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Sample records for inaequalis cooke aderh

  1. Role of urea in the reduction of apple primary infections by Venturia inaequalis (Cooke Aderh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Meszka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pre-leaf fall of 5% urea treatment on primary infection of apple by Venturia inaequalis, the cause of scab, was investigated in commercial apple orchards of McIntosh cv. in different regions of Poland, at Miłobądz, Sinołęka and Dąbrowice. Additionally, the development of pseudothecia and maturation of ascospores were evaluated in the spring on apple leaves of two cultivars (McIntosh and Gloster treated with 5% solution of urea. Microscopic observations of leaves showed that urea treatment significantly reduced the number of pseudothecia (by ca. 90% and ascospore production. Low number of ascospores after urea treatment has strongly affected primary infection of apple by the fungus in all tested orchards. Reduction of leaf infection on control trees was usually more than 30%. Also efficacy of chemical control of apple scab was significantly higher on plots treated with urea.

  2. Biología, Desarrollo y Control de la roña o sarna (Venturia inaequalis del manzano (COOK Winter

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    Gorety Santamaria

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La sarna Venturia inaequalis del manzano, es una de las enfermedades más importantes a nivel mundial. Anualmente se invierten millones de dólares en la compra y pulverización de fungicidas para su control. El hongo es altamente prevalente en zonas con pluviometría alta y condiciones favorables para su desarrollo, sumado a la gran susceptibilidad de las variedades cultivadas. Resulta relevante conocer su biología, desarrollo y manejo; aspectos que se plasman en el presente artículo como motivo de reflexión y análisis en el campo de la investigación científica. Lo anterior, debido a que los frutales constituyen un renglón económico que día a día tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo del sector agrícola de nuestro país.

  3. Influence of the culture medium pH on the activity of some oxidoreductases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl) honey parasite on plum

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Manoliu; Elena Tutu; Lacramioara Oprica; Elena Ciornea; Petronela Gradinaru

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of culture medium pH on the peroxidase and catalase activities in Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl.) Honey parasite on plum. The fungus was cultivated “in vitro” on Leonian medium, different concentrations of hydrogen ions being achieved by means of appropriate buffers. The peroxidase and catalase activity was determined from mycelium and culture liquid culture at 7 days and 14 days after inoculation. Experiment consisted of three consecutive measuremen...

  4. Screening of micro-organisms for Venturia inaequalis control by means of DGGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Köhl, J.

    2006-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis causes apple scab. The control of the disease in organic apple production depends on the use of copper which will be restricted in future for environmental reasons. In the search for environmental friendly microbial biocontrol agents and stimulation of antagonistic populations in

  5. Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis Chilean Isolates to Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb, and Pyrimethanil Sensibilidad de Aislados Chilenos de Venturia inaequalis a Difenoconazole, Fenarimol, Mancozeb y Pyrimethanil

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    Jose Luis Henríquez S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis is the most important disease in Chilean apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards where fungicide management is the main tool to control disease. Sensitivity tests to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil fungicides were conducted on V. inaequalis wild isolates to construct local baseline sensitivity distributions, and compare them with a collection of isolates from seven different commercial orchards with no evidence of practical resistance. In vitro assays were conducted and sensitivity was measured as inhibition of mycelial growth (difenoconazole, fenarimol, pyrimethanil or conidial germination (mancozeb. Departure from the baseline distribution to less sensitivity was found for difenoconazole, fenarimol, and mancozeb with resistance factors of 4.7, 5.8, and 2.1, respectively. The highest difference between baseline and orchard populations was observed for fenarimol which showed the highest shift to less sensitivity. Discriminatory doses of 0.04, 1.0, 0.6, and 0.2 µg mL-1 are proposed for in vitro monitoring of sensitivity to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil, respectively.La sarna del manzano (Venturia inaequalis es la principal enfermedad del cultivo en Chile y es controlada principalmente con el uso de fungicidas. Se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a los fungicidas difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb y pyrimethanil en aislados monoconidiales de cepas silvestres de V. inaequalis con el fin de elaborar curvas basales de sensibilidad y compararlas con la sensibilidad de una colección de aislados monoconidiales provenientes de siete huertos comerciales sin evidencias de resistencia práctica. Se realizaron pruebas in vitro donde la sensibilidad se midió como la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar (difenoconazole, fenarimol y pyrimethanil o la inhibición de la germinación de conidias (mancozeb. La población de huertos comerciales estudiada presentó una menor

  6. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  7. Ascospore release dynamic of Venturia inaequalis (and other ascomycetes) : incidence of temperature (and other factors)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubal , Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, and peacoq leaf spot, cause by Fusicladiumoleagineum, are key diseases respectively for apple and olive growers. These disease usuallyrequire a large number of treatments. Adequate protection need a good evaluation ofquantitative disponibility of inoculum, and estimation of infection conditions.In this thesis, these two problems were studied using only field data. This is an originalaprroach to obtain knowledge about biology of fungi : most previous ...

  8. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  9. Simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis, by expression of RNA with chimeric inverted repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Plummer, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in plants, animals, and more recently in filamentous fungi. Here, we report high frequency, RNA-mediated gene silencing in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in a GFP-expressing

  10. Towards an Integrated Use of Biological Control by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 in Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium

  11. Effect of strategic irrigation on infection of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Strategic irrigation is a method to prevent Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). It is performed by irrigating the orchard floor in dry periods during spring, 24 hours before rain forecast. Irrigating the old leaves on the orchard floor will elicit the release of ascospores, but due to the dry trees...... and the dry weather, the ascospores dry out without causing infections. The method relies on the occurrence of dry periods during the period of primary infection from April to mid-June. Experiments were carried out at the University of Copenhagen and in an unsprayed Danish organic orchard in 2014 and 2015....... Apple scab on fruit and leaves was reduced by strategic irrigation in ‘Elshof’ at the University field in both years. In the organic orchard the strategic irrigation reduced the infection of leaves by apple scab and Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot in some cultivars and some years. Studies of the ejection...

  12. A large family of AvrLm6-like genes in the apple and pear scab pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eShiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and Brassica juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (> 16 members in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralogue have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6 carrying Brassica juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta and in vitro grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homologue from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using a YFP-fusion protein construct to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during infection of apple hypocotyls.

  13. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF DEHYDROGENASES KREBS CYCLE ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS GROWN ON MEDIA WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATES

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    Elena Ciornea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  14. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF DEHYDROGENASES KREBS CYCLE ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS GROWN ON MEDIA WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  15. Phenolic compounds of apple cultivars resistant or susceptible to Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Serife Evrim; Kafkas, Ebru; Kaymak, Suat; Koc, Namik Kemal

    2014-07-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in the plant defense mechanism and are responsible for antioxidant capacity in fruits and vegetables. It is known that the phenolics can determine in the leaves of plants which are resistant/susceptible to fungal infections. This study investigated the total phenolic compounds, content of shikimic acid from 33 different apple cultivars leaves infected with Venturia inaequalis [(Cke). Wint.] cultured in Fruit Research Station, in Egirdir, Isparta, Turkey. Leaves of apple cultivars were collected three times in an interval of 30 d from July to September in 2010, and analyzed using HPLC methods to detect changes in the amount of the phenolic compounds and shikimic acid. Total phenolic compounds and shikimic acid in resistant/moderate susceptible apple cultivars were higher than susceptible apple cultuvars, although not statistically different between resistant and susceptible apples. The content of shikimic acid was statistically higher only in the leaves of the domestic cultivar Ankara güzeli on all three dates. Recently, there have been increased studies trying to explain the resistance mechanism in plants. Natural resistance genes are investigated in some apple cultivars and new resistance varieties which have resistant genes are identified daily. Our study hold to determine the relationship between the phenolic compounds and the expression of resistance seems to be promising.

  16. Study of Venturia inaequalis pseudothecia development and apple scab severity under Polish conditions

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    Meszka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted during 2009-2013 at the Experimental Orchard located in the central region of Poland showed that the highest number of V. inaequalis pseudothecia occurred on ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Cortland’ leaves. A smaller number of pseudothecia was found on the leaves of the Alwa and Jonagold cultivars, but there were no statistical differences. The first discharges of ascospores were noted at a similar time on the leaves of all of the apple cultivars, usually at the end of March or in early April. For the forecasting of ascospore discharges and dates of critical periods, a simulation model by RIMpro was used. The number of critical periods and apple scab severity differed in each season. The most critical periods (above 20 were recorded in 2010 and 2013, which also corresponded with a high severity of apple scab. The number of infected leaves and fruits on the untreated trees of the very susceptible cultivar McIntosh reached nearly 100% during these seasons. In other years, the severity of the disease on the same apple trees was lower and amounted to 30-54% of infected leaves and 23-80% of infected fruits.

  17. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all three fungicides (odds ratio = 1.76; P = 0.048). Results identify management

  18. Controlling fungal foliar pathogen e.g. Venturia inaequalis, Blumeriella jaapi, in plants involves treating plants with a composition comprising an extract from Yucca as an antifungal agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to control of fungal foliar diseases in plants, preferaby Rosaceae, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), pear scab (Venturia pirina), brown spot (Stemphylium vesicarium) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) by treatment of plant with an extract of Yucca species......, preferably Y. schidigera or Y. filamentosa. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection....

  19. Controlling fungal foliar pathogen e.g. Venturia inaequalis, Blumeriella jaapi, in plants involves treating plants with a composition comprising an extract from Yucca as an antifungal agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to control of fungal foliar diseases in plants, preferaby Rosaceae, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), pear scab (Venturia pirina), brown spot (Stemphylium vesicarium) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) by treatment of plant with an extract of Yucca species...

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  1. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  2. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO 2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag–S and disulfide bonds (R–S–S–R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated • OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling. (paper)

  3. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  4. Comparative studies on the effects of a yucca extract and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) on inhibition of Venturia inaequalis in apple leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Marianne Vibeke; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2009-01-01

    and pathogen sporulation on leaves and both showed similar control efficacies as the reference treatment, sulphur. Whereas yucca extract and sulphur gave significant inhibition of conidial germination in vitro, ASM did not inhibit germination. Histopathological studies of the infection process of V. inaequalis...... in apple leaves showed that the yucca extract primarily acted by inhibiting pre-penetration events and penetration itself. In contrast, the ASM treatment significantly inhibited more stages of the infection process (pre-penetration, penetration and post-penetration events). These observations suggest...... was up-regulated following yucca treatment, to a level similar to that observed after treatment with ASM. The fungitoxic effect of sulphur on V. inaequalis was also confirmed in this study....

  5. Hybrid Solar Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, UR; Umanand, L

    2010-01-01

    In the existing traditional solar cookers, the cooking is performed near the collector which may be at an inconvenient location for cooking purposes. This paper proposes a hybrid solar cooking system where the solar energy is brought to the kitchen. The energy source is a combination of the solar thermal energy and the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) that is very common in kitchens. The solar thermal energy is transferred to the kitchen by means of a circulating fluid like oil. The transfer of ...

  6. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  7. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    at home (n = 1268 in 1997, and n = 2754 in 2012). Our analysis shows that men’s cooking has increased and women’s has decreased over the time period studied. However, the pace of this development has varied within social classes. While especially men from the middle class were already cooking in 1997...

  8. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF H+ IONS CONCENTRATION ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN DEHYDROGENASES OF THE KREBS CYCLE IN THE MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS PARASITIC ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tutu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During the process of nutrition, thus in that of their growth, microorganisms are subject to the influences of certain environmental factors that condition the microbial activity determining either the growth and reproduction, or the inhibition of activity and the inactivation of microorganisms. A well known means of expressing the H+ ions concentration in a certain environment is the pH, an important chemical factor that is closely observed when growing ascomycetes, for any alteration of its value entails conformational alterations of their enzymes, the characteristics of the substrate, such that they can no longer interact with the active site of the enzyme or be subject to catalysis. The present study comprises the results of our research on certain oxidoreductase implied in the steps of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl. Honey, a fungus that parasites the prune. The enzymatic determinations took place at 7 and 14 days from the mycelium of the fungus cultivated in Leonian media, whose pH was adjusted to values between 2.0 and 9.0 by using NaOH 1N and HCl 0,1N solutions. We registered different values of the dehydrogenasic activity, directly correlated with the physiological condition of the fungus (given its age and with the initial pH value of the culture’s environment.

  9. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF H+ IONS CONCENTRATION ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN DEHYDROGENASES OF THE KREBS CYCLE IN THE MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS PARASITIC ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Elena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the process of nutrition, thus in that of their growth, microorganisms are subject to the influences of certain environmental factors that condition the microbial activity determining either the growth and reproduction, or the inhibition of activity and the inactivation of microorganisms. A well known means of expressing the H+ ions concentration in a certain environment is the pH, an important chemical factor that is closely observed when growing ascomycetes, for any alteration of its value entails conformational alterations of their enzymes, the characteristics of the substrate, such that they can no longer interact with the active site of the enzyme or be subject to catalysis. The present study comprises the results of our research on certain oxidoreductase implied in the steps of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl. Honey, a fungus that parasites the prune. The enzymatic determinations took place at 7 and 14 days from the mycelium of the fungus cultivated in Leonian media, whose pH was adjusted to values between 2.0 and 9.0 by using NaOH 1N and HCl 0,1N solutions. We registered different values of the dehydrogenasic activity, directly correlated with the physiological condition of the fungus (given its age and with the initial pH value of the culture’s environment.

  10. Influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment on Postharvest Quality of Four Scab (Venturia inaequalis-Resistant Apple Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Zucoloto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scab (Venturia inaequalis is a very serious disease for apples causing up to 80% of loss in yield but there are only a few studies on postharvest quality of scab-resistant cultivars. In this study we evaluated the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on fruit quality, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity after storage of four scab-resistant cultivars and compared to a standard cultivar, “Golden Delicious.” In general, ethylene production and respiration rates significantly differed among cultivars, between control and 1-MCP-treated fruits, and between storage duration regimes. 1-MCP treatment retarded fruit softening and lowered juice pH but storage effect on soluble solids and acidity depended on cultivar and 1-MCP treatment. Total phenolic content was significantly affected by storage duration and 1-MCP treatment. Antioxidant capacity of the four scab-resistant cultivars was either similar to or significantly higher than that of “Golden Delicious” with the 1-MCP-treated fruits having significantly higher antioxidant capacity than the nontreated fruits after storage. Our results clearly show that the quality of four scab-resistant cultivars was comparable to that of “Golden Delicious” and 1-MCP effect differed among cultivars. These differences need to be considered in developing storage regime to minimize quality deterioration during long-term storage.

  11. Domestic cooked cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb, and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. Sensory properties, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 16 samples (7 non-smoked and 9 smoked cheeses. All cheese samples were produced according to tradition. Significant unevenness was determined in sensory, chemical and microbiological quality. Domestic cooked cheese can be classified as soft cheese according to dry matter content, and as semi-hard cheese according to water content in non fat cheese matter. According to fat content in dry matter, domestic cooked cheese can be classified as fat cheese. Standardization elements are proposed.

  12. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they often contain a lot of salt. Dried mustard. Used sparingly, dried mustard adds a zesty flavor while cooking. Vinegar or ... desired. Fresh hot peppers. Remove the membranes and seeds first, and then finely chop the peppers. A ...

  13. Breakdown of the Scab Resistance Gene Vf in Apple Leads to a Founder Effect in Populations of the Fungal Pathogen Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Fabien; Le Cam, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT The recent breakdown of Vf, a major resistance gene to apple scab, provided an opportunity to analyze a population genetic process within the matching virulent subpopulation of the fungus Venturia inaequalis. We utilized the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique and allelic variation at four microsatellite loci to assess genetic structure of 133 isolates of V. inaequalis from a single commercial apple orchard sampled from one cultivar carrying the Vf gene (Judeline) and three cultivars devoid of the Vf gene. Both analyses indicated a strong decrease of the genetic diversity among isolates from the Vf cultivar compared with the high level of diversity among isolates from the three other cultivars. This leads to a high genetic differentiation between virVf and avrVf groups (F(ST) > 0.17). Analyses of the genetic distance between AFLP patterns based on the Jaccard index indicate that all virVf isolates could be assigned to a single clonal lineage. These results lead us to conclude that the clonal structure of the population isolated from the Vf cultivar is an example of a founder effect in response to a resistance gene breakdown and it is likely that this event occurred in the orchard during the sampling year.

  14. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, V.G.M.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in

  15. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  16. Cooking with Quadratics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  17. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  18. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  19. Gene expression profiling by cDNA-AFLP reveals potential candidate genes for partial resistance of 'Président Roulin' against Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Héloïse; Muhovski, Yordan; Parisi, Olivier; Paris, Roberta; Mingeot, Dominique; Lateur, Marc

    2014-11-29

    Scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is one of the most important diseases of cultivated apple. While a few scab resistance genes (R genes) governing qualitative resistance have been isolated and characterized, the biological roles of genes governing quantitative resistance, supposed to be more durable, are still unknown. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the partial resistance of the old Belgian apple cultivar 'Président Roulin' against V. inaequalis. A global gene expression analysis was conducted in 'Président Roulin' (partially resistant) and in 'Gala' (susceptible) challenged by V. inaequalis by using the cDNA-AFLP method (cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Transcriptome analysis revealed significant modulation (up- or down-regulation) of 281 out of approximately 20,500 transcript derived fragments (TDFs) in 'Président Roulin' 48 hours after inoculation. Sequence annotation revealed similarities to several genes encoding for proteins belonging to the NBS-LRR and LRR-RLK classes of plant R genes and to other defense-related proteins. Differentially expressed genes were sorted into functional categories according to their gene ontology annotation and this expression signature was compared to published apple cDNA libraries by Gene Enrichment Analysis. The first comparison was made with two cDNA libraries from Malus x domestica uninfected leaves, and revealed in both libraries a signature of enhanced expression in 'Président Roulin' of genes involved in response to stress and photosynthesis. In the second comparison, the pathogen-responsive TDFs from the partially resistant cultivar were compared to the cDNA library from inoculated leaves of Rvi6 (HcrVf2)-transformed 'Gala' lines (complete disease resistance) and revealed both common physiological events, and notably differences in the regulation of defense response, the regulation of hydrolase activity, and response to DNA damage. TDFs were in silico

  20. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  2. Cook stove assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  3. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  4. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...) Garbage shall be agitated during cooking, except in steam cooking equipment, to ensure that the prescribed...

  5. Now we're cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2012-06-01

    From the very first oven to the foamed foods of modernist cuisine, physics has played a dominant role in food throughout history. But now physics has the potential to solve a major global cooking issue, says Sidney Perkowitz.

  6. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  7. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  8. A Slice of Solar Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    Presents an inquiry activity in which students design a solar cooking apparatus. Students are also asked to write a paragraph that explains the ways in which science knowledge helped them in the design of their cooker. Includes a grading rubric. (SOE)

  9. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    in contemporary culture. The article is informed by poststructural gender theory and understands ‘doing food’ and ‘doing masculinity’ as two mutually constituting practices. The analyses identify four new tendencies in the construction of masculinity in cooking shows at the beginning of the twenty-first century...

  10. Interação das lesões causadas pela sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis na capacidade de infestação dos frutos por lagartas de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em monitoramentos de pragas realizados na cultura da macieira foram observadas maiores infestações da mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta em frutos provenientes de pomares com maior incidência de lesões causadas pela sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis. Para validar esta observação, conduziu-se um experimento em laboratório com o objetivo de verificar a influência de lesões da sarna da macieira em frutos, na capacidade de infestação por G. molesta. Foram utilizados frutos (n=200 de macieira da variedade Gala com sintomas da sarna (n=100 e frutos sadios (n=100. Uma lagarta recém-eclodida foi inoculada em cada fruto e a avaliação foi realizada 10 dias após a infestação, determinando-se o número de lagartas que conseguiram penetrar nos frutos. Houve diferença significativa na capacidade de penetração das lagartas associado a presença de lesões da sarna (87% quando comparado com frutos sadios (61%. Conclui-se que frutos de maçã da cv. Gala atacados por Venturia inaequalis são mais infestados por lagartas de primeiro ínstar de Grapholita molesta.

  11. Cooking in prison--from crook to cook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the principle and practice of self-catering system in a Danish prison. Self-catering is a reflection of the Danish correctional principle of normalisation between prison and community life. Unlike some other jurisdiction, issues of control in meal preparation are subordinate to prisoners' right to choose and prepare their own food. Findings are derived from 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. Overall findings showed that thinking about meals and their preparation is time consuming for prisoners who tend to be positive about the system making connections with their ability to exercise responsibility for making healthily choices. The research concludes that prisoners' possibility for developing cooking competences during incarceration could support prisoners change in social identity from crook to cook. Food is a fundamental need and the ability to choose what to eat and to prepare one's own food should be a right for all people, including prisoners. This research shows that Danish prisoners are very pleased about the system of self-catering. Most prisoners are concerned about preparing their own meals according to their taste and cultural diversity. If the prison offers the opportunity to train as a chef during imprisonment it could support the prisoner's change in social identity from crook to cook on the outside.

  12. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  13. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. PMID:26041356

  14. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    or other related literacy areas to food. The works are presented through their components and concepts of food literacy, andfurther discussed in the light of food elements included and seen in relation to aims concerning competencies. The definitions and content of the works presented reveal both...... similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  15. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  17. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cooking and the drying of the Pentadesma butyracea kernels are the main steps in the traditional method of extracting P. butyracea butter. In this work, the Response Surface Method with Central composite design was used to optimize the cooking and drying of Pentadesma kernels during P. butyracea butter production.

  18. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  20. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way...... could be an attempt to predict sensory properties based on temperature profiles obtained during cooking. There are still very few scientific studies in the molecular gastronomy field, but hopefully the future brings more studies in this area leading to even more delicious foods in the future....

  1. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  2. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P starch in potatoes cells cooked in contact with water, such as traditional cooking and cook-vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or...

  4. Effects of mineral composition on cooking quality and relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of mineral composition on the cooking quality (texture and cooking time) of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties were investigated. A positive correlation was found between cooking time and minera! (calcium, magnesium, potassium) composition. Cooking time was found ta decrease with an increase in water ...

  5. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413... Cooking and eating facilities. (a) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook in their individual unit, a space shall be provided and equipped for cooking and eating. Such space shall...

  6. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several methods are used to prepare/cook the fish viz.: boiling, deep frying in edible cooking oil, grilling, and/or roasting over fire. However, the fact that cooking alters the nutrient content in foods underscores the need to understand nutritional effects of different food cooking/processing methods. This study investigated ...

  7. MEANINGS ON VARIOUS COOKING MANNERS IN VERB FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Siamika Tito Prayogi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the meaning of verb form ‘cook’ having one form with different manners of cooking something. Therefore, the analysis discusses about the various cooking manners in verb forms because cooking is an action or do something. The d ata was taken from the article about cooking procedure, by note taking technique. The data was further analyzed by natural semantics metalanguage. The result showed that verbs in cooking action have some similar meaning with different manners such as the manner cooking of blanch means cooking food into boiling water in a few minutes, while the manner cooking of steam means cooking food on the boiled water. Here, metalanguage manages to describe and analyze the verb meaning in cooking manners.

