text Available Ersilia Lucenteforte,1 Niccolò Lombardi,1,* Davide Liborio Vetrano,2,* Domenico La Carpia,2,* Zuzana Mitrova,3 Ursula Kirchmayer,3 Giovanni Corrao,4 Francesco Lapi,5 Alessandro Mugelli,1 Alfredo Vannacci1 On behalf of the Italian Group for Appropriate Drug prescription in the Elderly (I-GrADE 1Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Geriatrics Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology, ASL 1 Rome, Italy; 4Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 5Epidemiology Unit, ARS Toscana, Florence, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Avoiding medications in which the risks outweigh the benefits in the elderly patient is a challenge for physicians, and different criteria to identify inappropriate prescription (IP exist to aid prescribers. Definition of IP indicators in the Italian geriatric population affected by cardiovascular disease and chronic comorbidities could be extremely useful for prescribers and could offer advantages from a public health perspective. The purpose of the present study was to identify IP indicators by means of a systematic literature review coupled with consensus criteria. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases was conducted, with the search structured around four themes and combining each with the Boolean operator “and”. The first regarded “prescriptions”, the second “adverse events”, the third “cardiovascular conditions”, and the last was planned to identify studies on “older people”. Two investigators independently reviewed titles, abstracts, full texts, and selected articles addressing IP in the elderly affected by cardiovascular condition using the following inclusion criteria: studies on people aged ≥65 years; studies on patients with no restriction on age but with data on subjects

  13. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  14. Charlson Comorbidity Index, inappropriate medication use and cognitive impairment : Bermuda Triangle. (United States)

    Silay, Kamile; Yalcin, Ahmet; Akinci, Sema; Gursoy, Fatma Gul; Sener Dede, Didem


    The aim is to evaluate the association between the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), polypharmacy, inappropriate medication use and cognitive impairment in long-term care facility patients. A cross-sectional study including 105 long-term care facility residents was performed. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used. Inappropriate drug use (IDU) was defined according to the STOPP (Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions) criteria. Univariate analysis to identify variables associated with patient outcome related with cognitive impairment was investigated with χ 2 , Pearson correlation, Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate. For the multivariate analysis, the possible factors identified with univariate analysis were further entered into logistic regression analysis. A significant difference was found between gender, CCI and cognitive impairment (p = 0.038, p = 0.01). While every one point increment in the CCI increases the risk of cognitive impairment 3.1 fold (95% CI = 1.8-5.4, p < 0.001), hypertension increases the risk 12 fold (95% CI = 2.5-67.8, p = 0.002). While the correlation between Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score and polypharmacy is significant (p = 0.015), the correlation between MMSE and IDU was insignificant (p = 0.739). The association of urogenital system drugs and dementia was significant (p = 0.044). Comorbidities, especially hypertension and old age, are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Polypharmacy correlates with MMSE and is considered a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inappropriate medication use is high among long-term care facility residents. More studies on large cohorts are needed regarding optimal drug prescription and detection of specific drugs that may have an impact on cognitive performance.

  15. Failed Attempts to Reduce Inappropriate Laboratory Utilization in an Emergency Department Setting in Cyprus: Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Petrou, Panagiotis


    Laboratory test ordering is a significant part of the diagnosis definition and disease treatment monitoring process. Inappropriate laboratory test ordering wastes scarce resources, places unnecessary burden on the health care delivery system, and exposes patients to unnecessary discomfort. Inappropriate ordering is caused by many factors, such as lack of guidelines, defensive medicine, thoughtless ordering, and lack of awareness of costs incurred to the system. The purpose of this study is to assess two successive measures, which were introduced in a Cyprus emergency department (ED) for the purpose of synergistically reducing inappropriate laboratory ordering: the introduction of a copayment fee to reduce nonemergent visits, and the development of a Web-based protocol defining the tests emergency physicians could order. An autoregressive integrated moving average model for interrupted time series analysis was constructed. Data include number and type of tests ordered, along with number of visits for a period of 4 years from an ED in Cyprus. Copayment fee and introduction of a revised Web-based protocol for a test ordering form did not reduce the number of ordered tests in the ED unit. Copayment fee alone resulted in a statistically significant reduction in ED visits. The implementation of two consecutive measures resulted in an increase of ordered tests per patient. Laboratory ordering is a multidimensional process that is primarily supplier induced, therefore, all underlying possible causes must be scrutinized by health authorities. These include lack of guidelines, defensive medicine and thoughtless prescribing. To attain significant gains, an integrated approach must be implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing inappropriate accident and emergency department attendances: a systematic review of primary care service interventions. (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif A; Gibbons, Daniel C; Gnani, Shamini


    Inappropriate attendances may account for up to 40% of presentations at accident and emergency (A&E) departments. There is considerable interest from health practitioners and policymakers in interventions to reduce this burden. To review the evidence on primary care service interventions to reduce inappropriate A&E attendances. Systematic review of UK and international primary care interventions. Studies published in English between 1 January 1986 and 23 August 2011 were identified from PubMed, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, the Cochrane Collaboration, and Health Technology Assessment databases. The outcome measures were A&E attendances, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and intervention cost. Two authors reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved results, with adjudication of disagreements conducted by the third. Studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklist system where applicable. In total, 9916 manuscripts were identified, of which 34 were reviewed. Telephone triage was the single best-evaluated intervention. This resulted in negligible impact on A&E attendance, but exhibited acceptable patient satisfaction and clinical safety; cost effectiveness was uncertain. The limited available evidence suggests that emergency nurse practitioners in community settings and community health centres may reduce A&E attendance. For all other interventions considered in this review (walk-in centres, minor injuries units, and out-of-hours general practice), the effects on A&E attendance, patient outcomes, and cost were inconclusive. Studies showed a negligible effect on A&E attendance for all interventions; data on patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness are limited. There is an urgent need to examine all aspects of primary care service interventions that aim to reduce inappropriate A&E attendance.

  17. A qualitative examination of inappropriate hospital admissions and lengths of stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Christina L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that a number of patients, with a variety of diagnoses, are admitted to hospital when it is not essential and can remain in hospital unnecessarily. To date, research in this area has been primarily quantitative. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived causes of inappropriate or prolonged lengths of stay and focuses on a specific population (i.e., patients with long term neurological conditions. We also wanted to identify interventions which might avoid admission or expedite discharge as periods of hospitalisation pose particular risks for this group. Methods Two focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of eight primary and secondary care clinicians working in the Derbyshire area. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Results The participants identified a number of key causes of inappropriate admissions and lengths of stay, including: the limited capacity of health and social care resources; poor communication between primary and secondary care clinicians and the cautiousness of clinicians who manage patients in community settings. The participants also suggested a number of strategies that may prevent inappropriate admissions or reduce length of stay (LoS, including: the introduction of new sub-acute care facilities; the introduction of auxiliary nurses to support specialist nursing staff and patient held summaries of specialist consultations. Conclusion Clinicians in both the secondary and primary care sectors acknowledged that some admissions were unnecessary and some patients remain in hospital for a prolonged period. These events were attributed to problems with the current capacity or structuring of services. It was noted, for example, that there is a shortage of appropriate therapeutic services and that the distribution of beds between community and sub-acute care should be reviewed.

  18. Effect of nurse practitioner and pharmacist counseling on inappropriate medication use in family practice. (United States)

    Fletcher, John; Hogg, William; Farrell, Barbara; Woodend, Kirsten; Dahrouge, Simone; Lemelin, Jacques; Dalziel, William


    To measure the effect of nurse practitioner and pharmacist consultations on the appropriate use of medications by patients. We studied patients in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial. The main trial intervention was provision of multidisciplinary team care and the main outcome was quality and processes of care for chronic disease management. Patients were recruited from a single publicly funded family health network practice of 8 family physicians and associated staff serving 10 000 patients in a rural area near Ottawa, Ont. A total of 120 patients 50 years of age or older who were on the practice roster and who were considered by their family physicians to be at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes. A pharmacist and 1 of 3 nurse practitioners visited each patient at his or her home, conducted a comprehensive medication review, and developed a tailored plan to optimize medication use. The plan was developed in consultation with the patient and the patient's doctor. We assessed medication appropriateness at the study baseline and again 12 to 18 months later. We used the medication appropriateness index to assess medication use. We examined associations between personal characteristics and inappropriate use at baseline and with improvements in medication use at the follow-up assessment. We recorded all drug problems encountered during the trial. At baseline, 27.2% of medications were inappropriate in some way and 77.7% of patients were receiving at least 1 medication that was inappropriate in some way. At the follow-up assessments these percentages had dropped to 8.9% and 38.6%, respectively (P trial. This might provide a mechanism to explain some of the reductions in mortality and morbidity observed in other trials of counseling and advice provided by pharmacists and nurses. NCT00238836 (

  19. Quetiapine effective in treatment of inappropriate sexual behavior of lewy body disease with predominant frontal lobe signs. (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Pathak, Amit; Munda, Sanjay; Bagati, Dhruv


    Dementia of Lewy body disease is the second most common degenerative cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, among all the dementias. The core features are a progressive dementia, fluctuations in cognitive functions, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous parkinsonism. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, severe neuroleptic sensitivity, and low dopamine transporter uptake in basal ganglia are other suggestive features. Behavioral abnormalities are commonly present in the form of aggressive behavior, irritability, and uninhibited behaviors. These are mostly seen in the advanced stages of dementia. However, inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommonly seen in such cases. Three types of inappropriate sexual behaviors commonly found in cases of dementia are sex talks, sexual acts, and implied sexual acts. Such inappropriate sexual behaviors have not been described adequately in dementia of Lewy body disease. We report inappropriate sexual behaviors in a case of dementia of Lewy body disease, which improved rapidly after treatment with quetiapine.

  20. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation. (United States)


    ... documentation, one copy of the entry document and the commercial invoice, or the documentation filed in place of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a...

  1. 19 CFR 144.11 - Form of entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of entry. 144.11 Section 144.11 Customs... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Requirements and Procedures for Warehouse Entry § 144.11 Form of entry. (a) Entry. The documentation required by § 142.3 of this chapter shall be filed...

  2. 19 CFR 142.2 - Time for filing entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for filing entry. 142.2 Section 142.2 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Documentation § 142.2 Time for filing entry. (a) General rule: After arrival of merchandise. Merchandise for which entry is required will be entered within 15 calendar days after...

  3. Appeal of inappropriate technologies: self-inflicted wages, ethnic pride and corruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, G.C.


    A survey of manufacturing firms in Nigeria produced a set of useful clues to why firms in poor countries so often choose inappropriate production technologies. Some of their explanations do and some do not fit neatly in the neoclassical modelling of production by which economists have judged technological appropriateness. Much of what the firms described affect their real costs and do so in ways that escape economists' notice; technology is appropriate to the managers' view of costs. Often they were responding to more complicated goals than simple profit maximization for the firm; defense of ethnic identity or the goal of increasing their own incomes by stealing from the firm.

  4. Urea for management of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH: A systematic review. (United States)

    de Solà-Morales, Oriol; Riera, Maribel


    Urea has been recently proposed for the management of hyponatremia linked to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). The objective of the study was to review the levels of evidence for treatment of hyponatremia associated with SIADH with urea. We performed a: systematic review of experimental trials and grading according to SIGN. No clinical trials were found. The 6 studies analysed had methodological limitations and were prone to biases. In conclusion, there is no evidence to support the efficacy of urea for the treatment of hyponatremia following SIADH. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to inappropriate oral administration of topical exogenous steroids presenting with hypercalcaemia. (United States)

    Bhatti, Rahila Sarwar; Flynn, Michael D


    A 59-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with malaise, fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. He had history of long-standing roseate psoriasis treated with topical clobetasol propionate (dermovate). On admission, he had significant postural hypotension, and hypercalcaemia. Endocrinological investigation revealed hypercalcaemia, a serum cortisol of <30 nmol/l, a flat short synacthen test and undetectable adrenocorticotropic hormone. He was treated with hydrocortisone. The abrupt withdrawal of the topical steroids by the patient precipitated the addisonian crisis. Further enquiry documented inappropriate oral administration of clobetasol for more than 10 years in addition to prescribed topical usage.

  6. Inappropriate emergency laboratory test ordering: defensive or peer evidence shared based medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Descovich


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The laboratory overuse is widely prevalent in hospital practice, mostly in the emergency care. Reasons for excessive and inappropriate test-ordering include defensive behaviour and fear or uncertainty, lack of experience, the misuse of protocols and guidelines, “routine” and local attitudes, inadequate educational feedback and clinician’s unawareness about the cost of examinations and their related implications. AIM OF THE STUDY AND METHODS The primary target of our working group was to reduce inappropriate ordering on a urgent basis test, implementing further examinations not yet previewed in the hospital panel of the available urgencies, according to the evidence based diagnosis concept. The secondary goal was to indicate strategies of re-engineering of the processes, improving turnaround time in the laboratory management of emergencies. After evaluating, as first intervention, the more reliable sources for practice guidelines, systematic reviews and RCTs, the committee further discussed main topics with in-hospital stakeholders, selected from Emergency, Internal Medicine and Surgery Depts. The working group, in many subsequent audits, tried to obtain a systematic feed back with all involved professionals. RESULTS After reviewing literature’s evidence, the board constrained testing options by defining the basic emergency laboratory panel tests (blood type, hemogram, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolarity, CRP, bicarbonate, CPK, creatine phosphokinase-MB, myoglobin, troponin, BNP and NT-proBNP, PT-INR, PTT, D-dimer, beta- HCG, biochemical urinalysis etc.. As final result, the proposed tests reduced the overall number of inappropriate investigations and increased, with newer and updated tests, the available panel for critical patients. DISCUSSION A collegiate review of data reporting, in-hospital deepening of problems and the inter- professional discussion of the evidences

  7. Cost savings associated with improving appropriate and reducing inappropriate preventive care: cost-consequences analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskerville Neill


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outreach facilitation has been proven successful in improving the adoption of clinical preventive care guidelines in primary care practice. The net costs and savings of delivering such an intensive intervention need to be understood. We wanted to estimate the proportion of a facilitation intervention cost that is offset and the potential for savings by reducing inappropriate screening tests and increasing appropriate screening tests in 22 intervention primary care practices affecting a population of 90,283 patients. Methods A cost-consequences analysis of one successful outreach facilitation intervention was done, taking into account the estimated cost savings to the health system of reducing five inappropriate tests and increasing seven appropriate tests. Multiple data sources were used to calculate costs and cost savings to the government. The cost of the intervention and costs of performing appropriate testing were calculated. Costs averted were calculated by multiplying the number of tests not performed as a result of the intervention. Further downstream cost savings were determined by calculating the direct costs associated with the number of false positive test follow-ups avoided. Treatment costs averted as a result of increasing appropriate testing were similarly calculated. Results The total cost of the intervention over 12 months was $238,388 and the cost of increasing the delivery of appropriate care was $192,912 for a total cost of $431,300. The savings from reduction in inappropriate testing were $148,568 and from avoiding treatment costs as a result of appropriate testing were $455,464 for a total savings of $604,032. On a yearly basis the net cost saving to the government is $191,733 per year (2003 $Can equating to $3,687 per physician or $63,911 per facilitator, an estimated return on intervention investment and delivery of appropriate preventive care of 40%. Conclusion Outreach facilitation is more expensive

  8. Dual AV Nodal Nonreentrant Tachycardia Resulting in Inappropriate ICD Therapy in a Patient with Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur A. Karnik, MD


    Full Text Available Dual atrioventricular nodal nonreentrant tachycardia (DAVNNT occurs due to concurrent antegrade conduction over fast and slow atrioventricular nodal pathways and is treated by slow pathway modification. We describe a unique case of a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis who received inappropriate ICD shocks for DAVNNT. Atrial and ventricular device electrograms satisfied both rate and V>A criteria for ventricular tachycardia. We postulate that alterations in refractoriness and conduction as is seen in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS may have contributed to occurrence of DAVNNT.

  9. Metrics of quality care in veterans: correlation between primary-care performance measures and inappropriate myocardial perfusion imaging. (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Kitchen, Andrew; Brandt, John C; Dusaj, Raman S; Virani, Salim S; Bradley, Steven M; Shaw, Leslee J; Beyth, Rebecca J


    Approximately 10% to 20% of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests are inappropriate based on professional-society recommendations. The correlation between inappropriate MPI and quality care metrics is not known. Inappropriate MPI will be associated with low achievement of quality care metrics. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional investigation at a single Veterans Affairs medical center. Myocardial perfusion imaging tests ordered by primary-care clinicians between December 2010 and July 2011 were assessed for appropriateness (by 2009 criteria). Using documentation of the clinical encounter where MPI was ordered, we determined how often quality care metrics were achieved. Among 516 MPI patients, 52 (10.1%) were inappropriate and 464 (89.9%) were not inappropriate (either appropriate or uncertain). Hypertension (82.2%), diabetes mellitus (41.3%), and coronary artery disease (41.1%) were common. Glycated hemoglobin levels were lower in the inappropriate MPI cohort (6.6% vs 7.5%; P = 0.04). No difference was observed in the proportion with goal hemoglobin (62.5% vs 46.3% for appropriate/uncertain; P = 0.258). Systolic blood pressure was not different (132 mm Hg vs 135 mm Hg; P = 0.34). Achievement of several other categorical quality metrics was low in both cohorts and no differences were observed. More than 90% of clinicians documented a plan to achieve most metrics. Inappropriate MPI is not associated with performance on metrics of quality care. If an association exists, it may be between inappropriate MPI and overly aggressive care. Most clinicians document a plan of care to address failure of quality metrics, suggesting awareness of the problem. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.


    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  11. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, S.A.


    The author of this book has combined his own vast experience as a marine biologist with a critical evaluation of the ever-increasing literature in a work which highlights those longterm effects and dangerous materials most threatening on a global scale. This English translation of the highly acclaimed German original has been revised and expanded to keep pace with the rapid process of research in the field. A particularly large number of changes were made in the chapter on oil pollution, and new chapters on waste heat and radioactivity in the ocean have been added. (orig.)

