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Sample records for inadvertent semantic errors

  1. Exploring key considerations when determining bona fide inadvertent errors resulting in understatements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrizanne de Villiers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 16 of the Tax Administration Act (28 of 2011 (the TA Act deals with understatement penalties. In the event of an ‘understatement’, in terms of Section 222 of the TA Act, a taxpayer must pay an understatement penalty, unless the understatement results from a bona fide inadvertent error. The determining of a bona fide inadvertent error on taxpayers’ returns is a totally new concept in the tax fraternity. It is of utmost importance that this section is applied correctly based on sound evaluation principles and not on professional judgement when determining if the error was indeed the result of a bona fide inadvertent error. This research study focuses on exploring key considerations when determining bona fide inadvertent errors resulting in understatements. The role and importance of tax penalty provisions is explored and the meaning of the different components in the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’ critically analysed with the purpose to find a possible definition for the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’. The study also compares the provisions of other tax jurisdictions with regards to errors made resulting in tax understatements in order to find possible guidelines on the application of bona fide inadvertent errors as contained in Section 222 of the TA Act. The findings of the research study revealed that the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’ contained in Section 222 of the TA Act should be defined urgently and that guidelines must be provided by SARS on the application of the new amendment. SARS should also clarify the application of a bona fide inadvertent error in light of the behaviours contained in Section 223 of the TA Act to avoid any confusion.

  2. Mistaken Identifiers: Gene name errors can be introduced inadvertently when using Excel in bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeberg, Barry R; Riss, Joseph; Kane, David W; Bussey, Kimberly J; Uchio, Edward; Linehan, W Marston; Barrett, J Carl; Weinstein, John N

    2004-01-01

    Background When processing microarray data sets, we recently noticed that some gene names were being changed inadvertently to non-gene names. Results A little detective work traced the problem to default date format conversions and floating-point format conversions in the very useful Excel program package. The date conversions affect at least 30 gene names; the floating-point conversions affect at least 2,000 if Riken identifiers are included. These conversions are irreversible; the original gene names cannot be recovered. Conclusions Users of Excel for analyses involving gene names should be aware of this problem, which can cause genes, including medically important ones, to be lost from view and which has contaminated even carefully curated public databases. We provide work-arounds and scripts for circumventing the problem. PMID:15214961

  3. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  4. Mimicking Aphasic Semantic Errors in Normal Speech Production: Evidence from a Novel Experimental Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Catherine; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic errors are commonly found in semantic dementia (SD) and some forms of stroke aphasia and provide insights into semantic processing and speech production. Low error rates are found in standard picture naming tasks in normal controls. In order to increase error rates and thus provide an experimental model of aphasic performance, this study…

  5. Does semantic impairment explain surface dyslexia? VLSM evidence for a double dissociation between regularization errors in reading and semantic errors in picture naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pillay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between semantic deficits and exception word regularization errors ("surface dyslexia" in semantic dementia has been taken as strong evidence for involvement of semantic codes in exception word pronunciation. Rare cases with semantic deficits but no exception word reading deficit have been explained as due to individual differences in reading strategy, but this account is hotly debated. Semantic dementia is a diffuse process that always includes semantic impairment, making lesion localization difficult and independent assessment of semantic deficits and reading errors impossible. We addressed this problem using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping in 38 patients with left hemisphere stroke. Patients were all right-handed, native English speakers and at least 6 months from stroke onset. Patients performed an oral reading task that included 80 exception words (words with inconsistent orthographic-phonologic correspondence, e.g., pint, plaid, glove. Regularization errors were defined as plausible but incorrect pronunciations based on application of spelling-sound correspondence rules (e.g., 'plaid' pronounced as "played". Two additional tests examined explicit semantic knowledge and retrieval. The first measured semantic substitution errors during naming of 80 standard line drawings of objects. This error type is generally presumed to arise at the level of concept selection. The second test (semantic matching required patients to match a printed sample word (e.g., bus with one of two alternative choice words (e.g., car, taxi on the basis of greater similarity of meaning. Lesions were labeled on high-resolution T1 MRI volumes using a semi-automated segmentation method, followed by diffeomorphic registration to a template. VLSM used an ANCOVA approach to remove variance due to age, education, and total lesion volume. Regularization errors during reading were correlated with damage in the posterior half of the middle temporal gyrus and

  6. Qualitatively different semantic representations for abstract and concrete words: further evidence from the semantic reading errors of deep dyslexic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the hypothesis that conceptual knowledge for abstract and concrete items is underpinned by qualitatively different representational frameworks (Crutch and Warrington, 2005a). A re-analysis of the semantic reading errors of four deep dyslexic patients is presented, examining the incidence of semantically associated and semantically similar errors in response to abstract and concrete target words. The results demonstrate that abstract target words elicit a greater proportion of associative than similar errors, while concrete words show the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence which converges with that previously documented for a semantic refractory access dysphasic to suggest that abstract concepts are represented in an associative network while concrete concepts are represented in a categorical framework.