  8. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes...

  9. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  10. Implementation of a Cooking Bus Intervention to Support Cooking in Schools in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose…

  11. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods.

  12. Cooking process: a new source of unintentionally produced dioxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajia; Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Zheng, Minghui

    2011-05-25

    To improve understanding of human background exposure to dioxins, the influence of cooking on dioxin concentrations in food has received much attention. Studies have focused on changes in the distribution of dioxins that originate from raw foods. However, the possibility of dioxin formation during cooking has been neglected. In this study, cooking experiments were designed to investigate the generation of dioxins during cooking at high temperature and with flavorings containing organic chlorine. Solid, liquid, and gas phase samples were collected during cooking. The results indicate that dioxins can be generated during some cooking processes, such as burning, or when cooking with reactive organic chlorides, and the dioxins are more likely to be present in the smoke (gas phase) than the edible portion (solid and liquid phases). Thus, more attention should be given to cooking of raw foods and organic chlorine-containing flavorings at high temperature. Maintaining good ventilation during cooking is also necessary to reduce human exposure risk to dioxins.

  13. Particle emission factors during cooking activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    Exposure to particles emitted by cooking activities may be responsible for a variety of respiratory health effects. However, the relationship between these exposures and their subsequent effects on health cannot be evaluated without understanding the properties of the emitted aerosol or the main parameters that influence particle emissions during cooking. Whilst traffic-related emissions, stack emissions and concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter frying as a function of the food, source, cooking temperature and type of oil. Emission factors, along with particle number concentrations and size distributions were determined in the size range 0.006-20 μm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field. Overall, increased emission factors were observed to be a function of increased cooking temperatures. Cooking fatty foods also produced higher particle emission factors than vegetables, mainly in terms of mass concentration, and particle emission factors also varied significantly according to the type of oil used.

  14. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  15. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  16. Influence of cooking method on arsenic retention in cooked rice related to dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Arifur; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Miah, M A Majid

    2006-10-15

    Arsenic concentration in raw rice is not only the determinant in actual dietary exposure. Though there have been many reports on arsenic content in raw rice and different tissues of rice plant, little is known about arsenic content retained in cooked rice after being cooked following the traditional cooking methods employed by the people of arsenic epidemic areas. A field level experiment was conducted in Bangladesh to investigate the influence of cooking methods on arsenic retention in cooked rice. Rice samples were collected directly from a severely arsenic affected area and also from an unaffected area, to compare the results. Rice was cooked according to the traditional methods employed by the population of subjected areas. Arsenic concentrations were 0.40+/-0.03 and 0.58+/-0.12 mg/kg in parboiled rice of arsenic affected area, cooked with excess water and 1.35+/-0.04 and 1.59+/-0.07 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. In non-parboiled rice, arsenic concentrations were 0.39+/-0.04 and 0.44+/-0.03 mg/kg in rice cooked with excess water and 1.62+/-0.07 and 1.74+/-0.05 mg/kg in gruel for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Total arsenic content in rice, cooked with limited water (therefore gruel was absorbed completely by rice) were 0.89+/-0.07 and 1.08+/-0.06 mg/kg (parboiled) and 0.75+/-0.04 and 1.09+/-0.06 mg/kg (non-parboiled) for BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, respectively. Water used for cooking rice contained 0.13 and 0.01 mg of As/l for contaminated and non-contaminated areas, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in cooked parboiled and non-parboiled rice and gruel of non-contaminated area were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of contaminated area. The results imply that cooking of arsenic contaminated rice with arsenic contaminated water increases its concentration in cooked rice.

  17. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  18. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  19. “What’s Cooking?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejenova, Silviya

    2016-01-01

    “What’s cooking?” is old-fashioned slang for asking about what is happening or what someone is planning. In this chapter, it denotes an approach to prospective data collection in qualitative research and captures the gist of a case study from the field of haute cuisine that inspired the saying...

  20. Physicochemical characterization of traditional Ghanaian cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional vegetable oils derived from Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) and Werewere (Cucumeropsis manni) could prove to be an important commodity for Ghanaians, serving as a potential alternative source of common cooking oils. This study measured several physicochemical properties of Egusi and Werewere oils to ...

  1. Childhood respiratory morbidity and cooking practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. Materials and Method: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of ...

  2. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  3. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  4. Size distributions of submicrometer aerosols from cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.S.; Lin, W.H.; Jeng, F.T. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Although gas stove usage varies from country to country, it is still one of the major indoor combustion sources. In order to assess the health effects of using gas stoves, the physical characteristics of the particle emissions from cooking were conducted in a first-floor apartment in the Taipei area. The particle size distributions from scrambling eggs, frying chicken, and cooking soup were measured in the kitchen by a high resolution particle sizer, which could measure the particles in the size range of 0.01 [mu]m to 1 [mu]m. The concentrations of the submicrometer particles increased significantly from 15,000 cm[sup [minus]3] to 150,000 cm[sup [minus]3] during cooking. Additionally, the ultrafine particles constituted 60%--70% of the total submicron aerosols. The changes in the size distributions and the concentrations of the submicrometer aerosols before, during, and after the aerosol generations were compared. On the average, the median diameters of scrambling eggs, frying chicken, cooking soup, and of the background conditions were 40 nm, 50 nm, 30 nm, and 70 nm, respectively. Regarding the surface area-weighted size distributions, the surface median diameters of the four situations were 180 nm, 300 nm, 150 nm, and 220 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the volume median diameters in the conditions mentioned above were almost similar, namely 300--350 nm. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with ABYC...

  6. "Savoir Fare": Are Cooking Skills a New Morality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John; Begley, Andrea; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in cooking skills in a diverse range of fields, such as health, education and public policy. There appears to be an assumption that cooking skills are in decline and that this is having an adverse impact on individual health and well-being, and family wholesomeness. The problematisation of cooking skills…

  7. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  8. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  9. Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  11. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, then cooked and after cooled and packed. The meat cooking is the last step in the cooked sausage production technology, and let us obtain a stable and eatable product. The effect of the heat and the lenght of processing are the main responsibles for modifications in water- and salt-soluble protein fractions. Indeed myofibrils denature themselves after cooking and consequently their solubility decreases; particularly the denaturation begins over 30°C in the myosin chain, instead the actin solubility begins to decrease over 60°C, being the actin more stable than myosin (Barbieri et al., 1997...

  12. Exposure to Cooking Oil Fumes and Oxidative Damages: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Military Cooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient [β], β= 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and (β= 0.07, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking-oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:22968348

  13. Studies on Tasar Cocoon Cooking Using Permeation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javali, Uday C.; Malali, Kiran B.; Ramya, H. G.; Naik, Subhas V.; Padaki, Naveen V.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoon cooking is an important process before reeling of tasar silk yarn. Cooking ensures loosening of the filaments in the tasar cocoons thereby easing the process of yarn withdrawal during reeling process. Tasar cocoons have very hard shell and hence these cocoons need chemical cooking process to loosen the silk filaments. Attempt has been made in this article to study the effect of using vacuum permeation chamber for tasar cocoon cooking in order to reduce the cooking time and improve the quality of tasar silk yarn. Vacuum assisted permeation cooking method has been studied in this article on tasar daba cocoons for cooking efficiency, deflossing and reelability. Its efficiency has been evaluated with respect to different cooking methods viz, traditional and open pan cooking methods. The tasar silk produced after reeling process has been tested for fineness, strength and cohesion properties. Results indicate that permeation method of tasar cooking ensures uniform cooking with higher efficiency along with better reeling performance and improved yarn properties.

  14. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... further user attention. The EffiCooker also may replace many other kitchen appliances, e. g. steamer, rice cooker, double boiler, chocolate melter, deep fat fryer, etc....

  15. Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickrand, Heather L; Brock, Cara M

    2017-02-01

    Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to address irrational beliefs, feelings of depression or anger, and avoidance or numbing behaviors with a goal of leading the individual to adapting to a life, which no longer includes the lost loved one. As part of the bereavement counseling program in a hospice, a need was identified in individuals who had lost loved ones and were having difficulty with adjusting to meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one. To address this need for grief counseling centered on meal planning, grocery shopping, meal preparations, and eating meals alone, "Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series" was developed with a local Culinary Arts Program. Partnering with a local community college culinary arts program, the Cooking for One Series provides an interactive venue for cognitive behavioral therapy centered on meal planning and meal times. Along with demonstrations and hands-on experiences, participants are engaged in bereavement counseling with hospice staff. Initial reactions to Culinary Grief Therapy have been positive. Many attendees have participated in multiple workshops, and the number of participants grows for each offering. Culinary Grief Therapy is a novel approach to the needs of those experiencing the loss of a loved one and may reduce or prevent complicated grief associated with meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one.

  16. Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education policies in the United States: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle - Optimisation of meat preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Markus; Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Morgan, Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Uniform ohmic heating of solid foods primarily depends on the uniformity of electrolyte distribution within the product. Different preparation techniques were tested in an attempt to ensure an even salt dispersion within a full beef muscle (biceps femoris). Meat pieces were soaked, injected and tumbled using a range of procedures before ohmic cooking at pasteurization temperatures. A final preparation method (multi-injection (five points) with a 3% salt solution followed by 16h tumbling) was validated. Selected quality parameters of the ohmically cooked products were compared to steam cooked products. Ohmically heated meat had a significantly (P<0.05) uniform lighter and less red colour. Cook loss was significantly lower (P<0.05) in ohmic samples and in relation to tenderness ohmic heated samples were tougher (P<0.05) though the difference was only 5.08N. Comparable cook values were attained in the ohmic and conventionally cooked products.

  18. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmia, B.; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Sidek, L. M.; Hidayah, B.

    2013-06-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  19. Professional cooking: new approaches; Restauration professionnelle: nouvelles approches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on professional cooking to present the existing gas solutions to manage together the space heating, the air conditioning, the refrigeration and the cooking: evolution of markets with new consumer habits, natural gas technologies and innovations, architecture of cooking rooms: esthetics and functionality, opening of energy markets and new gas supplying contracts. (J.S.)

  20. Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking methods on the micronutrient profile of selected vegetables: okra fruit ( Abelmoshcus esculentus ), fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis ), African spinach ( Amarantus viridis ), and scent leaf ( Ocumum gratissimum.

  1. Conference in honor of Kenneth Cooke

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The meeting explored current directions of research in delay differential equations and related dynamical systems and celebrated the contributions of Kenneth Cooke to this field on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The volume contains three survey papers reviewing three areas of current research and seventeen research contributions. The research articles deal with qualitative properties of solutions of delay differential equations and with bifurcation problems for such equations and other dynamical systems. A companion volume in the biomathematics series (LN in Biomathematics, Vol. 22) contains contributions on recent trends in population and mathematical biology.

  2. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  3. Variables related to selection of conventional, cook-chill, and cook-freeze systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K R; Gregoire, M B

    1988-04-01

    This article reports the use of various foodservice systems in hospitals of 300 beds or more and explores the relationship of system choice to hospital, city, and county size. The conventional system, which involves the production of food close to time of service, has been the traditional method of hospital foodservice for centuries. The technology of the 1960s initiated the use of alternative systems, such as cook-chill and cook-freeze. Data from a survey of 807 hospital foodservice directors indicate that the conventional system remains the primary choice for hospital foodservice, although an increasing number of hospitals are converting to the cook-chill system. Choice of foodservice system appears to be dependent on the size of the hospital, city, and county but did not differ by region across the United States. In general, the smaller the hospital, city, and county, the more likely the use of the conventional system. As size increases, so does the occurrence of alternative systems, with cook-chill systems being the primary alternative chosen. Additional information is needed on the comparative costs and cash flows of the various foodservice systems.

  4. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  5. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Ishizu, Atsushi; Nakano, Junzo

    1981-01-01

    Pre-irradiation of wood in alkaline aqueous ethanol increases kraft pulp yield by up to 1.2%, as already reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the pulp yield gain, the behaviors of lignin and carbohydrates during pre-irradiation and cooking were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1) γ-Irradiation of guaiacylethane in alkaline aqueous ethanol produced 5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-guaicylethane, which is formed by radical coupling between α-hydroxyethyl radical from ethanol and guaiacylethane radical having an unpaired electron at C-5. 5,5'-Dehydrodiguaiacylethane, which may be a predominant product produced by γ-irradiation in the absence of ethanol, was also detected. 2) The yield of vanillin obtained by nitrobenzene oxidation of MWL decreased with an increase of γ-ray dosage. The presence of ethanol during γ-irradiation lessened the extent of this decrease and also the degradation of cellobiose. 3) Gel filtration of the products obtained by γ-irradiation of MWL and cellobiose in the presence of 14 C-ethanol showed the possible combination between ethanol and MWL or cellobiose. 4) Molecular weight distributions of kraft lignin obtained from pre-irradiated beech chips were compared with those obtained from unirradiated chips. This result shows that γ-irradiation in the presence of ethanol decreases the ability of lignin to condense during kraft cooking. (author)

  6. Domestic cooking and food skills: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-24

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness, or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis, and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports, and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs-qualitative, cross-sectional, and dietary interventions-conducted from 1998 to 2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data were available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and fruit and vegetables intake were reported, though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g., food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behavior and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  7. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindre Rabben Svedahl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. Material and Methods: A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. Results: The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00. The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. Conclusions: There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes.

  8. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben; Svendsen, Kristin; Romundstad, Pål R; Qvenild, Torgunn; Strømholm, Tonje; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00). The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. ... banana, as well as the presence of middlemen in the marketing chain were the most important determinants of the proportion of cooking banana planted for market.

  10. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  11. Determination of the optimum dietary levels of cracked and cooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary level(s) of cracked and cooked (CAC) jackbean meal for finisher broilers. Five diets were formulated such that they contained cracked and cooked jackbean meal al 0%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% levels respectively. Each diet was fed to group of 45 ...

  12. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  13. Efficacy of botanical powders and cooking oils against Angoumois ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of botanical powders and cooking oils against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela O. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored maize. ... Thus, the two cooking oils were found to be most potent bio-insecticides against maize grain moth on par with standard check, Malathion. Keywords: Angomois grain moth, ...

  14. Effects of different traditional cooking methods on nutrients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of cooking using two different methods of preparing okra soup in Ondo state on nutrient, mineral content including zinc bioavailability of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus. The okra fruits were grated and divided into four lots; two lots were cooked with other ingredients of ...

  15. Assessment of nutritional quality of cooked Swazi leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica oleracea and Spinacia oleracea were also analysed and compared with other vegetables. Sampled vegetables were divided into two categories. All vegetables in category one were cooked without any additives. In category two Hibiscus escolentus and Corchorius olitorus were cooked with bicarbonate of soda ...

  16. Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. MM Magoro, BI Zondagh, PJ Jooste, L Morey. Abstract. This study determined the sensory attributes and acceptability of cooked meat sausages containing beef offal. Four formulations of sausages were selected for sensory evaluation and comparison ...

  17. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  18. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a random sample of 217 farmers through the use of a structured questionnaire. Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana ...

  19. A Formative Evaluation of the Cooking with a Chef Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Griffin, Sara G.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Clark, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Cooking with a Chef a culinary nutrition education series teams a chef and nutrition educator during cooking sessions with parents. Pilot program results were shared in the "Journal of Extension" in 2006. This formative evaluation presents data collected through focus groups and individual interviews examining program implementation,…

  20. Effects of cooking methods on yields and organoleptic attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of three cooking methods (deep-fat frying, microwave and oven roasting) on yields, cooking loss, moisture, of fat contents and some sensory attributes of local chicken. The thighs and breast parts were used. Deep fat frying resulted in the lowest yield of the chicken ...

  1. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  2. Cooking fuels and respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few studies on a possible association between cooking fumes from different fuels and respiratory diseases other than cancer have been reported earlier. In the present study, an attempt was made to find out various respiratory symptoms in 360 kitchen workers using different cooking fuels. The study was conducted ...

  3. The effects of ripening and cooking method on mineral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In West and Central Africa, plantain fruits are eaten after cooking or after some other forms of processing. The cooking or processing method employed influences the biochemical and nutritional composition thereafter. In this study, the fruits of Falsehorn plantain (Musa sp. AAB, cv. 'Agbagba') at the green harvest stage, light ...

  4. Assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in Ikeja, Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household cooking energy accounts for a major part of the total energy consumed in Nigeria. Factors affecting the choice of Household energy utilized for cooking and the type preferred in Ikeja area of Lagos state were investigated in this study. Data were obtained through oral interview and administration of structured ...

  5. Impact of Time Expenditure on Household Preferences for Cooking Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Karabee; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, Deben C; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2018-01-01

    Access to energy for cooking is one of the major challenges that rural India faces. Most of the rural households of North-Eastern India rely heavily upon fuelwood and traditional open-fire cookstoves for cooking activities. And everyday collection of fuelwood is time-consuming. Hence, women often

  6. Perception of Hazards Associated with Cooking Fuel in Building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed perception of hazards from cooking fuels in building indoor environment. One hundred questionnaires were randomly administered to selected households in high density settlement of Zaria metropolis with 96% response rate received. Results showed that females are dominant (83%) users of cooking ...

  7. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  8. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  9. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom...

  12. Environmental payoffs of LPG cooking in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Pachauri, S.; Zerriffi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of Indians use solid fuels to meet daily cooking energy needs, with associated negative environmental, social, and health impacts. Major national initiatives implemented by the Indian government over the last few decades have included subsidies for cleaner burning fuels like liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene to encourage a transition to these. However, the extent to which these programs have affected net emissions from the use of these improved fuels has not been adequately studied. Here, we estimate the amount of fuelwood displaced and its net emissions impact due to improved access to LPG for cooking in India between 2001 and 2011 using nationally representative household expenditure surveys and census datasets. We account for a suite of climate-relevant emissions (Kyoto gases and other short-lived climate pollutants) and biomass renewability scenarios (a fully renewable and a conservative non-renewable case). We estimate that the national fuelwood displaced due to increased LPG access between 2001 and 2011 was approximately 7.2 million tons. On aggregate, we estimate a net emissions reduction of 6.73 MtCO2e due to the fuelwood displaced from increased access to LPG, when both Kyoto and non-Kyoto climate-active emissions are accounted for and assuming 0.3 as the fraction of non-renewable biomass (fNRB) harvested. However, if only Kyoto gases are considered, we estimate a smaller net emissions decrease of 0.03 MtCO2e (assuming fully renewable biomass harvesting), or 3.05 MtCO2e (assuming 0.3 as the fNRB). We conclude that the transition to LPG cooking in India reduced pressures on forests and achieved modest climate benefits, though uncertainties regarding the extent of non-renewable biomass harvesting and suite of climate-active emissions included in such an estimation can significantly influence results in any given year and should be considered carefully in any analysis and policy-making.

  13. Dissipation of difenoconazole in apples used for production of baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2017-02-01

    Dissipation of fungicide difenoconazole (3-chloro-4-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether) was studied following its application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples (varieties: Jonagold Decosta, Gala and Idared) were sprayed with the formulation to control pathogens causing fungal diseases: powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha ELL et Ev./Salm.) and apple scab (Venturia inaequalis Cooke/Aderh.). A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was highly satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤ 19% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipation of difenoconazole was studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficients of determination, R 2 , ranged between 0.880 and 0.977). The half-life of difenoconazole was 12-21 days in experiments conducted on three apple varieties. In these experiments, the initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg kg -1 in 50-79 days. For the residue levels to remain below 0.01 mg kg -1 (the maximum acceptable concentration for baby foods), difenoconazole must be applied approximately 3 months before harvest, at a dose of 0.2 L ha -1 (50 g of an active ingredient per ha).

  14. Effects of infrared radiation, solar cooking and microwave cooking on alpha-amylase inhibitor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulimani, V H; Supriya, D

    1994-10-01

    Three domestic cooking methods were studied in alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in sorghum grains. In all the treatments, overnight soaked seeds lost amylase inhibitory activity much faster. All the three treatments reduced the inhibitory activity. Use of solar cooker for reducing amylase inhibitory activity works out very economically and efficiently. Microwave cooking eliminates amylase inhibitory activity within 5 minutes.

  15. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  16. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  17. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  18. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  19. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark there are several organic orchards, that do not spray at all, and they seek non-spraying methods to prevent apple scab. In this pilot trial, irrigation with water at strategic moments was tested to prevent scab-infection. In April-June 2011 in five organic orchards we irrigated...

  20. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    I Danmark er der flere økologiske frugtplantager, der slet ikke anvender sprøjtning, og de ¿¿søger sprøjtefri metoder til at forhindre æbleskurv. I denne pilotundersøgelse blev vanding på strategiske tidspunkter testet til forebyggelse af skurv-infektion. I april-juni 2011 i fem økologiske frugtp...

  1. Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Korasapati, Nageswara Rao; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X.

    Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant advantages to cooking of meat and poultry products include extension of shelf life, desirable organoleptic properties, enhanced economic value, and assurance of safety of the products.

  2. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  3. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  4. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  5. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  6. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  9. AFSC/REFM: Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Economic Survey 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to collect data to understand the publics preferences for protecting the Cook Inlet beluga whale (CIBW), a distinct population...

  10. Assessment of selected cooking characteristics of prime starch and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    1959) with modification for small samples at three temperature (60, 70 and 80oC) regimes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Several studies had been reported on pasting or cooking properties of cassava starch some of which ...

  11. 75 FR 9015 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be...

  12. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried sweet potato leaves Two varieties of sweet potatoes, which were identified as commonly grown for leaves consumption were analyzed at Department of Food ...

  13. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  14. Improvement of cassava cooking quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, E.; Safo-Kantanka, O.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-yielding cassava varieties do not have the desired cooking quality. The objective of this project was to induce mutations to produce varieties with improved cooking quality while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics. A cassava mutant (ISU-W) was obtained after irradiation of a variety from IITA with gamma rays and selection. Cuttings of the mutant were grown for 12 months in a field trial and investigated for tuber yield and cooking quality. Pest and disease incidence were monitored during the entire growth period. The results showed that the mutant retained the high-yield and disease resistant characters of the parent, and had improved cooking quality based on increased smoothness, mealiness and elasticity of the flour. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Knuthsen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs was shown. Cooking may cause detrimental loss of vitamin D, but it depends on the actual foodstuffs and the heating process. Further research is needed to optimise cooking procedures to enhance retention of vitamin D. Vitamin D retention should be taken......We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs, vitamin D3 in margarine, and vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in bread. Our set-up illustrated the cooking methods usually performed in households i.e. boiling, frying in pan and oven, and baking. All experiments were performed...... three times independently of one another. The retention of vitamin D compounds in eggs and margarine during heat treatment in an oven for 40min at normal cooking temperature showed retention at 39–45%, while frying resulted in retention at 82–84%. Boiled eggs were found to have a similar level...