  12. Excess Baggage for Birds: Inappropriate Placement of Tags on Gannets Changes Flight Patterns (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I.; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C.; Wilson, Rory P.


    Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

  13. Lean Methodology Reduces Inappropriate Use of Antipsychotics for Agitation at a Psychiatric Hospital. (United States)

    Goga, Joshana K; Depaolo, Antonio; Khushalani, Sunil; Walters, J Ken; Roca, Robert; Zisselman, Marc; Borleis, Christopher


    To Evaluate the Effects of Applying Lean Methodology-Improving Quality Increasing Efficiency by Eliminating Waste and Reducing Costs-An Approach To Decrease the Prescribing Frequency of Antipsychotics for The Indication of Agitation. Historically Controlled Study. Bheppard Pratt Health System is the Largest Private Provider of Psychiatric Care in Maryland With a Total Bed Capacity of 300. There Were 4 337 Patient Days From November 1 2012 to October 31 2013 on the Dementia Unit. All Patients Admitted on the Dementia Unit Were 65 Years of Age and Older with a Primary Diagnosis of Dementia. our Multidisciplinary Team Used Lean Methodology to Identify the Root Causes and Interventions Necessary to Reduce Inappropriate Antipsychotic Use. The Primary Outcome Was Rate of Inappropriately Indicating Agitation as the Rationale When Prescribing Antipsychotic Medications. There Was a 90% (P Agitation. The Lean Methodology Interventions Led To A 90% (P Agitation and a 10% Rate Reduction in Overall Antipsychotic Prescribing. Key Words: Agitation Alzheimer's Antipsychotics Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Centers For Medicare & Medicaid Services Dementia Root-cause Analysis. BPSD = Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia CATIE-AD = Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness in Alzheimer's Disease EMR = Electronic Medical Records GAO = Government Accountability Office GNCIS = Geriatric Neuropsychiatric Clinical Indicator Scale.

  14. Rooting out institutional corruption to manage inappropriate off-label drug use. (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A


    Prescribing drugs for uses that the FDA has not approved - off-label drug use - can sometimes be justified but is typically not supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. At the root of inappropriate off-label drug use lie perverse incentives for pharmaceutical firms and flawed oversight of prescribing physicians. Typical reform proposals such as increased sanctions for manufacturers might reduce the incidence of unjustified off-label use, but they do not remove the source of the problem. Public policy should address the cause and control the practice. To manage inappropriate off-label drug use, off-label prescriptions must be tracked in order to monitor the risks and benefits and the manufacturers' conduct. Even more important, reimbursement rules should be changed so that manufacturers cannot profit from off-label sales. When off-label sales pass a critical threshold, manufacturers should also be required to pay for independent testing of the safety and effectiveness of off-label drug uses and for the FDA to review the evidence. Manufacturers should also finance, under FDA supervision, programs designed to warn physicians and the public about the risks of off-label drug use. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. How to predict a high rate of inappropriateness for upper endoscopy in an endoscopic centre? (United States)

    Buri, L; Bersani, G; Hassan, C; Anti, M; Bianco, M A; Cipolletta, L; Di Giulio, E; Di Matteo, G; Familiari, L; Ficano, L; Loriga, P; Morini, S; Pietropaolo, V; Zambelli, A; Grossi, E; Intraligi, M; Tessari, F; Buscema, M


    Inappropriateness of upper endoscopy (EGD) indication causes decreased diagnostic yield. Our aim of was to identify predictors of appropriateness rate for EGD among endoscopic centres. A post-hoc analysis of two multicentre cross-sectional studies, including 6270 and 8252 patients consecutively referred to EGD in 44 (group A) and 55 (group B) endoscopic Italian centres in 2003 and 2007, respectively, was performed. A multiple forward stepwise regression was applied to group A, and independently validated in group B. A <70% threshold was adopted to define inadequate appropriateness rate clustered by centre. discrete variability of clustered appropriateness rates among the 44 group A centres was observed (median: 77%; range: 41-97%), and a <70% appropriateness rate was detected in 11 (25%). Independent predictors of centre appropriateness rate were: percentage of patients referred by general practitioners (GP), rate of urgent examinations, prevalence of relevant diseases, and academic status. For group B, sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of the model in detecting centres with a <70% appropriateness rate were 54%, 93% and 0.72, respectively. A simple predictive rule, based on rate of patients referred by GPs, rate of urgent examinations, prevalence of relevant diseases and academic status, identified a small subset of centres characterised by a high rate of inappropriateness. These centres may be presumed to obtain the largest benefit from targeted educational programs. Copyright (c) 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inappropriate antibiotic prescription for respiratory tract indications: most prominent in adult patients. (United States)

    Dekker, Anne R J; Verheij, Theo J M; van der Velden, Alike W


    Numerous studies suggest overprescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract indications (RTIs), without really authenticating inappropriate prescription; the strict criteria of guideline recommendations were not taken into account as information on specific diagnoses, patient characteristics and disease severity was not available. The aim of this study is to quantify and qualify inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for RTIs. This is an observational study of the (antibiotic) management of patients with RTIs, using a detailed registration of RTI consultations by general practitioners (GPs). Consultations of which all necessary information was available were benchmarked to the prescribing guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM), acute sore throat, rhinosinusitis or acute cough. Levels of overprescribing for these indications and factors associated with overprescribing were determined. The overall antibiotic prescribing rate was 38%. Of these prescriptions, 46% were not indicated by the guidelines. Relative overprescribing was highest for throat (including tonsillitis) and lowest for ear consultations (including AOM). Absolute overprescribing was highest for lower RTIs (including bronchitis). Overprescribing was highest for patients between 18 and 65 years of age, when GPs felt patients' pressure for an antibiotic treatment, for patients presenting with fever and with complaints longer than 1 week. Underprescribing was observed in overprescribing can help in the development of targeted strategies to improve GPs' prescribing routines for RTIs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Voluntary Rehabilitation? On Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment, Valid Consent and (In)appropriate Offers. (United States)

    Bomann-Larsen, Lene


    Criminal offenders may be offered to participate in voluntary rehabilitation programs aiming at correcting undesirable behaviour, as a condition of early release. Behavioural treatment may include direct intervention into the central nervous system (CNS). This article discusses under which circumstances voluntary rehabilitation by CNS intervention is justified. It is argued that although the context of voluntary rehabilitation is a coercive circumstance, consent may still be effective, in the sense that it can meet formal criteria for informed consent. Further, for a consent to be normatively valid ("take the wronging out of the act") under a coercive circumstance, the subject to be treated must (1) have the sovereign authority to consent, and (2) the offer-giver must be in the right normative position to make the offer. While I argue that subjects do have the sovereign authority to consent to treatment, I also argue that inappropriate offers yield invalid consents. Considerations on inappropriate offers should therefore inform which kinds of CNS intervention-based rehabilitation schemes the state may propose as part of the criminal justice system. Yet as I conclude in this paper, while there are some intrinsic constraints on voluntary rehabilitation programs, the main constraints on voluntary rehabilitation are likely to be contingent overriders. However, CNS intervention is not ruled out as such in the context of voluntary rehabilitation.

  18. Guidance to manage inappropriate polypharmacy in older people: systematic review and future developments. (United States)

    Stewart, Derek; Mair, Alpana; Wilson, Martin; Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Alonso, Albert; McIntosh, Jennifer; MacLure, Katie


    Single disease state led evidence-based guidelines do not provide sufficient coverage of issues of multimorbidities, with the cumulative impact of recommendations often resulting in overwhelming medicines burden. Inappropriate polypharmacy increases the likelihood of adverse drug events, drug interactions and non-adherence. Areas covered: A detailed description of a pan-European initiative, 'Stimulating Innovation Management of Polypharmacy and Adherence in the Elderly, SIMPATHY', which is a project funded by the European Commission to support innovation across the European Union. This includes a systematic review of the literature aiming to summarize and review critically current policies and guidelines on polypharmacy management in older people. The policy driven, evidence-based approach to managing inappropriate polypharmacy in Scotland is described, with consideration of a change management strategy based on Kotter's eight step process for leading sustainable change. Expert opinion: The challenges around promoting appropriate polypharmacy are on many levels, primarily clinical, organisational and political, all of which any workable solution will need to address. To be effective, safe and efficient, any programme that attempts to deal with the complexities of prescribing in this population must be patient-centred, clinically robust, multidisciplinary and designed to fit into the healthcare system in which it is delivered.

  19. Inappropriate Timing of Swallow in the Respiratory Cycle Causes Breathing–Swallowing Discoordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Yagi


    Full Text Available Rationale: Swallowing during inspiration and swallowing immediately followed by inspiration increase the chances of aspiration and may cause disease exacerbation. However, the mechanisms by which such breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs are not well-understood.Objectives: We hypothesized that breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs when the timing of the swallow in the respiratory cycle is inappropriate. To test this hypothesis, we monitored respiration and swallowing activity in healthy subjects and in patients with dysphagia using a non-invasive swallowing monitoring system.Measurements and Main Results: The parameters measured included the timing of swallow in the respiratory cycle, swallowing latency (interval between the onset of respiratory pause and the onset of swallow, pause duration (duration of respiratory pause for swallowing, and the breathing–swallowing coordination pattern. We classified swallows that closely follow inspiration (I as I-SW, whereas those that precede I as SW-I pattern. Patients with dysphagia had prolonged swallowing latency and pause duration, and tended to have I-SW or SW-I patterns reflecting breathing–swallows discoordination.Conclusions: We conclude that swallows at inappropriate timing in the respiratory cycle cause breathing–swallowing discoordination, and the prolongation of swallowing latency leads to delayed timing of the swallow, and results in an increase in the SW-I pattern in patients with dysphagia.

  20. [Severe nutritional deficiencies in young infants with inappropriate plant milk consumption]. (United States)

    Le Louer, B; Lemale, J; Garcette, K; Orzechowski, C; Chalvon, A; Girardet, J-P; Tounian, P


    Over the past few years, we have observed increasing consumption of inappropriate plant milks as an alternative to infant milk formula. Some families believe that foods labeled as natural are the most healthy and an appropriate nutritional choice. However, their composition does not respect European recommendations. They are always hypocaloric and protein, vitamin, and mineral concentrations are inadequate. The aim of this study was to report severe nutritional complications after inappropriate plant milk consumption. Between 2008 and 2011, we studied severe nutritional deficiencies caused by consumption of plant milks bought in health food stores or online shops. Infants were identified in our centers and examined through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Nine cases of infants aged from 4 to 14 months were observed. In all cases, these milks were used as an alternative to milk formulas for supposed cow's milk allergy. At diagnosis, four patients were aged 6 months or less. They had received plant milk exclusively for 1-3 months. The beverages consumed were rice, soya, almond and sweet chestnut milks. In three cases, infants presented severe protein-calorie malnutrition with substantial hypoalbuminemia (slow down the progress of this social trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Do physician outcome judgments and judgment biases contribute to inappropriate use of treatments? Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Alison


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many examples of physicians using treatments inappropriately, despite clear evidence about the circumstances under which the benefits of such treatments outweigh their harms. When such over- or under- use of treatments occurs for common diseases, the burden to the healthcare system and risks to patients can be substantial. We propose that a major contributor to inappropriate treatment may be how clinicians judge the likelihood of important treatment outcomes, and how these judgments influence their treatment decisions. The current study will examine the role of judged outcome probabilities and other cognitive factors in the context of two clinical treatment decisions: 1 prescription of antibiotics for sore throat, where we hypothesize overestimation of benefit and underestimation of harm leads to over-prescription of antibiotics; and 2 initiation of anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF, where we hypothesize that underestimation of benefit and overestimation of harm leads to under-prescription of warfarin. Methods For each of the two conditions, we will administer surveys of two types (Type 1 and Type 2 to different samples of Canadian physicians. The primary goal of the Type 1 survey is to assess physicians' perceived outcome probabilities (both good and bad outcomes for the target treatment. Type 1 surveys will assess judged outcome probabilities in the context of a representative patient, and include questions about how physicians currently treat such cases, the recollection of rare or vivid outcomes, as well as practice and demographic details. The primary goal of the Type 2 surveys is to measure the specific factors that drive individual clinical judgments and treatment decisions, using a 'clinical judgment analysis' or 'lens modeling' approach. This survey will manipulate eight clinical variables across a series of sixteen realistic case vignettes. Based on the survey responses, we will be

  2. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.


    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  3. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  4. Design and methods of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen SignificantlY) study: An investigator-blinded randomized controlled trial of education and feedback intervention to reduce inappropriate echocardiograms. (United States)

    Bhatia, R Sacha; Ivers, Noah; Yin, Cindy X; Myers, Dorothy; Nesbitt, Gillian; Edwards, Jeremy; Yared, Kibar; Wadhera, Rishi; Wu, Justina C; Wong, Brian; Hansen, Mark; Weinerman, Adina; Shadowitz, Steven; Johri, Amer; Farkouh, Michael; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Udell, Jacob A; Rambihar, Sherryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Hall, Judith; Thorpe, Kevin E; Rakowski, Harry; Weiner, Rory B


    Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were developed to address concerns regarding inappropriate use of TTE. A previous pilot study suggests that an educational and feedback intervention can reduce inappropriate TTEs ordered by physicians in training. It is unknown if this type of intervention will be effective when targeted at attending level physicians in a variety of clinical settings. The aim of this international, multicenter study is to evaluate the hypothesis that an AUC-based educational and feedback intervention will reduce the proportion of inappropriate echocardiograms ordered by attending physicians in the ambulatory environment. In an ongoing multicentered, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial across Canada and the United States, cardiologists and primary care physicians practicing in the ambulatory setting will be enrolled. The intervention arm will receive (1) a lecture outlining the AUC and most recent available evidence highlighting appropriate use of TTE, (2) access to the American Society of Echocardiography mobile phone app, and (3) individualized feedback reports e-mailed monthly summarizing TTE ordering behavior including information on inappropriate TTEs and brief explanations of the inappropriate designation. The control group will receive no education on TTE appropriate use and order TTEs as usual practice. The Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly in an education RCT) study is the first multicenter randomized trial of an AUC-based educational intervention. The study will examine whether an education and feedback intervention will reduce the rate of outpatient inappropriate TTEs ordered by attending level cardiologists and primary care physicians ( identifier NCT02038101). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  6. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2. (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  7. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  8. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  9. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  10. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie


    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... compared to non-family firms. Furthermore, the Danish exporters regarded China as being the most established of the four BRIC markets which could be seen in their willingness to use high control entry modes in China. Finally, non-family firms are more concerned about higher flexibility and lower control...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  11. Delayed Entry Program Attrition: A Multivariate Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogren, Margery


    This thesis uses binary logit models to examine the effects of personal background characteristics and local area economic conditions on an individual's likelihood to leave the Delayed Entry Program (DEP...

  12. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  13. Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions about chronic kidney disease patients without dialysis therapy in a Chinese tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang P


    Full Text Available Ping Yang, Na Chen, Rong-Rong Wang, Lu Li, Sai-Ping Jiang Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: With the increasing incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD, inappropriate use of medicine in CKD patients is an important issue, as it may cause adverse effects in patients and progression to chronic renal failure.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of inappropriate medicine use among CKD patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to December 1, 2014 in a Chinese teaching tertiary hospital. All medication prescriptions for CKD patients with serum creatinine level above normal value were enrolled. The prescriptions, including unreasonable dosage, contraindicated, and cautiously used medicines in CKD patients, were evaluated and the related medications were also analyzed and classified.Results: Two hundred and two patients were included, and a total of 1,733 lines of medication prescriptions were evaluated. The prevalence of inappropriate medication prescriptions in CKD patients was 15.18%, of which, unreasonable dosage (n=56, contraindicated (n=46, and cautiously used medicines (n=161 accounted for 3.23%, 2.65%, and 9.29%, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient implied that there was a significant correlation between the severity of renal insufficiency and frequency of inappropriate medication prescriptions (P=0.02, r=0.056. Among the inappropriate medication prescriptions, nutraceutical and electrolytes (n=65, 24.71%, cardiovascular drugs (n=61, 23.19%, and antimicrobial drugs (n=55, 20.91% represented the top three medicine categories in CKD patients.Conclusion: The study confirmed that inappropriate medication prescriptions were prevalent in CKD patients. Improving the quality of medication prescriptions in CKD patients is necessary. Keywords: inappropriateness of

  14. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom (United States)



  15. Developing Quantitative Models for Auditing Journal Entries


    Argyrou, Argyris


    The thesis examines how the auditing of journal entries can detect and prevent financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud occurs when an intentional act causes financial statements to be materially misstated. Although it is not a new phenomenon, financial statement fraud has attracted much publicity in the wake of numerous cases of financial malfeasance (e.g. ENRON, WorldCom). Existing literature has provided limited empirical evidence on the link between auditing journal entrie...

  16. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS)


    Appleton, Robert; Casillas, Jose; Scales, Gregory; Green, Robert; Niehoff, Mellissa; Fitzgerald, David; Ouellette, David


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy requires a capability for effective and efficient entry control for restricted areas that house critical assets. This thesis describes an Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS) to meet this requirement. System requirements were obtained from existing governing documentation as well as stakeholder inputs. A functional architecture was developed and then modeled using the Imagine That Inc. ExtendSim tool. Factors...