  7. Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Brecher, Adelyn; Dell, Gary S.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2011-01-01

    Semantic errors in aphasia (e.g., naming a horse as "dog") frequently arise from faulty mapping of concepts onto lexical items. A recent study by our group used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) methods with 64 patients with chronic aphasia to identify voxels that carry an association with semantic errors. The strongest associations were…

  8. Deep Dyslexia and Semantic Errors: A Test of the Failure of Inhibition Hypothesis Using a Semantic Blocking Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Buchanan, Lori; Westbury, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Deep dyslexia is an acquired reading disorder that involves the production of semantic errors and the inability to read aloud nonwords successfully. Several explanations for this reading impairment posit multiple loci of damage to account for the various error types produced in deep dyslexia. In contrast, the failure of inhibition hypothesis…

  9. Did I say dog or cat? A study of semantic error detection and correction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Cortis, Cathleen; Budd, Mary-Jane; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2016-02-01

    Although naturalistic studies of spontaneous speech suggest that young children can monitor their speech, the mechanisms for detection and correction of speech errors in children are not well understood. In particular, there is little research on monitoring semantic errors in this population. This study provides a systematic investigation of detection and correction of semantic errors in children between the ages of 5 and 8years as they produced sentences to describe simple visual events involving nine highly familiar animals (the moving animals task). Results showed that older children made fewer errors and corrected a larger proportion of the errors that they made than younger children. We then tested the prediction of a production-based account of error monitoring that the strength of the language production system, and specifically its semantic-lexical component, should be correlated with the ability to detect and repair semantic errors. Strength of semantic-lexical mapping, as well as lexical-phonological mapping, was estimated individually for children by fitting their error patterns, obtained from an independent picture-naming task, to a computational model of language production. Children's picture-naming performance was predictive of their ability to monitor their semantic errors above and beyond age. This relationship was specific to the strength of the semantic-lexical part of the system, as predicted by the production-based monitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Syntactic and Semantic Errors in the Composition Writing of Jordanian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Shaker Almahameed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the salient syntactic and semantic errors made by Jordanian English foreign language learners as writing in English. Writing poses a great challenge for both native and non-native speakers of English, since writing involves employing most language sub-systems such as grammar, vocabulary, spelling and punctuation. A total of 30 Jordanian English foreign language learners participated in the study. The participants were instructed to write a composition of no more than one hundred and fifty words on a selected topic. Essays were collected and analyzed statistically to obtain the needed results. The results of the study displayed that syntactic errors produced by the participants were varied, in that eleven types of syntactic errors were committed as follows; verb-tense, agreement, auxiliary, conjunctions, word order, resumptive pronouns, null-subject, double-subject, superlative, comparative and possessive pronouns. Amongst syntactic errors, verb tense errors were the most frequent with 33%. The results additionally revealed that two types of semantic errors were made; errors at sentence level and errors at word level. Errors at word level outstripped by far errors at sentence level, scoring respectively 82% and 18%. It can be concluded that the syntactic and semantic knowledge of Jordanian learners of English is still insufficient.

  11. Semantically Secure Symmetric Encryption with Error Correction for Distributed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Partala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed storage system (DSS is a fundamental building block in many distributed applications. It applies linear network coding to achieve an optimal tradeoff between storage and repair bandwidth when node failures occur. Additively homomorphic encryption is compatible with linear network coding. The homomorphic property ensures that a linear combination of ciphertext messages decrypts to the same linear combination of the corresponding plaintext messages. In this paper, we construct a linearly homomorphic symmetric encryption scheme that is designed for a DSS. Our proposal provides simultaneous encryption and error correction by applying linear error correcting codes. We show its IND-CPA security for a limited number of messages based on binary Goppa codes and the following assumption: when dividing a scrambled generator matrix G^ into two parts G1^ and G2^, it is infeasible to distinguish G2^ from random and to find a statistical connection between G1^ and G2^. Our infeasibility assumptions are closely related to those underlying the McEliece public key cryptosystem but are considerably weaker. We believe that the proposed problem has independent cryptographic interest.