  16. perception of hazards associated with cooking fuel in building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ]. These attitudes might be due to poor knowledge of the indoor and the environment surrounding it [12]. This study aims at assessing the perception and awareness level of building occupants on poor indoor air quality associated with cooking ...

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  18. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  19. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  1. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  2. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  3. Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of th...

  4. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Qvenild Torgunn; Svendsen Kristin; Svedahl Sindre; Sjaastad Ann; Hilt Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B) stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled level...

  5. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  6. An evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Raber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating out of the home has been positively associated with body weight, obesity, and poor diet quality. While cooking at home has declined steadily over the last several decades, the benefits of home cooking have gained attention in recent years and many healthy cooking projects have emerged around the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking behavior in relation to chronic disease prevention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using broad search terms. Studies analyzing the impact of cooking behaviors across a range of disciplines were included. Experts in the field reviewed the resulting constructs in a small focus group. The model was developed from the extant literature on the subject with 59 studies informing 5 individual constructs (frequency, techniques and methods, minimal usage, flavoring, and ingredient additions/replacements, further defined by a series of individual behaviors. Face validity of these constructs was supported by the focus group. A validated conceptual model is a significant step toward better understanding the relationship between cooking, disease and disease prevention and may serve as a base for future assessment tools and curricula.

  7. Maagiliste momentide mütoloogia : intervjuu Peter Cook'iga / Peter Cook ; interv. Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Peter

    2002-01-01

    5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaalil esinenud inglise arhitekt P. Cook endast, oma loomingust, rühmitusest Archigram, mis pälvis 2002. a. RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) kuldmedali, Tallinnast jm. Kommenteerinud Triin Ojari

  8. Determination of several families of phytochemicals in different pre-cooked convenience vegetables: effect of lifetime and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Flores, M Isabel; Hernández-Sánchez, Francisco; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, J Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Phytochemicals content, including several families such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones, flavonols, isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, was determined in pre-cooked convenience vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). It was observed that there is not a common behavior of the individual concentration of phytochemicals during the lifetime and cooking of the matrix, and compounds change their concentration without a specific trend. It was observed that neither lifetime nor cooking process have significant effects on the total content of phytochemicals except in broccoli, although some changes in the individual content of the target compounds were observed, suggesting that interconversion processes could be performed during the lifetime and/or cooking process of the product.

  9. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different s...

  10. Effect of cooking time on the degradation of 14C maneb in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennaoui, Z.; Bennaceur, M.

    1992-11-01

    The behavior of 14C maneb was studied after cooking of fresh tomato at different times 15mn, 30mn, 45mn, and 60mn. More the time of cooking water is increased, more the migration in cooking water is importement (67% after 15mn and 97% after 60mn). Amount of internals residues decreases with time. Cooking stimulates the formation of ETU. More the time of cooking is increased, more the amount of ETU is important

  11. Comparison of Biodiesel Obtained from Virgin Cooking Oil and Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical and Catalytic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of transesterification of virgin cooking oil (VCO and waste cooking oil (WCO in catalyzed and supercritical transesterification process using methanol and ethanol as solvents has been conducted in this study. The luminous point of this research was the direct comparison of catalytic and supercritical process using the ester composition obtained from virgin cooking oil and waste cooking oil transesterification. Oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6 and reaction condition of 65 °C and 1 bar pressure were considered for the catalytic process, while 260 °C and high pressure (65 and 75 bar for methanol and ethanol, respectively were accounted for the supercritical process. Distinct layer separation was observed for both processes. Ester, fatty acid and glycerol composition was studied for both the upper and lower layers separately, from which 100% ester composition in the upper layer and a mixture of ester and other composition in the lower layer was obtained for the catalytic process owing to succeeding filtration and washing. However, mixture of ester (>75% and other composition was obtained in both layers for the supercritical process where purification process was not implemented. The similarity in the result obtained demonstrates the superiority of waste cooking oil compared to virgin cooking oil, taking cost into consideration.

  12. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-T.; Lee, L.-H.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Lin, L.-Y.; Cheng, B.-H.; Liu, C.-L.; Yang, C.-Y.; Tsai, H.-T.; Wu, T.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during

  13. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    .... 701- TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of top-of...

  14. 75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...); (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-267 and 731-TA-304 (Third Review))] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of- the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International... porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China and Taiwan and the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on...

  15. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  16. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  17. Meat cooking shrinkage: Measurement of a new meat quality parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, S; Tassone, S

    2006-07-01

    A parameter, meat cooking shrinkage (MCS), has been introduced based on investigations carried out on meat shrinkage caused by heat during cooking. MCS is the difference between the raw and cooked areas of the meat sample, expressed as a percentage of the raw area. The method uses a disk of meat (10mm thick and 55mm wide) measured before and after cooking in a hot air oven at 165°C for 10min, the meat having reached an internal temperature of 70°C. Video image analysis was used to measure the meat sample area. The proposed MCS protocol permits us to measure cooking loss and to reduce cost and variability, moreover it could be improved to obtain color and marbling measurements by developing the image analysis software. Analysing two or more parameters on the same sample, the correlations among them should improve analysis efficacy. A detailed description of the measurement protocol of MCS is reported as well as its application to beef and pork.

  18. Short term exposure to cooking fumes and pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvenild Torgunn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cooking fumes may have different deleterious effects on the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to look at possible effects from inhalation of cooking fumes on pulmonary function. Methods Two groups of 12 healthy volunteers (A and B stayed in a model kitchen for two and four hours respectively, and were monitored with spirometry four times during twenty four hours, on one occasion without any exposure, and on another with exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. Results The change in spirometric values during the day with exposure to cooking fumes, were not statistically significantly different from the changes during the day without exposure, with the exception of forced expiratory time (FET. The change in FET from entering the kitchen until six hours later, was significantly prolonged between the exposed and the unexposed day with a 15.7% increase on the exposed day, compared to a 3.2% decrease during the unexposed day (p-value = 0.03. The same tendency could be seen for FET measurements done immediately after the exposure and on the next morning, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion In our experimental setting, there seems to be minor short term spirometric effects, mainly affecting FET, from short term exposure to cooking fumes.

  19. Household cooking fuels and technologies in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, Wesley; Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    A major energy challenge of the 21st century is the health and welfare of 2.7 billion people worldwide, who currently rely on burning biomass in traditional household cooking systems. This Special Issue on Clean Cooking Fuels and Technologies in Developing Economies builds upon an IAEE workshop on this subject, held in Istanbul in 2008. It includes several papers from that workshop plus papers commissioned afterwards. The major themes of that workshop and this Special Issue are: •Analytical and decision frameworks for analysis and policy development for clean cooking fuels. •Making energy provisioning a central component of development strategies. •Strategies/business models of suppliers of modern fuels and technologies. •Analysis of successes/failures of past policies and programs to improve access to clean cooking. This introductory paper serves as a preamble to the 11 papers in this Special Issue. It provides a brief background on household cooking fuels and technologies, including: (1) their implications for sustainable development, health and welfare, gender impacts, and environment/climate issues; (2) options and scenarios for improved household cooling systems; and (3) discussions of institutions, programs and markets. It closes with “Research and Action Agendas”, initially developed during the 2008 workshop.

  20. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Survival of Salmonella in spices and growth in cooked food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Yurie; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    Contamination of spices with pathogens has been reported worldwide, and Salmonella might result in foodborne infections. In this study, we investigated the survival of Salmonella in black pepper and red pepper, and the growth of the surviving Salmonella in cooked food. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into spices, and their survival during storage was examined. In black pepper, S. Enteritidis was no longer viable after storage for 28 days, but S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg remained viable. In red pepper, S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg survived for 28 days although S. Enteritidis was not viable after 7 days. Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into cooked food, and their survival during storage was determined. In potato salad, egg salad, namul and kimchi as cooked foods, both pathogens grew at 30 degrees C, but not at 10 degrees C. Our results indicate that cooked food should be stored at low temperature after addition of spices, such as black pepper and red pepper, following the cooking.

  2. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RESIZING AND AUTOMATION OF COOKING OF COLD CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Cunha Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking using steam, at an industrial level, should be a reliable and safe process regarding operational repeatability of pre-set parameters. This work aims to implement an automatic system for direct steam injection , for cooking salamis at an industry of Rio Grande do Sul. Costs of losses of cold cuts have been measured before and after the implementation of the project and also calculations of transfer of heat and mass have been performed - application of letters of Heisler - to obtain the correct time and temperatures for this kind of food, resulting in a project of a vapor distributor with temperature and time controls, guaranteeing a product with uniform cooking and, therefore, quality. The realignment of the project proposed in this study resulted in the reduction of direct losses of discarded products at 98 % , with consequent reduction in operational and energy costs.

  4. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  5. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Pan, D; Wang, G

    1994-01-01

    Various samples of cooking oil fumes were analyzed to an effort to study the relationship between the high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in Chinese women and cooking oil fumes in the kitchen. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of cooking oil fumes were extracted, chromatographed, and measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The samples included oil fumes from three commercial cooking oils and fumes from three catering shops. All samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo (a,h)anthracene (DBahA). In addition, the concentration of DBahA was 5.7 to 22.8 times higher than that of BaP in the fume samples. Concentrations of BaP and DBahA were, respectively, 0.463 and 5.736 micrograms/g in refined vegetable oil, 0.341 and 3.725 micrograms/g in soybean oil, and 0.305 and 4.565 micrograms/g in vegetable oil. Investigation of PAH concentrations at three catering shops showed that the level of BaP at a Youtiao (deep-fried twisted dough sticks) shop was 4.18 micrograms/100 m3, 2.28 micrograms/100 m3 at a Seqenma (candied fritters) workshop, and 0.49 micrograms/100 m3 at a kitchen of a restaurant; concentrations of DBahA were 33.80, 14.41, and 3.03 micrograms/100 m3, respectively. The high concentration of carcinogens, such as BaP and DBahA, in cooking oil fumes might help explain why Chinese women, who spend more time exposed to cooking oil fumes than men, have a high incidence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  6. Retention of nutrients in microwave-cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B P

    1989-07-01

    The high market penetration of microwave ovens in the United States and the burst of new food products available for "heating and eating" raises questions about the nutritional impact of the relatively new technology. Based on the information available in the literature, nutrient content and retention of microwave-cooked or reheated foods is equal to or better than the same product prepared conventionally or held hot in a foodservice operation. Using recommended procedures for microwave cooking and reheating should result in products that are satisfying from both a sensory and nutritional standpoint.

  7. NOTES ON RESUPINATE HYMENOMYCETES—I On Pellicularia Cooke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author concludes that Pellicularia Cooke is to be regarded as the name ofan inseparable mixtum compositum (nomen confusum and hence as illegitimate (im-priorable. He believes that, apart from a hypothetical gelatinous medium, Cooke'soriginal material consisted of the combination of the vegetative hyphae of a resupinatehymenomycete and the spores of a pervading imperfect fungus. If one of these con-stituent elements were to be selected as type, the choice would be the spores ratherthan the vegetative hyphae selected by Rogers.

  8. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  9. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  10. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  11. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund; Oboh Ganiyu; Okoh Anthony Ifeanyi

    2017-01-01

    Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial f...

  12. Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Qun Gong; Chu-Yun Cui; Hui Zhang; Fan-Jie Meng

    2017-01-01

    As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), can damage memory and cognitive function. Cooking activity, an instrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review the effectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cooking activity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder, but also ease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also ...

  13. The knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures for students in college and vocational school

    OpenAIRE

    平島, 円; 堀, 光代; 磯部, 由香; Hirashima, Madoka; HORI, Mitsuyo; ISOBE, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    Surveys were conducted every April to investigate the knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures of 1, 149 freshmen(age 18-20)in college and vocational school from 2010 to 2013. The knowledge and confidence of cooking procedures were differed by gender, major in high school, frequency of cooking, cooking attitude and having specialty dishes. Students graduated from specialized education in high school had higher knowledge and confidence than students graduated from general education did....

  14. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Dipti, E-mail: dipti@kth.se [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ashis [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Šlejkovec, Zdenka [Environmental Sciences Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chatterjee, Debashis [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Nriagu, Jerome [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L{sup −1}) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards.

  15. 46 CFR 169.685 - Electric heating and cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or... must be provided with heavy duty hinges and locking devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy seas. (d) Electric cooking equipment must be mounted to prevent dislodgment in heavy seas. (e) For each...

  16. Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Mathers, 1992; Annison, 1993). A variety of treatments such as milling and steaming, cooking, roasting or fermentation are used in traditional preparation of legume sources for human food (Apata and Ologhobo, 1997; Oboh et al., 2000; Seena et al.,. 2006). These domestic processing methods have been.

  17. Assessment of selected cooking characteristics of prime starch and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ease of separation of dietary fibre components of cassava pulp relative to other tropical root crops was the motivation for this study. Food grade fibres were isolated from cassava pulp using simple technique that consist essentially solvent mixture-separation procedure. Assessment of selected cooking proprieties namely ...

  18. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cooking and eating quality of mutant lines obtained from irradiating a local cultivar, Supa. Five early maturing mutant lines plus two controls, IR! 53234-27-1 and Supa were evaluated for their physical grain characteristics including length and shape of grain kernel, translucence and ...

  19. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. A study was carried out at Sokoine University of Agriculture to characterize the local rice varieties grown in Morogoro Region basing on their physical-chemical characteristics and cooking quality parameters. Five cultivars of rice were analyzed and these included. Kaling'anaula, Kihogo Red, Salama M17, Supa ...

  20. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  1. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  2. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Débora Zanoni; Facanali, Roselaine; Marques, Márcia Mayo Ortiz; Nascimento, Augusto Santana; Fernandes, Célio Junior da Costa; Zambuzzi, William Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases. PMID:29073166

  3. Information activities and resources in an episode of gourmet cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hartel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper contributes to what is known about everyday life information seeking within serious leisure. It is the first case study of a making and tinkering (or craft hobby, gourmet cooking. The central activity of the hobby is described and serves as a context to relate and locate information activities and information resources. Method. In this scientific ethnography, twenty gourmet cooks from Boston and Los Angeles, USA were interviewed in their homes about their pursuit of the hobby and its associated information phenomena. Then, domestic culinary information resources and spaces were documented via a photographic inventory. Analysis. Interview transcripts and field notes were studied for themes through an iterative process of inductive and deductive analysis. A visual analysis process was performed on the photographs. Results. Hands-on cooking takes the form of a nine step episode. Information activities and resources are instrumental, interwoven, and varied across the process. In any cooking episode use and re-use are the prevailing information activities; the hobbyist is an active producer and manager of information; and the recipe is a primary document. Conclusion. The study demonstrates how to explicate and conceptualize information phenomena in serious leisure, and sets up lines of inquiry to explore in future research.

  4. Short communication Nutrient content of uncooked and cooked meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jeanine

    American Meat Science. Association, 1995). After cooking the cuts were analysed. The analytical procedures were done on a double blind basis in the laboratories (ISO/IEC:17025:2005) that form part of the South African National. Accreditation ...

  5. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial strains, capable of producing ethanol by using cooking oil glycerol waste (derived from biodiesel production) as sole C-source were screened from soil samples. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, the selected strain was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes G2WG. The sequence was submitted to GenBank and the ...

  6. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kahl, CEI, Mej

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... and post-mortem ageing on meat tenderness, purge, cooking loss and ultimate pH of the longissimus muscle under commercial production and slaughter conditions of the Namibian beef export industry. Fifty steers of each breed cross, at an average age of 2½ years and with an average subcutaneous fat ...

  7. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  8. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... toiletries, plastics, leather, and textile. Glycerol, a major by-product in biodiesel manufacturing process, ..... Purification of crud glycerol from waste cooking oil based biodiesel production by orthogonal test method. China Pet. Process. Petrochem. Technol. 15:48-53. Volker FW, Steffen NL, Tobias MM (2011).

  9. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cooked Mucuna sloanei meal (CMSM) on growth performance ... Biochemical indices show that the serum protein and serum creatinine were significantly decreased (p <. 0.05) at 15.0% ..... seeds: a preliminary study of their starch hydrocolloids ...

  10. Effect Of Replacing Soybean Meal With Cooked Whole Soybean On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... depression of any of the parameters considered. Thus in a humid tropical condition, cooked whole soybeans can be used to replace soybean meal in broiler diets at both starter and finisher phase without a depression on the bird performance. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research Vol. 3 1996: pp. 21-24 ...

  11. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  12. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  13. Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-16

    Apr 16, 2007 ... The objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of cooking and soaking on the physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous 'ofada' rice and foreign. 'aroso' rice varieties in Nigeria. The two rice varieties were freshly purchased in the raw state, soaked in water and ...

  14. Multiple-load series resonant inverter for induction cooking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sharath Kumar

    In addition, it can achieve efficient and stable zero voltage switching operation in the whole load range. The proposed control scheme is simulated and experimentally verified with two-load inverter configuration. Keywords. Induction cooking; multiple load; series resonant inverter; ZVS; pulse density modulation control. 1.

  15. Factors driving the adoption of cooking banana processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of efforts in realising her aim of introducing cooking banana into Nigeria, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) mounted training and awareness campaigns on its utilisation in collaboration with Shell and Agip Oil companies between 1991 and 1997. This study looked into the adoption profile of the ...

  16. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  17. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  18. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice of Intent to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... project is an element of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  19. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... Department of Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve.... SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing this revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental...

  20. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r 2 and D ′ value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively.

  1. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  2. When cooking fish wreaks havoc in Danish kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2008-01-01

    Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow....

  3. Neurophysiological responses during cooking food associated with different emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Grootjen, M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Zandstra, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological correlates of affective experience could potentially provide continuous information about a person’s experience when cooking and tasting food, without explicitly verbalizing this. Such measures would be helpful to understand people’s implicit food preferences and choices. This

  4. Physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at Sokoine University of Agriculture to characterize the local rice varieties grown in Morogoro Region basing on their physical-chemical characteristics and cooking quality parameters. Five cultivars of rice were analyzed and these included Kaling'anaula, Kihogo Red, Salama M17, Supa and Salama.

  5. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  6. Performance test of Parabolic Trough Solar Cooker for indoor cooking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuel-wood scarcity is a growing problem that has so far been poorly addressed. Solar cooking is one possible solution but its acceptance has been limited partially due to low performance and convenience of use of most of the solar cookers that currently are available. The objective of this research is to test the performance ...

  7. Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The available and unavailable carbohydrate contents of eleven tropical legumes from different seed lines were investigated in raw, cooked and autoclaved forms. Raw legumes contained small amounts of glucose and fructose which ranged from 0.05 to 0.22 g/100 g and 0.24 to 0.90 g/100 g, respectively, sucrose varied ...

  8. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of breed (Brahman, Bonsmara, Simbrah and Simmental crosses) and post-mortem ageing on meat tenderness, purge, cooking loss and ultimate pH of the longissimus muscle under commercial production and slaughter conditions of the Namibian beef export industry. Fifty steers of each ...

  9. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  10. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  11. Multiple-load series resonant inverter for induction cooking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sharath Kumar

    Induction cooking; multiple load; series resonant inverter; ZVS; pulse density modulation control. 1. Introduction. Induction heating (IH) method is a far better approach than conventional methods. In conventional methods, heat is transferred from a heat source to load by conduction or radi- ation. In IH, heat is developed ...

  12. Heart-Healthy Home Cooking: African American Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods at the correct temperature to ensure food safety. Bacteria can grow in foods between 40 °F and 140 °F. To keep foods out of this danger zone, keep cold foods cold and hot foods hot. Use a clean thermometer and measure the internal temperature of cooked food to make ...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of single rice kernels during cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohoric, A.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; Jager, de P.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Dalen, van G.; As, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The RARE imaging method was used to monitor the cooking of single rice kernels in real time and with high spatial resolution in three dimensions. The imaging sequence is optimized for rapid acquisition of signals with short relaxation times using centered out RARE. Short scan time and high spatial

  14. Balancing food values : Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  15. Radiotreatment of dishes cooked : Royal cutlets of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousselmi, Mehrez

    2006-01-01

    The cooked dishes often present themselves as the complex products of microbiological, biochemival view point and organoleptic.However, the demand of the local and international market stops showing a tendency toward use increased of these cooked dishes of which problems to get round are very delicate. The ionization can be an alternative of conservation since it is characterized bye one fashion of action fundamentally different of the classic techniques: it is about exposing during a determined length, of the wrapped food commodities or in a jumble to doses of ionising radiance carefully controlled in order to get the sought-after effect. The irradiation showed a big efficiency therefore on the plan microbiology.Indeed the dose 1 KGy destroyed all present microorganisms in dishes cooked pasteurized. whereas, for dishes cooked non pasteurized, a dose of 2 KGy destroyed completely the flora of contamination. Besides, the irradiation entails a light reduction of the biochemical composition, while keeping qualities intact organoleptic for all analyzed samples. As a conclusion, the irradiation increases the length of conservation, what confirms the reliability of such a process, in addition of his/her/its weak energizing cost. (author)

  16. 9 CFR 318.22 - Determination of added water in cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages. 318.22 Section 318.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.22 Determination of added water in cooked sausages. (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. (1) Cooked sausage. Cooked sausage is any product...

  17. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  18. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with...

  19. Study of sugar cooking degree to sugar obtention using gamma attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda Cavalcanti, J. de.

    1984-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation attenuation methodology in the determination of sugar cooking degree is studied. Several experiments with samples of vacuum equipment during the cooking were made, based on beam intensity variations of a radioactive source of Americium 241. One sensible difference between the sirup emergent radiation and the cooked mass was observed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. 78 FR 54668 - Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Cook... Coast Guard recertified the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council through August 31, 2013... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2013-0720] Cook Inlet Regional Citizens...

  1. 76 FR 42134 - Application for Recertification of Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability... application for recertification submitted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council (CIRCAC) for... of a Regional Citizens' Advisory Council for Cook Inlet, Alaska. This advisory group monitors the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour... defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is a product prepared as follows: Food quality cottonseed is delinted and decorticated; the...

  4. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by a...

  5. 76 FR 12369 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Cooking Ware From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Cooking Ware from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 298 (Third Review). Issued: February 28, 2011. By order...

  6. 76 FR 2920 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cooking Ware From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from... revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to...

  7. 36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, Incorporated. 13.320 Section 13.320 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated. (a) The Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated (CIRI), in cooperation with village corporations within the Cook Inlet region when appropriate, will have a right of first...