  17. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian


    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  18. [Potentially inappropriate prescription according to the "STOPP" Criteria in heavily polymedicated elderly patients]. (United States)

    Terán-Álvarez, L; González-García, M J; Rivero-Pérez, A L; Alonso-Lorenzo, J C; Tarrazo-Suárez, J A


    Appropriate prescribing is especially relevant in elderly people. The objective of this study is to analyse the potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP) in heavily polymedicated elderly patients according to the criteria Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Primary Care on patients assigned to the Siero-Sariego (Asturias) Health Centre, who were over 64 years old and heavily polymedicated (consumption >10 drugs for six months). The 65 Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria were reviewed in the electronic Primary Care patient records, collecting sociodemographic variables, prescribed medications, and chronic diseases. Frequency distributions were made for each criterion, and causes related to PIP were explored using contingency tables, the Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. A total of 349 polymedicated elderly patients were analysed with a prevalence of 6.4 (95% CI:5.76-7.08), a mean age of 79.2 years (SD:3.7), 62.2% were female, 14% institutionalised, a Charlson index of 2.9. The mean of number of drugs was 11.5 (SD:1.7), and the most frequent pathologies were high blood pressure (64%), diabetes (46%), and osteoarticular diseases (41%). There was at least one PIP in 72.9% of heavily polymedicated elderly patients [(Mean: 1.32 (SD:1.2)]. The Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria least complied with were: therapeutic duplication (25.2%), use of long-acting benzodiazepines (15.8%), and inappropriate use of aspirin (10.9%). An association was found between having any inappropriate prescription and the number of medications prescribed (OR=1.22 [95% CI:1.04-1.43]) and inversely to the Charlson index (OR=0.76 [95% CI:0.65-0.89]). PIP is common in heavily polymedicated elderly patients. Special attention must be paid to the use of psychotropic drugs, which are implicated in a high volume of PIP. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de

  19. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong


    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  20. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin


    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  1. Models of radon entry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, A.J.


    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  2. Hypersonic and planetary entry flight mechanics (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.


    The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.

  3. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce


    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  4. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach


    Mahyar Sakari


    Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malay...

  5. A case of appropriate inappropriate device therapy: Hyperkalemia-induced ventricular oversensing (United States)

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Cameron, Doug; Harris, Louise


    The present case describes a patient who received inappropriate, but potentially life-saving, therapy from her implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in the setting of acute hyperkalemia (plasma potassium concentration = 8 mM). Hyperkalemia was associated with the development of a slow sinusoidal ventricular tachycardia, at a rate of 100 beats/min to 125 beats/min (610 ms to 480 ms) in a patient who is pacemaker-dependent. There was associated fractionation of the ICD electrogram and T wave oversensing, leading to ventricular oversensing with resultant detection in the ventricular fibrillation rate zone. This was followed by shock therapy, even though the ventricular tachycardia rate was below the programmed detection rate of the ICD. The subsequent emergency treatment of the hyperkalemia normalized the electrogram, corrected the ventricular oversensing and arrhythmia, and restored rate-adaptive single-chamber ventricular pacing. PMID:18340383

  6. Combined intervention programme reduces inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients exposed to polypharmacy in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, L; Thirstrup, S; Kristensen, M


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a combined or a single educational intervention on the prescribing behaviour of general practitioners (GPs). The primary endpoint was effect on inappropriate prescribing according to the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). METHODS: General practitioners were...... to polypharmacy (>/=5 medications) were identified and approached for inclusion. Data on medications prescribed over a 3-month period were collected, and the GPs provided detailed information on their patients before and after the intervention. A pre- and post-MAI were scored for all medications. RESULTS......: Of the 277 GPs invited to participate; 41 (14.8%) volunteered. Data were obtained from 166 patients before and after the intervention. Medication appropriateness improved in the combined intervention group but not in the single intervention group. The mean change in MAI and number of medications was -5 [95...

  7. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: Revisiting a classical endocrine disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Pillai


    Full Text Available Hyponatremia occurs in about 30% of hospitalized patients and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is a common cause of hyponatremia. SIADH should be differentiated from other causes of hyponatremia like diuretic therapy, hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism. Where possible, all attempts should be made to identify and rectify the cause of SIADH. The main problem in SIADH is fluid excess, and hyponatremia is dilutional in nature. Fluid restriction is the main stay in the treatment of SIADH; however, cerebral salt wasting should be excluded in the clinical setting of brain surgeries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, etc. Fluid restriction in cerebral salt wasting can be hazardous. Sodium correction in chronic hyponatremia (onset >48 hours should be done slowly to avoid deleterious effects in brain.

  8. Vancomycin intoxication in a patient with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hidalgo-Collazos


    Full Text Available Vancomycin is an antibiotic used for infections by gram-positive bacteria with a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Its monitoring has an established therapeutic range (10-20 mg/L to prevent nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity due to supratherapeutic levels, and inefficiency and development of resistance by subtherapeutic levels. Nephrotoxicity for vancomycin monotherapy at standard doses according to pathogen and typical regimens (usual dose: 15-20 mg/kg/12 h is rare and usually reversible. Moreover, monitoring plasma concentrations allows to achieve concentrations within therapeutic range to allow safe and effective drug use. The renal hypoperfusion can cause pre-renal damage, resulting in elevated levels of serum creatinine, resulting in decreased antibiotic elimination and nephrotoxicity. We report a case of unexpected vancomycin nephrotoxicity in a patient with syndrome Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated paraneoplastic

  9. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: current and future management options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark


    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying pathophysiology. Hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as such appropriate treatment is essential. Treatment options for SIADH include fluid restriction, demeclocycline, urea, frusemide and saline infusion, all of which have their limitations. The introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists has allowed clinicians to specifically target the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. Initial studies have shown good efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of mild to moderate hyponatraemia. However, studies assessing the efficacy and safety of these agents in acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia are awaited. Furthermore, the cost of these agents at present may limit their use.

  10. Decreasing Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics in Primary Care in Four Countries in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbiztondo, Inés; Bjerrum, Lars; Caballero, Lidia


    High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed...... limited effect. A cluster randomized two-arm control trial was implemented. Healthcare centres from Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay participating in the quality improvement program HAPPY AUDIT were randomly allocated to either intervention or control group. During ten consecutive weeks, GPs...... in the intervention group received evidence-based online feedback on the management of suspected RTIs. In patients with acute bronchitis, the intervention reduced the antibiotic prescribing rate from 71.6% to 56% (control group from 61.2% to 52%). In patients with acute otitis media, the intervention reduced...

  11. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH in Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha Nag Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. The patient′s symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  12. [Validity of the protocol for evaluating the inappropriate use of hospitalization]. (United States)

    Peiró, S; Meneu, R; Roselló, M L; Portella, E; Carbonell-Sanchís, R; Fernández, C; Lázaro, G; Llorens, M A; Martínez-Mas, E; Moreno, E; Ruano, M; Rincón, A; Vila, M


    The study was carried out in order to assess the inter-observer reliability and validity in respect of clinical appraisal given by the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP), in the context of the Spanish Public Hospital System. In order to assess the reliability a total of 614 hospital stays chosen at random from 56 hospital admissions were independently analysed by three reviewers (two doctors and one nurse). In order to assess the validity, the findings obtained by the nurse were compared with the majority opinion given by the 7 hospital specialists in respect of each of hospital stays under evaluation. As part of the analytical procedure, indices for observed agreement, and specific agreement were calculated, as well as the Kappa statistic, all forming of various random samples of 614 hospital stays. In order to assess the predictive validity of the AEP, its sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were all measured against the majority clinical judgement. The study exhibited a high degree of inter-observer reliability (specific agreement > 64%, kappa > 0.75) and a reasonable validity in comparison with the consensus of opinions formed by a least 4 or 5 of its 7 clinical reviewers (specific agreement > 61%, kappa > 0.64), these values decreasing notably when the consensus of 6 or 7 of the reviewers was required. The AEP revealed a high degree of sensitivity and a low degree of specificity in comparison with the majority clinical assessment, thus minimising the occurrence of false results when the stay was regarded as appropriate, and producing false negatives (appropriate hospital stays regarded as inappropriate) varying in degree from moderate to very high. The results showing high reliability and moderate validity regarding clinical assessment shows the AEP to be a useful instrument in the sifting-out of inappropriate use of hospitalisation, although they do not allow a definitive judgement to be made concerning the efficiency of hospital services

  13. Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication use as the precipitating factor in readmissions to the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sehgal


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Readmission to the hospital within 30 days of discharge from the hospital is a common occurrence. Congestive heart failure is the most common cause of readmissions in the hospital. We hypothesized that irrespective of the admission diagnosis polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate use of medications (PIM leads to readmissions within 30 days of discharge from the hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the hospital records of 414 patients who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge from the hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The data was stratified to see which patients were on polypharmacy and/or on PIM. Polypharmacy was defined as use of more than 5 medications. PIM was defined as per the modified Beers criteria. Day 0 was defined as the day of discharge and day1 was defined as the day-after Admission to the hospital. Statistical analysis was carried out using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA on the data to see if polypharmacy and/or PIM was related to readmission within 30 days of discharge irrespective of admission diagnosis. Results: Polypharmacy was related to hospital readmission at day 1 and day 0, however inappropriate drug use was found to be not related at any day. Polypharmacy and PIM combined had a positive correlation to readmission only on days 1 and 0 and it was statistically significant. The use of minimal and appropriate use of drugs was statistically significant compared to polypharmacy and PIM use. Conclusions: Polypharmacy and PIM are under recognized cause of readmissions to the hospital.

  14. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in community-dwelling older people across Europe: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Tommelein, Eline; Mehuys, Els; Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Colin, Pieter; Boussery, Koen


    Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is one of the main risk factors for adverse drug events (ADEs) in older people. This systematic literature review aims to determine prevalence and type of PIP in community-dwelling older people across Europe, as well as identifying risk factors for PIP. The PubMed and Web of Science database were searched systematically for relevant manuscripts (January 1, 2000-December 31, 2014). Manuscripts were included if the study design was observational, the study participants were community-dwelling older patients in Europe, and if a published screening method for PIP was used. Studies that focused on specific pathologies or that focused on merely one inappropriate prescribing issue were excluded. Data analysis was performed using R statistics. Fifty-two manuscripts were included, describing 82 different sample screenings with an estimated overall PIP prevalence of 22.6 % (CI 19.2-26.7 %; range 0.0-98.0 %). Ten of the sample screenings were based on the Beers 1997 criteria, 19 on the Beers 2003 criteria, 14 on STOPP criteria (2008 version), 8 on START-criteria (2008 version), and 7 on the PRISCUS list. The 24 remaining sample screenings were carried out using compilations of screening methods or used country-specific lists such as the Laroche criteria. It appears that only PIP prevalence calculated from insurance data significantly differs from the other data collection method categories. Furthermore, risk factors most often positively associated with PIP prevalence were polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression. Drug groups most often involved in PIP were anxiolytics (ATC-code: N05B), antidepressants (N06A), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products (M01A). PIP prevalence in European community-dwelling older adults is high and depends partially on the data collection method used. Polypharmacy, poor functional status, and depression were identified as the most common risk factors for PIP.

  15. High-dose oral medroxyprogesterone for inappropriate hypersexuality in elderly men with dementia: a case series. (United States)

    Cross, Bethany S; DeYoung, G Robert; Furmaga, Kevin M


    To retrospectively examine the utility of high-dose oral medroxyprogesterone (MPA) for the treatment of inappropriate hypersexuality (IH) in elderly men with dementia. Ten men aged 65 years or older (median 79.5 years, range 65-93 years) were identified from all admissions at a 170-bed tertiary referral psychiatric hospital between December 2005 and January 2011. Admission records were used to identify subjects who received at least 100 mg daily of oral MPA. The primary outcome of successful treatment was chart documentation of a substantial decline in IH, such that subjects could return to preadmission residence. Data were collected to assess trends in dose, adverse effects, use of other symptom-modifying medications prior to MPA initiation, and successful return to preadmission placement. A trial serotoneric agent was used in 70% of subjects prior to MPA initiation. Sixty percent of subjects failed a trial of an antipsychotic, while 40% did not have response to the use of both a serotonergic agent and an antipsychotic before MPA was initiated. The average daily dose of MPA was 300 mg (range 100-400 mg/day). No adverse effects were documented from physician, nursing, or behavioral health rounding notes; however, adverse effects may not have been systematically assessed at the time of MPA administration. Seventy percent of subjects experienced favorable changes in target behaviors from MPA. Few data exist on effective therapy options for treatment of IH. The minimum concentration of MPA needed to suppress IH in the male body is unknown. MPA was titrated upward, with the efficacy measure being a decrease in inappropriate behaviors. Use of MPA likely contributed to decreased IH; however, other factors involved in hospitalization could have contributed to improved behavior. While requiring further study, high-dose (100-400 mg/day) oral MPA may represent an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for subjects displaying IH.

  16. USCG Vessel Pollution (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. USCG Facility Pollution (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  18. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes. (United States)

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah


    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on non-cognitive issues and outcomes is needed so that universities, government

  19. 19 CFR 141.52 - Separate entries for different portions. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate entries for different portions. 141.52... Entry § 141.52 Separate entries for different portions. If the port director is satisfied that there... conduct of Customs business, separate entries may be made for different portions of all merchandise...

  20. 50 CFR 26.22 - General exception for entry. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General exception for entry. 26.22 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Entry § 26.22 General exception for entry. (a) Any person entering or using any national wildlife refuge will comply with the...

  1. 19 CFR 143.25 - Information on entry form. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry form. 143.25 Section 143.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.25 Information on entry form. Each...

  2. 19 CFR 141.5 - Time limit for entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limit for entry. 141.5 Section 141.5 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Liability for Duties and Requirement To Enter Merchandise § 141.5 Time limit for entry. Merchandise for which entry is required will be entered within 15 calendar days after...

  3. 30 CFR 877.11 - Written consent for entry. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written consent for entry. 877.11 Section 877... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.11 Written consent for entry. Written consent from the... to enter lands in order to carry out reclamation activities. Nonconsensual entry by exercise of the...

  4. 50 CFR 91.16 - Submission procedures for entry. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission procedures for entry. 91.16... Entering the Contest § 91.16 Submission procedures for entry. (a) Each contestant may submit only one entry. Each entry must be accompanied by a non-refundable entrance fee and a completed and signed Reproduction...

  5. 19 CFR 145.24 - Amendment of entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of entry. 145.24 Section 145.24 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Administrative Review of Mail Entries § 145.24 Amendment of entry. If the port director is satisfied that the objection is valid and timely, he shall amend the mail entry. If the duty...

  6. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in institutionalised older patients in Spain: the STOPP-START criteria compared with the Beers criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet M


    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people.Methods: Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain.Results: The mean patients’ age was 84 (SD=8 years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines. The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%, but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients.Conclusion: The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists’ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes.

  7. Entry into first marriage in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available Background: China has experienced substantial socioeconomic and institutional changes over the past few decades. The literature has documented a variety of demographic changes during this time, including the delay and decline of marriage and the recent prevalence of cohabitation. However, we have little knowledge about how the Chinese enter into marriage. Objective: This study demonstrates the diversification of first marriage entry over time. Methods: We applied event-history analysis to longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010-2012 waves and estimated the competing risks of the identified marriage entry types. The observation covered the period from 1960 to 2012. Results: Our estimations from the competing models demonstrated four notable types of first marriage entry, including a general decline in the traditional 'direct marriage,' a rise and decline in 'conception marriage,' and two recently increasing innovative practices of 'cohabitation marriage' and 'cohabitation and conception marriage.' The 1980s marked a turning point when traditional family practices began to decay and innovative family practices began to emerge and spread. Conclusions: The diversification of marriage entry in China since the 1980s occurred in tandem with the development of China's economic reform and 'opening-up' policies. This simultaneity exemplifies the notion that socioeconomic changes at the macro level interact with family behavior changes at the individual level. Contribution: This study demonstrates an increasingly wide array of marriage entry types over time, reflecting the evolution of marriage behaviors from tradition to modernity in contemporary Chinese society.

  8. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.


    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  9. Skip entry trajectory planning and guidance (United States)

    Brunner, Christopher William

    A numerical predictor-corrector (NPC) method for trajectory planning and closed-loop guidance of low lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio vehicles during the skip entry phase of a lunar-return mission is presented. The strategy calls for controlling the trajectory by modulation of the magnitude of the vehicle's bank angle. The magnitude of the bank angle used in the skip phase is determined by satisfying the downrange requirement to the landing site. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear univariate root-finding problem. Full three degree of freedom (3DOF) nonlinear trajectory dynamics are included to achieve high accuracy of the landing prediction. In addition, the proposed approach automatically yields a direct entry trajectory when the downrange is such that a skip entry is no longer necessary. The same algorithm repeatedly applied on-board in every guidance cycle realizes closed-loop guidance in the skip entry phase. A number of issues are identified and addressed that are critical in closed-loop implementations. Extensive 3DOF dispersion simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, and the results demonstrate very reliable and robust performance of the algorithm in highly stressful dispersed conditions. Comparison is made between the proposed algorithm and an earlier skip algorithm developed for the Apollo space program. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is superior to the Apollo algorithm especially when used for entries with long downranges.

  10. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.


    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  11. Effect of Cognitive Entry Behaviors and Affective Entry Characteristics on Learning Level (United States)

    Çaliskan, Muhittin


    In this study, the effect of cognitive entry behaviors and affective entry characteristics on learning level was investigated. The study was conducted on 258 first year students attending the Faculty of Education in the autumn semester of the 2011-2012 academic year. The study was conducted using the relational survey model and data was collected…

  12. A Review and Treatment Selection Model for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Who Engage in Inappropriate Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N; Machalicek, Wendy; Scalzo, Rachel; Kobylecky, Alicia; Campbell, Vincent; Pinkelman, Sarah; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Sigafoos, Jeff


    Some individuals with developmental disabilities develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted sexual manner. Such acts are problematic given the taboo nature of the behaviors and the potential for significant negative consequences, such as restricted community access, injury, and legal ramifications. Therefore, it is necessary to equip caregivers and practitioners with effective treatment options. The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have evaluated behavioral treatments to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in persons with developmental disabilities. The strengths and weaknesses of each treatment are reviewed, and a model for treatment selection is provided.

  13. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm


    (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative......This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  14. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend


    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results....

  15. On the Use of Atmosphere Models in Re-Entry Predictions (United States)

    Klinkrad, H.