  12. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Pillay, Sara B; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Graves, William W; Book, Diane S

    2016-05-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. For a new look at 'lexical errors': evidence from semantic approximations with verbs in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvignau, Karine; Tran, Thi Mai; Manchon, Mélanie

    2013-08-01

    The ability to understand the similarity between two phenomena is fundamental for humans. Designated by the term analogy in psychology, this ability plays a role in the categorization of phenomena in the world and in the organisation of the linguistic system. The use of analogy in language often results in non-standard utterances, particularly in speakers with aphasia. These non-standard utterances are almost always studied in a nominal context and considered as errors. We propose a study of the verbal lexicon and present findings that measure, by an action-video naming task, the importance of verb-based non-standard utterances made by 17 speakers with aphasia ("la dame déshabille l'orange"/the lady undresses the orange, "elle casse la tomate"/she breaks the tomato). The first results we have obtained allow us to consider these type of utterances from a new perspective: we propose to eliminate the label of "error", suggesting that they may be viewed as semantic approximations based upon a relationship of inter-domain synonymy and are ingrained in the heart of the lexical system.

  14. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at domestic nuclear power plants to fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, Tadashi; Hirotsu, Yuko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Tsumura, Joji

    2003-01-01

    Analysing and evaluating observed cases of human error incidents with the emphasis on human factors and behavior involved was essential for preventing recurrence of those. CRIEPI has been conducting detailed and structures analyses of all incidents reported during last 35 year based on J-HPES, from the beginning of the first Tokai nuclear power operation till fiscal year of 2000, in which total 212 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES data-base. This summarized the semantic analyses on all case-studies stored in the above data-base to grasp the practical and concrete contents and trend of more frequently observed human errors (as are called trigger actions here), causal factors and preventive measures. These semantic analyses have been executed by classifying all those items into some categories that could be considered as having almost the same meaning using the KJ method. Followings are obtained typical results by above analyses: (1) Trigger action-Those could be classified into categories of operation or categories of maintenance. Operational timing errors' and 'operational quantitative errors' were major actions in trigger actions of operation, those occupied about 20% among all actions. At trigger actions of maintenance, 'maintenance quantitative error' were major actions, those occupied quarter among all actions; (2) Causal factor- 'Human internal status' were major factors, as in concrete factors, those occupied 'improper persistence' and 'lack of knowledge'; (3) Preventive measure-Most frequent measures got were job management changes in procedural software improvements, which was from 70% to 80%. As for preventive measures of operation, software improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices' and 'individual consciousness'. Concerning preventive measures of maintenance, improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices'. (author)

  15. Errors in a nonlinear graphic-semantic mapping task resulting from lesions in Boltzmann machine: is it relevant to dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, A B; Shtram, L; Policker, S

    2000-07-01

    One of the most fascinating aspects of brain research is the subject of language. As in many other cases, the malfunctions that occur in different persons for various reasons give us insight on the mechanisms that support our ability to talk, read and listen. Following the work of Plaut and associates, we deal with the dyslexia disorder, which is the overall name for a large number of reading disorders. A Boltzmann machine neural network scheme was trained to implement the nonlinear mapping task of graphic representation into semantic representation, which may model the brain sections responsible for the translation of a written word into meanings and syllables. After training, various types of lesions were applied and the performance of the network was tested in order to measure the effect of each lesion on the error rate and type distribution that were detected. The system's errors were classified into several categories and the distribution of errors between the categories was studied. Using the simulations, it is demonstrated that a finite scheduling process in the Boltzmann machine causes the distribution of the network's errors to be unique and different from its expected error distribution. The phenomenon is given a mathematical explanation rooted in the statistical mechanics basics of the Boltzmann machine. Test results suggest the localization of certain reading functions within the network. Comparison is made to relevant types of dyslexia and shows resemblance in major symptoms as well as in certain known side effects.