  8. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  9. Culinary Education in Food and Cooking Research Societies Organized by Professional Cooks and Cookery Lovers in the Mid-Meiji Era, Report 1

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 美樹; Miki, IMAI; 昭和女子大学初等教育学科

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the magazine Hocho-Ambai(Wielding Your Kitchen Knives, all 37 issues published from 1886 to 1891)to explore the activities of societies of culinary education for food and cooking in the mid-Meiji era. The author, from the viewpoint of gender, reviewed, selected and analyzed articles describing the activities of the Society of Art of Cooking Research and the Society of Food Research organized by professional cooks and cookery lovers in the period. The following results were...

  10. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  11. Factors affecting Cook Gunther Tulip and Cook Celect inferior vena cava filter retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Roan J; Novak, Zdenek; Matthews, Thomas C; Patterson, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Success rates vary for the retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs). The optimal retrieval time and factors influencing retrieval success remain unproven. This study aims to determine optimal time and evaluate factors related to successful IVCF retrieval. An institutional prospectively maintained database was reviewed for all IVCF retrieval attempts from 2006 to 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, IVCF type, presence of angulation, and time to retrieval were evaluated with respect to success or failure of retrieval. Statistical analyses (t-test, χ(2), correlations, and Kaplan-Meier plots) were performed comparing successful and unsuccessful retrievals. Of 121 attempted IVCF retrievals, 92 (76%) were successful and 29 (24%) were unsuccessful. There were no significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in terms of patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, or IVCF type, which included 93 Celect (77%) and 28 Gunther Tulip (23%). Time since IVCF placement was significantly different (P = .025) between the successful and unsuccessful retrieval groups (medians were 105 [7-368] and 162 [43-379] days, respectively). Time since IVCF placement greater than 117 days correlated significantly with unsuccessful IVCF retrieval (R = 0.218; P = .017; odds ratio, 2.88; P = .02). Angulation greater than 20 degrees on anteroposterior radiograph was noted in seven of 29 (24%) unsuccessful retrievals compared with seven of 92 (8%) successful retrievals and was significant (P = .012). Cook Gunther Tulip and Celect IVCF retrieval is most likely to be successful within 3 to 4 months of placement. Unsuccessful retrieval attempts are more likely to occur when IVCF position is angulated. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  13. The impact of video technology on learning: A cooking skills experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Dawn; Hollywood, Lynsey; Furey, Sinéad; Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong Ho [Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyung Nationol University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation.

  16. [Quality assurance of cooked food in conventional hospital food service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Tufi, Daniela; Tassoni, Alessandra; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Villari, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the hospital food service of the Azienda in preserving microbiological quality and temperature of cooked foods during the distribution to the different wards of the hospital. During three years, microbiological parameters and temperatures were monitored in the central kitchen before distribution (T0), in the first (T1) and in the last ward (T2) of the distribution route during a three-year period for a total of 337 analytical determinations. Temperature values before distribution improved during the study period, whereas the capacity of keeping adequate temperature values during the distribution decreased over time, in spite of the introduction of a new technology after the first year of the study. No significant deteriorations of the microbiological quality of the cooked foods were detected. The results of the study clearly indicate that an integrated approach involving new technology, work organization and personnel training is needed in preserving food quality in hospitals.

  17. Understanding diffusion theory and Fick's law through food and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion theory and Fick's first law. These exercises are part of a 10-wk undergraduate course that uses food and cooking to teach fundamental concepts in physiology and biophysics to students, including nonscience majors. Consistent demonstration of practical applications in a classroom setting has the potential to fundamentally change how students view the role of science in their lives (15). Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  18. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  20. 75 FR 81966 - Top of the Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of... reviews of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on top of the stove stainless steel cooking ware... the stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea includes all non-electric cooking ware of stainless...

  1. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-508] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking... duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c... the antidumping duty order on POS cooking ware from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date: November 22, 2010...

  2. 9 CFR 315.3 - Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooking if not handled according to this part. 315.3 Section 315.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OF CARCASSES AND PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.3 Disposal of products passed for cooking if not handled according to this part. Products passed for cooking if not handled and processed in accordance...

  3. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  4. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  5. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    In certain regions of Mexico, households irrespective of their income level cook a particular .... No monthly salary. 1. 3. 200. 1. 0. -100. 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. -100. 0. 0. 0. Total. 74 116 56 103 39. -62. 5. 40. 700. 15. 3. -80. 12 11. -8. 3.4.2 Energy Use and Preferred Energy Compared for. Income Level: As observed from Table 2, most.

  6. The restoration of abortion services at Cook County Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1993-01-01

    Chicago's Cook County Hospital is the first public hospital in the US to ban, then reinstate, abortion services. After the 1973 legalization of abortion in the US, Cook County Hospital's Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy Clinic performed 3000-3500 procedures annually for low-income women. The clinic was closed abruptly in October 1980 by George Dunne, president of the hospital's Board of Commissioners. Dunne maintained the ban was consistent with a 1977 Illinois law restricting state funding to abortions essential to save a woman's life. The ban was lifted in 1992, after a series of competing lawsuits and restraining orders, by the next Board president, Richard Phelan. Given the 12-year hiatus in abortion provision, the hospital had to acquire equipment, recruit staff, conduct training, and develop medical protocols. Doctors and nurses already employed in the hospital's obstetrics and gynecology department volunteered to staff the service and abortion procedures were scheduled for off-peak hours to minimize overwhelming of the outpatient facility. Planned Parenthood provided equipment as well as consultation. Abortions are limited to Cook County residents and a minimum fee of US$50 is required, even from Medical Assistance recipients. Although the restoration of abortion services is hailed by pro-choice advocates as a legal victory, there remain serious concerns about the adequacy of the Cook County program. A maximum of 30 abortions are performed a week, meaning that not all abortion seekers can be served, and 2nd-trimester abortions are limited to women whose health would be affected by carrying a pregnancy to term and rape or incest victims. Also problematic has been the 24-hour waiting period between medical examination and counseling and the abortion procedure Finally, pro-choice groups are concerned that the hospital is not training residents to perform abortions.

  7. Childhood asthma and indoor woodsmoke from cooking in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Morten A; Hessen, Jens O; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel; McCracken, John; Lopez, Victorina

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence and severity of asthma, and the association with cooking on open wood fires, as preparation for a large-scale randomized field trial on effects of indoor air pollution and child health. This is one of the first systematic studies of asthma and indoor wood-smoke pollution and to our knowledge the first asthma study in a purely indigeneous population in Latin America. The mothers of 1058 children aged 4-6 years were interviewed, using the standardized ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) procedures and questionnaire. The study population is a Mam-speaking (Maya), indigenous group living at relatively high altitude (2000 m) in Western Guatemalan Highlands. We found that asthma prevalence is low among indigenous children in Guatemala, compared to other populations in Latin America. Only 3.3% of the children reported wheezing symptoms in the last 12 months, and 72% wheezing symptoms ever. The majority of the current wheezers had at least one of the criteria for severe asthma. The prevalence of all the symptoms of asthma was higher in children from households that used open fires compared to improved stoves with chimneys. In a logistic regression model, use of open fire for cooking was a significant risk factor for a number of asthma symptoms, with odds ratios varying from 2.0 to 3.5. Among the different cooking technologies (1-improved stove with chimney, 2-mixture of gas and open fire, 3-open fire) trends of higher prevalence with more pollution was found for some of the symptoms. Hence use of open fire for cooking, may be an important risk factor for asthma symptoms and severity.

  8. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  9. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzón, Raquel; Farid Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab�� and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made wi...

  10. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-01-01

    Background Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Ph...

  11. Entree Production Guides for Cook/Freeze Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Mein 245 Turkey Tetrazzini 248 209 .. . .-- - __".. ___, _ . .. ... . . ..______ . ......__•__, * .% ,-. - 7 ARROZ CON POLLO C-1 Yield: 100 Portions...and freeze. 210 • . 2 ARROZ CON POLLO Ingredients Percent Pounds Grams Procedure Paprika 0.13 0.08 34 Garlic, dehydrated, 0.05 0.03 13 granulated...raw weight to cooked edible (boned) meat. Edible weight of chicken equals 11.7 lb (5307 g). 211 ARROZ CON POLLO Ingradients Meet 1. Bacon, NSN-8905

  12. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  13. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  14. PERANAN COOK DI EVENT KITCHEN HOTEL HYATT REGENCY BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Firdaus

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Hotel merupakan salah satu pendukung pariwisata, dimana keberadaanya begitu penting untuk mengakomodir kebutuhan-kebutuhan wisatawan yang berkaitan dengan penginapan, restoran, penyelenggaraan event dan hiburan, sehingga faktor kualitas pelayanan yang diberikan menjadi kunci keberhasilan dari suatu hotel. Penyelenggaraan event di hotel menjadi tren tersendiri dan sangat berpotensi untuk terus dikembangkan, salah satu kualitas pelayanan yang sangat penting yaitu penyediaan hidangan bagi kegiatan event, maka peran cook di event kitchen menjadi aspek yang dapat menentukan baik tidaknya event terlaksana. Hotel Hyatt Regency Bandung sebagai hotel bintang 5 memiliki 6 outlet untuk mendukung pelayanan hidangan bagi event yang diselenggarakan di hotel tersebut. Keenam outlet tersebut yaitu outlet Banquet Kitchen, outlet Taruma Café Kitchen, outlet Regecy Kitchen, outlet Cha Yuen Kitchen, outlet Commissary Kitchen dan outlet Simider Kitchen. Dalam suatu outlet biasanya terdiri dari 6 sampai 7 cook. Dimana mereka memiliki tugas masing-masing, seperti bagian chef de partie yang bertugas untuk menyediakan dan mengawasi pengadaan kebutuhan bahan makanan, dan ada pula bagian commis yang bertugas untuk mengolah bahan makanan menjadi masakan yang dapat disajikan untuk kegiatan event. Peran dari masing-masing bagian begitu penting bagi kelancaran event yang terlaksana, dan kelancaran suatu event yang terlaksana berdampak baik pada image hotel dimata konsumen.   Kata Kunci : Hotel, Even Kitchen, Cook.

  15. Reduction of aflatoxin in rice by different cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Ali Mohamadi; Azizi, Eisa Gholampour; Salehi, Esmaeel Ataye; Rahimi, Khadije

    2014-07-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn) is one of the basic diets in the north of Iran. The aim of present study was to detect total aflatoxin (AFT) in domestic and imported rice in Amol (in the north of Iran) and to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods on the levels of the toxin. For this purpose, 42 rice samples were collected from retail stores. The raw samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for toxin assessment and then submitted to two different cooking methods including traditional local method and in rice cooker. After treatment, AFT was determined. Results show that the average concentration of AFT in domestic and imported samples was 1.08 ± 0.02 and 1.89 ± 0.87 ppb, respectively, which is lower than national and European Union standards. The highest AFT reduction (24.8%) was observed when rice samples were cooked by rice cooker but the difference with local method was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  17. Cooking Up Energy with Predominately Latino Children during Afterschool Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K; Dolar, Veronika

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the impact on body weight status and food-related behaviors following participation in the Cooking Up Energy® (CUE) Program. Children 7-11 years old attended 10 cooking/nutrition education sessions. Baseline and post-program weight, height and waist circumference measurements, frequency of participation in meal preparation and food frequency questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed for the entire group as well as a subgroup of overweight and obese participants. Participants (N = 51) were predominately Latino (76%) and overweight (52%). Significant reduction in mean body mass index (BMI) percentile was found in the subgroup of overweight and obese participants (N = 27; p < .05). However, reduction in mean BMI z-score was non-significant. Reports of program enjoyment (98%) and an increased desire to cook more frequently at home (83%) were found; however, no significant increase in participation in meal preparation at home was found following program completion. The CUE program was well received by most participants, and there is indication that program participation has the potential to have a positive influence on body weight. However, more research is needed to explore ways to promote an increase in participation in food preparation at home by children.

  18. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied...... of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method.......The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied....... FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more...

  19. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  20. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi 2 crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (confidence in, their cooking and food skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including

  1. The cost of cooking a meal. The case of Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Ray, Charlotte; Boulkaid, Youssef

    2017-06-01

    Energy for cooking is considered essential in achieving modern energy access. Despite this, almost three billion people worldwide still use solid fuels to meet their cooking needs. To better support practitioners and policy-makers, this paper presents a new model for comparing cooking solutions and its key output metric: the ‘levelized cost of cooking a meal’ (LCCM). The model is applied to compare several cooking solutions in the case study area of Nyeri County in Kenya. The cooking access targets are connected to the International Workshop Agreement and Global Tracking Framework’s tiers of cooking energy access. Results show how an increased energy access with improved firewood and charcoal cookstoves could reduce both household’s LCCMs and the total costs compared to traditional firewood cooking over the modelling period. On the other hand, switching to cleaner cooking solutions, such as LPG- and electricity, would result in higher costs for the end-user highlighting that this transition is not straightforward. The paper also contextualizes the results into the wider socio-economic context. It finds that a tradeoff is present between minimizing costs for households and meeting household priorities, thus maximizing the potential benefits of clean cooking without dismissing the use of biomass altogether.

  2. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Adawy, Tarek A

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cooking treatments (boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking) and germination on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas were studied. Cooking treatments and/or germination caused significant (p vitamins. Germination was less effective than cooking treatments in reducing trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin activity, tannins and saponins; it was more effective in reducing phytic acid, stachyose and raffinose. Cooking treatments and germination decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. However, cooked and germinated chickpeas were still higher in lysine, isoleucine and total aromatic amino acid contents than the FAO/WHO reference. The losses in B-vitamins and minerals in chickpeas cooked by microwaving were smaller than in those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Germination resulted in greater retention of all minerals and B-vitamins compared to cooking treatments. In vitro protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and essential amino acid index were improved by all treatments. The chemical score and limiting amino acid of chickpeas subjected to the various treatments varied considerably, depending on the type of treatment. Based on these results, microwave cooking appears to be the best alternative for legume preparation in households and restaurants.

  3. Impact of the degree of cooking on starch digestibility of rice - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    The impact of cooking degree on the starch digestibility of a non-waxy, cooked rice was examined through a simulated gastro-small intestinal in vitro digestion model. The starch hydrolysis of both non-homogenised and homogenised cooked rice samples during simulated digestion was also compared in order to examine the impact of grain structure on starch digestibility. Polished rice grains were cooked in boiling water for 10min (partially cooked) and 20min (fully cooked) to obtain samples of different cooking degree. No significant differences in the equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) were observed among the partially and fully cooked grains, although significant differences were observed among the uncooked and cooked samples. The equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) of homogenised rice was higher than its non-homogenised counterpart. These results showed that rice starch digestibility should not be affected by the cooking degrees related to starch gelatinisation, but was influenced by the modification/destruction of the grain structure during mechanical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rethinking Rice Preparation for Highly Efficient Removal of Inorganic Arsenic Using Percolating Cooking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Manus; Jiujin, Xiao; Gomes Farias, Júlia; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel way of cooking rice to maximize the removal of the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (Asi) is presented here. In conventional rice cooking water and grain are in continuous contact, and it is known that the larger the water:rice cooking ratio, the more Asi removed by cooking, suggesting that the Asi in the grain is mobile in water. Experiments were designed where rice is cooked in a continual stream of percolating near boiling water, either low in Asi, or Asi free. This has the advantage of not only exposing grain to large volumes of cooking water, but also physically removes any Asi leached from the grain into the water receiving vessel. The relationship between cooking water volume and Asi removal in conventional rice cooking was demonstrated for the rice types under study. At a water-to-rice cooking ratio of 12:1, 57±5% of Asi could be removed, average of 6 wholegrain and 6 polished rice samples. Two types of percolating technology were tested, one where the cooking water was recycled through condensing boiling water steam and passing the freshly distilled hot water through the grain in a laboratory setting, and one where tap water was used to cook the rice held in an off-the-shelf coffee percolator in a domestic setting. Both approaches proved highly effective in removing Asi from the cooking rice, with up to 85% of Asi removed from individual rice types. For the recycled water experiment 59±8% and 69±10% of Asi was removed, on average, compared to uncooked rice for polished (n=27) and wholegrain (n=13) rice, respectively. For coffee percolation there was no difference between wholegrain and polished rice, and the effectiveness of Asi removal was 49±7% across 6 wholegrain and 6 polished rice samples. The manuscript explores the potential applications and further optimization of this percolating cooking water, high Asi removal, discovery. PMID:26200355

  5. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  6. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  7. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hyuk [Dept. of Food Nutrion and Food Science, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips.

  8. Effects of cooking methods and temperatures on nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Harun; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy after cooking. The fish were cooked by different methods (frying, baking and grilling) at two different temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C). Crude ash, crude protein and crude fat contents of cooked fish increased due to rise in dry matter contents. While cooking methods affected mineral content of anchovy, cooking temperature did not affect. The highest values of monounsaturated fatty acids were found in baked samples. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in baked samples were also high and similar in fried samples. Fried samples, which were the most preferred, lost its nutritional characteristics more than baked and grilled samples. Grilled and baked fish samples can be recommended for healthy consumption. However, grilled fish samples had hard texture due to more moisture loss than other methods. Therefore, it is concluded that baking is the best cooking method for anchovy.

  9. Digital Materials Related to Food Science and Cooking Methods for Preparing Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    沼田, 貴美子; 渡邉, 美奈; ヌマタ, キミコ; ワタナベ, ミナ; Numata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We studied methods that were effective for teaching cooking to elementary school pupils using home economics materials. The subject was "Iritamago (scrambled eggs)". We researched the relationship between cookery science and experimental methods of making Iritamago. The various differences in condition and texture of Iritamago were compared among the different cooking utensils, conditions, and preparations of eggs. We created digital materials related to cookery science and the cooking method...

  10. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghofe, E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a versatile and very efficient technology that is widely used in food and feed processing. The cooking extruders have found many applications, which include: breakfast cereals, snack foods, other cereal based products, pet food and aquatic foods, texturized vegetable proteins, confectionery products, chemical and biochemical reactions, and oil extraction. Lipids are components that play an important role in most of the extrusion cooking processes. They can act as plastificizers or emulsifiers, and affect more significantly texture and stickiness of the extrudate. This paper reviews effect of oils and other lipids reactions during extrusion cooking as well as the effects of amylase-lipid complexation on extrudate quality.La extrusión es, en general, una tecnología versátil y muy eficiente, que se aplica ampliamente en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos. Los equipos de cocción-extrusión tienen numerosas aplicaciones, entre las que pueden incluirse: los cereales de desayuno listos para comer, los aperitivos, diferentes productos basados en cereales, los piensos para animales domésticos y peces, proteínas vegetales texturizadas, productos de pastelería, reacciones químicas y bioquímicas, y la extracción de aceites. Los lípidos son componentes que juegan un papel importante en la mayoría de los procesos de cocción-extrusión. Pueden actuar como plastificantes o como emulsionantes, suministrando lubricación. En este artículo se revisan con detalle los efectos de las reacciones de los aceites y otros lípidos durante el proceso de cocción-extrucción así como el efecto de la formación de complejos amilasa-lípidos sobre la calidad de los extrudados.

  11. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  12. Heterocyclic amines produced in cooked food: unavoidable xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K; Ohgaki, H; Takayama, S; Nagao, M; Esumi, H

    1990-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to naturally occurring and industrial xenobiotics in their daily lives. Heterocyclic amines, which are formed during the cooking of proteinaceous foods, have been categorized as a new class of naturally occurring xenobiotics. They are divided into 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ)- and non-IQ-types. The amounts and proportion of total mutagenicity contributed by the IQ-type heterocyclic amines in cooked food are greater than those of the non-IQ-types. Precursors of the IQ-type heterocyclic amines including IQ, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are creatinine, amino acids and sugars in meat and fish. Both types of heterocyclic amines are carcinogenic in mice and rats. All heterocyclic amines except PhIP frequently induce cancers in the liver, while PhIP induces lymphomas in mice and carcinomas of the colon and mammary gland in rats. Based on quantitative analysis of heterocyclic amines in cooked food and levels of excretion of unchanged heterocyclic amines in human urine, total heterocyclic amine intake was calculated to be around 0.4-16 micrograms/person per day. As in the case of other naturally occurring xenobiotics, and degree of exposure is small and is presumably insufficient alone to account for the development of human cancer. Nevertheless, a linear relationship has been demonstrated between DNA adduct levels and a wide range of doses of MeIQx in animals. In addition, combined treatment with five heterocyclic amines yielded additive or synergistic effects in the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci. Taking these results and current observations of multiple genetic alterations in human cancers into consideration together, heterocyclic amines are probably involved in the development of human cancer in the presence of other carcinogens, tumor promoters and factors stimulating cancer progression.

  13. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth. PMID:22389643

  14. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in cooking oil and related products from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Niisoe, Tamon; Adachi, Ayumu; Fujii, Yukiko; Nouda, Chihiro; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants. It has been found that dietary intakes of SCCPs in China have recently increased and are now higher than in Japan and Korea. The contribution of cooking oil to dietary exposure to SCCPs in China was evaluated by analyzing SCCPs in cooking oil, raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, and fried confectionery products collected in China in 2010 and 2012. Detectable amounts of SCCP homologs were found in 48 out of the 49 cooking oil samples analyzed, and the SCCP concentrations varied widely, from production and processing of the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooking behaviour of different ethnic groups residing in and around lowland rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Wahyudi; Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Ardiansyah

    2017-01-01

    Cooking behaviour can reflect how natural resources have been converted into human nutrition. Cooking is activity from collecting to preparing food. Cooking competencies reflect the ability of people to provide for their food-based needs. Harapan Rainforest is a restoration forest with limited food...... resources remaining in it. This study investigated the relationship between cooking behaviour and the associated socio-economic characteristics of three ethnic groups residing in remaining rainforest. The quantitative data were collected from 101 households by using semi-structured questionnaires...

  16. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of owner experiences and adherence to home-cooked diet recipes for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L N; Linder, D E; Heinze, C R; Kehs, R L; Freeman, L M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate owner experiences and adherence to home-cooked diet recipes for dogs. Clients of a veterinary teaching hospital clinical nutrition service who had a home-cooked diet recipe formulated for their dogs between March 2011 and December 2013 were given a survey by email, postal mail and telephone. Survey questions addressed motivations, positive and negative aspects of feeding home-cooked diets and current feeding practices. Responses were compared to animals' medical records to determine adherence. Of the 93 owners who were contacted, 53 (57%) completed the survey. Of the 53 respondents, 43 owners (81%) reported that they were still feeding an home-cooked diet or had fed an home-cooked diet until the time of their dogs' deaths. The most common motivation for feeding a home-cooked diet was suitability for specific medical needs. Of the 30 surveys that included a complete diet history, only four (13%) demonstrated exact adherence to home-cooked diet recipes. Most respondents liked and continued to feed a home-cooked diet, but few owners adhered to prescribed recipes and many dogs required recipe modifications. It is important to counsel dog owners about benefits and drawbacks of feeding home-cooked diets, importance of recipe adherence and necessity for follow-up after diet formulation with a board-certified veterinary nutritionist. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Insulated Solar Electric Cooking – Tomorrow's healthy affordable stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watkins

    Full Text Available We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater inside of a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking (SEC technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC systems already cost competitive. We present a $100 prototype and preliminary results of two implementations in Uganda.