    The catalog of the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) of US Space Command (USSpaceCom) contains more than 7600 objects larger than 10 cm. On the average, one of these objects re-enters the earth atmosphere every day, and every second day there is a re-entry of a decommissioned spacecraft or upper stage (which together account for more than 40% of the catalog population). The vast majority of these re-entries is entailing an extremely low risk potential, since most of the structures are disintegrated and burnt up during an extended heat flux and g-load exposure under shallow entry angles. In some instances, however, a non negligible risk from ground impact or ground/atmosphere pollution may arise in case of very massive objects (e.g. Skylab with 75t and Salyut-7 with 40t), objects which were designed to survive re-entry (e.g. China-40 capsule), or spacecraft with hazardous payloads (e.g. Kosmos-954 and 1402 which were equipped with reactors containing 50kg of radioactive material). In such cases, ESOC performs re-entry predictions which are communicated to international points of contact as input to their emergency plans (if necessary). The prediction of uncontrolled re-entries is based on a propagation of the perturbed orbital motion of a spacecraft up to the point of disintegration (at about 80km altitude). The drag coefficient is determined from a least squares retro-fit over a history of observations of the semi-major axis. Apart from the attitude dynamics and associated cross-section variations, the major uncertainty in re-entry predictions is due to inadequate modeling of the atmosphere, and in particular of the air density. At standard operating altitudes of LEO satellites atmosphere models can be assumed accurate to within 10% to 15% rms in density for well known atmospheric parameters. Due to the lack of underlying data, density models become less reliable below 200km altitude where the critical phase of a re-entry begins. Moreover, in case of prediction

  16. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...

  17. Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kwok, K.C.S.; Liu, X.-P.; Niu, J.-L.


    A numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. The computed results of the pollutant diffusion around a typical Hong Kong high-rise building model (at a linear scale of 1:30), were found to show a similar trend to the outcomes of self-conducted experimental measurements that the pathways of pollutant migration for windward and leeward pollutant emission are different. For the case with windward pollutant emission at the 3rd floor within a re-entry, the pollutant migrated downwards due to the downwash created by the wind. In contrast, for the case with leeward pollution emission, dispersion is dominated by intense turbulent mixing in the near wake and characterized by the upward migration of the pollutant in the leeward re-entry. The simulated results of haze-fog (HF) studies confirm that the pathway of pollutant migration is dominated by wind–structure interaction and buoyancy effect only plays a minor role in the dispersion process. - Highlights: • A self-developed numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. • Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion with windward/leeward emission were discussed. • Wind–structure interaction controls the air pollutant dispersion around the building. - The different characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building, for both cases of a dispersion source in either the windward face or leeward face, are dominated by wind–structure interaction, with buoyancy effect playing only a minor role

  18. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.


    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  19. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper


    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign mar...... including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making....

  20. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.


    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  1. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Jagels, R.; Simpson, C.J.


    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  2. Protecting Astronaut Health at First Entry into Vehicles Visiting the international Space Station: Insights from Whole-Module Offgas Testing (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie


    NASA has accumulated considerable experience in offgas testing of whole modules prior to their docking with the International Space Station (ISS). Since 1998, the Space Toxicology Office has performed offgas testing of the Lab module, both MPLM modules, US Airlock, Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, ATV1, HTV1, and three commercial vehicles. The goal of these tests is twofold: first, to protect the crew from adverse health effects of accumulated volatile pollutants when they first enter the module on orbit, and secondly, to determine the additional pollutant load that the ISS air revitalization systems must handle. In order to predict the amount of accumulated pollutants, the module is sealed for at least 1/5th the worst-case time interval that could occur between the last clean air purge and final hatch closure on the ground and the crew's first entry on orbit. This time can range from a few days to a few months. Typically, triplicate samples are taken at pre-planned times throughout the test. Samples are then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the rate of accumulation of pollutants is then extrapolated over time. The analytical values are indexed against 7-day spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) to provide a prediction of the total toxicity value (T-value) at the time of first entry. This T-value and the toxicological effects of specific pollutants that contribute most to the overall toxicity are then used to guide first entry operations. Finally, results are compared to first entry samples collected on orbit to determine the predictive ability of the ground-based offgas test.

  3. "Normal" and "Inappropriate" Childhood Sexual Behaviours: Findings from a Delphi Study of Professionals in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Vosmer, Susanne; Hackett, Simon; Callanan, Margie


    This paper presents the results of a three-stage Delphi study examining the current level of consensus among 24 professionals in the United Kingdom regarding definitions of and distinctions between normal, inappropriate and sexually abusive behaviours in children under 10 years, as well as factors influencing their views. Although firm conclusions…

  4. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior (United States)

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.


    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  5. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of older patients admitted to six European hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul


    Potentially inappropriate prescribing is common in older people presenting to hospital with acute illness in Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine if this phenomenon is unique to Ireland or whether it is a more widespread problem in hospitals across Europe.

  6. Teachers' Self-Reported Beliefs on Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Practices in Grade K-4 EFL Classrooms (United States)

    Mede, Enisa


    This study investigated the perceived beliefs and reported practices of fourth-grade English teachers in primary (elementary) public schools in Turkey. Significantly, it aimed to examine the participating K-4 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about the developmentally appropriate and inappropriate practices, discover the…

  7. Encephalitis associated with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to chikungunya infection in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. (United States)

    Lucena-Silva, Norma; Assunção, Maria Elisa Lucena Sales de Melo; Ramos, Frederico Antônio Pereira; Azevedo, Fernanda; Lessa, Ronaldo; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de


    The symptoms of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection include fever, headache, muscle aches, skin rash, and polyarthralgia, characterized by intense pain, edema, and temporary functional impairment. This is the first report of encephalitis caused by CHIKV infection associated with an atypical presentation of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, evolving to cognitive impairment and apraxia of speech.

  8. Encephalitis associated with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to chikungunya infection in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Lucena-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The symptoms of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection include fever, headache, muscle aches, skin rash, and polyarthralgia, characterized by intense pain, edema, and temporary functional impairment. This is the first report of encephalitis caused by CHIKV infection associated with an atypical presentation of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, evolving to cognitive impairment and apraxia of speech.

  9. Nontechnical Strategies To Reduce Children's Exposure to Inappropriate Material on the Internet. Summary of a Workshop (December 13, 2000). (United States)

    Iannotta, Joah G., Ed.

    In response to a Congressional mandate in conjunction with the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998, a committee of experts was formed to explore both technical and nontechnical strategies for protecting children from pornography and other inappropriate Internet content. This book summarizes a workshop held in December 2000 to…

  10. Evaluation of electrical aversion therapy for inappropriate sexual behaviour after traumatic brain injury: a single case experimental design study. (United States)

    Ter Mors, Bert Jan; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Harten, Peter N


    Inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury is a severe complication. Evidence for effective treatment is not available. Electrical aversion therapy (EAT) is a behavioural therapeutic option used in persons with intellectual disabilities, which might be suitable for brain-injured individuals for whom other therapies are not effective. The effect of EAT in brain injury has not been investigated previously. A single case experimental design was used. In an ABBA (baseline-treatment-treatment-withdrawal) design the frequency of the target behaviour (ie, inappropriate sexual behaviour) in a 40-year-old man was measured daily. A total of 551 measurements were recorded. A significant reduction of the target behaviour was seen after the first treatment phase (baseline 12.18 (2.59) vs 3.15 (3.19) mean target behaviours daily); this reduction remained stable over time. We conclude that EAT was effective in this patient with inappropriate sexual behaviour due to severe brain injury. EAT can therefore be considered in therapy resistant inappropriate sexual behaviour in brain-injured patients.

  11. Reduction of inappropriate prescriptions and adverse effects to medications in hospitalized elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fajreldines


    Full Text Available Together, potentially inappropriate prescribing of medications (PIP and appropriate prescribing omission (APO constitute a problem that requires multiple interventions to reduce its size and the occurrence of adverse drug events (ADE. This study aims to assess PIP, APO, ADE before and after the intervention of a clinical pharmacist over medical prescriptions for elderly hospitalized patients. In a before-after study, a total of 16 542 prescriptions for 1262 patients were analyzed applying the criteria defined in both STOPP- START (screening tool of older people's prescriptions and screening tool to alert to right treatment. The intervention consisted in lectures and publications on STOPP-START criteria made available to all the areas of the hospital and suggestions made by the clinical pharmacist to the physician on each individual prescription. Before intervention, PIM was 48.9% on admission and 46.1% at discharge, while after the intervention it was 47.4% on admission and 16.7% at discharge. APO was 10% on admission and 7.6% at discharge, while after intervention it was 12.2% on admission and 7.9% at discharge. ADE were 50.9% before and 34.4% after intervention. The frequency of return to emergency was 12.2% and 4.7% before and after intervention. PIM, EAM, conciliation error, clinically serious drug interaction, and delirium were reduced to statistically significant levels. In line with various international studies, the intervention showed to attain positive results.

  12. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion induced by the phytotherapy Harpagophytum procumbers: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Reis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is the inability of antidiuretic hormone (ADH suppression, compromising the mechanisms of water excretion and urinary concentration. It manifests as hyponatremia and its symptoms, especially neurological. There are many causes that trigger such disease, notably: central nervous system disorders, malignant neoplasm, drugs and others. Case Report: A 65 years female hypertensive patient presented clinical and laboratory manifestations of hyponatremia due to SIADH. It happened twice under use of herbal medication for osteoarthritis treatment. Discussion: The drug-related hyponatremia can be triggered by direct effect of the drug or by association with SIADH. The clinical manifestations presented could have been related to psychiatric condition and may have severe outcome if not properly diagnosed. The association of an herbal medicine to SIADH could be confirmed after a new episode of hyponatremia related to Harpagophytum procumbers reintroduction. Our literature review did not find this herbal medicine associated with SIADH, so far. Conclusion: SIADH may be caused by herbal medicine described from now on their association in the literature.

  13. [Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older Spanish population according to STOPP/START criteria (STARTREC study)]. (United States)

    Cruz-Esteve, Inés; Marsal-Mora, Josep Ramón; Galindo-Ortego, Gisela; Galván-Santiago, Leonardo; Serrano-Godoy, Marcos; Ribes-Murillo, Esther; Real-Gatius, Jordi


    Rational prescribing in older people is a priority for health care organizations. The STOPP/START screening tool has been developed to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in individuals. In a primary care setting, STOPP/START can estimate PIP prevalence and related factors at population level. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence rates of PPI in elderly population using clinical and prescription claim databases. Cross-sectional population study. Primary Care, Lleida Health Region, Spain. 45.408 patients 70 years old and over, attended in the primary health care centers at least once the last year. 43 STOPP and 12 START criteria are applied to their 2012 clinical and prescription records. Logistic regression models are adjusted to determine PIP association with several factors. 45,408 patients are included. The mean age is 79.7 years, 58% being female. The overall prevalence of PPI is 58.1%. According to STOPP, the most common drugs identified are benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors; according to START, osteoporosis treatments, antiplatelet agents, statins, metformin and beta blockers. PIP increases with age and polypharmacy and it is higher in long-term care facilities residents and patients receiving home health care. In our Health Region, at least 50% of the population aged 70 or older has one or more PIP, according to STOPP/START criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Inappropriate Use of Psychotropic Drugs in People Aged 60 and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Caro Mantilla


    Full Text Available Background: indiscriminate use of psychoactive medication can provoke multiple disorders to the elderly system. Furthermore, it can also result in drug abuse. Objective: to characterize the inappropriate use of psychotropic drugs in people aged 60 and over. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted in two consultations of Health Area # II in the municipality of Cienfuegos from June to December 2006. The sample consisted of 93 adults aged over 60. The variables analyzed were age, sex, educational level, prescribed medication and its application, symptoms leading to the indication, duration of the treatment according to the prescription, follow-up, therapeutic alternatives, tolerance and abstinence. We applied a functional assessment scale: the Lawton and Brody Scale. For the statistical processing, descriptive statistics tests were performed. For computational processing, a database was created in the SPSS 11.0 program for Windows. Results: it is mostly women who consume these types of drugs. The most consumed psychoactive drugs were benzodiazepines and mainly through self-medication. Elderly presented tolerance and abstinence. There was a misuse of these drugs in relation to the time of consumption, prescription, follow-up and treatment options such as natural and traditional medicine. Conclusions: high rates of medical prescription, failures in patient’s follow-up, self-medication and non-use of therapeutic alternatives are some of the many causes of the indiscriminate use of psychoactive drugs in people aged over 60.

  15. Paliperidone Inducing Concomitantly Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur


    Full Text Available Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS, and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline. On the third day, he developed high grade fever and severe muscle rigidity with raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK and liver enzymes levels. He was treated with dantrolene 100 mg, bromocriptine 2.5 mg, and lorazepam 2 mg. Our patient required management of the three rare conditions following treatment with paliperidone. This case highlights the need for health care providers to be aware of the rare, potentially life threatening but preventable hyponatremia, NMS, and rhabdomyolysis as a possible adverse effect of paliperidone.

  16. Avoiding inappropriate paediatric admission: facilitating General Practitioner referral to Community Children’s Nursing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s emergency admissions in England are increasing. Community Children’s Nursing Teams (CCNTs have developed services to manage acutely ill children at home to reduce demand for unscheduled care. Referral between General Practitioners (GPs and CCNTs may reduce avoidable admissions and minimise the psychosocial and financial impact of hospitalisation on children, families and the NHS. However, facilitators of GP referral to CCNTs are not known. The aim of this study was to identify facilitators of GP referral to CCNTs. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 39 health professionals were conducted between June 2009 and February 2010 in three Primary Care Trusts served by CCNTs in North West England. Interviewees included GPs, Community Children’s Nurses (CCNs, consultant paediatricians, commissioners, and service managers. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using the Framework approach in NVivo 8. Results Five facilitators were identified: 1 CCN/CCNT visibility; 2 clear clinical governance procedures; 3 financial and organisational investment in the role of CCNTs in acute care pathways; 4 access and out of hours availability; 5 facilitative financial frameworks. Conclusion GPs required confidence in CCNs’ competence to safely manage acutely ill children at home and secure rapid referral if a child’s condition deteriorated. Incremental approaches to developing GP referral to CCNTs underpinned by clear clinical governance protocols are likely to be most effective in building GP confidence and avoiding inappropriate admission.

  17. Adult female with symptomatic AVPR2-related nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hague


    Full Text Available Activating mutations in AVPR2 are associated with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD. NSIAD causes hyponatremia, decreased serum osmolality and clinical symptoms, which may present from birth or in infancy and include hypotonia, irritability, vomiting and/or seizures. Symptoms in later life are often less specific and include malaise, dizziness, confusion, tiredness and headache. NSIAD is a rare X-linked condition, which is associated with a variable phenotype in males, of whom some present in infancy but others do not become symptomatic until adulthood, or occasionally, never. Female carriers may present with episodes of hyponatremia, usually found incidentally. Literature in this field is limited; namely, two clinical reports describing a female proband, both diagnosed in infancy. We describe, for the first time, the case of an adult female proband with NSIAD, who had longstanding associated symptoms of tiredness, headache, temporary memory loss and mood changes as well as hyponatremia and decreased serum osmolality. A water load test demonstrated an inability to dilute urine and gene sequencing confirmed a recurrent activating mutation in AVPR2. The variant was inherited from the proband’s mother who had had longstanding episodes of transient asymptomatic hyponatremia. This is the third report of a female proband with NSIAD and is the first female reported who sought medical treatment for chronic symptoms from adulthood. This case acts as a reminder of the importance of considering NSIAD as a diagnosis in females of all ages with unexplained hyponatremia.

  18. Inappropriate Use of Medication by Elderly, Polymedicated, or Multipathological Patients with Chronic Diseases. (United States)

    Pérez-Jover, Virtudes; Mira, José J; Carratala-Munuera, Concepción; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F; Basora, Josep; López-Pineda, Adriana; Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo


    The growth of the aging population leads to the increase of chronic diseases, of the burden of multimorbility, and of the complexity polypharmacy. The prevalence of medication errors rises in patients with polypharmacy in primary care, and this is a major concern to healthcare systems. This study reviews the published literature on the inappropriate use of medicines in order to articulate recommendations on how to reduce it in chronic patients, particularly in those who are elderly, polymedicated, or multipathological. A systematic review of articles published from January 2000 to October 2015 was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and Index Medicus databases. We selected 80 studies in order to analyse the content that addressed the question under consideration. Our literature review found that half of patients know what their prescribed treatment is; that most of elderly people take five or more medications a day; that in elderly, polymedicated people, the probability of a medication error occurring is higher; that new tools have been recently developed to reduce errors; that elderly patients can understand written information but the presentation and format is an important factor; and that a high percentage of patients have remaining doubts after their visit. Thus, strategies based on the evidence should be applied in order to reduce medication errors.

  19. Factors underlying students’ appropriate or inappropriate use of scholarly sources in academic writing, and instructors’ responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sivell


    Full Text Available At first glance it is surprising that – in remarkable contrast to grammatical or lexical failings which, while certainly not viewed as insignificant, are rarely greeted with outright anger or hostility – inappropriate documentation of scholarly sources so frequently provokes very harsh penalties. Rather than the constructively pedagogical approach that one would expect with regard to other defects in writing, why do we so often witness a rush to negative evaluation of what may, after all, be evidence of nothing more culpable than misinformation, confusion, or oversight? Much has of course been written about possible remedies for ineffective use of scholarly sources and, on the other hand, about available monitoring and punishment for deliberate plagiarism; so, in a sense, the alternatives appear quite simple. However, decisions about when to adopt a more pedagogical or a more disciplinary viewpoint are complicated by difficult and potentially emotional factors that can disrupt calm, confident and well-reasoned judgment. Thus, this paper will focus not on pedagogical or disciplinary strategies, whichever may be considered suitable in a given case, but on a framework for thorough reflection earlier in the thinking process. It will explore multiple perspectives on possible origins for the innocent if maladroit mishandling of scholarly sources, with a view to highlighting a number of informative but potentially neglected reference points – a cognitive psychological perspective on human error and error management, plausible ambiguities in determining what actually constitutes plagiarism, and communication challenges – that may enter into the instructor’s final determination.