  16. Inadvertent epidural injection of drugs for intravenous use. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, A; Verelst, P; van Zundert, A

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of inadvertent injection of drugs in the epidural space is probably underestimated and underreported, but it can cause serious morbidity and possibly mortality. The aim of this review is to collate reported incidents of this type, to describe the potential mechanisms of occurrence and to identify possible therapeutic solutions. We searched into medical databases and reviewed reference lists of papers retrieved. A list is reported of more than 50 drugs that were inadvertently injected into the epidural space. This list includes drugs which produce no, little or short-lasting neurological deficits, but also includes drugs that may be more etching and can result in temporary or even permanent neurological deficit. Most drugs do not lead to sequelae other than pain during injection or transient neurological complaints. Other drugs may have more deleterious consequences, such as paraplegia. Both the dose of the inadvertent injected drug and the time frame play an important role in the patient's outcome. "Syringe swap", "ampoule error", and epidural/intravenous line confusion due to inaccurate or absent colour coding of epidural catheters were the main sources of error. Preventive strategies, including non Luer-lock epidural injection ports, might increase safety.

  17. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plants. Extraction of periodical transition of error occurrence patterns by applying multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is essential for preventing the recurrence of human error incidents to analyze and evaluate them with the emphasis on human factor. Detailed and structured analyses of all incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) reported during last 31 years have been conducted based on J-HPES, in which total 193 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES database. In the previous study, by applying multivariate analysis to above case studies, it was suggested that there were several occurrence patterns identified of how errors occur at NPPs. It was also clarified that the causes related to each human error are different depending on age of their occurrence. This paper described the obtained results in respects of periodical transition of human error occurrence patterns. By applying multivariate analysis to the above data, it was suggested there were two types of error occurrence patterns as to each human error type. First type is common occurrence patterns, not depending on the age, and second type is the one influenced by periodical characteristics. (author)

  18. Inadvertent Intruder Calculatios for F Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffman, L

    2005-09-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been providing radiological performance assessment analysis for Savannah River Site (SRS) solid waste disposal facilities (McDowell-Boyer 2000). The performance assessment considers numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. An Automated Intruder Analysis application was developed by SRNL (Koffman 2004) that simplifies the inadvertent intruder analysis into a routine, automated calculation. Based on SRNL's experience, personnel from Planning Integration & Technology of Closure Business Unit asked SRNL to assist with inadvertent intruder calculations for F Tank Farm to support the development of the Tank Closure Waste Determination Document. Meetings were held to discuss the scenarios to be calculated and the assumptions to be used in the calculations. As a result of the meetings, SRNL was asked to perform four scenario calculations. Two of the scenarios are the same as those calculated by the Automated Intruder Analysis application and these can be calculated directly by providing appropriate inputs. The other two scenarios involve use of groundwater by the intruder and the Automated Intruder Analysis application was adapted to perform these calculations. The four calculations to be performed are: (1) A post-drilling scenario in which the drilling penetrates a transfer line. (2) A calculation of internal exposure due to drinking water from a well located near a waste tank. (3) A post-drilling calculation in which waste is introduced by irrigation of the garden with water from a well located near a waste tank. (4) A resident scenario where a house is built above transfer lines. Note that calculations 1 and 4 use sources from the waste inventory in the transfer line (given in Table 1) whereas

  19. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  20. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  1. The adverse effects of inadvertent intraoperative intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This medical error was investigated using the criticalincident technique that is available in our department. This case report highlights the cardiovascular sequelae of phenylephrine overdose and the human factor that is associated with a medication error. We discuss these two factors, as well as the organisational factors ...

  2. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  3. The adverse effects of inadvertent intraoperative intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-03

    Mar 3, 2012 ... healthy female patient undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. This medical error was investigated using the critical- incident technique that is available in our department. This case report highlights the cardiovascular sequelae of phenylephrine overdose and the human factor that is associated with a ...

  4. Functional Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    semantics *a combines feaum of te opgrdona and denotonal medds dscb TW Ine"ad -h epR umny, ardlyc to , m caklu-𔄁-w. allows pWram meaninS to be obtained bons... learn the method without much understanding.) There is a further component to a semantic theory that we do not intend to address here, which for the

  5. Montague semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Montague semantics is a theory of natural language semantics and of its relation with syntax. It was originally developed by the logician Richard Montague (1930-1971) and subsequently modified and extended by linguists, philosophers, and logicians. The most important features of the theory are its

  6. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  7. Inadvertent transarterial insertion of atrial and ventricular defibrillator leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ziad F; Rumman, Syeda S; Mullin, James C

    2009-01-01

    Inadvertent placement of pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads in the left ventricle (LV) is a rare but well-recognized complication of device implantation [1]. We report a case of inadvertent transarterial implantation of dual-chamber ICD leads; the ventricular lead positioned in the LV and the atrial lead positioned in the aortic root. The tip of the atrial lead migrated across the aortic wall and captured the epicardial surface of the left atrium. The diagnosis was made 5 years after the implantation procedure with no apparent adverse events directly related to left heart lead placement.