  19. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  20. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  1. Scientific Literacy in Food Education: Gardening and Cooking in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Carrie A.

    Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between

  2. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  3. Evaluation Method of Accumulated Cooking Oil Stains in Room

    OpenAIRE

    五十嵐, 由利子; 中村, 和吉; 萬羽, 郁子; Igarashi, Yuriko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Banba, Ikuko

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of the oil mist while cooking affects the entire room, leaving stains on the ceiling and walls. The validity of measuring the color difference of stains was examined by installing teflon plates in the kitchen and the adjacent space with a view to assessing the oil diffusion. Four houses were designated for the examination. In each house, four teflon plates (20×40mm) were installed on the ceiling and walls of the kitchen and the space adjacent to it. Then, one plate was removed a...

  4. Seni Kulinari, Kekuasaan, dan Multikulturalisme dalam Master Cooking Boy/ The Real Master Cooking Boy Karya Etsushi Ogawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilawati Kurnia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines manga, the japanese comic „Master Cooking Boy“ and inquires what the manga offers to the reader beside being a popular reading. This essay reviews the history of manga and its function in the Japanese culture. The paper unravels the theories of cultural studies such as hegemony and multiculturalism in the analyse of this manga. This paper discusses the wider horizon of manga as a field of hegemony discourse and multiculturalism. It opens the possibilities to analyse manga in a different perspective and shows how ideology can operates in the popular literature.

  5. The cooking task: making a meal of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T A; Barker, L A; Denniss, R; Jalil, A; Beer, M D

    2015-01-01

    Current standardized neuropsychological tests may fail to accurately capture real-world executive deficits. We developed a computer-based Cooking Task (CT) assessment of executive functions and trialed the measure with a normative group before use with a head-injured population. Forty-six participants completed the computerized CT and subtests from standardized neuropsychological tasks, including the Tower and Sorting Tests of executive function from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Cambridge prospective memory test (CAMPROMPT), in order to examine whether standardized executive function tasks, predicted performance on measurement indices from the CT. Findings showed that verbal comprehension, rule detection and prospective memory contributed to measures of prospective planning accuracy and strategy implementation of the CT. Results also showed that functions necessary for cooking efficacy differ as an effect of task demands (difficulty levels). Performance on rule detection, strategy implementation and flexible thinking executive function measures contributed to accuracy on the CT. These findings raise questions about the functions captured by present standardized tasks particularly at varying levels of difficulty and during dual-task performance. Our preliminary findings also indicate that CT measures can effectively distinguish between executive function and Full Scale IQ abilities. Results of the present study indicate that the CT shows promise as an ecologically valid measure of executive function for future use with a head-injured population and indexes selective executive function's captured by standardized tests.

  6. Improved cook stove adoption and impact assessment: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, Karin; Armendáriz, Cynthia; Alatorre, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Until now, the success of improved cook stoves (ICS) implementation programs has usually been measured by the number of ICS distributed. Some important research has been conducted to try to determine the effects of the use of an ICS in the user′s health, but these studies are expensive and time consuming. Moreover, no evaluations show the impact of the technology in the user′s lives. This study seeks to contribute to fill this gap. Scope: By applying cluster analysis techniques to survey data, the most relevant variables that explain adoption and impact were identified. Using these variables, two qualitative indexes are proposed: The adoption index considers the use of the new technology, the level of satisfaction, and the conditions of the stove. The impact index considers the changes in cooking practices and life quality brought about by the ICS. Both indexes are then applied to two implementation programs. The indexes show the differences between the program results and the user′s perceptions of each technology. Conclusions: The proposed indexes can be used to measure the success of an ICS implementation program in terms of the benefits perceived by the users of these technologies. -- Highlights: •Two qualitative indexes are proposed to measure the benefits perceived by ICS users. •Two implementation programs were assessed. •The approach enables determining the impact of ICS programs at a fraction of the cost. •It enables comparing the results of different implementation programs

  7. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth; Ryu, Dojin; Jackson, Lauren; Riley, Ronald; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee

    2017-08-23

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity. A third bioassay showed that in contrast to fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ; formed from FB 1 during nixtamalization) did not cause neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn.

  8. Cooking Dinner at Home--From the Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    It is well past quitting time, but you are still stuck in the office. Your spouse left work over an hour ago, but is caught in bumper-to-bumper traffic. As a result, neither of you were available to pick up your daughter on time from her soccer game. If your son hadn't gotten detention at school today, which also made him late for work, he could have picked her up. The next thing you know, it is already 8:30 at night, and your family members are finally all together under the same roof. No one has had a bite to eat since lunch, and dinner certainly isn't going to cook itself, or is it? For those who are all too familiar with this situation, it might be time to welcome the oven of the future into your homes: the ConnectIo Intelligent Oven, brought to you by TMIO, LLC, of Cleveland. Applying the same remote command and control concepts that NASA uses to run experiments on the International Space Station (ISS), ConnectIo allows its owners to cook dinner from the road, via a cell phone, personal digital assistant, or Internet connection.

  9. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  10. Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Díaz García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una modificación de la distancia de Cook, basándose en la distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, en el contexto del modelo de regresión lineal multivariado con distribución normal. Se establece además, la distribución exacta del estadístico basado en esta distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, la cual proporciona puntos críticos para identificar “outliers” en un conjunto de datos. Este procedimiento, se ilustra con un ejemplo, en el caso de la regresión lineal múltiple multivariada.A modification of the classical Cook´s distance is proposed in this paper, being based on the distance of widespread Mahalanobis in the context of multivariate normal linear regression model. Further more, the exact distribution of a pivotal type statistics based on this generalized Mahalanobis distance is established, providing critical points for the identification of outliers in data points. The procedure is illustrated with an example, in the case of multiple and multivariate linear regression.

  11. Furan and Alkylated Furans in Heat Processed Food, Including Home Cooked Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Mariotti, Maria S.; Pedreschi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of furan in home cooked food was studied. Cooking was found to reduce the level of furan in ready-to-eat foods, however on average around 50% of furan remain in the foods. The analysis of furan occurrence revealed that it is most commonly formed in foods with high levels...

  12. Cooking with the Sun. How To Build and Use Solar Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halacy, Beth; Halacy, Dan

    For those working with solar energy and/or conservation and the careful use of resources, constructing a solar oven can be a fun and useful activity. This book describes the construction and use of solar ovens for cooking. Construction details are provided for two inexpensive solar ovens and a reflector hot plate that can then be used to cook 100…

  13. Experiential Cooking Programs for Low-Income Adults: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Vineyard, Michelle; Olson, Ann; Peterson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Experiential cooking classes for low-income adults can help improve healthy nutrition behaviors. However, nutrition educators and Extension professionals can face challenges in successful implementation of these programs such as difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Drawing upon lessons learned from a cooking intervention with…

  14. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  15. 46 CFR 147.50 - Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. 147.50 Section..., heating, and lighting. (a) Flammable and combustible liquids and gases not listed in this section are prohibited for cooking, heating, or lighting on any vessel, with the exception of combustible liquids on...

  16. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall be...

  17. Effect of Dry Heat Pre-Treatment (Toasting) on the Cooking Time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cooking time for IAR48 and IT89KD-288 cowpea varieties increased from 104.67 to 106.00 and 88.00 to 88.67 min, respectively. The results indicate that the cooking time of cowpea seeds can be reduced significantly on toasting, while maintaining their potential as functional agents in the food industry for nutrition and ...

  18. Resting of MAP (modified atmosphere packed) beef steaks prior to cooking and effects on consumer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Le Floch, Sandrine; Kerry, Joseph P

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the meat preparation effects prior to cooking on the sensory consumer quality of modified atmosphere (MA) packed (100ml CO2/100ml pack gas, 50ml O2:20ml CO2:30ml N2/100ml pack gas, 70ml O2:30ml CO2/100ml pack gas and 80ml O2:20ml CO2/100ml pack gas) striploin beef steak. Beef steaks were stored at 4°C for 7days (616lx) to simulate retail display conditions and tested by consumers (n=40) for appearance, liking of flavour, overall acceptability, juiciness, tenderness, oxidation flavour, off-flavour, and sourness of the resulting cooked meat. Additionally, TVC, pH, colour, drip loss, and cooking loss were measured. One steak from each of the experimental treatments was taken immediately from the respective MA packs and cooked before serving straight to consumers. A second steak from each pack was treated similarly, but left in ambient air for 30min prior to cooking and serving. Consumers perceived cooked steak from samples left for 30min prior to cooking as significantly (P<0.05) less sour tasting than those cooked immediately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential applications for amylose inclusion complexes produced by steam jet cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam jet cooking is a commercially scalable method of thermomechanically processing starch for many applications. Previous studies at NCAUR have revealed the specific effects of heat and shear on various starch types cooked under different steam flow, pressure, and slurry flow conditions. Starch-...

  20. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  1. Color changes in irradiated cooked pork sausage with different fat sources and packaging during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, C; Jin, S K; Ahn, D U

    2000-05-01

    Pork sausages were prepared with lean pork meat, fat from different sources [backfat (BF), corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO); 10% of lean meat], NaCl (2%), and ice water (10%). The emulsified meat batters were stuffed into casings (3 cm in diameter) and cooked to an internal temperature of 72°C. Cooked sausages were sliced and vacuum- or aerobic-packaged individually. Sausages were irradiated at a 0, 2.5, or 4.5 kGy dose and stored in a 4°C refrigerator for 8 days. Aerobic-packaged, irradiated cooked sausages prepared with BF and FO showed higher Hunter L-values than nonirradiated controls at day 0, but the difference disappeared at day 8. Irradiation increased the Hunter a-value in vacuum-packaged cooked pork sausages regardless of the fat source used, and the increase of the Hunter a-value was dose-dependent. In contrast, the Hunter a-value decreased by irradiation in aerobic-packaged cooked pork sausages prepared with BF or FO. The Hunter a-value of cooked pork sausage with aerobic packaging was significantly reduced at day 8. Hunter b-values increased at Day 8 in irradiated cooked pork sausages except for the sausage prepared with CO at 2.5 kGy. Cooked pork sausages prepared with CO were lighter, and sausage prepared with FO was redder and more yellow (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging.

  2. 76 FR 62428 - Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Cook... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2011-0852] Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (CIRCAC) Charter Renewal AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of recertification...

  3. Good Grubbin': Impact of a TV Cooking Show for College Students Living off Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Dawn; Anderson, Jennifer; Auld, Garry; Champ, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a series of 4 15-minute, theory-driven (Social Cognitive Theory) cooking programs aimed at college students living off campus improved cooking self-efficacy, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding fruit and vegetable intake. Design: A randomized controlled trial with pre-, post- and follow-up tests. Setting:…

  4. Go Cook - de første 10 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Boris

    Med henvisning til evalueringens datagrundlag udpeges i arbejdsrapportens indsatsområder for fremtidens Go Cook (Go Cook er et landsdækkende tilbud til understøttelse af madkundskabs- og madlæringsaktiviter i grundskolen). De bliver tematiseret som følger: 1. Med henblik på at udvikle de didaktis...

  5. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The loss of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) in 14 different cooked local vegetables found in Nairobi markets was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of quantity of water on the loss of L-AA during cooking was studied with cowpea leaves. It was found that more L-AA was lost when larger amount of ...

  6. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.W.A.A.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open

  7. Biodiesel From waste cooking oil for heating, lighting, or running diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico O. Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel and its byproducts and blends can be used as alternative fuel in diesel engines and for heating, cooking, and lighting. A simple process of biodiesel production can utilize waste cooking oil as the main feedstock to the transesterification and cruzesterification processes. I currently make my own biodiesel for applications related to my nursery and greenhouse...

  8. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  9. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  10. Effects of cooking methods on starch and sugar composition of sweetpotato storage roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet potato has rich nutrition, good ecological adaptability and high yield. There was a lack of knowledge about the relationship among cooking methods, sugar components and cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine sugar composition of four sweet potato cultivars under three cooking ...

  11. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  12. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and asthma, allergic symptoms and sensitization in young children - the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; De Jongste, JC; De Vries, H.

    Background: Several studies reported inconsistent associations between using gas for cooking and respiratory symptoms or lung function in children. Kitchen ventilation characteristics may modify the relationship between gas cooking and respiratory health. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  13. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. Objective: To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter Methods: A total of 60 random ...

  14. Aqueous carbon black dispersions prepared with steam jet-cooked corn starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of jet-cooked waxy and normal corn starch to prepare aqueous dispersions of hydrophobic carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) is reported. Blending carbon black (CB) into aqueous jet-cooked dispersions of starch followed by high pressure homogenization produced stable aqueous carbon black di...

  15. Performance evaluation of solar box cooker assisted with latent heat energy storage system for cooking application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, V. S.; Kumaresan, G.; Sudhakar, P.; Santosh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Solar cooking is one of the most promising techniques to meet the cooking needs in remote areas where electricity and fuel supplies are meager. Solar box cooker is an efficient device used in solar cooking as it is simple to fabricate, easy to operate and hazard-free. In this context, the performance evaluation of a solar box cooker with varied number of reflectors has been undertaken. It was found that the time consumed for cooking in a box type solar cooker with four reflectors is lesser compared to that of a single reflector and its overall utilization efficiency increases with increase in the cooking mass. Further, a latent heat energy storage system was designed and fabricated to cook the food at off-peak hours of solar radiation. This latent heat energy storage system was combined with the solar box cooker. Oxalic acid dihydrate was used as the phase change material due to its high specific enthalpy and its melting point lying close to the cooking temperature. It was found that the solar box cooker with phase change material could be effectively utilized to cook food during off-peak hours of solar radiation.

  16. The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Brereton, P; Davies, A

    2001-04-01

    The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3 mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1 mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratory-produced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1 mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

  17. Evaluation of the cooking power in three different solar cookers box-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Chávez, S.; López, R.; Vaca, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work calculations for the cooking power in three different solar cookers are shown. The designs considered for the solar cookers are square, rectangular and octagonal. Agree to the results, a solar cooker with larger area for the solar radiation inlet has the biggest cooking power. The cooking powers obtained for the solar cookers are 4.04 W (0.49 m2), 2.06 W (0.15 m2) and 0.88 W (0.19 m2) which correspond to square, rectangular and octagonal designs respectively. For the evaluation, the standard ASAE S580 JAN03 was considered to evaluate the cooking power in the solar cookers. Following the method established in this standard was possible to calculate the cooking power and evaluate the solar cookers at the same time. This activity except for what has been done in the standard, have not been done in other works.

  18. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment.

  19. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  20. Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Qun Gong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, can damage memory and cognitive function. Cooking activity, an instrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review the effectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cooking activity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder, but also ease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also has certain positive effects on patient’s cognition, autonomy and memory function. Now, as one of the instrumental activities of daily life, cooking activity has developed as a useful tool in the intervention trials, serious game, virtual reality training and assessment of daily living activities.

  1. Evaluation of the cooking power in three different solar cookers box-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S; López, R; Vaca, M

    2017-01-01

    In the present work calculations for the cooking power in three different solar cookers are shown. The designs considered for the solar cookers are square, rectangular and octagonal. Agree to the results, a solar cooker with larger area for the solar radiation inlet has the biggest cooking power. The cooking powers obtained for the solar cookers are 4.04 W (0.49 m"2), 2.06 W (0.15 m"2) and 0.88 W (0.19 m"2) which correspond to square, rectangular and octagonal designs respectively. For the evaluation, the standard ASAE S580 JAN03 was considered to evaluate the cooking power in the solar cookers. Following the method established in this standard was possible to calculate the cooking power and evaluate the solar cookers at the same time. This activity except for what has been done in the standard, have not been done in other works. (paper)

  2. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  3. Early Scientific Astronomy on the American Northwest Coast: Captain Cook's Sojourn at Nootka Sound in 1778

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, William; Orchiston, W.

    2011-01-01

    Between 1768 and 1778 England's premier maritime explorer, James Cook, made three much-published and very successful expeditions to the Pacific, when important contributions were made to anthropology, botany and zoology, not to mention maritime astronomy. Astronomy played a vital role in navigation and coastal cartography, and consequently there were astronomers on all three Pacific expeditions. On the final voyage Cook would lose his life in Hawaii, but not before exploring the northwest coast of the American continent. Three astronomers, Bayly, King and Cook himself, formed part of retinue of this two-vessel expedition, and during the sojourn of the Resolution and Discovery at Nootka Sound they set up their observatories and used a variety of instruments to carry out important astronomical observations. In this paper we review the rationale for Cook's third voyage, discuss the Nootka Sound stop-over, provide biographical information about Bayly, Cook and King, examine their scientific instruments and review their astronomical observations.

  4. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P meat (P meat exhibited a significantly higher moisture release and lower initial hardness, chewdown hardness and residual loose particles. A darker color and enhanced chickeny flavor were observed for OC meat. Based on the unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics in demand, producers should employ appropriate cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Antioxidant Properties, Degradation Kinetics and Storage Stability of Drinks Prepared From the Cooking Water of Pigmented Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Adyati Putriekasari Handayani; Yogeshini Ramakrishnan; Roselina Karim; Kharidah Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented rice, consisting of black rice and red rice, is known to contain antioxidant compounds in its bran that tend to leach out into the water during cooking. As the rice is usually cooked in excess water which is discarded after cooking, the purpose of this study is therefore, to evaluate the rice cooking water as an antioxidant drink in terms of its antioxidant properties, storage stability and anthocyanin degradation kinetics. The results showed that the percentages of antioxidant extr...

  6. Influence of microwave and conventional cooking on beef liver lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, R. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver slices were cooked with a mixture of cottonseed oil and margarine using microwave oven and gas cooker. The acid values, peroxide numbers, total sterols and fatty acid profiles of unheated and cooked liver slices conventionally and by microwaves were determined. The time required for cooking liver slices by microwaves was one-half of the time required conventionally. Heating the lipid mixture by both heating methods caused highly significant decrease in the acid value. Conversely, the acid values of lipids extracted from cooked liver slices were highly significantly increased by the heating processes. The peroxide values of the lipids conventionally heated were always lower than those obtained by microwaves. The peroxide value of microwavable liver lipids was nearly twice as high as that produced by conventional heating. Heating processes significantly reduced the sterol levels for all lipids under study. The fatty acid analysis of the lipids under heat treatments demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative degradation and production of short-chain acids.

    Rodajas de hígado fueron cocinadas con una mezcla de aceite de semilla de algodón y margarina usando horno microonda y cocina de gas. Se determinaron los índices de acidez, índices de peróxido, esteroles totales y perfiles de ácidos grasos de las rodajas de hígado no calentadas y de las cocinadas convencionalmente y por microondas. El tiempo requerido para la cocción de las rodajas de hígado por microondas fue una vez y media el necesitado por el sistema convencional. La mezcla de lípidos calentada por ambos métodos sufrió una disminución significativa en el índice de acidez. Por el contrario, los lípidos extraídos de las rodajas de hígado cocinado mostraron índices de acidez significativamente elevados, aumentados por el proceso de calentamiento. Los índices de peróxidos de los lípidos calentados convencionalmente fueron siempre más bajos que los obtenidos por

  7. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    Taking modern television travel cookery series as a starting point, the article investigates the cultural significance of food and place in visual culture. The examples are, respectively, The Keith Floyd Cookery Collection: Floyd Around The Med [2000. BBC DVD, 2007] and The Hairy Bikers Cookbook...... and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...... Series 1 & 2 [BBC DVD, 2006]. The series illustrate the strong connection between travel, food and place in tourist consumer culture, as well as the way motion and emotion are related to sensuous and digestive aspects of touristic food. The series also illustrate the emblematic connection between food...

  8. Cooking fuel use patterns in India: 1983-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, Brinda; Kavi Kumar, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the expenditure share of 'clean' and 'dirty' fuels in total cooking fuel consumption for the rural and urban households across 16 major states in India, using household level data from national sample surveys conducted during the period 1983-2000. The results show wide disparity between rural and urban households and also across states. Analysis to identify the determinants of fuel choice reveals that affordability plays a major role, while the pro-rich and pro-urban bias of kerosene supply through public distribution system also has influenced the observed variation in consumption patterns across states and over rural and urban areas. The study discusses the policies that could facilitate switch towards 'clean' fuels and argues that enabling policies should pay attention among other things to the gender issues and trade-offs that exist between say, local and global pollution, deforestation and resource depletion, and disease and subsidy burden

  9. Cooked sausage batter cohesiveness as affected by sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Wieliczko, K; Lim, R; Turnwald, S; Macdonald, G A

    2002-05-01

    In the first trial, m. semitendinosus and m. biceps femoris were held at 0, 10 and 35 °C until they entered rigor, and in the second trial, minced m. semitendinosus was washed in water for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. The samples from both the trials were then used to make a finely comminuted sausage batter. Soluble sarcoplasmic protein (SSP) levels decreased with increasing rigor temperature (P batter shear stress was not affected by SSP level, but batter shear strain decreased with the decreasing SSP level associated with an increasing rigor temperature (P batter from the washed samples compared to that of controls. The results suggest that sarcoplasmic proteins are important in determining the strain values (cohesiveness) of cooked sausage batter.

  10. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) 2.6 H{sub 2}O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO{sub 2}(s), both of which exist as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and

  11. A Conversation with Martin Stannard and Barbara Cooke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Stannard is Professor of Modern English Literature at the University of Leicester. He read for his first degree in English at Warwick (1967-70, before taking an MA at Sussex University, and a DPhil at Oxford. Professor Stannard’s two-volume literary biography of Evelyn Waugh (1986, 1992, and his biography of Muriel Spark (2009 are essential reading for Waugh and Spark scholars, and are each studies in the value of historical contextualisation for appreciating the literary oeuvre of a writer. Stannard’s 1995 Norton Critical Edition of Ford Madox Ford’s modernist novel, The Good Soldier, similarly brings context to bear through his rigorous textual editing, annotation and critical apparatus. Stannard is currently the Principal Investigator for the Complete Works of Evelyn Waugh project, which is supported by a grant of  £822,000 from the AHRC, and which will see Oxford University Press publish 43 scholarly edition volumes of Waugh – the first of which appears next year. This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of Waugh’s death. Dr Barbara Cooke also teaches at the School of English at the University of Leicester. She received a BA and MA from Warwick (dates, and a PhD in Creative and Critical writing from the University of East Anglia for her interdisciplinary thesis Oil Men: the Twinned Lives of Arnold Wilson and Morris Young. Dr. Cooke is Research Associate for the Complete Works of Evelyn Waugh, providing a vital link between the project's 23 editors, of which she is one, editing Waugh’s autobiography A Little Learning (1964.