  20. Proton pump inhibitors overuse: only inappropriate prescriptions or further iatrogenic damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Visconti


    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are the most potent drugs for reducing gastric acid secretion; so, since their release in the late 1980s, they have been recommended as the first therapeutic choice for many gastroesophageal diseases, risk reduction in or healing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-associated ulcer disease and stress ulcer prophylaxis in intensive care unit patients. Thus PPIs account for a significant proportion of pharmaceutical health-care expenditure. Much of this high expenditure results from overuse of PPIs in account of inappropriate indications or prolongation of therapies for excessive time compared to real need. PPIs overutilization occurs in all medical care settings: in the majority of hospitalized patients with low risks for gastrointestinal bleeding, in patients healed at discharge from hospital, in outpatients in ambulatory practice. However potential adverse effects associated with PPIs therapy have been described, including enteric (especially by Clostridium difficile in elderly patients and pneumonia infections, nutritional deficiencies, rebound acid hypersecretion, acute interstitial nephritis, gastric neoplasms, bone fractures. Caution is required for some coprescription, particularly with clopidogrel.

  1. [The treament of hyponatremia secundary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion]. (United States)

    Runkle, Isabelle; Villabona, Carles; Navarro, Andrés; Pose, Antonio; Formiga, Francesc; Tejedor, Alberto; Poch, Esteban


    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia in a hospital setting. However, detailed protocols and algorithms for its management are lacking. Our objective was to develop 2 consensus algorithms for the therapy of hyponatremia due to SIADH in hospitalized patients. A multidisciplinary group made up of 2 endocrinologists, 2 nephrologists, 2 internists, and one hospital pharmacist held meetings over the period of a year. The group worked under the auspices of the European Hyponatremia Network and the corresponding Spanish medical societies. Therapeutic proposals were based on widely-accepted recommendations, expert opinion and consensus guidelines, as well as on the authors' personal experience. Two algorithms were developed. Algorithm 1 addresses acute correction of hyponatremia posing as a medical emergency, and is applicable to both severe euvolemic and hypovolemic hyponatremia. The mainstay of this algorithm is the iv use of 3% hypertonic saline solution. Specific infusion rates are proposed, as are steps to avoid or reverse overcorrection of serum sodium levels. Algorithm 2 is directed to the therapy of SIADH-induced mild or moderate, non-acute hyponatremia. It addresses when and how to use fluid restriction, solute, furosemide, and tolvaptan to achieve eunatremia in patients with SIADH. Two complementary strategies were elaborated to treat SIADH-induced hyponatremia in an attempt to increase awareness of its importance, simplify its therapy, and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Can cross-border pollution reduce pollution?


    Panos Hatzipanayotou; Sajal Lahiri; Michael S. Michael


    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in ...

  3. Female entrepreneurial networks and foreign market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary...

  4. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings


    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  5. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers. (United States)

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  6. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  7. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.


    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  8. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  9. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  10. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  11. Physical violence by an intimate partner and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services among women in Northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Carneiro, Jackelyne Faierstein; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de


    To analyze the association between physical violence by an intimate partner (PVIP) and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,026 women, based on data from a prospective cohort study designed to investigate intimate partner violence among pregnant women enrolled in the Family Health Program (PSF) in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. The use of prenatal care services was assessed with basis on the guidelines from the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care and Childbirth (Brazilian Ministry of Health) and considered the time of the first prenatal care visit and the total number of visits during the pregnancy. Data were collected through two face-to-face interviews (one in the last pregnancy trimester and the other in the postpartum period), using standardized questionnaires and data on Pregnancy Card records. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals to measure the association between an PVIP and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services, using the stepwise method. The prevalence of the inappropriate use of prenatal care services was 44.1% and of an PVIP, 25.6%. In the logistic regression analysis, an intimatePVIP was associated with inappropriate prenatal care (OR = 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.85; p = 0.04) after adjustment by variables confirmed as confounders (parity, alcohol use in pregnancy, and education level). Women who are victims of an PVIP have more chance of receiving inappropriate prenatal care due to late onset of prenatal care, fewer prenatal care visits, or both.

  12. Health IT and inappropriate utilization of outpatient imaging: A cross-sectional study of U.S. hospitals. (United States)

    Appari, Ajit; Johnson, M Eric; Anthony, Denise L


    To determine whether the use of information technology (IT), measured by Meaningful Use capability, is associated with lower rates of inappropriate utilization of imaging services in hospital outpatient settings. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 3332 nonfederal U.S. hospitals using data from: Hospital Compare (2011 outpatient imaging efficiency measures), HIMSS Analytics (2009 health IT), and Health Indicator Warehouse (market characteristics). Hospitals were categorized for their health IT infrastructure including EHR Stage-1 capability, and three advanced imaging functionalities/systems including integrated picture archiving and communication system, Web-based image distribution, and clinical decision support (CDS) with physician pathways. Three imaging efficiency measures suggesting inappropriate utilization during 2011 included: percentage of "combined" (with and without contrast) computed tomography (CT) studies out of all CT studies for abdomen and chest respectively, and percentage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of lumbar spine without antecedent conservative therapy within 60days. For each measure, three separate regression models (GLM with gamma-log link function, and denominator of imaging measure as exposure) were estimated adjusting for hospital characteristics, market characteristics, and state fixed effects. Additionally, Heckman's Inverse Mills Ratio and propensity for Stage-1 EHR capability were used to account for selection bias. We find support for association of each of the four health IT capabilities with inappropriate utilization rates of one or more imaging modality. Stage-1 EHR capability is associated with lower inappropriate utilization rates for chest CT (incidence rate ratio IRR=0.72, p-value use of Stage-1 Meaningful Use capable EHR systems along with advanced imaging related functionalities could have a beneficial impact on reducing some of the inappropriate utilization of outpatient imaging. Copyright © 2017

  13. Decreasing inappropriate unable-to-assess ratings for the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Swan, Joshua T


    The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) is a validated tool for diagnosing delirium in the ICU and yields 1 of 3 ratings: positive, negative, and unable to assess (UTA). It was hypothesized that an educational campaign focused on establishing patients' arousal as comatose versus noncomatose before initiating the CAM-ICU would decrease the incidence of inappropriate UTA ratings. To compare the incidence of inappropriate UTA ratings before and after an educational campaign. An interventional, quasi-experimental study was conducted in a surgical ICU at a tertiary academic medical center. A nursing educational campaign was conducted from March 1 to March 7, 2012. Patients admitted to the surgical ICU from December 25, 2011 through January 25, 2012 were included in the baseline cohort, and patients admitted from March 9 through April 9, 2012 were included in the posteducation cohort. Inclusion criteria were admission to the surgical ICU for at least 24 hours and at least 1 CAM-ICU assessment. The baseline cohort included 93 patients and the posteducation cohort included 96 patients. Patients were 41% less likely to receive an inappropriate UTA rating after the educational campaign (32% [30 of 93] baseline vs 19% [18 of 96], P = .03). Patients with concurrent mechanical ventilation were more likely to receive an inappropriate UTA rating in the baseline cohort (odds ratio, 30.7; 95% CI, 8.9-105.9; P < .001) and the posteducation cohort (odds ratio, 15.5; 95% CI, 4.1-59.5; P < .001). The educational campaign decreased the incidence of inappropriate UTA ratings.

  14. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve


    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  15. Air pollution and gastrointestinal diseases in Utah (United States)

    Maestas, Melissa May

    The valleys of northern Utah, where most of Utah's population resides, experience episodic air pollution events well in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Most of the events are due to an accumulation of particulate matter during persistent cold air pools in winter from both direct emissions and secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere. High wintertime ozone concentrations are occasionally observed in the Uintah Basin, in addition to particulate matter. At other times of the year, blowing dust, wildland fires, fireworks, and summertime ozone formation contribute to local air pollution. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate one facet of the health effects of Utah's air pollution on its residents: the acute impacts of air pollution on gastrointestinal (GI) disease. To study the health effects of these episodic pollution events, some measure of air pollution exposure must be matched to the health data. Time and place are used to link the health data for a person with the pollution data. This dissertation describes the method of kriging data from the sparse pollution monitoring network to estimate personal air pollution history based on the zip code of residence. This dissertation then describes the application of these exposure estimates to a health study on GI disease. The purpose of the GI study is to retrospectively look at two groups of patients during 2000-2014: those with autoimmune disease of the GI tract (inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) and those with allergic disease of the GI tract (eosinophilic esophagitis, EoE) to determine whether disease exacerbations occur more commonly during and following periods of poor air quality compared to periods of good air quality. The primary analysis method is case crossover design. In addition to using the kriged air pollution estimates, the analysis was repeated using simpler empirical estimation methods to assess whether the odds ratios are sensitive to the air pollution estimation

  16. Coronaviruses induce entry-independent, continuous macropinocytosis. (United States)

    Freeman, Megan Culler; Peek, Christopher T; Becker, Michelle M; Smith, Everett Clinton; Denison, Mark R


    Macropinocytosis is exploited by many pathogens for entry into cells. Coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV are important human pathogens; however, macropinocytosis during CoV infection has not been investigated. We demonstrate that the CoVs SARS CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induce macropinocytosis, which occurs late during infection, is continuous, and is not associated with virus entry. MHV-induced macropinocytosis results in vesicle internalization, as well as extended filopodia capable of fusing with distant cells. MHV-induced macropinocytosis requires fusogenic spike protein on the cell surface and is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Inhibition of macropinocytosis reduces supernatant viral titers and syncytia but not intracellular virus titers. These results indicate that macropinocytosis likely facilitates CoV infection through enhanced cell-to-cell spreading. Our studies are the first to demonstrate virus use of macropinocytosis for a role other than entry and suggest a much broader potential exploitation of macropinocytosis in virus replication and host interactions. Importance: Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, are critical emerging human pathogens. Macropinocytosis is induced by many pathogens to enter host cells, but other functions for macropinocytosis in virus replication are unknown. In this work, we show that CoVs induce a macropinocytosis late in infection that is continuous, independent from cell entry, and associated with increased virus titers and cell fusion. Murine hepatitis virus macropinocytosis requires a fusogenic virus spike protein and signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor and the classical macropinocytosis pathway. These studies demonstrate CoV induction of macropinocytosis for a purpose other than entry and indicate that viruses

  17. RTLS entry ranging analysis. [space shuttle reentry trajectory (United States)

    Crull, T. J.


    Definition of the ranging capability of a mission 3A return-to-launch-site entry is reported. The limits on downrange and crossrange are established at the initiation of RTLS entry so that terminal area energy management interface conditions were achieved satisfactorily. The downrange and crossrange limits were defined for both nominal RTLS entry conditions and a composite set of dispersed RTLS entry conditions. The results indicate a wide range of acceptable downrange and crossrange positions are available at RTLS entry initiation for nominal conditions. This is greatly reduced when dispersions are considered. For dispersed RTLS entry conditions, an 18 nautical mile range of acceptable downranges is available at zero crossrange.

  18. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.


    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool for studies of soil gas and radon-222 entry into houses. It is the purpose of this paper to review some main techniques and results. In the past, modelling has focused on Darcy flow of soil gas (driven by indoor–outdoor pressure differences) and combined......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure...... experiments need to be extrapolated to more general situations (e.g. to real houses or even to other soil–gas pollutants). Finally, models provide a cost-effective test bench for improved designs of radon prevention systems. The paper includes a summary of transport equations and boundary conditions...

  19. 19 CFR 141.61 - Completion of entry and entry summary documentation. (United States)


    ... mailed to agent. If an importer of record desires to have refunds, bills, or notices of liquidation..., CBP Form 7501; the transportation entry and manifest of goods, CBP Form 7512, when used to document an...

  20. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market


    Karataev, Oleg


    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  1. Empagliflozin Increases Short-Term Urinary Volume Output in Artificially Induced Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Refardt


    Full Text Available Objective. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH is the predominant cause of hyponatremia, but treatment options are unsatisfying. SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion with concomitant osmotic diuresis. We therefore hypothesized SGLT2-inhibitors as a novel treatment for SIADH. Design. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover study in 14 healthy volunteers. Methods. We induced an artificial SIADH model by administration of desmopressin and overhydration. Afterwards, empagliflozin 25 mg or placebo was given in random order. The main outcomes were total urinary excretion, glucosuria, and the area under the curve (AUC of serum sodium concentration. Outcome measures were obtained 2–8 hours after administration of study drug. Results. 14 participants (64% males, BMI 23 kg/m2 (±2.4, aged 28.6 years (±9, completed the study. Empagliflozin led to significantly increased total urinary excretion (579.3 ml (±194.8 versus 367.3 ml (±158.8; treatment effect 158 ml (CI 48.29, 267.74, p=0.017 due to glucosuria (74.18 mmol (±22.3 versus 0.12 mmol (±0.04; treatment effect (log scale 2.85 (CI 2.75, 2.96, p<0.001. There was no difference in the AUC of serum sodium concentration (treatment effect 0.2 (CI −7.38, 6.98, p=0.96. Conclusion. In our SIADH model, empagliflozin increased urinary excretion due to osmotic diuresis. Due to the short treatment duration, serum sodium levels remained unchanged. Real-live studies are needed to further examine empagliflozin as a new treatment for SIADH.

  2. Positive urine cultures: A major cause of inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals? (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Baillie, Laura; Simor, Andrew E


    Urine specimens are among the most common samples submitted for culture to microbiology laboratories. The objectives of the present study were to describe the indications for obtaining urine cultures in a cohort of hospitalized patients, and to determine the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in response to urine culture results. The study was performed at a teaching hospital with an adjoining long-term care facility from June 1 to July 31, 2006. The medical records of nonpregnant adult patients with and without bacteriuria were reviewed. A symptomatic urinary tract infection was defined as the presence of bacteriuria in a patient with fever or urinary symptoms; asymptomatic bacteriuria was defined as bacteriuria without urinary symptoms and no infection evident at another site. Medical records of 335 eligible patients (64% male; mean age 68 years) were reviewed, including all 137 with bacteriuria, and 198 with negative urine cultures. In total, 51% of the urine specimens were obtained from an indwelling urinary catheter, and 28% were voided urine samples. Confusion (57%) and fever (36%) were the most common indications noted for obtaining the urine cultures. Only 34 patients (25% of those with positive urine cultures) met the criteria for a symptomatic urinary tract infection; 67 (49%) had asymptomatic bacteriuria and 36 (26%) had infection at a nonurinary site. Of those with asymptomatic bacteriuria, 64% received antimicrobial therapy for a total of 347 days. Confused patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to be treated than were bacteriuric patients without altered mental status (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.1; P=0.03). Urine cultures are frequently obtained from hospitalizedpatients,evenintheabsenceofurinarysymptoms.Asymptomatic bacteriuria is often treated in these patients, and accounts for a substantial burden of inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals. Effective strategies to improve urine culture ordering and antimicrobial

  3. Carbon dioxide narcosis due to inappropriate oxygen delivery: a case report. (United States)

    Herren, Thomas; Achermann, Eva; Hegi, Thomas; Reber, Adrian; Stäubli, Max


    Oxygen delivery to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be challenging because of their potential hypoxic ventilatory drive. However, some oxygen delivery systems such as non-rebreathing face masks with an oxygen reservoir bag require high oxygen flow for adequate oxygenation and to avoid carbon dioxide rebreathing. A 72-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the emergency department because of worsening dyspnea and an oxygen saturation of 81% measured by pulse oximetry. Oxygen was administered using a non-rebreathing mask with an oxygen reservoir bag attached. For fear of removing the hypoxic stimulus to respiration the oxygen flow was inappropriately limited to 4L/minute. The patient developed carbon dioxide narcosis and had to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. Non-rebreathing masks with oxygen reservoir bags must be fed with an oxygen flow exceeding the patient's minute ventilation (>6-10 L/minute.). If not, the amount of oxygen delivered will be too small to effectively increase the arterial oxygen saturation. Moreover, the risk of carbon dioxide rebreathing dramatically increases if the flow of oxygen to a non-rebreathing mask is lower than the minute ventilation, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low tidal volumes. Non-rebreathing masks (with oxygen reservoir bags) must be used cautiously by experienced medical staff and with an appropriately high oxygen flow of 10-15 L/minute. Nevertheless, arterial blood gases must be analyzed regularly for early detection of a rise in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a hypoxic ventilatory drive. These patients are more safely managed using a nasal cannula with an oxygen flow of 1-2L/minute or a simple face mask with an oxygen flow of 5L/minute.