  8. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plant in USA (interim report). Characteristics of human error incidents occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Tsuge, Tadashi; Sano, Toshiaki; Takano, Kenichi; Gouda, Hidenori

    2001-01-01

    CRIEPI has been conducting detailed analyses of all human error incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) collected from Japanese Licensee Event Reports (LERs) using J-HPES (Japanese version of HPES) as an analysis method. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored in J-HPES database. Since 1999, human error incidents have been selected from U.S. LERs, and they are analyzed using J-HPES. In this report, the results, which classified error action, cause, and preventive measure, are summarized for U.S. human error cases occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996. It was suggested as a result of classification that the categories of error action were almost the same as those of Japanese human error cases. Therefore, problems in the process of error action and checkpoints for preventing errors will be extracted by analyzing both U.S. and domestic human error cases. It was also suggested that the interrelations between error actions, causes, and organizational factors could be identified. While taking these suggestions into consideration, we will continue to analyze U.S. human error cases. (author)

  9. Simulating Children's Retrieval Errors in Picture-Naming: A Test of Foygel and Dell's (2000) Semantic/Phonological Model of Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether Foygel and Dell's (2000) interactive two-step model of speech production could simulate the number and type of errors made in picture-naming by 68 children of elementary-school age. Results showed that the model provided a satisfactory simulation of the mean error profile of children aged five, six, seven, eight and…

  10. Inadvertent doping through nutritional supplements is a reality | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... contaminated with banned substances and that inadvertent doping through nutritional supplement use is a reality for athletes. The sporting community should therefore be aware that supplements might contain anabolic androgenic steroids and stimulants that are not declared on the labels. SA Sports Medicine Vol.16(2) ...

  11. Inadvertent doping through nutritional supplements is a reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ephedrines and caffeine. Conclusion. The results showed that approximately 7% of supplements tested may be mislabelled or contaminat- ed with banned substances and that inadvertent doping through nutritional supplement use is a reality for athletes. The sporting community should therefore be aware that supplements ...

  12. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...

  13. Preventing Inadvertent Placement of Foley Catheter into Prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous suprapubic trocar cystostomy (SPC) is often needed to drain the bladder when urethral catheterization either fails or is not advisable.[1] It is ... vertical or slightly tilting its tip toward umbilicus during foley placement, prevents the inadvertent migration of catheter into prostatic urethra and further complications.

  14. Managing Inadvertent Arterial Catheterization During Central Venous Access Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Tony; Ettles, Duncan; Robinson, Graham

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 200,000 central venous catheterizations are carried out annually in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Inadvertent arterial puncture occurs in up to 3.7%. Significant morbidity and death has been reported. We report on our experience in the endovascular treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out of 9 cases referred for endovascular treatment of inadvertent arterial puncture during central venous catheterization over a 5 year period. Results: It was not possible to obtain accurate figures on the numbers of central venous catheterizations carried out during the time period. Five patients were referred with carotid or subclavian pseudoaneurysms and hemothorax following inadvertent arterial catheter insertion and subsequent removal. These patients all underwent percutaneous balloon tamponade and/or stent-graft insertion. More recently 4 patients were referred with the catheter still in situ and were successfully treated with a percutaneous closure device. Conclusion: If inadvertent arterial catheterization during central venous access procedures is recognized and catheters removed, sequelae can be treated percutaneously. However, once the complication is recognized it is better to leave the catheter in situ and seal the artery percutaneously with a closure device

  15. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  16. Semantic Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  17. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James

    2001-01-01

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  18. Field Measurements of Inadvertent Ingestion Exposure to Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; MacCalman, Laura; Semple, Sean; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-11-10