  12. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  14. Effect of different air/steam convection cooking methods on turkey breast meat: physical characterization, water status and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, B; Curti, E; Vittadini, E; Barbanti, D

    2011-07-01

    Turkey breast samples were cooked using a forced convection oven at three relative humidity levels (RH=8, 35 and 88%) at 100°C. Cooking parameters (temperature, cook value, and yield), textural and sensory properties as well as water status of the samples were evaluated. The application of different RH levels resulted in different cooking performances and cooked meat quality. Low steam cooking conditions (RH=35%) significantly increased cooking yield (7% higher than the high steam cooking), moisture content and water-holding capacity and had a positive effect on perceived tenderness, as shown by sensory analysis, where steam cooked samples were perceived as the most tender. The more mobile protons of (1)H T(2) (relaxing at times longer than 1s) in low steam samples were related to the higher perceived tenderness. Low steam cooking allowed for less water consumption, making this process an attractive cooking method as compared to high steam, as it also resulted in higher quality cooked turkey meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 7534 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-506] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking... review of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (``POS cookware'') from the... Initiation''); see also Antidumping Duty Order; Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of...

  16. Qualitative Investigation of the "Cooking with Kids" Program: Focus Group Interviews with Fourth-Grade Students, Teachers, and Food Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…

  17. 76 FR 13602 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-506] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking... cooking ware (``POS cookware'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely lead to a... should the order be revoked. See Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China...

  18. A quantitative performance assessment of improved cooking stoves and traditional three-stone-fire stoves using a two-pot test design in Chamwino, Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, J.; Uckert, G.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A. A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2018-02-01

    In Tanzania, a majority of rural residents cook using firewood-based three-stone-fire stoves. In this study, quantitative performance differences between technologically advanced improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves are analysed. We test the performance of improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves using local cooks, foods, and fuels, in the semi-arid region of Dodoma in Tanzania. We used the cooking protocol of the Controlled Cooking Test following a two-pot test design. The findings of the study suggest that improved cooking stoves use less firewood and less time than three-stone-fire stoves to conduct a predefined cooking task. In total, 40 households were assessed and ask to complete two different cooking tasks: (1) a fast cooking meal (rice and vegetables) and (2) a slow cooking meal (beans and rice). For cooking task 1, the results show a significant reduction in firewood consumption of 37.1% by improved cooking stoves compared to traditional three-stone-fire stoves; for cooking task 2 a reduction of 15.6% is found. In addition, it was found that the time needed to conduct cooking tasks 1 and 2 was significantly reduced by 26.8% and 22.8% respectively, when improved cooking stoves were used instead of three-stone-fire-stoves. We observed that the villagers altered the initial improved cooking stove design, resulting in the so-called modified improved cooking stove. In an additional Controlled Cooking Test, we conducted cooking task 3: a very fast cooking meal (maize flour and vegetables) within 32 households. Significant changes between the initial and modified improved cooking stoves regarding firewood and time consumption were not detected. However, analyses show that both firewood and time consumption during cooking was reduced when large amounts (for 6-7 household members) of food were prepared instead of small amounts (for 2-3 household members).

  19. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket (deep pectoralis. Methods Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1+ quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat or cooked in boiling water (moist heat to final core temperature of 70°C (medium or 77°C (well-done. Results Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (p<0.001, thus no significant differences were found on cooking loss. However, samples lost more weight as final core temperature increased (p<0.01. Further, total saturated fatty acid increased (p = 0.02 while total monounsaturated fatty acid decreased (p = 0.03 as final core temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (p<0.01 and free iron contents (p<0.001 were observed higher in samples cooked to 77°C. Oven roasting retained more inosinic acid, inosine and hypoxanthine in samples than did the boiling method (p<0.001, of which the concentration decreased as final core temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. Conclusion The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  20. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  1. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pourkhalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying and roasting methods according to the cooking routine and tradition in Iranian society, in terms of temperature and time. Proximate compositions (moisture, lipid, ash and protein in the raw and cooked meat were determined using the standard methods of analysis. Moreover, weight loss was measured after each treatment. Lipid oxidation parameters such as peroxide value, conjugated diene and TBARS indices were measured in the raw and cooked samples. Evaluation of lipid oxidation parameters showed that peroxide value was significantly decreased in all cooked samples. In contrast, conjugated diene value was significantly increased in the fried and grilled samples (p

  2. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  3. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  4. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  5. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction.

  6. Indoor acrolein emission and decay rates resulting from domestic cooking events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Vincent Y.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Cahill, Thomas M.

    2009-12-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a common constituent of both indoor and outdoor air, can exacerbate asthma in children, and may contribute to other chronic lung diseases. Recent studies have found high indoor levels of acrolein and other carbonyls compared to outdoor ambient concentrations. Heated cooking oils produce considerable amounts of acrolein, thus cooking is likely an important source of indoor acrolein. A series of cooking experiments were conducted to determine the emission rates of acrolein and other volatile carbonyls for different types of cooking oils (canola, soybean, corn and olive oils) and deep-frying different food items. Similar concentrations and emission rates of carbonyls were found when different vegetable oils were used to deep-fry the same food product. The food item being deep-fried was generally not a significant source of carbonyls compared to the cooking oil. The oil cooking events resulted in high concentrations of acrolein that were in the range of 26.4-64.5 μg m -3. These concentrations exceed all the chronic regulatory exposure limits and many of the acute exposure limits. The air exchange rate and the decay rate of the carbonyls were monitored to estimate the half-life of the carbonyls. The half-life for acrolein was 14.4 ± 2.6 h, which indicates that indoor acrolein concentrations can persist for considerable time after cooking in poorly-ventilated homes.

  7. A modified Johnson–Cook model of dynamic tensile behaviors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Xie, Can-Jun; Liu, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic mechanical behaviors at various strain rates were measured. • The strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. • A new Johnson–Cook constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. • Numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates were conducted. • Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was proved. - Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behaviors of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at various strain rates were measured by dynamic tensile tests using the electronic universal testing machine, high velocity testing system and split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). Stress–strain curves at different rates were obtained. The results show that the strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. By modifying the strain rate hardening term in the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, a new Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were conducted. According to tensile loading and stress–strain relation of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, calculation results were compared with experimental results. Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was further proved

  8. Biogas cook stoves for healthy and sustainable diets? A case study in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Lee Anderman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cook stoves that replace solid fuels with cleaner energy sources, such as biogas, are gaining popularity in low-income settings across Asia, Africa and South America. Published research on these technologies focuses on their potential to reduce indoor air pollution and improve respiratory health. Effects on other cooking related aspects, such as diets and women’s time management, are less understood. In this study in southern India, we investigate if using biogas cook stoves alters household diets and women’s time management. We compare treatment households who are supplied with a biogas cook stove with comparison households who do not have access to these stoves, while controlling for several socio-economic factors. We find that diets of treatment households are more diverse than diets of comparison households. In addition, women from treatment households spend on average 40 minutes less cooking and 70 minutes less collecting firewood per day than women in comparison households. This study illustrates that alongside known benefits for respiratory health, using alternative cook stoves may benefit household diets and free up women’s time. To inform development investments and ensure these co-benefits, we argue that multiple dimensions of sustainability should be considered in evaluating the impact of alternative cook stoves.

  9. Saponin content and trypsin inhibitor activity in processed and cooked pigeon pea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, A; Khetarpaul, N; Bishnoi, S

    2001-01-01

    Four high-yielding varieties of pigeon pea namely UPAS-120, Manak, JCPL-151. ICPL-87 had considerable amounts of antinutrients i.e. saponins and trypsin inhibitors. Saponin content of these unprocessed cultivars ranged from 2164 to 3494 mg/100 g. There were significant varietal variations in trypsin inhibitor activity (1007-1082 TIU/g) of these pigeon pea cultivars. Some simple, inexpensive and easy-to-use domestic processing and cooking methods, namely, soaking (6, 12, 18 h), soaking (12 h)-dehulling, ordinary cooking, pressure cooking and germination (24, 36, 48 h) were found to be quite effective in lowering the level of saponins and trypsin inhibitors in all the pigeon pea cultivars. Pressure cooking of soaked and dehulled seeds lowered the content of saponins to a maximum extent (28 to 38%) followed by ordinary cooking of soaked and dehulled seeds (28 to 35%), soaked dehulled raw seeds (22 to 27%) and 48 h germinated seeds (15 to 19%). Loss of TIA was marginal due to soaking but ordinary as well as pressure cooking of unsoaked and soaked-dehulled pigeon pea seeds reduced the TIA drastically. Pressure cooking of pigeon pea seeds completely destroyed the TIA while it was reduced to the extent of 86-88% against the control in 48 h pigeon pea sprouts.

  10. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  11. Effects of ultrasound and convection cooking to different end point temperatures on cooking characteristics, shear force and sensory properties, composition, and microscopic morphology of beef longissimus and pectoralis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, F W; Dikeman, M E; Zayas, J F; Unruh, J A

    1997-02-01

    Longissimus and pectoralis muscles were removed from 10 steer carcasses at 4 d postmortem, aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C, then assigned to either ultrasound or convection cooking to either 62 degrees C or 70 degrees C internal end point temperature. During cooking, time-temperature profiles and energy consumption were monitored. Ultrasound cooking resulted in greater (P force work to shear muscle samples than convection cooking. The ultrasound treatment also resulted in a reduction (P convection cooking. Electron micrographs indicated that ultrasound-cooked muscles had longer sarcomeres, larger diameter fibers, and more myofibrillar disruption and shattering. Longissimus muscles cooked faster (P < .05) and more (P < .05) energetically efficient, had less (P < .05) total collagen, and were superior (P < .05) in instrumental evaluated texture and sensory tenderness than pectoralis muscles. Cooking to 70 degrees C caused greater (P < .05) moisture and cooking losses, required more (P < .05) time and energy input to cook, and negatively (P < .05) affected instrumental textural and sensory tenderness characteristics. Electron micrographs indicated a shortening of sarcomeres, more deterioration of the banding structure, reduction in fiber diameter, and breakdown of endomysial and perimysial connective tissue at an internal temperature of 70 degrees C vs 62 degrees C. This research identifies ultrasound cooking as a new, rapid, energy-efficient method that may improve some meat textural attributes.

  12. Cooking time harmonization attempts for main rubbers in a truck tyre-III. Activation energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadima, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The harmonization of optimum cooking time of rubbers containing in a tyre is became possible. This occurrence is the result of the knowledge about the respective function of each element containing in the rubber. Many kind of rubbers are been studied. The obtained results demonstrate the realization of the harmonization of optimum cooking time in different rubbers at some conditions by modifying either a kind of vulcanization accelerator or a quantity of vulcanization activator. So, accelerator or activator modifies need of energy during cooking. In this paper, we are estimated activation energy for all new rubbers obtained

  13. The Function of Using Salt for Cooking and Processing Fish and Seafood (II)

    OpenAIRE

    山崎,濶; 松岡,恵美子; 白砂,千登勢

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the function of using salt is studied to process and to cook various fish and seafood. The primary use of salt in processing fish is to remove dirt and slime on the skins, and also to deodorize fish smell. In cooking, salt is effective to keep the good texture of fish meat, and salted water can be used to defreeze frozen fish. Also salt can be used to paralyze living fish. To study the details of using salt, processing and cooking methods for 39 different kinds of fish and seafo...

  14. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Baek, Ki Ho; Jeong, Hae Seong; Yoon, Seok Ki; Joo, Seon-Tea; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket ( deep pectoralis ). Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat) were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1 + quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat) or cooked in boiling water (moist heat) to final core temperature of 70°C (medium) or 77°C (well-done). Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (pcore temperature increased (pcore temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (pcore temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  15. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality

  16. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Achón, María; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-02-15

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks ( p < 0.05) at all ages. A significantly higher proportion of people under 50 years self-reported that they were "able to cook" in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention.

  17. Who is teaching the kids to cook? Results from a nationally representative survey of secondary school students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben

    2016-08-10

    Learning how to cook is an important skill for developing healthy eating behaviors. Moreover, involvement in home cooking may offer young people opportunities for skill building, identity development and social engagement with their families. Recently, there have been concerns that the current generation of young people may not have the opportunities to develop sufficient cooking skills. These concerns have been addressed by the initiation of numerous, localized interventions. Yet, little is known about where the current generation of young people learn cooking skills. The objective of this study was to describe where the current generation of young people report learning to cook, drawing on nationally representative data from New Zealand. Data were collected as part of Youth2012, a nationally representative survey of secondary school students (n=8500) in New Zealand. Almost all students reported learning to cook and from multiple sources. Almost all students reported learning to cook from a family member (mother, father, or other family member), approximately 60% of students reported that they learned to cook from certain media (cookbooks, TV, or the Internet) and half of all students reported learning to cook at school. There were numerous differences in where students learned to cook by socio-demographic characteristics. Findings from the current research highlight the important role that families play in teaching young people to cook and will be useful for those working with young people to develop these skills.

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: RIPS (Rip Current Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of rip currents in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent rip zone locations. Location-specific type and source...

  19. Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C.; Mbarawa, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of biodiesel fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material, mostly neat vegetable oil. Used cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to review various technological methods of biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The analytical methods for high quality biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil like GC, TLC, HPLC, GPC and TGA have also been summarized in this paper. In addition, the specifications provided by different countries are presented. The fuel properties of biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil were also reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. (author)

  20. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, waste cooking oil has subjected to transesterification reaction by potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol methods obtaining for biodiesel. In catalyzed methods, the presence of water has negative effects on the yields of methyl esters. In the catalytic transesterification free fatty acids and water always produce negative effects since the presence of free fatty acids and water causes soap formation, consumes catalyst, and reduces catalyst effectiveness. Free fatty acids in the waste cooking oil are transesterified simultaneously in supercritical methanol method. Since waste cooking oil contains water and free fatty acids, supercritical transesterification offers great advantage to eliminate the pre-treatment and operating costs. The effects of methanol/waste cooking oils ratio, potassium hydroxide concentration and temperature on the biodiesel conversion were investigated

  1. A method for identification of frozen meat used for production of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peña, M P; Cid, M C; Bello, J

    1998-03-01

    A simple method to distinguish if the meat used for production of cooked hams was frozen or unfrozen was developed. Several analytical parameters of quality in meat products (general and colour parameters and protein fraction) were determined in two types of cooked hams: one elaborated with refrigerated (R) and another with frozen and thawed (F/T) raw hams. Student's t-test was applied to compare both groups, but it could not be concluded if R and F/T cooked hams had the same quality or not. For this reason two multivariate statistical analyses, Factor (FA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were applied. The application of FA resulted in the separation of the two groups of cooked hams and allowed the selection of the parameters which were used in Discriminant Analysis (DA). A discriminant function, that is both easy to use and to interpret, was obtained.

  2. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; Pachauri, Shonali; Rao, Narasimha D.; McCollum, David; Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent climate policy scenarios. Our most stringent mitigation scenario increases clean fuel costs 38% in 2030 relative to the baseline, keeping 21% more South Asians on traditional stoves or increasing the minimum support policy cost to achieve universal clean cooking by up to 44%. The extent of this increase depends on how policymakers allocate subsidies between clean fuels and stoves. These additional costs are within the range of financial transfers to South Asia estimated in efforts-sharing scenarios of international climate agreements.

  3. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  4. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Langbein

    Full Text Available Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  5. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  6. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries—The neglected role of outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world’s leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards. PMID:28658290

  7. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2018-02-01

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  8. Assessing the use of frozen pork meat in the manufacture of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Gomes Basso LOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in sensory acceptance. The hardness and chewiness parameters showed significant differences when compared to the control sample (ham made from chilled meat. Light microscopy of cooked ham samples showed that changes in the tissues were caused by freezing and thawing the meat. The effect of exudate was significant on the sodium content and compression force parameters, but this difference was not perceived in the sensory analysis, confirming that frozen pork meat can be used to produce cooked ham without loss of quality.

  9. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ICE (Ice Extent Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of ice extent in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent 50 percent ice coverage. Location-specific type and...

  12. Study on the changes in phyicochemical properties of seafood cooking drips by gamma ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lots of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. But, the seafood cooking drips are easily contaminated because of its rich nutrients, and their color are very dark. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of seafood cooking drips including Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini, and Thunnus thynnus. The Hunter's color values (L, Brightness) of H. fusiformis, and T.thynnus, were increased with increasing irradiation doses, showing becoming bright. The crude protein content and crude lipid content were increased by gamma irradiation. These results indicated that gamma irradiation increased extraction efficiency of available compounds in cooking drips.

  13. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  14. Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, F; Bordoni, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the modifications of antioxidant activity consequent to 3 typical home cooking practices (steaming, boiling, and microwave cooking) in fresh and home frozen vegetables. Six different vegetable species were examined: carrots (Daucus carota L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomatoes (Solanumn lycopersicum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), and yellow peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). All vegetables were conventional products and were analyzed in season to minimize differences due to agricultural practice and storage. Cooking and freezing are generally regarded as destructive to antioxidants, and this has fostered a belief among many consumers that raw vegetables are nutritionally superior to their frozen and/or cooked forms. In the current study, we provide evidence that this is not always the case.

  15. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gao-feng; Sun, Bo; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2009-08-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

  16. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gao-feng; Sun, Bo; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2009-01-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli. PMID:19650196

  17. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  18. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  19. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations...

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet...

  2. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale aerial survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  3. Change in digestibility of gamma-irradiated starch by low temperature cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Ishigaki, I.; Rahman, S.

    1988-01-01

    Combination effect of irradiation and low temperature cooking on starch digestibility has been investigated as a basic research for application of radiosterilization on starch fermentation. The digestion of corn starch by glucoamylase after cooking at low temperature was enhanced by γ-irradiation and the required cooking temperature was decreased from 75-80 0 C to 65 0 C by 25 kGy. Gelatinization of starches except tapioca starch was enhanced by irradiation and it corresponds to the digestibility. The digestibility of potato starch which has a high viscosity was especially enhanced at low temperature cooking because the viscosity was markedly decreased by irradiation. These results show that the irradiation of starches is useful not only for the sterilization of fermentation broth but also for the enhancement of digestion. (orig.) [de

  4. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale Counts from Aerial Surveys in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducted aerial surveys to monitor the abundance and distribution of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska. This database...

  5. Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products and Botulism--Food Safety Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loading... Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products & Botulism - Food Safety Advisory In August and September 2001, several cases of ... contact a physician. September 2001 Botulism Food Safety Advisory Last Modified Aug 07, 2013 ').tablesorter({debug:false}). ...

  6. Gasification Performance of a Top-Lit Updraft Cook Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Mehta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study of a top-lit updraft cook stove with a focus on gasification. The reactor is operated with primary air only. The performance is studied for a variation in the primary airflow, as well as reactor geometry. Temperature in the reactor, air flow rate, fuel consumption rate, and producer gas composition were measured. From the measurements the superficial velocity, pyrolysis front velocity, peak bed temperature, air fuel ratio, heating value of the producer gas, and gasification rate were calculated. The results show that the producer gas energy content was maximized at a superficial velocity of 9 cm/s. The percent char remaining at the end of gasification decreased with increasing combustion chamber diameter. For a fixed superficial velocity, the gasification rate and producer gas energy content were found to scale linearly with diameter. The energy content of the producer gas was maximized at an air fuel (AF ratio of 1.8 regardless of the diameter.

  7. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-07-01

    A study to determine the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were determined using the appropriate rodent models. All pulses had high digestibility values, >70%, with PDCAAS values greater than 0.5, thereby qualifying as a quality protein in the United States, but only navy beans qualified as a good source of protein. All pulses except whole green lentils, split red lentils, and split green peas would qualify as sources of protein with protein ratings between 20 and 30.4 in Canada. These findings support the use of pulses as protein sources in the regulatory context of both the United States and Canada.

  8. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO 2 ), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Font de Mora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%–1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.

  10. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  11. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  12. Solar Cooking. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module is designed to help students: (1) describe a way of tapping solar energy; (2) identify the main parts of a box type solar cooker; (3) describe how each part contributes to the trapping of heat energy in the cooker; (4) cook some food in a solar cooker; and (5) recognize that food cooked in a solar cooker is safe to eat. It includes: an…

  13. Improving patients' home cooking - A case series of participation in a remote culinary coaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Pober, David M; Budd, Maggi A; Silver, Julie K; Phillips, Edward M; Abrahamson, Martin J

    2017-08-01

    This case series describes and examines the outcomes of a remote culinary coaching program aimed at improving nutrition through home cooking. Participants (n = 4) improved attitudes about the perceived ease of home cooking (p culinary skills (p = 0.02); and also improved in confidence to continue online learning of culinary skills and consume healthier food. We believe this program might be a viable response to the need for effective and scalable health-related culinary interventions.

  14. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2013-01-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn...

  15. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  16. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  17. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred when a blunt (edge thickness 0.08 cm) knife was used for cutting the vegetables than when a sharp knife (edge thickness 0.04 cm) was used during cooking. L-AA was also determined when vegetables were cooked in different size pieces (surface are >1 cm2 and. Bulletin of the ...

  18. Effect of simple cook and defatten processing method on the protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cooked-defatted diet (CDD) and casilan diet (CAD) supported growth while Nitrogen-free diet (NFD), raw diet (RD) and cooked diet (CD) did not support growth. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU), apparent and true digestibility of the raw diets were very low (-4.01 ± 1.66, 48.35 ± 7.64, 44.90 ...

  19. Waste cooking oil as an energy resource: review of Chinese policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huiming; Wang, Qunwei; Mortimer, Simon R.

    2012-01-01

    Converting waste cooking oil into biofuel represents a three-win solution, dealing simultaneously with food security, pollution, and energy security. In this paper, we encode the policy documents of waste cooking oil refining biofuel in China based on content analysis, and explore the related policies from the two dimensions as basic policy tools and enterprises supply chain. Research indicates the weak institution coordination of policy issuing entities. Also, the findings show that tools of...

  20. Induction stoves as an option for clean cooking in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Manjushree; Prasad, Rakesh; Rehman, Ibrahim H; Gill, Bigsna

    2016-01-01

    As part of a programme on ‘access to clean cooking alternatives in rural India’, induction stoves were introduced in nearly 4000 rural households in Himachal Pradesh, one of the few highly electrified states in India. Analysis of primary usage information from 1000 rural households revealed that electricity majorly replaced Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), generally used as a secondary cooking fuel, but did not influence a similar shift from traditional mud stoves as the primary cooking technology. Likewise, the shift from firewood to electricity as a primary cooking fuel was observed in only 5% of the households studied. Country level analysis indicates that rural households falling in lower monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) classes have lesser access to electricity and clean cooking options than those falling in higher MPCE classes. Again, only three states in India with high levels of rural household electrification report consumption statuses more than 82 kWh per month (the estimated mean for electricity consumption by induction stoves). Overall, the results of the study indicate that induction stoves will have limited potential in reducing the consumption of firewood and LPG if included in energy access programmes, that too only in regions where high levels of electrification exist. - Highlights: • Primary survey of induction stove users was conducted in 1000 rural households. • In 84% households, electricity replaced LPG as the secondary cooking fuel. • In only 5% households, electricity replaced firewood as the primary cooking fuel. • Electricity as a cooking fuel for rural India still needs massive investments. • Currently, induction stoves are only able to reduce consumption of firewood and LPG.