  4. Polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use in patients with dementia: an underresearched problem (United States)

    Parsons, Carole


    Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are increasingly prevalent across healthcare systems and settings as global demographic trends shift towards increased proportions of older people in populations. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP), and have reported high prevalence of PIP across settings of care in Europe and North America and, as a consequence, increased risk of adverse drug reactions, healthcare utilization, morbidity and mortality. These studies have not focused specifically on people with dementia, despite the high risk of adverse drug reactions and PIP in this patient cohort. This narrative review considers the evidence currently available in the area, including studies examining prevalence of PIP in older people with dementia, how appropriateness of prescribing is assessed, the medications most commonly implicated, the clinical consequences, and research priorities to optimize prescribing for this vulnerable patient group. Although there has been a considerable research effort to develop criteria to assess medication appropriateness in older people in recent years, the majority of tools do not focus on people with dementia. Of the limited number of tools available, most focus on the advanced stages of dementia in which life expectancy is limited. The development of tools to assess medication appropriateness in people with mild to moderate dementia or across the full spectrum of disease severity represents an important gap in the research literature and is beginning to attract research interest, with recent studies considering the medication regimen as a whole, or misprescribing, overprescribing or underprescribing of certain medications/medication classes, including anticholinergics, psychotropics, antibiotics and analgesics. Further work is required in development and validation of criteria to assess prescribing appropriateness in this vulnerable patient population, to

  5. [Results of an intervention to reduce potentially inappropriate prescriptions of beta blockers and calcium channel blockers]. (United States)

    Machado-Alba, J E; Giraldo-Giraldo, C; Aguirre Novoa, A


    To determine the frequency of simultaneous prescription of β-blockers and calcium channel blockers, notify the cardiovascular risk of these patients to the health care professionals in charge of them, and achieve a reduction in the number of those who use them. Quasi-experimental, prospective study by developing an intervention on medical prescriptions of patients older than 65 years treated between January 1 and July 30, 2014, affiliated to the Health System in 101 cities in Colombia. A total of 43,180 patients received a β-blocker each month, and 14,560 receiving a calcium channel blocker were identified. Educational interventions were performed and an evaluation was made, using sociodemographic and pharmacological variables, on the number of patients that stopped taking any of the two drugs in the following three months. A total of 535 patients, with a mean age 75.8±6.7 years received concomitant β-blockers plus calcium channel blockers. Modification of therapy was achieved in 235 patients (43.9% of users) after 66 educational interventions. In 209 cases (88.9%) one of the two drugs was suspended, and 11.1% changed to other antihypertensive drugs. The variable of being more than 85 years old (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07-3.50), and receiving concomitant medication with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.28-3.65) were associated with increased risk of their doctor changing or stopping the prescription. An improved adherence to recommendations for appropriate use of β-blockers and calcium channel blockers by health service providers was achieved. Intervention programs that reduce potentially inappropriate prescriptions for patients treated for cardiovascular disease should be used more frequently. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  7. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Denis; O'Sullivan, David; Byrne, Stephen; O'Connor, Marie Noelle; Ryan, Cristin; Gallagher, Paul


    Screening tool of older people's prescriptions (STOPP) and screening tool to alert to right treatment (START) criteria were first published in 2008. Due to an expanding therapeutics evidence base, updating of the criteria was required. We reviewed the 2008 STOPP/START criteria to add new evidence-based criteria and remove any obsolete criteria. A thorough literature review was performed to reassess the evidence base of the 2008 criteria and the proposed new criteria. Nineteen experts from 13 European countries reviewed a new draft of STOPP & START criteria including proposed new criteria. These experts were also asked to propose additional criteria they considered important to include in the revised STOPP & START criteria and to highlight any criteria from the 2008 list they considered less important or lacking an evidence base. The revised list of criteria was then validated using the Delphi consensus methodology. The expert panel agreed a final list of 114 criteria after two Delphi validation rounds, i.e. 80 STOPP criteria and 34 START criteria. This represents an overall 31% increase in STOPP/START criteria compared with version 1. Several new STOPP categories were created in version 2, namely antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs, drugs affecting, or affected by, renal function and drugs that increase anticholinergic burden; new START categories include urogenital system drugs, analgesics and vaccines. STOPP/START version 2 criteria have been expanded and updated for the purpose of minimizing inappropriate prescribing in older people. These criteria are based on an up-to-date literature review and consensus validation among a European panel of experts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  8. Radiation Therapy Results of Invasive Cervical Carcinoma Found After Inappropriate Hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Eun Seog; Nam, Kae Hyun; Huh, Seung Jae


    remained after inappropriate hysterectomy was poor. So, early cancer detection and proper management with precise pretreatment staging is necessary to avoid inadherent hysterectomy especially in the cases of gross residual disease

  9. Potentially inappropriate medication in the elderly in Germany: an economic appraisal of the PRISCUS list. (United States)

    Pohl-Dernick, Katharina; Meier, Florian; Maas, Renke; Schöffski, Oliver; Emmert, Martin


    Several lists of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for elderly patients have been developed worldwide in recent years. Those lists intend to reduce prescriptions of drugs that carry an unnecessarily high risk of adverse drug events in elderly patients. In 2010, an expert panel published the PRISCUS list for the German drug market. This study calculates the amount of drug reimbursement for PIM in Germany and potential cost effects from the perspective of statutory health insurance when these are replaced by the substitutes recommended by the PRISCUS list. Register-based data for the 30 top-selling drugs on the PRISCUS list in 2009 for patients greater than or equal to 65 years of age were provided by the Scientific Institute of the German Local Health Care Fund. We calculated the percentage of sales and defined daily doses for patients greater than or equal to 65 years of age compared with the total statutory health insurance population. Reimbursement costs for the recommended substitutions were estimated by considering different scenarios. In 2009, drug reimbursement for the 30 top-selling PIM prescribed to patients greater than or equal to 65 years of age were calculated to be €305.7 million. Prescribing the recommended substitution medication instead of PIM would lead to an increased total reimbursement cost for the German health care system ranging between from €325.9 million to €810.0 million. The results show that the substitution of PIM by medication deemed to be more appropriate for the elderly comes along with additional costs. Consequently, there is no short-term incentive for doing so from a payer perspective. Future studies have to consider the long-term effects and other sectors.

  10. Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Gallagher


    Full Text Available Prescribing guidelines do not recommend the long-term use of benzodiazepines since their effectiveness with chronic use is out-weighed by risks including dependence, memory and cognitive impairment, hip fractures and traffic accidents. Despite these guidelines, historical data points to an increasing proportion of inappropriate, repeat prescribing of benzodiazepines in Ireland and elsewhere, with up to 33% of patients who use these drugs doing so long-term. The typical long-term benzodiazepine user is an older, socio-economically disadvantaged patient who has been prescribed these medicines by their general practitioner (GP and dispensed them by their community pharmacist. Misuse of benzodiazepines in nursing homes and psychiatric institutions is also of concern, with one Irish study indicating that almost half of all admissions to a psychiatric hospital were prescribed these drugs, usually despite a lack of clear clinical need. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines has proven to be of benefit, as it is followed by improvements in cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in elderly patients. It is obvious that an inter-professional effort, focusing on the primary care setting, is required to address benzodiazepine misuse and to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists must be an integral part of this inter-professional effort, not least because they are uniquely positioned as the health professional with most frequent patient contact. There is already some supporting evidence that pharmacists’ involvement in interventions to reduce benzodiazepine use can have positive effects on patient outcomes. Here, this evidence is reviewed and the potential for pharmacists to play an expanded role in ensuring the appropriate use of benzodiazepines is discussed.

  11. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  12. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Mat Isa


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  13. Issue in pollution control: interplant cost differences and economies of scale. (United States)

    Pittman, R.W.


    Seeks evidence concerning the issues of the relative efficiencies of different institutional arrangements for pollution control and the implications of control requirements for economies of scale and barriers to entry. Data is derived from the estimation of a production function for 30 pulp and paper mills in Wisconsin and Michigan. Concludes that the systematic differences in marginal treatment costs for different mills are evidence of serious inefficiencies resulting from the current (US) system of pollution control regulation. The positive association of pollution control intensity with economies of scale suggests that any pollution control regime has some negative allocational effects in this industry (and presumably others). -K.Turner

  14. Prospective evaluation of inappropriate unable-to-assess CAM-ICU documentations of critically ill adult patients. (United States)

    Terry, Kimberly J; Anger, Kevin E; Szumita, Paul M


    Delirium occurs in the intensive care unit and identification is often performed using a validated assessment tool such as the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) patients. The CAM-ICU has three ratings: positive, negative, and unable to assess (UTA). Patients may often be assigned UTA when it is inappropriate given the level of sedation or medical condition. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rate of inappropriate UTA CAM-ICU documentations. A single-center prospective observational analysis was performed evaluating CAM-ICU documentations from October 27, 2014, to December 26, 2014. Patients admitted to the medical and surgical ICU were included and excluded if admitted to the ICU for less than 24 h. CAM-ICU assessments were performed per institutional guidelines using CAM-ICU scoring as validated in literature. CAM-ICU patient documentations were recorded as positive, negative, UTA, or not assessed. Patients with an appropriate UTA documentation were deeply sedated, non-English speaking, or not medically able to participate in the assessment. The major endpoint assessed rates of inappropriate UTA CAM-ICU documentations. Minor endpoints evaluated adherence to CAM-ICU documentations and use of pharmacologic agents for symptoms of delirium. Sixty-one patients were identified with 45 (74 %) medical, 16 (26 %) surgical, of which 27 (44.3 %) were mechanically ventilated. There were 116 UTA documentations with 35 (30.2 %) identified as inappropriate. Of the 906 identified CAM-ICU documentation opportunities, adherence was 439 (48.5 %). Overall, 18 (29.5 %) of the 61 patients were administered pharmacologic agents for delirium management and 5 (27.7 %) had a positive CAM-ICU documented within 24 h. Rates of inappropriate UTA CAM-ICU documentations may be significantly higher than reported in literature. Additional research is needed to identify an acceptable rate of inappropriate UTA CAM-ICU assessments and its clinical impact

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with inappropriate use of treadmill exercise stress test for coronary artery disease: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Silva, Antônio M L; Armstrong, Anderson C; Silveira, Fernando J C; Cavalcanti, Marcelo D; França, Fernando M F; Correia, Luis C L


    In some countries, the public health system has less availability when compared to the population covered by health insurance. In addition, inappropriate referrals for treadmill exercise stress test increase spending and lead to unnecessary interventions. We aim to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inappropriate referrals for treadmill exercise stress tests in the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD), considering public and private health systems scenarios. A cross-sectional design was used to describe the frequency of inappropriate use of exercise testing in the diagnosis of CAD and to determine its predictors. We consecutively enrolled 191 patients from two outpatient facilities in Northeast Brazil. For inclusion, the exercise testing should be referred for the assessment of CAD. We performed logistic regression models to identify independent predictors of inappropriate use. Treadmill exercise stress tests were rated as inappropriate in 150 (78 %) patients. The majority of patients had low or very low pre-test probability of CAD. Presence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were more frequent in the appropriate than inappropriate indications (71 %, 19 % and 29 % versus 43 %, 8 % and 16 %, respectively). Tests performed both at the public and private system showed high prevalence of inappropriate examinations, higher in the latter (57 % versus 87 %, P test referrals in the assessment of CAD were inappropriate. The availability of the method and not the estimate probability of CAD appear to be the underlying condition for a treadmill test referral.

  16. Women born preterm or with inappropriate weight for gestational age are at risk of subsequent gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Damm, Peter


    Low birthweight, which can be caused by inappropriate intrauterine growth or prematurity, is associated with development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as pre-eclampsia later in life, but the relative effects of prematurity and inappropriate intrauterine growth remain uncertain....

  17. Inadequate drug prescribing: comparison of inappropriate drug rates at the end of a geriatric short-stay service with three prescribing tools. (United States)

    Fanon, Jean-Luc; Dechavigny, Sandra; Dramé, Moustapha; Godaert, Lidvine


    To compare the proportion of prescriptions containing at least one inappropriate drug, as identified using three tools for optimizing drug prescriptions in the elderly. Cross-sectional, observational study based on the analysis of prescriptions of patients discharged between 1 September and 31 October 2014 in a short-stay geriatrics unit at the Louis Domergue de Trinité Hospital in Martinique (France). Each prescription was analysed using 3 tools, namely one for general medicine (Vidal © drug dictionary) and two tools specifically designed for geriatrics (the Laroche list of potentially inappropriate medications, and the STOPP-START toolkit). The number of prescriptions containing at least one inappropriate medication was recorded as evaluated with each tool. These prescriptions were then compared to investigate whether the two geriatric tools identified the same prescriptions as being inappropriate. In total, 53 prescriptions were analysed. The male-female sex ratio was 0.70. The average age of the patients was 84.5±6.2 years. Analysis according to the Vidal © drug dictionary identified the greatest number of inappropriate prescriptions (28.3% of all prescriptions). The proportion of prescriptions containing at least one inappropriate drug was lower with the two tools specific to geriatrics (11% for the Laroche list and 7.5% for the STOPP-START method). The general medicine Vidal © drug dictionary identified more inappropriate prescriptions than the tools specifically designed for geriatrics. The tools for aiding drug prescriptions in the elderly identified different drugs as being inappropriate.

  18. Marine Pollution Prevention Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  19. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams. (United States)

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry


    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  20. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  1. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  2. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC


    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  3. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  4. The HIV-1 Entry Process: A Stoichiometric View. (United States)

    Brandenberg, Oliver F; Magnus, Carsten; Regoes, Roland R; Trkola, Alexandra


    HIV-1 infection starts with fusion of the viral and the host cell membranes, a process mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. The number of trimers required to complete membrane fusion, referred to as HIV-1 entry stoichiometry, remains under debate. A precise definition of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry is important as it reflects the efficacy of the viral entry process and steers the infectivity of HIV-1 virion populations. Initial estimates suggested a unanimous entry stoichiometry across HIV-1 strains while recent findings showed that HIV-1 strains can differ in entry stoichiometry. Here, we review current analyses of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry and point out future research directions to further define the interplay between entry stoichiometry, virus entry fitness, transmission, and susceptibility to antibody neutralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi entry framework for financial and risk reporting


    Staszkiewicz, Piotr W.


    Author challenges one of the oldest accounting double bookkeeping rules, used since 1494, and proposes instead application of the quadruple accounting entry. He presents the concept of the multiply accounting entry for the risk financial statements and risk management. The development gap concept is described and introduces a simplified entry and reporting example. Model is illustrated with a number of financial-risk statements and attributes including the journal entries. The potential co...

  6. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.


    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  7. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy


    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  8. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.


    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  9. Available hardware for automated entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.


    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  10. Air Pollution Training Programs. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  11. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology


    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition. (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  13. The Other Water Pollution (United States)

    Barton, Kathy


    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition. (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  16. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.


    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  17. Entry Mistakes, Entrepreneurial Boldness and Optimism


    Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D


    We analyze the investment decision of a population of time inconsistent entrepreneurs who overweight current payoffs relative to future returns. We show that, in order to avoid inefficient procrastination, agents may find it optimal to keep optimistic priors about their chances of success and 'blindly invest'. This explains entrepreneurial boldness and entry mistakes (or an excessive level of investment in the economy) without assuming the existence of boundedly rational, 'intrinsically optim...

  18. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers


    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.


    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on the seven generic factors, a conjoint analysis is carried out to identify the most important factors perceived by firms. The conjoint analysis shows that in particular the barriers rooted in three ...

  19. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories (United States)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.


    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  20. Capacity and Entry Deterrence under Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poddar, Sougata

    I consider a two period model with an incumbent firm and a potential entrant each of whom produces a homogeneous good. There is a demand uncertainty: it can be high or low and it realizes in the second period. The question I ask: How by choosing capacity at an earlier period of actual production ...... affects the incumbent's decision regarding entry deterrence/accommodation. I compare the results with the case where there is no uncertainty...

  1. Computational modelling of meiotic entry and commitment


    Bhola, Tanvi; Kapuy, Orsolya; Vinod, P. K.


    In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the re...

  2. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  3. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  4. Dynamics in car ownership: the role of entry into parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Manting, D.; Nijland, H.


    This study investigates the impact of entry into parenthood on changes in car ownership. If entry into parenthood affects changes in car ownership, then delay or offset of entry into parenthood might also be an important explanation of recent car travel trends of young adults. This study analysed

  5. 7 CFR 1493.490 - Proof of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of entry. 1493.490 Section 1493.490 Agriculture... Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.490 Proof of entry. (a) Diversion. The diversion of commodities covered..., unless expressly authorized by the GSM. (b) Records of proof of entry. Exporters must obtain and maintain...

  6. 7 CFR 1493.290 - Proof of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of entry. 1493.290 Section 1493.290 Agriculture... Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.290 Proof of entry. (a) Diversion. The diversion of goods covered by a... prohibited, unless expressly authorized by the GSM. (b) Records of proof of entry. Exporters must obtain and...

  7. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Peter; Wrzaczek, S.


    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry

  8. 33 CFR 160.107 - Denial of entry. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Denial of entry. 160.107 Section... § 160.107 Denial of entry. Each District Commander or Captain of the Port, subject to recognized principles of international law, may deny entry into the navigable waters of the United States or to any port...

  9. 30 CFR 842.13 - Right of entry. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 842.13 Section 842.13 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL INSPECTIONS AND MONITORING § 842.13 Right of entry. (a) Each... right of entry to, upon, and through any coal exploration or surface coal mining and reclamation...

  10. 7 CFR 1493.100 - Proof of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of entry. 1493.100 Section 1493.100 Agriculture....100 Proof of entry. (a) Diversion. The diversion of commodities covered by a GSM-102 or GSM-103... expressly authorized by the GSM. (b) Records of proof of entry. Exporters must obtain and maintain records...

  11. 19 CFR 191.154 - Filing the entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing the entry. 191.154 Section 191.154 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Merchandise Exported From Continuous Customs Custody § 191.154 Filing the entry. (a... office a direct export drawback entry on Customs Form 7551 in duplicate. (b) Merchandise transported to...

  12. 30 CFR 721.12 - Right of entry. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 721.12 Section 721.12 Mineral... REGULATIONS FEDERAL INSPECTIONS § 721.12 Right of entry. (a) Authorized representatives of the Secretary..., shall have the right of entry to, upon, or through any surface coal mining and reclamation operations or...

  13. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 840.12 Section 840.12 Mineral... of entry. (a) Within its jurisdiction, the State regulatory authority shall have authority that grants its representatives a right of entry to, upon, and through any coal exploration or surface coal...

  14. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section...-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be ineligible for importation into the United States upon arrival at the port of entry, the importer must remove the...

  15. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into the...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1160 - Restrictions on vessel entry. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on vessel entry. 13.1160 Section 13.1160 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Vessel Permits § 13.1160 Restrictions on vessel entry. The superintendent will allow vessel entry in...

  17. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the date...