  1. Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni from raw to cooked chicken via wood and plastic cutting boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J Y H; Nishibuchi, M; Nakaguchi, Y; Ghazali, F M; Saleha, A A; Son, R

    2011-06-01

    We quantified Campylobacter jejuni transferred from naturally contaminated raw chicken fillets and skins to similar cooked chicken parts via standard rubberwood (RW) and polyethylene cutting boards (PE). RW and PE cutting boards (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) were constructed. RW surfaces were smooth and even, whereas PE was uneven. Scoring with scalpel blades produced crevices on RW and flaked patches on the PE boards. Raw chicken breast fillets or skin pieces (10 g) naturally contaminated with Camp. jejuni were used to contaminate the cutting boards (6.25 cm(2)). These were then briefly covered with pieces of cooked chicken. Campylobacter jejuni on raw chicken, the boards, and cooked chicken pieces were counted using a combined most-probable-number (MPN)-PCR method. The type of cutting board (RW, PE; unscored and scored) and temperature of cooked chicken fillets and skins were examined. Unscored PE and RW boards were not significantly different in regards to the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from raw samples to the boards. The mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW was significantly higher than from scored PE. When the chicken fillets were held at room temperature, the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW and PE was found to be 44.9 and 40.3%, respectively.   RW and PE cutting boards are potential vehicles for Camp. jejuni to contaminate cooked chicken. Although cooked chicken maintained at high temperatures reduced cross-contamination via contaminated boards, a risk was still present. Contamination of cooked chicken by Camp. jejuni from raw chicken via a cutting board is influenced by features of the board (material, changes caused by scoring) and chicken (types of chicken parts and temperature of the cooked chicken). © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Study on Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oils Containing Animal Fats

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 拓哉

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biodiesel has attracted attention as a possible petroleum substitute. Biodiesel is an alternate diesel fuel formed from triacylglycerols, which are the principal ingredient of oils and fats. However, in Japan, there is not enough land space to cultivate the raw materials for such oils and fats, and most imported oils and fats are used for food purposes, such as cooking oil. Furthermore, most of the waste cooking oils includes animal fats which contain long-chain saturated compounds ...

  3. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Weight maintenance through behaviour modification with a cooking course or neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Greve, Tine; Kreutzer, Martin; Pedersen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus Meyer; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect on weight regain of behaviour modification consisting of either a gourmet cooking course or neurolinguistic programming (NLP) therapy. Fifty-six overweight and obese subjects participated. The first step was a 12-week weight loss program. Participants achieving at least 8% weight loss were randomized to five months of either NLP therapy or a course in gourmet cooking. Follow-up occurred after two and three years. Forty-nine participants lost at least 8% of their initial body weight and were randomized to the next step. The NLP group lost an additional 1.8 kg and the cooking group lost 0.2 kg during the five months of weight maintenance (NS). The dropout rate in the cooking group was 4%, compared with 26% in the NLP group (p=0.04). There was no difference in weight maintenance after two and three years of follow-up. In conclusion, weight loss in overweight and obese participants was maintained equally efficiently with a healthy cooking course or NLP therapy, but the dropout rate was lower during the active cooking treatment.

  5. Variations in Cooking time with Some physico-chemical properties of stored pea dry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H. S.

    2006-01-01

    Cooking time is one of the most important aspects of food quality. Correlation of cooking time with certain quality attributes of stored pea dry seeds were investigated to verify previous findings in faba bean concerning the relationship between cooking time and these characters. Moreover, the study aimed at finding out indices for selection of early cooking pea types. Accordingly, the time when 50% of pea dry seeds considered cooked was determined for six pea genotypes grown at shambat in the season 1999/2000. This parameter revealed significant variance and wide range of variability (84.33-115.33 min) indicating various degrees of seed hardness. Similarly, marked differences in 100-seed weight, test a, cotyledon, moisture, ash and potassium content were recorded due to genotypes. Cooking time showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.892,<0.0001 and r = 0.504, P< 0.0310) with seed weight and cotyledon percentage, respectively, and significant negative correlations (r = - 0.907, P< 0.0001 and r = - 0.505, P=0.0313) with ash and test a percentages, respectively. (Author)

  6. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  7. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  8. Seeing is doing. The implicit effect of TV cooking shows on children's use of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has established that TV viewing and food marketing influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential impact of popular TV cooking shows has received far less attention. TV cooking shows may equally affect children's food selection and consumption by distributing both food cues and portion-size cues. In an experimental study, elementary school children were randomly exposed to a cooking show, that either did or did not display a portion-size cue, or a non-food TV show. Results showed that children used significantly more sugar on their pancakes, and consumed significantly more of the pancakes after watching a TV cooking show compared to a non-food TV show. However, observing a portion-size cue in a TV cooking show only influenced sugar selection in older children (5th grade), but not in younger children (1st grade). The findings suggest that food cues in TV cooking shows stimulate consumption by inducing food cravings in children. Actual portion-size cues only appeared to affect older children's food selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of muscle, cooking method and final internal temperature on quality parameters of beef roast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Dąbrowska, Ewa; Jankowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Cierach, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of cooking conditions (dry air and steam) and final internal temperature (75, 85, 95°C) on the physico-chemical properties of beef infraspinatus (INF) and semimembranosus (SEM) muscles as well as their tenderness and juiciness. Cooking method and temperature influenced moisture, total collagen content in cooked meat and cooking loss, whereas muscle type affected fat, total collagen content and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were affected by cooking method, which also influenced juiciness of roasts. Temperature affected tenderness and juiciness, whereas muscle type influenced juiciness. The most desirable tenderness had INF heated in steam and dry air to 95°C. Processing SEM in dry air to 85 and 95°C lowered the juiciness of the roasts. There were significant correlations between physico-chemical, sensorial and image attributes, however high accuracy of prediction (r(2)>0.8) was achieved only for SEM muscle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  11. Effect of processing and cooking on mineral and phytic acid content of buckwheat-enriched tagliatelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrec Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of buckwheat flour - non-treated (NBF and autoclaved (TBF were used for the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle (control sample at the level of 10-30% and the produced tagliatelle samples (dry and cooked were examined in terms of mineral and phytic acid (PA content. Both NBF and TBF possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of all investigated minerals compared to whole wheat flour (WWF, but significantly lower (p < 0.05 PA content. Cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe compared to the cooked control sample, while mineral content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples was not significantly different from the control. Autoclaving significantly reduced (p < 0.05 PA content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples compared to cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle samples and the control sample. The mineral bioavailability defined through molar ratio of mineral to phytate was slightly improved in buckwheat-containing tagliatelle samples, but it still remains at low level. Regarding all results, the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle with NBF at higher levels of substitution (20-30% resulted in significant increase in mineral content and bioavailability.

  12. Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andrea C. Penati; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: andrea@dtr.com.br; acpferre@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; Brazzaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luis de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The work objective was analyzing the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2 kGy, 4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy). The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease with cooking process and it decreased ash and carbohydrates available. In the control and in the doses of 4 kGy and 6 kGy the cooking has not influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 kGy and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to the essential amino acids, the chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for the methionine. (author)

  13. Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Andrea C. Penati; Arthur, Valter; Brazzaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti

    2007-01-01

    The work objective was analyzing the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2 kGy, 4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy). The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease with cooking process and it decreased ash and carbohydrates available. In the control and in the doses of 4 kGy and 6 kGy the cooking has not influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 kGy and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to the essential amino acids, the chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for the methionine. (author)

  14. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Hamburger Cooking Process Using Finite Difference and CFD Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sargolzaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady-state heat transfer in hamburger cooking process was modeled using one dimensional finite difference (FD and three dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD models. A double-sided cooking system was designed to study the effect of pressure and oven temperature on the cooking process. Three different oven temperatures (114, 152, 204°C and three different pressures (20, 332, 570 pa were selected and 9 experiments were performed. Applying pressure to hamburger increases the contact area of hamburger with heating plate and hence the heat transfer rate to the hamburger was increased and caused the weight loss due to water evaporation and decreasing cooking time, while increasing oven temperature led to increasing weight loss and decreasing cooking time. CFD predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental results than the finite difference (FD ones. But considering the long time needed for CFD model to simulate the cooking process (about 1 hour, using the finite difference model would be more economic.

  16. Risk of lung cancer from residential heating and cooking fuels in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Parent, Marie-Elise; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2007-03-15

    Among the major sources of indoor air pollution are combustion by-products from heating and cooking. Concern is increasing that use of polluting heating and cooking sources can increase cancer risk. In Canada, most cooking and heating currently relies on electricity or natural gas, but, in the past, and still in some areas, coal and wood stoves were used for heating and gas and wood for cooking. In the course of a case-control study of lung cancer carried out in Montreal in 1996-2001, the authors collected information on subjects' lifetime exposure to such sources of domestic pollution by means of a personal interview with the subject or a next-of-kin proxy. Questionnaires were completed for 739 male cases, 925 male controls, 466 female cases, and 616 female controls. Odds ratios were computed in relation to a few indices of exposure to traditional heating and cooking sources, adjusting for a number of covariates, including smoking. Among men, there was no indication of excess risks. Among women, the odds ratio for those exposed to both traditional heating and cooking sources was 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5, 3.6; n = 253). The findings for women suggest the need for research dedicated to exploring this association, with particular emphasis on improved exposure assessment.

  17. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef governorate-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshref, A M S

    2010-06-01

    Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter A total of 60 random samples of cooking butter, were collected from different farmers' houses in different villages, Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cooking butter samples were examined for psychrotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and molds and yeasts counts. Additionally examination for the presence of pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, S.aureus and Ps.aeruginosa were also performed. The microbiological examination revealed that 100, 100, 36.7, 31.7, 31.7 and 23.3% of the examined samples were contaminated by psychrotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts, coliforms, faecal coliforms, E.coli and S.aureus, respectively. None of the examined cooking butter samples contained Ps.aeruginosa. The means values of sodium chloride and titratable acidity were 0.57 ± 0.05 % and 0.20 ± 0.013%, respectively. The present study showed that cooking butter is produced under unhygienic condition and without good manufacturing practice. The Public health significance and suggestive control measures are discussed.

  18. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  19. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  20. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial food industry is also common to maximize profit. Thermal oxidation of edible oils had since attracted great attention of nutritionist and researchers given the deteriorative effect such as generation of very cytotoxic compounds, loss of carotenoid, phenolics and vitamins thus reducing the overall antioxidant properties of the oils. Furthermore, several in vivo studies had suggested that consumption of thermally-oxidized cooking oils might not be healthy as it might negatively influence the lipid profile (increased low density lipoprotein (LDL, decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL and elevated cholesterol level, haematological system (alteration in concentration of heamoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, kidney function, and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which have been associated with the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases. Therefore, thermal oxidation seems not to provide any health benefit, as it deteriorates cooking oils and the consumption of the oils may predispose consumers to various disease conditions that may ensue from free radical generation, thereby having deleterious effect on human health.

  1. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela García-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men. A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks (p < 0.05 at all ages. A significantly higher proportion of people under 50 years self-reported that they were “able to cook” in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3% or from a family member (42.2%. Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention.

  2. Who's cooking? Trends in US home food preparation by gender, education, and race/ethnicity from 2003 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2018-04-02

    While US home cooking declined in the late twentieth century, it is unclear whether the trend has continued. This study examines home cooking from 2003 to 2016 by gender, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity. Nationally representative data from the American Time Use Study from 2003 to 2016 and linear regression models were used to examine changes in the percent of adults aged 18-65 years who cook and their time spent cooking, with interactions to test for differential changes by demographic variables of gender, education, and race/ethnicity. Cooking increased overall from 2003 to 2016. The percent of college-educated men cooking increased from 37.9% in 2003 to 51.9% in 2016, but men with less than high school education who cook did not change (33.2% in 2016) (p school education had no change (72.3% in 2016) (p Home cooking in the United States is increasing, especially among men, though women still cook much more than men. Further research is needed to understand whether the heterogeneity in home cooking by educational attainment and race/ethnicity observed here contributes to diet-related disparities in the United States.

  3. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks (p cook” in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention. PMID:29462887

  4. Comparative study of oxidative stress biomarkers in urine of cooks exposed to three types of cooking-related particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Huang, Lihua; Xia, Junjie; Xu, Xinyun; Liu, Honghe; Li, Y Robert

    2016-07-25

    To evaluate how exposure to deep-frying oils, repeated frying oil (RFO) and restaurant waste oil (RWO) affects emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxidative stress in male restaurant workers. The study participants included 236 male restaurant workers in 12 restaurants in Shenzhen. Airborne particulate PAHs were measured over 12h on each of two consecutive work days. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) measurements were used to indicate cooking oil fumes (COF) exposure, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were adopted as oxidative stress markers. The production and emission rates of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and PM2.5 were higher in the exposed groups than in the control group. The concentrations of summed PAHs were in the order of RFO-frying group>RWO-frying group>deep-frying group>unexposed control group. Urinary 1-OHP was found to be a significant predictor of elevated urinary MDA and 8-OHdG concentrations (all, Pstress in restaurants workers. Exposure to RFO may cause increased oxidative DNA damage, and exposure to RWO might cause increased lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Bin; He, Fei; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Ruojie; Zhang, Yujuan; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    To illustrate chemical characteristic of PM 2.5 emission and assess inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking, 5 sets of duplicate cooking samples were collected, using the most used 5 types of oil. The mass abundance of 14 elements, 5 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated; the signature and diagnostic ratio of cooking in the domestic kitchen were analyzed; and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs via inhalation were assessed in two scenarios. The analysis showed that OC was the primary composition in the chemical profile; Na was the most abundant element that might be due to the usage of salt; Cr and Pb, NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , Phe, FL and Pyr were the main heavy metals/water-soluble ions/PAHs, respectively. Phe and FL could be used to separate cooking and stationary sources, while diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + CHR), BaA/CHR, BaP/BghiP and BaP/BeP should be applied with caution, as they were influenced by various cooking conditions. Carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs were evaluated in two scenarios, simulating the condition of cooking with no ventilation and with the range hood on, respectively. The integrated risk of heavy metals and PAHs was 2.7 × 10 -3 and 5.8 × 10 -6 , respectively, during cooking with no ventilation. While with the usage of range hood, only Cr(VI), As and Ni might induce potential carcinogenic risk. The difference in the chemical abundance in cooking sources found between this and other studies underlined the necessity of constructing locally representative source profiles under real conditions. The comparison of carcinogenic risk suggested that the potentially adverse health effects induced by inorganic compositions from cooking sources should not be ignored. Meanwhile, intervention methods, such as the operation of range hood, should be applied during cooking for health protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Synthesis graphene layer at different waste cooking palm oil temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Asli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most recent carbon nanomaterials that has attracted attention because of its superior properties. The formation of the graphene on the Ni surface appears due to segregation and precipitation of a high amount of carbon from the source material during the cooling process. The growth of graphene at different waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) temperatures using double thermal chemical vapour deposition method (DTCVD) was investigated. The samples were prepared at various vaporization temperatures of WCPO is range from 250 °C to 450 °C by increment 50 °C and the temperature of Ni substrate constant at 900 °C. The structural of the graphene were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, UV-Visible and Raman's spectroscopy. FESEM images at optimum temperature (350 °C) display hexagonal shapes since the graphene layers were formed after precipitation of the carbon. It the meantime, UV-Visible spectra shows the sharp peak at 250 nm whereupon the highest of reflectivity value. This peak is an indication the presence of the graphene layers on Ni substrate. The position and half width 2D peak of the Raman spectra were subjected to detail analyses in order to determine the quantity and quality of the graphene layer. At the temperature 350°C, the Raman's spectroscopy result shown the multilayer of the graphene based on I2D/IG ratio is approximately constant (equal to˜0.43).

  7. Cooking with biomass stoves and tuberculosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, R; Pérez-Guzmán, C; Báez-Saldaña, R; Torres-Cruz, A

    2001-05-01

    To search for an association between tuberculosis and use of biomass stoves found recently in a cross sectional study. In a case-control study based in a chest referral hospital, the cases were 288 patients with active smear-positive or culture-positive tuberculosis, and the controls were 545 patients with ear nose and throat ailments with no evidence of chest disease studied at the same time as the cases. Exposure to present or previous biomass smoke by history of cooking with traditional wood stoves was assessed by positive or negative response. Exposure to biomass smoke was significantly higher in cases than in controls. Crude odds ratios for tuberculosis and biomass smoke exposure were 5.2 (95%CI 3.1-8.9) for current exposure, 3.4 (95%CI 2.4-5.0) for past or present exposure and 1.8 (95%CI 1.1-3.0) for past exposure. The association was observed only for patients living in Metropolitan Mexico City and urban or suburban areas in the center of Mexico providing most cases and controls. For rural areas, the power of the study was low and the origin of the patients heterogeneous. Odds ratio for Mexico City Metropolitan area and the center of Mexico was 2.4 (95%CI 1.04-5.6), adjusted for age, sex, level of education, crowding, smoking, socio-economic level, zone of residence and state of birth. In the same model smoking had an OR of 1.5 (95%CI 1.0-2.3) for tuberculosis. Our results support a causal role of current domestic biomass smoke exposure in tuberculosis.

  8. Changes in the lipid fraction of king mackerel pan fried in coconut oil and cooked in coconut milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Giselda Macena; Cabral, Caterine Cristine Vasconcelos Quintiliano; de Oliveira, Ítalo Bruno Araújo; Figueirêdo, Bruno Chacon; Simon, Sarah Janaína Gurgel Bechtinger; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-11-01

    The influence of cooking on the nutritional value of king mackerel when cooked in coconut milk or pan fried in coconut oil was verified from the alterations in the fatty acid content; formation of cholesterol oxides and the nutritional quality indices of the lipids. Cooking in coconut milk caused an 11.6% reduction in the protein content and 28.3% reduction in the ash content. The lipid content increased after cooking (253%) and frying (198%) causing an increase in the caloric value. The total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids of the cooked king mackerel increased 462% and 248%, respectively, whereas these increases were 418% and 130%, respectively, for the fried king mackerel. There were reductions of 21% and 38% in the total EPA+DHA of the pan fried and cooked samples, respectively, as compared to the fresh king mackerel. The heat treatment did not cause alterations in cholesterol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Value-added of used cooking oil using noni (Morinda citrofilia) extract and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Supriyatin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of noni extract and bagasse to the number of free fatty acids and peroxide on used cooking oil. This study used a completely randomized design with factorial experiment consisting of two factors: noni extract and administration bagasse. The oil used was cooking oil that has been used 3 times to fry catfish. The study was conducted in the laboratory of Biochemistry, Department ofBiology Science UNJ. Data was analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (α <0.05). Oil fortification analysis result in negative value of vit A, D and E on cooking oil used. Preliminary test results showed that the used cooking oil on catfish 3 times frying has a peroxide value of 20.2 MeK O2/kg and the number of free fatty acids of 2.2%, which is already quite high and out of SNI limit. This basis the reason of usingthe oil as a sample. Combination of noni and bagasse applied on cooking oil has shown the lowest peroxide value (0.533 mg-equivalen peroxide per kg sample (MeK O2/kg)) compared with administration of bagasse (0.8 MeK O2/kg) and noni alone (0.67 MeK O2/kg). Giving noni and bagasse also figured lower fatty acids (1,878%) compared to administration of noni (1.94%) and bagasse (2,191%) only on used cooking oil. Statistical analysis shows p <0.005 on both the peroxide and free fatty acids in cooking oil. It can be concluded that the administration of noni extract and bagasse gave effect on free fatty acids and peroxide on used oil.

  10. Effects of cooking temperatures on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of chicken stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Bunch, Tucker; Shoemaker, Charles; Loss, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    As a base for sauces, soups, and cooking liquids for meats, grains, and vegetables, stocks can be integral to the overall quality of restaurant menu items, however, science-based studies on the effects of cooking methods on the physiochemical and sensory properties of stock are lacking. The effects of starting (22 °C, 85 °C, and 99 °C) and cooking temperatures (85 °C and 99 °C) of chicken stock on clarity, color, viscosity, protein content, amino acid content, mineral content, and overall liking were measured. Protein content and viscosity were significantly higher for stocks cooked at 99 °C, but no effect on amino acid content, color, or clarity was observed. Calcium concentration in stocks cooked at 99 °C was significantly (P cooked at 85 °C (16.6 and 17.5 mg/mL for stocks started at temperatures of 22 and 85 °C, respectively). Stocks prepared at 99 °C scored higher on overall liking compared to commercial samples and those cooked at 85 °C (P= 0.0101). These data can be used by culinary scientists and professionals to develop more efficient techniques in the kitchen, and by product developers to optimize the overall quality and acceptance of stock. This work documents the effects of preparation method on the physical and chemical properties, and consumer acceptance of chicken stock. This information can be used by product developers, culinary scientists, and professional chefs to optimize stock-based products. Culinary educators can use this information to provide students with objective evidence-based rationale for the techniques underlying a celebrated culinary tradition. This is also an example of how research can facilitate collaboration between culinary and food science professionals. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, M A; Martins, L C; Pereira, L A A; Negrini, F; Cardoso, A A; Melchert, W R; Arbex, R F; Saldiva, P H N; Zanobetti, A; Braga, A L F

    2007-04-01

    Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF(25-75), based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF(25-75), a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF(25-75) that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  12. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arbex

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046 for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035 was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  14. [Association of cooking oil fumes exposure and oxidative DNA damage among occupational exposed populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yue-bin; Xu, Xin-yun; Yuan, Jian-hui; Fang, Shi-song; Liu, Yi-min; Wu, Tang-chun

    2010-08-01

    Previous investigations indicate that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from cooking oil fumes (COF). However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36), all are male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG were similar for controls (mean 1.2 µmol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen room with exhaust hood operation (mean 1.5 µmol/mol creatinine, n = 45). COF exposed cooks without exhaust hood operation had increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3 µmol/mol creatinine, n = 18). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in COF may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  15. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, N.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  16. Preliminary investigations on the effects of ageing and cooking on the Raman spectra of porcine longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, J Renwick; Bell, Steven E J; Borggaard, Claus; Moss, Bruce W

    2008-12-01

    The influence of ageing and cooking on the Raman spectrum of porcine longissimus dorsi was investigated. The rich information contained in the Raman spectrum was highlighted, with numerous changes attributed to changes in the environment and conformations of the myofibrillar proteins. Predictions equations for shear force and cooking loss were developed from the Raman spectra of both raw and cooked pork. Good correlations and standard errors of prediction were obtained for both WB shear force and cooking loss, with the raw and the cooked samples showing almost identical results R(2)=0.77, root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP)% of mean=12% for shear force; R(2)=0.71, RMSEP% of mean=10% for cooking loss. The Raman spectra were also able to predict the extent of cooking that occurred within the pork (R(2)(val)=0.94, RMSEP% of range=5.5%). Raman spectroscopy has considerable potential as a method for non-destructive and rapid determination of pork quality parameters such as tenderness. Raman spectroscopy may provide a means of determining changes during cooking and the extent to which foods have been cooked.

  17. Assessment Of The Viability Of Kaduna City Climate For Year Round Use Of Direct Solar Thermal Cooking Fuel In Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumann Ephraim Sule

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy obtained from the sun is the world most abundant and cheapest source of energy as a cooking fuel. It comes in two forms Concentrated Solar Thermal direct conversion of solar energy to heat that cooks and Solar Photovoltaic PV a conversion of solar energy to electrical then to heat energy the former technology is simple and far cheaper. Despite all these architectural and engineering researches is yet to capture it for indoor cooking because of inability to cook year round due the claimed hindrances by weather condition such as clouds rainfall wind dusty atmosphere and many others. This paper attempted to look into the possibility of cooking year round in Kaduna city. It collected and analyzed ten years climatic data from three different meteorological stations strategically located round the city this showed a low solar radiation in the month of August. It further compared the result with a literature review of solar cooking carried in the same month the findings showed at the peak of each weather hindrance a another element overrides it to give enough minimum energy for cooking a meals. This paper has therefore pointed the potentials of Kaduna city climate for year round use of concentrated solar thermal as a cooking fuel in residential building and further recommends the architectural collaboration with engineers for the direct capturing of solar rays into residential dwelling as a sustainable cooking fuel.

  18. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P meats (P meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Cooking fuel and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal M. North

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load. We used multivariable logistic regression and generalised estimating equations, with each study visit as a unit of observation, to investigate relationships between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms. We observed an association between cooking with firewood (versus charcoal and chronic cough among HIV-infected females in rural Uganda (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00–1.99; p=0.047. We did not observe an association between cooking fuel type and respiratory symptoms among males (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.47–1.63; p=0.658. Associations between cooking fuel and chronic cough in this HIV-infected cohort may be influenced by sex-based roles in meal preparation. This study raises important questions about relationships between household air pollution, HIV infection and respiratory morbidity.

  1. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Harnly, James M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-07-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N -nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

  2. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  3. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Combustion Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled by Synthesized Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Maki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The waste cooking oil or used cooking oil is the best source of biodiesel synthesizing because it enters into the so-called W2E field whereas not only get rid of the used cooking oils but produce energy from waste fuel. In this study, biodiesel was synthesized from the used cooking oil and specifications are tested. From 1 liter of used cooking oil, 940 ml is gained. The remaining of liter is glycerin and water. Blend of 20% of biodiesel with 80% of net diesel by volume is formed. Blends of 100% diesel and 100% biodiesel are prepared too. The diesel engine combustion performance is studied. Brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and engine outlet temperature. Cylinder pressure variation with crank angle is analyzed. At last not least, the concentrations of hydro carbon and nitrogen pollutants are measured. The results showed significant enhancement in engine power and pollutant gases emitted. There is positive compatible with other critical researches.

  5. The Effects Of Ultrasonic Application For The Microbiological Quality Of Bulk Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Istanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation is one of natural phenomenon that often discussed in light atomic reaction nuclear application and electromagnetic wave especially in gamma ray X ray and UV light. Commonly we usually think that they are negative deadly and dangerous for living creatures. Radiaton may be correlated with thermal phenomenon but this reasearch was applied to get audio phenomenon and radiation especially ultrasonic radiation. Sound is a particle of vibration that propagates through medium and transmitted as longitudinal wave in which the displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation of the wave. Radiation is the emission of waves in all directions in space by vibratory sources transducers form small balls or knob 234 this study were irradiating exposing to bulk cooking oils. The bulk cooking oil was treated by the ultrasonic exposure 1.5 hours and 3 hours and 24-hour incubation that it showed no aerobic colony. And besides the untreated bulk cooking oil showed a few aerobic colonies. And also the untreated used bulk cooking oil showed more some aerobic colonies. The research results shows that ultrasonic exposure at 48 kHz for 1.5 hours can enhance the microbiological quality of bulk cooking oil for 10 day storage.

  6. Type of adsorbent and column height in adsorption process of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnelly, Hervelly, Taufik, Yusman; Melany, Ivo Nila

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out the best adsorbent and column height that can adsorb color and soluble impurities substances in used cooking oil. This research was meant for knowledge development of refined cooking oil technology. The used of this research was giving out information on the recycling process of used cooking oil. Research design used 2 × 2 factorial pattern in randomized group design with 6 repetitions. The first factor is adsorbent type (J) that consist of activated carbon (J1) and Zeolit (J2). The second factor is column height (K) with variations of 15 cm (k1) and 20 cm (k2). Chemical analysis parameter are free fatty acid, water content and saponification value. Physical parameter measurement was done on color with Hunter Lab system analysis and viscosity using viscometer method. Chemical analysis result of preliminary research on used cooking oil showed water content of 1,9%, free fatty acid 1,58%, saponification value 130,79 mg KOH/g oil, viscosity 0,6 d Pas and color with L value of -27,60, a value 1,04 and b value 1,54. Result on main research showed that adsorbent type only gave effect on water content whereas column height and its interaction was not gave significant effect on water content. Interaction between adsorbent type (J) and column height (K) gave significant effect to free fatty acid, saponification value, viscosity and color for L, a and b value of recycled cooking oil.

  7. Increased advanced glycation end product specific fluorescence in repeatedly heated used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Repeated heating of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry heat at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of heating (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated heating can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.

  8. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  9. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C.; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however an extensive review has not examined overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Design Literature review and descriptive summative method. Main outcome measures Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Analysis Articles evaluating effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January 1980 through December 2011) were identified via OVID MEDLINE, Agricola and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Results Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with six as non-randomized and six as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done post-intervention for five studies, pre- and post-intervention for 23 and beyond post-intervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, non-rigorous study designs, varying study populations, and use of non-validated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Conclusions and Implications Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:24703245

  10. Effect of indoor air pollution caused by domestic cooking on respiratory problems of elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W. (Kuwait Univ., Safat-Kuwait (Kuwait)); Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Gomola, K. (Institute of Social Medicine, Krakow (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of indoor air pollution resulting from the use of gas cookers by elderly women who may be more susceptible to the harmful effects of indoor air pollutants because they spend a greater proportion of their time at home. A total of 560 elderly women living in the Krakow city center were included in the survey. The survey data were collected using standardized interviews dealing with coughing; phlegm production; dyspnea on effort; past chest illnesses diagnosed by a doctor; smoking habits; education; socioeconomic conditions; the type of heating system in the household; passive smoking; the type of cooking oven; the average time spent daily cooking meals; and the proportion of time spent daily in the kitchen and other rooms of the household. In all respondents, lung function was tested with a Vitalograph spirometer. The relative risk of chronic phlegm was strongly related to exposure duration due to cooking time. Regarding dyspnea on effort, there was an increased risk among those with longer exposure times, but the trend was not as steep as it was for chronic phlegm. The mean FEV{sub 1} level was not related to domestic cooking time; however, the age-related FEV{sub 1} decline coefficient was much greater in those elderly women who on average were involved in cooking activities longer.

  11. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901) and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539), we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure) related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes. PMID:27517950

  12. Reduction of cooking oil fume exposure following an engineering intervention in Chinese restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Wang, Shun-Chih; Huang, Chien-Ping; Kuo, Ching-Tang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Hu, Howard; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    A new engineering intervention measure, an embracing air curtain device (EACD), was used to increase the capture efficiency of cooker hoods and reduce cooking oil fume (COF) exposure in Chinese restaurants. An EACD was installed in six Chinese restaurants where the cooks complained of COF exposure. Before- and after-installation measurements were taken to compare changes in particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in kitchen air, and changes in levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The association between PM and PAHs in air and 8-OHdG and MDA in urine was evaluated by linear mixed-effects regression analysis. Results showed that geometric mean kitchen air levels of PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1.0) and total particulate PAHs were significantly reduced after the EACDs were introduced. Urinary levels of 8-OHdG and MDA in cooks were also significantly lower after EACD instalment. PM(2.5), PM(1.0) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) levels were positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjusting for key personal covariates. Urinary MDA levels in cooks were also positively associated with BaP levels after adjusting for key personal covariates. This study demonstrates that the EACD is effective for reducing COF and oxidative stress levels in cooks working in Chinese kitchens.

  13. Emission Rates of Multiple Air Pollutants Generated from Chinese Residential Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhao, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Household air pollution generated from cooking is severe, especially for Chinese-style cooking. We measured the emission rates of multiple air pollutants including fine particles (PM 2.5 ), ultrafine particles (UFPs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) that were generated from typical Chinese cooking in a residential kitchen. The experiment was designed through five-factor and five-level orthogonal testing. The five key factors were cooking method, ingredient weight, type of meat, type of oil, and meat/vegetable ratio. The measured emission rates (mean value ± standard deviation) of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), benzene, and toluene were 2.056 ± 3.034 mg/min, 9.102 ± 6.909 × 10 12 #/min, 1.273 ± 0.736 mg/min, 1.349 ± 1.376 mg/min, 0.074 ± 0.039 mg/min, and 0.004 ± 0.004 mg/min. Cooking method was the most influencing factor for the emission rates of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, TVOCs, and benzene but not for toluene. Meanwhile, the emission rate of PM 2.5 was also significantly influenced by ingredient weight, type of meat, and meat/vegetable ratio. Exhausting the range hood decreased the emission rates by approximately 58%, with a corresponding air change rate of 21.38/h for the kitchen room.

  14. Characterization of tuna cooking effluents generated in seafood canning industries; Caracterizacion de los efluentes de coccion de atum generados en la industrias conserveras de productos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Paz, D.; Torres Ayaso, A. B.; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Tuna cooking effluents from different factories were analyzed, in this work. It has been analyzed effluents form water cooking and steam cooking processes. Steam cooking effluents are more appropriate for protein recovery due to the higher protein concentrations (up to 10 g/l, in some cases) and lower volume. Besides, steam cooking effluents, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were up to 50 and 5 g/l, respectively. Different correlations between the main parameters the main parameters have been found, for example protein and TKN concentrations of a tuna cooking effluent can be estimated from COD concentrations. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Impacts of cooking system on indoor air environment: a case study on a Bangladeshi village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Afroze, S.; Azam, M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is needed to meet the subsistence requirement as well as to meet the demand for economic growth and development. As like many other third world countries still more than half of the total consumed energy comes from the traditional fuels in Bangladesh. This is causing rapid deforestation and consequently a change in the eco-systems leading to erosion and change in the climatic pattern. Extreme use of raw (low quality) biomass traditional cook stoves causes significant impacts on indoor air environment and as well on human health. In the study, an assessment of the cooking energy usage pattern, its potential impacts on indoor air environment and human health in a village named Deyara in Khulna district has been performed. The socio-economic status of the villagers and cooking energy usage pattern were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. In the study village Deyara, about 74% of the total households rely on biomass fuel, where the mostly used biomass is trees and its residues (46%), next the crop wastes (39%) and lastly the cow dung (15%). Emissions of different types of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from the burning of biomass cooking fuels the study village are estimated. In the study area the estimated annual emission of CO/sub 2/ is 45.5 tons which about 94% of the total emission, where CO is 4.5%, PM is 1 % and about 0.5% emission is of SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, N/sub 2/O. In the study area the concentrations of air pollutants in the kitchen environment were estimated using an indoor air quality model. The model results show that the concentration around the household areas is not at tolerable level and due to only 1 hour biomass burning this concentration is 323 mg/m/sup 3/ for CO, 50.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for PM, 15 mg/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub 2/ and 9.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/. Not only this, from the combustion of biomass cooking fuels this concentrations of different carcinogens are also at high levels. For 1 hour burning of biomass fuel this concentration is

  16. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  19. Effective height of chimney for biomass cook stove simulated by computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal; Setiawan, A.; Wusnah; Khairil; Luthfi

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical modelling of temperature distribution and flow pattern in a biomass cooking stove using CFD simulation. The biomass stove has been designed to suite the household cooking process. The stove consists of two pots. The first is the main pot located on the top of the combustion chamber where the heat from the combustion process is directly received. The second pot absorbs the heat from the exhaust gas. A chimney installed at the end of the stove releases the exhaust gas to the ambient air. During the tests, the height of chimney was varied to find the highest temperatures at both pots. Results showed that the height of the chimney at the highest temperatures of the pots is 1.65 m. This chimney height was validated by developing a model for computational fluid dynamics. Both experimental and simulations results show a good agreement and help in tune-fining the design of biomass cooking stove.

  20. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ree Kim, Mee [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Gung-Dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government Complex-Gwacheon, Kyunggi 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-05-15

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring.

  1. Formulation of a grease from spent bleaching earth, waste cooking oil and fumed silica as additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Zuhan; Hayder Abdul Bari

    2010-01-01

    The study is to formulate new multi-purpose grease from industrial wastes. In this study we intent to use waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth as a main ingredients for the grease formulation. Additives such as fumed silica, molybdenum disulphide and other type of additives are introduced to improve the properties of the grease. The best percentage of waste cooking oil, spent bleaching earth and additives added is determined (w/w) during this study to produces the best consistency through penetration test based on NGLI standard. Other properties being determined include drop point, oxidation stability, and oil separation test through ASTM method. From result obtained, some necessary modification and additives addition into spent bleaching earth and waste cooking oil can produce new multi-purpose based grease that can be commercialized. (author)

  2. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  3. Aroma behaviour during steam cooking within a potato starch-based model matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descours, Emilie; Hambleton, Alicia; Kurek, Mia; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Voilley, Andrée; Seuvre, Anne-Marie

    2013-06-05

    To help understand the organoleptic qualities of steam cooked foods, the kinetics of aroma release during cooking in a potato starch based model matrix was studied. Behaviour of components having a major impact in potato flavour were studied using solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Evolution of microstructure of potato starch model-matrix during steam cooking process was analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Both aroma compounds that are naturally present in starch matrix and those that were added were analyzed. Both the aroma compounds naturally presented and those added had different behaviour depending on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, saturation vapour pressure, molecular weight, etc.). The physical state of potato starch influences of the retention of aromatized matrix with Starch gelatinization appearing to be the major phenomenon influencing aroma release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Li, Zijun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils) was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19-20 °C and 65-70 % relative humidity (RH). The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min-1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol) in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of SOA was -1.51 to -0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  5. Associations of Cooking With Dietary Intake and Obesity Among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Poti, Jennifer M

    2017-02-01

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) may help ease economic and time constraints of cooking, helping low-income households prepare healthier meals. Therefore, frequent cooking may be more strongly associated with improved dietary outcomes among SNAP recipients than among income-eligible non-recipients. Alternately, increased frequency of home-cooked meals among SNAP participants may be beneficial simply by replacing fast food intake. This study quantified the association between home cooking and fast food with diet intake and weight status among SNAP recipients. In 2016, data from low-income adults aged 19-65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2007-2010 (N=2,578) were used to examine associations of daily home-cooked dinner and weekly fast food intake with diet intake, including calories from solid fat and added sugar and key food groups (sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit, and vegetables), and prevalence of overweight/obesity. Differences in these associations for SNAP recipients versus income-eligible non-recipients were analyzed, as well as whether associations were attenuated when controlling for fast food intake. Daily home-cooked dinners were associated with small improvements in dietary intake for SNAP recipients but not for non-recipients, including lower sugar-sweetened beverage intake (-54 kcal/day), and reduced prevalence of overweight/obesity (-6%) (pfast food intake. Consuming at least one fast food meal/week was associated with 9.3% and 11.6% higher overweight/obesity prevalence among SNAP recipients and non-recipients, respectively (pfast food intake. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Awareness of coeliac disease among chefs and cooks depends on the level and place of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Shin, Seong; Coppell, Kirsten J

    Coeliac disease is triggered by gluten. The only treatment is lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Dining out and travelling are particular challenges with a huge impact on quality of life. We examined the knowledge about coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation among chefs and cooks, and culinary students in Dunedin, New Zealand. Outlets serving gluten-free food were identified. The head chefs or cooks were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding demographics, education, qualification, experience and knowledge of coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation. Ninety restaurant chefs and cooks, and 35 first-year culinary students participated. Half of participating chefs and cooks had received no formal training, but all were aware of the term gluten-free diet. Twelve (13%) were unaware of coeliac disease, all of whom were non-European and worked at an ethnic restaurant which did not have gluten-free policies in place. There was no significant difference in awareness of coeliac disease between chefs and students (p=0.36). However, students were significantly more aware of necessary gluten-free food preparation (p=0.007) and scored better in the gluten-free quiz (p=0.01) than chefs and cooks. Awareness of coeliac disease did not necessarily mean that policies were in place to prepare contamination-free gluten-free meals. Chefs and cooks from countries with a low incidence of coeliac disease lacked knowledge about gluten-free food preparation and had difficulties recognising gluten containing foods. Patients with coeliac disease wanting to dine out should be advised to choose a restaurant with care.

  7. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19–20 °C and 65–70 % relative humidity (RH. The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS. The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min−1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc of SOA was −1.51 to −0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA, indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  8. Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by gas and electric cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennekamp, M; Howarth, S; Dick, C A; Cherrie, J W; Donaldson, K; Seaton, A

    2001-08-01

    To measure the concentrations of particles less than 100 nm diameter and of oxides of nitrogen generated by cooking with gas and electricity, to comment on possible hazards to health in poorly ventilated kitchens. Experiments with gas and electric rings, grills, and ovens were used to compare different cooking procedures. Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were measured by a chemiluminescent ML9841A NO(x) analyser. A TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure average number concentration and size distribution of aerosols in the size range 10-500 nm. High concentrations of particles are generated by gas combustion, by frying, and by cooking of fatty foods. Electric rings and grills may also generate particles from their surfaces. In experiments where gas burning was the most important source of particles, most particles were in the size range 15-40 nm. When bacon was fried on the gas or electric rings the particles were of larger diameter, in the size range 50-100 nm. The smaller particles generated during experiments grew in size with time because of coagulation. Substantial concentrations of NO(X) were generated during cooking on gas; four rings for 15 minutes produced 5 minute peaks of about 1000 ppb nitrogen dioxide and about 2000 ppb nitric oxide. Cooking in a poorly ventilated kitchen may give rise to potentially toxic concentrations of numbers of particles. Very high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen may also be generated by gas cooking, and with no extraction and poor ventilation, may reach concentrations at which adverse health effects may be expected. Although respiratory effects of exposure to NO(x) might be anticipated, recent epidemiology suggests that cardiac effects cannot be excluded, and further investigation of this is desirable.

  9. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  10. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  11. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  12. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  13. Is cooking at home associated with better diet quality or weight-loss intention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-06-01

    To examine national patterns in cooking frequency and diet quality among adults in the USA, overall and by weight-loss intention. Analysis of cross-sectional 24 h dietary recall and interview data. Diet quality measures included total kilojoules per day, grams of fat, sugar and carbohydrates per day, fast-food meals per week, and frozen/pizza and ready-to-eat meals consumed in the past 30 d. Multivariable regression analysis was used to test associations between frequency of cooking dinner per week (low (0-1), medium (2-5) and high (6-7)), dietary outcomes and weight-loss intention. The 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adults aged 20 years and over (n 9569). In 2007-2010, 8 % of adults lived in households in which someone cooked dinner 0-1 times/week and consumed, on an average day, 9627 total kilojoules, 86 g fat and 135 g sugar. Overall, compared with low cookers (0-1 times/week), a high frequency of cooking dinner (6-7 times/week) was associated with lower consumption of daily kilojoules (9054 v. 9627 kJ, P=0·002), fat (81 v. 86 g, P=0·016) and sugar (119 v. 135 g, Pweight consumed fewer kilojoules than those not trying to lose weight, regardless of household cooking frequency (2111 v. 2281 kJ/d, Pweight. Strategies are needed to encourage more cooking among the general population and help infrequent cookers better navigate the food environment outside the home.

  14. Solar Cooking Technology - How Far are Technology Promoters and Users from Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1999-01-01

    In this article we take up the issue of use and disuse of box solar cookers by discussing some basic underlying assumptions of the technology as put forward (directly or indirectly) by technology promoter actors. We confront the assumptions with some practical realities that the users and disusers...... encounter when they practice solar cooking. In this way on the one hand some facts which have been instrumental for developing of technology on the side of technology developers are opened up. And on the other hand related practical aspects of use and disuse such as place and time for solar cooking...

  15. Evaluating the cooking process for obtaining hard candy from araza (Eugenia stipitata) pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sandoval; Patricia Bastidas Garzón

    2010-01-01

    This work was aimed at preparing hard candy from arazá (a fruit tree from the Amazon rainforest) using a sugar solution consis- ting of glucose syrup and invert sugar; this was cooked with fruit pulp to concentrate it. Temperature, time, soluble solids and vis- cosity were measured when cooking the mixture. Heat transfer was studied in an agitated steam jacketed kettle using the expe- rimental data. The best arazá hard candy formulation consisted of 15% fruit pulp, 2% pectin regarding the ...

  16. The proof and the pudding what mathematicians, cooks, and you have in common

    CERN Document Server

    Henle, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Tie on your apron and step into Jim Henle's kitchen as he demonstrates how two equally savory pursuits-cooking and mathematics-have more in common than you realize. A tasty dish for gourmets of popular math, The Proof and the Pudding offers a witty and flavorful blend of mathematical treats and gastronomic delights that reveal how life in the mathematical world is tantalizingly similar to life in the kitchen. Take a tricky Sudoku puzzle and a cake that fell. Henle shows you that the best way to deal with cooking disasters is also the best way to solve math problems. Or take an L-shaped billi

  17. Comparison of vitamin losses in vegetables due to various cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumm-Kreuter, D; Demmel, I

    1990-01-01

    Preparing vegetables with heat the contents of their constituents will change to a various extent. Particularly the water-soluble and the heat-sensitive vitamins are affected. At an early stage the vitamin C losses were investigated, because of vitamin C's indicating function for oxidation and leaching-out processes (1, 2, 7, 11-13, 15, 17). The degree of vitamin losses is influenced by various factors, for example the type of food, variety of vegetables, the way of cutting, preparation, duration and method of cooking. The influence of the various cooking methods with regard to the losses of certain water-soluble vitamins will be discussed.

  18. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  19. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before......, affected population, intake and dose–response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability...... help to inform the consumer to make a choice on whether the benefit of a preferred cooking style is worth the associated health loss....

  20. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...... during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors...... in cooked liquid foods...