  18. Symptomatic Hypoglycemia Related to Inappropriately High IGF-II Serum Levels in a Patient with Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Fernandes Barra


    Full Text Available A 45-year old man was diagnosed with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT with involvement of the peritoneum and pelvis. Disease progression was observed despite systemic chemotherapy. Six months after diagnosis, he developed severe hypoglycemia presented with seizures. He received intravenous glucose infusion and hydrocortisone with poor glycemic control, but with seizures resolution. The investigation excluded insulinoma, adrenal, liver and GH deficiencies. Laboratory showed slight rise of IGF-II and significant increase of the ratio IGF-II : IGF-I, which is pathognomonic of non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH. He received the diagnoses of NICTH related to IGF-II inappropriate production by DSRCT. Despite the attempt to control tumor mass and hypoglycemia, the patient died 9 months after diagnosis. NICTH related to inappropriate IGF-II secretion should be investigated in all cancer patients with refractory hypoglycemia whom insulinoma and other metabolic abnormalities were excluded from.

  19. Fungal suppression of resistance against inappropriate ¤Blumeria graminis formae speciales¤ in barley, oat and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, K.L.; Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged


    When barley, wheat or oat leaf epidermal cells were attacked by their appropriate forma specialis (f.sp.) of Blumeria graminis DC. Speer (f.sp. hordei, tritici and avenae, respectively), many attempted penetrations succeeded, functional haustoria were formed and very few plant cells died. When...... attacked by either of the two possible inappropriate ff.spp., penetration attempts failed in association with papilla deposition by epidermal cells, attacked cells died, or if visible haustoria were formed the plant cell died very soon afterwards. Double inoculation experiments were performed where each...... the inducer haustorium, evident to some extent in adjacent cells, but undetectable at two cells distance. Suppression of penetration resistance allowed most challenger attacks, even by inappropriate ff.spp., to form a haustorium. Furthermore, death of penetrated epidermal cells was also suppressed so...

  20. Factors contributing to medication errors made when using computerized order entry in pediatrics: a systematic review. (United States)

    Tolley, Clare L; Forde, Niamh E; Coffey, Katherine L; Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Husband, Andrew K; Bates, David W; Slight, Sarah P


    To identify and understand the factors that contribute to medication errors associated with the use of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) in pediatrics and provide recommendations on how CPOE systems could be improved. We conducted a systematic literature review across 3 large databases: the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and Medline. Three independent reviewers screened the titles, and 2 authors then independently reviewed all abstracts and full texts, with 1 author acting as a constant across all publications. Data were extracted onto a customized data extraction sheet, and a narrative synthesis of all eligible studies was undertaken. A total of 47 articles were included in this review. We identified 5 factors that contributed to errors with the use of a CPOE system: (1) lack of drug dosing alerts, which failed to detect calculation errors; (2) generation of inappropriate dosing alerts, such as warnings based on incorrect drug indications; (3) inappropriate drug duplication alerts, as a result of the system failing to consider factors such as the route of administration; (4) dropdown menu selection errors; and (5) system design issues, such as a lack of suitable dosing options for a particular drug. This review highlights 5 key factors that contributed to the occurrence of CPOE-related medication errors in pediatrics. Dosing support is the most important. More advanced clinical decision support that can suggest doses based on the drug indication is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries. (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E


    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length. (United States)

    Park, Soo-An; Kwak, Dai-Soon; You, Sung-Lim


    To evaluate the entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length. Computed tomography images of pelvic bones from 90 human cadavers were reconstructed into 3-dimensional models. In each model, a sectional image crossing the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and consecutive sectional images up to 20 mm superiorly and inferiorly from the PSIS with 1-mm intervals aiming the AIIS were obtained. One virtual iliac screw with 10-mm diameter was introduced onto the PSIS at the middle and at the lateral and medial 1/4 points on the prominence of the posterior iliac spine. The entry width of the bony prominence and the corresponding maximal screw length available were evaluated for each entry point. The entry width was smallest on the inferior 20 mm (4.7 ± 3.0 mm) and gradually increased up to the superior 10 mm (19.1 ± 3.9 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw length was smallest on the superior 20 mm (76.7 ± 39.7 mm) and gradually increased down to the inferior 10 mm (112.3 ± 15.1 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw lengths were significantly greatest at the most medial point and smallest at the most lateral point on the superior 20- and 10-mm sectional images and at the PSIS. The iliac screw fixation entry zone to maintain proper screw length and entry width is outlined from 20 mm superiorly to 10 mm inferiorly from the PSIS and is located more medially from the prominence of the posterior iliac spine.

  3. [Association between moderate-severe bronchiolitis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in emergency departments]. (United States)

    Toledo del Castillo, B; González Ruiz de León, E; Rivas García, A; Vázquez López, P; Miguez Navarro, M C; Marañón Pardillo, R


    To identify clinical characteristics that may lead to the early recognition of patients admitted to the hospital for moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis with urine results associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). A prospective observational study was conducted, spanning the bronchiolitis epidemic season (October 2012-March 2013), including all children who were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis. The following criteria were used to establish a diagnosis of SIADH: urine sodium level of 40 mmol/L or greater, urine osmolarity above 500 mosm/Kg, and urine density of 1020 g/L or greater. Demographic characteristics, ventilation mode and clinical outcome were also analyzed. A comparison was made between those patients that met urine SIADH criteria and those who did not. A total of 126 children were included, and 23 (18.6%) of them had urine SIADH criteria. Patients in this group had a higher incidence of pneumonia and/or atelectasis on chest X-Ray (21.7% vs. 1.9%, P=.002), worse response to bronchodilator treatment with nebulized adrenaline (69,5% vs. 28,1%, P=.016), more need for respiratory assistance (high flow oxygen therapy (17.4% vs. 7.7%, p=.016), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (13% vs. 5.8%, P=.034), and more admissions to the PICU (26.1% vs. 6.8%, P=.007). Patients older than one month with acute moderate bronchiolitis and urine SIADH criteria have worse clinical courses and more need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation, PICU admission, and have a higher incidence of pneumonia on chest X-ray. For that reason, it is recommended to collect a urine sample from these patients to allow an early diagnosis of SIADH, and thus early treatment of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid storm due to inappropriate administration of a compounded thyroid hormone preparation successfully treated with plasmapheresis. (United States)

    Jha, Sujeet; Waghdhare, Swati; Reddi, Rajashekar; Bhattacharya, Priyanka


    Thyroid storm (TS) is a rare life-threatening condition that is characterized by fever and altered mental status precipitated by endogenous or exogenous critical events, illness/injury, acute iodine load, and thyroid or non thyroid surgery. A large number of thyroid extracts are available and extensively used, even though they are not recommended clinically in hypothyroid or euthyroid patients. Consumption of such products can be dangerous and result in life-threatening TS. Here, we report a case of TS caused by inadvertent intake of very high dosages of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in compounded thyroid extracts. Plasmapheresis may be considered an option for the management of exogenous TS. A 62-year-old woman with no significant past medical history presented with severe myalgia, fever, tachycardia, and blood pressure of 170/80 mmHg, which precipitated to an altered mental state within 24 hours. Neurological examination did not reveal any focal deficit or any signs of meningeal irritation. Further investigation revealed that she had been taking thyroid supplements. The patient had accidentally been supplied with a batch of thyroid extract pills that had an inadvertently high content of T4. Her free T3 (FT3) and free T4 (FT4) levels were found to be very high beyond the laboratory readable range (FT3>30 pg/mL; FT4>6.06 ng/dL; thyrotropin [TSH]=0.07 IU/mL). Three days post commencement of standard conservative management of TS, the patient developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, resulting in a seizure. She remained unresponsive and in a poor mental state. The confirmed exogenous etiology for TS led to a decision to conduct plasmapheresis. Plasmapheresis conducted for two consecutive days proved successful as a therapeutic measure for TS and improved her thyroid profile as well as her mental state. The inappropriate use of thyroid extracts in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients can result in life-threatening TS. Plasmapheresis is probably

  5. Inappropriate Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Elderly Patients Discharged from Acute Care Hospitals. (United States)

    Schepisi, R; Fusco, S; Sganga, F; Falcone, B; Vetrano, D L; Abbatecola, A; Corica, F; Maggio, M; Ruggiero, C; Fabbietti, P; Corsonello, A; Onder, G; Lattanzio, F


    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) are extensively prescribed in older patients. However, little information is available on factors associated to PPI prescribing patterns among older patients discharged from hospital. To evaluate the appropriateness and clinical correlates of PPI prescription at discharge in a population of 1081 older patients discharged from acute care Italian hospitals. We used data from the CRiteria to Assess Appropriate Medication Use among Elderly Complex Patients (CRIME) study, a multicenter observational study. The appropriateness of PPI prescriptions was defined according to the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) rules. Correlates of overprescribing (i.e prescribing without recognized AIFA indications) and underprescribing (i.e. not prescribing despite the presence of recognized AIFA indications) were investigated by logistic regression analysis. Overprescribing was observed in 30% of patients receiving PPIs at discharge. Underprescribing was observed in 11% of patients not receiving PPIs at discharge. Overprescribing of PPIs at discharge was negatively associated with age (OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.85-0.91), depression (OR=0.58, 95%CI=0.35-0.96), use of aspirin (OR=0.03, 95%CI=0.02-0.06) and systemic corticosteroids (OR=0.02, 95%CI=0.01-0.04). The negative association with number of medications (OR=0.95, 95%CI=0.88-1.03) and overall comorbidities (OR=0.92, 95%CI=0.83-1.02) was nearly significant. Conversely, older age (OR=1.09, 95%CI=1.04-1.14), use of aspirin (OR=24.0, 95%CI=11.5-49.8) and systemic corticosteroids (OR=19.3, 95%CI=11.5-49.8) and overall comorbidities (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.04-1.42) were independent correlates of underprescribing. Overprescribing of PPIs is more frequent in younger patients with lower burden of depression, whilst underprescribing is characterized by older age and greater burden of comorbidity and polypharmacy. Hospitalization should be considered as a clue to identify inappropriate use of PPIs and improve appropriateness of

  6. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussai S


    Full Text Available S Ussai,1,2 L Miceli,3 F E Pisa,4 R Bednarova,5 A Giordano,1,2 G Della Rocca,3 R Petelin6 1Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 2Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Center of Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, 4Institute of Hygiene and Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Udine, 5Department of Palliative Care and Pain Medicine, Health Company n.5, Bassa Friulana, Italy; 6School of Management, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA, USA Abstract: Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1 the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2 potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients’ pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical

  7. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.


    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  8. Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly: a comparison of the Beers criteria and the improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET) in acutely ill elderly hospitalized patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J


    BACKGROUND: In appropriate prescribing is a significant and persistent problem in elderly people, both in hospital and the community and has been described in several countries in Europe and also the USA. The problem of inappropriate prescribing has not been quantified in the Republic of Ireland. The most commonly used criteria for the identification of inappropriate prescribing are the Beers\\' criteria [both independent of diagnosis (ID) and considering diagnosis (CD) - 2003 version]. The Beers\\' criteria ID includes 48 different categories of either single medications or multiple medications of a similar class identified as inappropriate prescriptions and the Beers\\' criteria CD contains 19 different categories containing possible drug-disease interactions. A second tool, the improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET) has also been validated and used in hospital and community studies and has 14 categories of either explicitly contraindicated medications or possible drug-disease interactions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the study is to measure the incidence of inappropriate prescribing among older community-dwelling individuals presenting to an acute hospital in the Republic of Ireland. A secondary aim of this study was also therefore to compare the efficacy of the above two tools in identifying inappropriate prescribing. METHODS: A prospective, consecutive observational cohort study was carried out over a 4-month period. The setting was an urban-based university hospital acute geriatric medicine assessment unit. Subjects in this study (n = 350) were consecutively screened on admission to hospital (mean age = 80.3 +\\/- 6.1 years) and all patients had both Beers\\' criteria ID and CD and IPET applied to their list of prescription drugs on admission, cross-referenced with their list of current active medical diagnosis. RESULTS: The results of the study identified a high rate of inappropriate prescribing among this population of community

  9. Sensing land pollution. (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.


    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  10. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten


    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  11. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten


    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  12. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures. (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  13. Data entry skills in a computer-based spread sheet amongst postgraduate medical students: A simulation based descriptive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Maroof Khan


    Full Text Available Background: In India, research work in the form of a thesis is a mandatory requirement for the postgraduate (PG medical students. Data entry in a computer-based spread sheet is one of the important basic skills for research, which has not yet been studied. This study was conducted to assess the data entry skills of the 2 nd year PG medical students of a medical college of North India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among 111 second year PG students by using four simulated filled case record forms and a computer-based spread sheet in which data entry was to be carried out. Results: On a scale of 0-10, only 17.1% of the students scored more than seven. The specific sub-skills that were found to be lacking in more than half of the respondents were as follows: Inappropriate coding (93.7%, long variable names (51.4%, coding not being done for all the variables (76.6%, missing values entered in a non-uniform manner (84.7% and two variables entered in the same column in the case of blood pressure reading (80.2%. Conclusion: PG medical students were not found to be proficient in data entry skill and this can act as a barrier to do research. This being a first of its kind study in India, more research is needed to understand this issue and then include this yet neglected aspect in teaching research methodology to the medical students.

  14. Atmospheric pollution. Introduction; Pollution atmospherique. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, Ch. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)


    This article is a general introduction to air pollution. It focusses on air quality problems at the local and regional scale: 1 - atmospheric environment and determining factors of its quality; 2 - French situation; 3 - local scale impacts: health hazards; 4 - regional scale impacts: risks for health and ecosystems (acid rains, photochemical pollution); 5 - management of the atmospheric environment (national scale, international scale: monitoring of air quality and role of the French agency of environment and energy mastery - Ademe). (J.S.)

  15. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Gao


    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  16. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON


    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  17. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway. (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada


    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  18. Novel ICD Programming and Inappropriate ICD Therapy in CRT-D Versus ICD Patients: A MADIT-RIT Sub-Study. (United States)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Schuger, Claudio; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; Aktas, Mehmet K; McNitt, Scott; Stockburger, Martin; Merkely, Bela; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J


    The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate therapy (MADIT-RIT) trial showed a significant reduction in inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients programmed to high-rate cut-off (Arm B) or delayed ventricular tachycardia therapy (Arm C), compared with conventional programming (Arm A). There is limited data on the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) on the effect of ICD programming. We aimed to elucidate the effect of CRT-D on ICD programming to reduce inappropriate ICD therapy in patients implanted with CRT-D or an ICD, enrolled in MADIT-RIT. The primary end point of this study was the first inappropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacing and inappropriate ICD shock. The study enrolled 742 (49%) patients with an ICD and 757 (51%) patients with a CRT-D. Patients implanted with a CRT-D had 62% lower risk of inappropriate ICD therapy than those with an ICD only (hazard ratio [HR] =0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.57; Pprogramming significantly reduced the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy compared with conventional ICD programming in ICD (HR=0.14 [B versus A]; HR=0.21 [C versus A]) and CRT-D patients (HR=0.15 [B versus A]; HR=0.23 [C versus A]; Pprogramming significantly reduces the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy in both ICD and CRT-D patients.; Unique identifier: NCT00947310. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.


    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  20. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries. (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M


    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: © 2017 The Protein Society.

  1. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka


    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...... capital and set up three hypotheses regarding the influence of different factors on the nascence period. To test our hypotheses, we used a representative sample of 678 graduate women entrepreneurs in Germany and ran a logit regression on the nascence period. The estimated model revealed two main factors...

  2. The X-37 Demonstrator Re-Entry (United States)


    Pictured is an artist's concept of the X-37 Demonstrator re-entry. After being launched from the cargo bay of a Shuttle as a secondary payload, the X-37 remains on-orbit up to 21 days performing a variety of experiments before re-entering the Earth's atmosphere and landing. These vehicles supported the Agency's goal of dramatically reducing the cost of access to space in attempt to define the future of space transportation. The X-37 program was discontinued in 2003.

  3. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.


    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku


    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  5. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.


    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  6. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvaikar, V.V.; Daoo, V.J.


    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  7. 19 CFR 18.11 - Entry; classes of goods for which entry is authorized; form used. (United States)


    ... of entry, or (2) for merchandise in general-order warehouse at any time within 6 months from the date... commodity and chief fiber content (e.g., men's cotton jeans or women's wool sweaters); Net weight of the... consignee may be entered for consumption or warehouse at the port of first arrival, and the remainder...

  8. Essays on international market entry : Strategic alliance governance and product segment entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, A.


    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the entry and evolution of foreign firms in a new market. The common thread through these three essays is a focus on the scope of the foreign firm in a host country, and on how this scope is shaped by local firms and environments. The first

  9. Meteor Entry and Breakup Based on Evolution of NASAs Entry Capsule Design Tools (United States)

    Prabku, Dinesh K.; Saunders, D.; Stern, E.; Chen, Y.-K.; Allen, G.; Agrawal, P.; Jaffe, R.; White, S.; Tauber, M.; Bauschlicher, C.; hide


    Physics of atmospheric entry of meteoroids was an active area of research at NASA ARC up to the early 1970s (e.g., the oft-cited work of Baldwin and Sheaffer). However, research in the area seems to have ended with the Apollo program, and any ties with an active international meteor physics community seem to have significantly diminished thereafter. In the decades following the 1970s, the focus of entry physics at NASA ARC has been on improvement of the math models of shock-layer physics (especially in chemical kinetics and radiation) and thermal response of ablative materials used for capsule heatshields. With the overarching objectives of understanding energy deposition into the atmosphere and fragmentation, could these modern analysis tools and processes be applied to the problem of atmospheric entry of meteoroids as well? In the presentation we will explore: (i) the physics of atmospheric entries of meteoroids using our current state-of-the-art tools and processes, (ii) the influence of shape (and shape change) on flow characteristics, and (iii) how multiple bodies interact.

  10. Differences Between Access to Follow-Up Care and Inappropriate Shocks Based on Insurance Status of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients. (United States)

    Sager, Solomon J; Healy, Chris; Ramireddy, Archana; Rivner, Harold; Viles Gonzalez, Juan F; Coffey, James O; Rossin, Natalia; Lo, Ka M; Goldberger, Jeffrey J; Myerburg, Robert J; Mitrani, Raul D


    Differences in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) utilization based on insurance status have been described, but little is known about postimplant follow-up patterns associated with insurance status and outcomes. We collected demographic, clinical, and device data from 119 consecutive patients presenting with ICD shocks. Insurance status was classified as uninsured/Medicaid (uninsured) or private/Health Maintenance Organization /Medicare (insured). Shock frequencies were analyzed before and after a uniform follow-up pattern was implemented regardless of insurance profile. Uninsured patients were more likely to present with an inappropriate shock (63% vs 40%, p = 0.01), and they were more likely to present with atrial fibrillation (AF) as the shock trigger (37% vs 19%, p = 0.04). Uninsured patients had a longer interval between previous physician contact and index ICD shock (147 ± 167 vs 83 ± 124 days, p = 0.04). Patients were followed for a mean of 521 ± 458 days after being enrolled in a uniform follow-up protocol, and there were no differences in the rate of recurrent shocks based on insurance status. In conclusion, among patients presenting with an ICD shock, underinsured/uninsured patients had significantly longer intervals since previous physician contact and were more likely to present with inappropriate shocks and AF, compared to those with private/Medicare coverage. After the index shock, both groups were followed uniformly, and the differences in rates of inappropriate shocks were mitigated. This observation confirms the importance of regular postimplant follow-up as part of the overall ICD management standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and Risk of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior of Patients Toward Physical Therapist Clinicians and Students in the United States. (United States)

    Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M


    For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are

  12. Inappropriate prescribing in outpatient healthcare: an evaluation of respiratory infection visits among veterans in teaching versus non-teaching primary care clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Parente


    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC revealed at least 30% of antibiotic prescriptions in the outpatient setting were inappropriate. In this study of all ages, among adult patients, results were similar to the overall population, with the majority of inappropriate prescribing relating to respiratory infections. We applied the same methodology to investigate rates of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in outpatient primary care clinics at the Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The results of our evaluation reflected comparable rates of inappropriate prescribing, but when stratified by teaching versus non-teaching primary care clinics, inappropriate prescribing was significantly higher in non-teaching clinics (17.6% vs 44.0%, p < .0001. Respiratory infection visits in non-teaching outpatient clinics may be a pragmatic target for antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  13. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or hyponatraemia associated with valproic Acid : four case reports from the Netherlands and a case/non-case analysis of vigibase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, Erna; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Bartelink, Imke H; van der Linden, Carolien M J; Jansen, Paul A F

    The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received four cases of severe symptomatic hyponatraemia or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in association with valproic acid use, in which a causal relationship was suspected. This study describes these cases and gives

  14. Clinical guidelines for management of diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after pituitary surgery. (United States)

    Lamas, Cristina; del Pozo, Carlos; Villabona, Carles


    Changes in water metabolism and regulation of vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are common complications of pituitary surgery. The scarcity of studies comparing different treatment and monitoring strategies for these disorders and the lack of prior clinical guidelines makes it difficult to provide recommendations following a methodology based on grades of evidence. This study reviews the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH secretion after pituitary surgery, and is intended to serve as a guide for their diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a Patient Developing Carbon Dioxide Narcosis. (United States)

    Inoue, Yui; Murakami, Takaaki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Morita, Kyohei; Kaneda, Daita; Nishino, Ichizo; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Shinoto, Yuya; Hatoko, Tomonobu; Kato, Tomoko; Yonemitsu, Shin; Muro, Seiji; Oki, Shogo


    We report a rare case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with sustained hyponatremia. Hyposmolality with elevated urinary osmolality and sodium excretion was observed, which indicated SIADH. The treatment for SIADH was challenging; the patient developed carbon dioxide narcosis, which led to the diagnosis of ALS. After the initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, the patient's serum sodium concentration normalized and became stable. Thus, ALS should be recognized as a possible cause of SIADH in the clinical setting.

  16. Inappropriate Shock Delivered By Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator - Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (ICD-CRT Due To Myopotential Oversensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Barakpour


    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of ICD-CRT therapy depends on accurate sensing of intracardiac signals and sensing algorithms. We report the occurrence of sensing abnormality in a patient with ICD-CRT. In this patient, oversensing of myopotentials during strenuous muscular activity resulted in an inappropriate ICD-CRT discharge. Although modern ICDs are highly effective in detecting and terminating malignant tachyarrhythmias, their detection specificity must be improved. It is possible to find the mechanism of arrhythmia by EGM. Simple device reprogramming make it possible to avoid the oversensing of myopotentials.

  17. Erroneous Magnet Positioning Leads to Failure of Inhibition of Inappropriate Shock during Fast Conducting Atrial Fibrillation Episodes. (United States)

    Römers, Hans; VAN Dijk, Vincent; Balt, Jippe


    We present the case of a 75-year-old patient with a single-chamber St. Jude Medical internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD; St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) for primary prevention, who was admitted with 39 inappropriate ICD shocks because of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular frequention, despite magnet placement. Review of the device manual and literature revealed that apart from different responses to magnet placement programmed for the various manufacturers, the type of magnet and the positioning can be of specific interest. In the case presented, the donut-shaped magnet should have been placed off-center instead of directly over the device. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. An automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.


    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized

  19. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)


    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  20. Europe's Revolving Doors: Import Competition and Endogenous Firm Entry Institutions


    Povilas Lastauskas


    The close relationship between politics and enterprises made the revolving door wide open and reinforced business influence on political decisions. This paper analyses the relationship between firm entry institutions and import competition inside the EU. Though there is a clear tendency for entry and startup costs to decrease over time and particularly in space, I challenge the view that greater openness to trade automatically leads to improved firm entry institutions. My model enables calcul...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7013 - Duty-free entry. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty-free entry. 252.225... Clauses 252.225-7013 Duty-free entry. As prescribed in 225.1101(4), use the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Component” means any item supplied to the...

  2. 9 CFR 98.6 - Ports of entry. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 98.6 Section 98.6... Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.6 Ports of entry. An embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless at a port of entry listed in § 93.303 for horses, § 93.403 for ruminants, or § 93...

  3. Air Pollution and Industry. (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  4. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  5. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis. (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  6. River Pollution: Part I. (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter


    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  7. Air pollution engineering (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna


    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  8. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern. (United States)

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Airforce. His hobbies include reading books and listening to music. Keywords. Indoor air pollution. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Indoor Air Pollution. Danger at Home ... concentration of. VOCs and it is also a source of stable inorganic gases. GENERAL I ARTICLE which homes are built. Radon is a product of radioactive decay.

  10. Pollution and Climate Change (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew


    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  11. Forcible Entry and the German Invasion of Norway, 1940

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Michael


    ...? Forcible entry is the introduction of an aggregation of military personnel, weapons systems, vehicles, and necessary support, or a combination thereof, embarked for the purpose of gaining access...

  12. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská


    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  13. An Integrated Approach for Entry Mission Design and Flight Simulations (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Rao, Prabhakara


    An integrated approach for entry trajectory design, guidance, and simulation is proposed. The key ingredients for this approach are an on-line 3 degree-of-freedom entry trajectory planning algorithm and the entry guidance algorithm that generates the guidance gains automatically. When fully developed, such a tool could enable end-bend entry mission design and simulations in 3DOF and 6DOF mode from de-orbit burn to the TAEM interface and beyond, all in one key stroke. Some preliminary examples of such a capability are presented in this paper that demonstrate the potential of this type of integrated environment.

  14. [Indoor pollution and health]. (United States)

    Kummer, J


    The indoor pollution, where the patients pass in general close to 90% of their time, is an important factor to take in consideration if one wants to evaluate suitably the effects of the air pollution on the health. Causes of this kind of pollution are partially linked to the external pollution and the outdoor environment and also are function of human activities and introduced products in the habitat (heating, tabagisme, handywork, products of maintenance, coatings, materials of construction, etc.). The effects on health are as various as the pollutants, going from sharp intoxication to irritations or simply desagreements. In this problem of public health we may not underestimated sensitive persons and risky group as well as long terme effects, and chronic exposition effects. The search of solutions needs multiple competences from the physician, who has to play an essential role.

  15. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.


    Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...... congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data...

  16. Aircraft engine pollution reduction. (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.


    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  17. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.


    membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  18. Regulated portals of entry into the cell (United States)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.


    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  19. Home infusion: overcoming the barriers to entry. (United States)

    Franklin, David M


    The field of pharmacy service is evolving rapidly, as is the delivery of healthcare in general. From patients with infectious diseases dying because there was nothing available to fight the infections, to the involvement of an episodic-based model of care with patients traversing inpatient- and outpatient-based delivery systems, to the new frontier of chronic care and with supports such as the one by the Centers for Disease Control that hospital-acquired infections are killing about 100,000 Americans every year, the home infusion business has become a major alternative to in-hospital treatment. This article discusses the barriers to entry into the home infusion business and assists in the evaluation of a home infusion reimbursement organization.

  20. The Norwegian General Practice (NORGEP) criteria for assessing potentially inappropriate prescriptions to elderly patients. A modified Delphi study. (United States)

    Rognstad, Sture; Brekke, Mette; Fetveit, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Straand, Jørund


    To establish a clinically relevant list with explicit criteria for pharmacologically inappropriate prescriptions in general practice for elderly people > or =70 years. A three-round Delphi process for validating the clinical relevance of suggested criteria (n = 37) for inappropriate prescriptions to elderly patients. A postal consensus process undertaken by a panel of specialists in general practice, clinical pharmacology, and geriatrics. Main outcome measures. The Norwegian General Practice (NORGEP) criteria, a relevance-validated list of drugs, drug dosages, and drug combinations to be avoided in the elderly (general practice. Relevance of three of the criteria was rated significantly higher in Round 3 than in Round 1. At the end of the Delphi process, a significant difference between the different specialist groups' scores was seen for only one of the 36 criteria. The NORGEP criteria may serve as rules of thumb for general practitioners (GPs) related to their prescribing practice for elderly patients, and as a tool for evaluating the quality of GPs' prescribing in settings where access to clinical information for individual patients is limited, e.g. in prescription databases and quality improvement interventions.

  1. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers' criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul


    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established Beers\\' criteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and Beers\\' criteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. Beers\\' criteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. Beers\\' criteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than Beers\\' criteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

  2. Can attribution theory explain carers' propensity to help men with intellectual disabilities who display inappropriate sexual behaviour? (United States)

    Willner, P; Smith, M


    This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to test the theory that helping behaviour is determined by emotional responses (positive and negative emotional reactions, and optimism), which in turn are determined by causal attributions (respectively: controllability and stability of the incident depicted in the vignette). The vignettes varied in response topography and the age of the victim. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between causal attributions, emotional responses, and willingness to invest extra time and effort in the service user's care. No support was found for the pathway: low controllability --> increased sympathy and/or decreased negative emotions --> increased helping. However, strong support was found for the pathway: low stability --> high optimism --> increased helping, particularly in direct care staff. High levels of sympathy were also associated with increased helping, the effect again being mediated by feelings of optimism. The data provide support for one (but not the other) strand of attribution theory as applied to inappropriate sexual behaviour. The discussion considers the discrepancy between the present data and the far less encouraging literature on attribution theory as applied to challenging behaviour.

  3. National cultural dimensions as drivers of inappropriate ambulatory care consumption of antibiotics in Europe and their relevance to awareness campaigns. (United States)

    Borg, Michael A


    European countries exhibit significant geographical differences in antibiotic consumption per capita within ambulatory care, especially inappropriate use for colds/flu/sore throat (CFSt). One potential explanation could be national cultural differences resulting in varying perceptions and, therefore, influences. Publicly available data on the proportions of respondents in the 2009 Eurobarometer survey who had taken antibiotics for CFSt were tested for association against country scores derived from the Hofstede cultural dimension model. They were also correlated with knowledge of respondents about various key antibiotic facts. The Eurobarometer dataset incorporated 26,259 responses from all European Union (EU) countries except Cyprus. Using multiple regression, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity were identified as the two national cultural dimensions significantly associated with the use of antibiotics for CFSt (R-adjusted = 0.45; PCFSt was found to be inversely correlated with respondents' knowledge that antibiotics are ineffective against viruses (r=-0.724; P<0.001) and that misuse will render them ineffective in the longer term (r=-0.775; P<0.001). National cultural dimensions, especially uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, appear to have a very significant impact on inappropriate antibiotic use within European countries. Nevertheless, their influence can be reduced by making EU citizens more knowledgeable about antibiotics through appropriate messages and targeted campaigns.

  4. Obesity is more strongly associated with inappropriate eating behaviors than with mental health in older adults receiving congregate meals. (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn N; Johnson, Mary Ann


    This study explored the relationships of inappropriate eating behaviors and mental health with obesity in congregate meal participants in Georgia (N = 120, mean age = 75 years, 75% female, 43% African American). Inappropriate eating behaviors were evaluated with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (18 questions); mental health was assessed with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (21 questions); history of depression was assessed with the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; and height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and obesity (52% ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). In bivariate analyses, obesity was associated with cognitive restraint (rho = 0.49, p eating (rho = 0.22; p emotional eating (rho = 0.32, p eating behavior and mental health indices, only cognitive restraint and emotional eating were consistently associated with obesity (p eating behaviors, particularly cognitive restraint and emotional eating, may be important targets for future research and intervention. Additional research is needed to better understand how cognitive restraint and emotional eating contribute to obesity in this population so that interdisciplinary research and health care teams can appropriately prevent and manage obesity in congregate meal participants.

  5. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry. (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla


    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parvoviral host range and cell entry mechanisms. (United States)

    Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter


    Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.

  7. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates


    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  8. Complications of ventricular entry during craniotomy for brain tumor resection. (United States)

    John, Jessin K; Robin, Adam M; Pabaney, Aqueel H; Rammo, Richard A; Schultz, Lonni R; Sadry, Neema S; Lee, Ian Y


    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have demonstrated that periventricular tumor location is associated with poorer survival and that tumor location near the ventricle limits the extent of resection. This finding may relate to the perception that ventricular entry leads to further complications and thus surgeons may choose to perform less aggressive resection in these areas. However, there is little support for this view in the literature. This study seeks to determine whether ventricular entry is associated with more complications during craniotomy for brain tumor resection. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection at Henry Ford Hospital between January 2010 and November 2012 was conducted. A total of 183 cases were reviewed with attention to operative entry into the ventricular system, postoperative use of an external ventricular drain (EVD), subdural hematoma, hydrocephalus, and symptomatic intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). RESULTS Patients in whom the ventricles were entered had significantly higher rates of any complication (46% vs 21%). Complications included development of subdural hygroma, subdural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subgaleal collection, wound infection, urinary tract infection/deep venous thrombosis, hydrocephalus, and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. Specifically, these patients had significantly higher rates of EVD placement (23% vs 1%, p entry (11% vs 0%, p = 0.001) with 3 of 4 of these patients having a large ventricular entry (defined here as entry greater than a pinhole [entry). Furthermore, in a subset of glioblastoma patients with and without ventricular entry, Kaplan-Meier estimates for survival demonstrated a median survival time of 329 days for ventricular entry compared with 522 days for patients with no ventricular entry (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.65-1.96; p = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS There are more complications associated with ventricular entry during brain tumor resection than in

  9. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.


    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  10. Air Pollution and Stroke (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R.; Shah, Anoop S. V.


    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with “traditional” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. PMID:29402072

  11. Air Pollution and Stroke. (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V


    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  12. Comparison of Direct Trocar Entry and Veress Needle Entry in Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery: Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Sumer, Fatih; Karagul, Servet; Tolan, Kerem


    We aimed to compare the direct trocar insertion (DTI) and Veress needle insertion (VNI) techniques in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Eighty-one patients scheduled for bariatric surgery at Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey, were included in this study. In 39 patients, a bladed retractable nonoptical trocar was used for DTI, and VNI was performed in 42 patients. Intraoperative access-related parameters were compared. Data were analyzed with Student's t and chi-squared tests. A P value of Successful entry rates in the first attempt, CO2 consumptions, failed attempt rates, and overall intraoperative complication rates were similar. However, in the DTI group, 2 patients had mesenteric injuries, and 1 of them required conversion to open surgery due to the mesenteric hemorrhage. DTI in obese patients significantly shortens the entry time, but there can be severe complications with DTI when a nonoptical bladed trocar is used blindly. Actually, neither method can be recommended for entry into the abdomen in this population based on our results. If the surgeon has to choose a nonoptical trocar in bariatric surgery, preference for the VNI technique instead of the DTI technique is safer.

  13. Pollutant Scavenging Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Hales, J. M.; Hane, C. E.; Young, J. A.; Davis, W. E.; Drewes, D. R.; Tanner, T, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Dana, M. Terry; Glover, D. M.


    This section is comprised of 18 papers. The removal of atmospheric pollutants by clouds and precipitation is a major factor in determining budgets of pollutants distributed on a regional scale. The quantity and patterns of pollutants delivered to sensitive ecosystems, as well as the distributions remaining as inhalation hazards in scavenged air, can only be defined by a thorough investigation of precipitation scavenging processes. Results are reported from research studies on in-cloud scavenging in frontal and convective storms, and below-cloud scavenging of submicron particulates. (CH)

  14. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.


    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  15. Radioactivity and plumbum pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huishan


    This paper first indicates the five aspects to understand correctly the poisoning by radioactive plumbum: milling of nonferrous metal, development of mines, production of accumulator, discharge of waste gas from vehicles and radiation from building materials, as well as 'rubbish' from manufacture of plumbiferous equipment, and analyzes the seriousness of plumbum pollution (especially for children) along with the feature and symptom to plumbism. Then a lot of cases about the radioactive plumbum pollution are expounded so as to make a deeper understanding of plumbum pollution. Finally, some needed recognitions and prevention measures are put forward in different ways. (authors)

  16. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry


    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  17. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.


    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  18. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae


    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  19. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.


    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  20. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.


    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of