    The determinants of inadvertent occupational ingestion exposure are poorly understood, largely due to a lack of available exposure measurement data. In this study, perioral exposure wipes were used as a surrogate for inadvertent ingestion exposure to measure exposure to eight metals (chromium, nickel, aluminium, cobalt, lead, arsenic, manganese, and tin) among 38 workers at 5 work sites in the UK. This work was done alongside a previously reported observational study of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency. Systematic wipes of the perioral area, and of both hands were taken with proprietary cellulose wipes pre-moistened with deionized water. Measurements were taken at the beginning, middle and end of the shift. Mixed-effect models of exposure measurements were built with area of skin sampled, time during shift, and job group entered as fixed effects and worker identification as a random effect. Linear regression modelling was used to study the effect of hand/object-to-mouth contact frequency on perioral exposure, adjusting for the measured exposure on the hand and observed respirator use. Hand and perioral exposure measurements were correlated with one another (r = 0.79) but mass per unit area exposure was significantly higher on the perioral area than on the hands for seven of the metals (at P exposure, but hand exposure was significantly positively related to perioral exposure and workers who used respirators had significantly higher perioral exposure than those who did not. The results suggest the levels of exposure on the hand and respirator use are important determinants of potential inadvertent ingestion exposure. The results did not demonstrate a relationship between perioral exposure and hand-to-mouth contact frequency. Perioral wipe sampling may be a useful surrogate measure for exposure by the inadvertent ingestion route, but further research is required to confirm the link between perioral levels and actual exposure, measured using biological

  19. Probability of inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A.

    1989-01-01

    Harsh environment, which means humidity and high temperature, may and will affect unsealed electrical components by causing leakage ground currents in ungrounded direct current systems. The concern in a nuclear power plant is that such harsh environment conditions could cause inadvertent operation of normally deenergized components, which may have a safety-related isolation function. Harsh environment is a common cause failure, and one way to approach the problem is to assume that all the unsealed electrical components will simultaneously and inadvertently energize as a result of the environmental common cause failure. This assumption is unrealistically conservative. Test results indicated that insulating resistences of any terminal block in harsh environments have a random distribution in the range of 1 to 270 kΩ, with a mean value ∼59 kΩ. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a realistic conditional failure probability for inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments. This value will be used thereafter in probabilistic safety evaluations of harsh environment events and will replace both the overconservative common cause probability of 1 and the random failure probability used for mild environments

  20. Inferentializing Semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-274 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : inference * proof theory * model theory * inferentialism * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  2. Determination of inadvertent atrial capture during para-Hisian pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeyesekere, Manoj; Leong-Sit, Peter; Skanes, Allan; Krahn, Andrew; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J; Bennett, Matthew; Klein, George J

    2011-08-01

    Inadvertent capture of the atrium will lead to spurious results during para-Hisian pacing. We sought to establish whether the stimulation-to-atrial electrogram interval at the proximal coronary sinus (stim-PCS) or high right atrium (stim-HRA) could signal inadvertent atrial capture. Para-Hisian pacing with and without intentional atrial capture was performed in 31 patients. Stim-HRA and stim-PCS intervals were measured with atrial capture, His plus para-Hisian ventricular (H+V) capture, and para-Hisian ventricular (V) capture alone. The mean stim-HRA interval was significantly shorter with atrial capture (66 ± 18 ms) than with H+V (121 ± 27 ms, P capture alone (174 ± 38 ms, P capture (51 ± 16 ms) than with H+V (92 ± 22 ms, Pcapture alone (146 ± 33 ms, P capture. A stim-PCS >90 ms (stim-HRA >100 ms) was observed only in the absence of atrial capture. A stim-HRA of capture. Stim-HRA intervals of 75 to 97 ms and stim-PCS intervals of 65 to 88 ms were observed with either atrial, His, or para-Hisian ventricular capture without atrial capture. In this overlap zone, all patients demonstrated a stim-PCS or stim-HRA interval prolongation of at least 20 ms when the catheter was advanced to avoid deliberate atrial pacing. The QRS morphology was of limited value in distinguishing atrial capture due to concurrent ventricular or H+V capture, as observed in 20 of 31 (65%) patients. Stim-PCS and stim-HRA intervals can be used to monitor for inadvertent atrial capture during para-Hisian pacing. A stim-PCS 90 ms (or stim-HRA > 100 ms) were observed only with and without atrial capture, respectively, but there was significant overlap between these values. Deliberate atrial capture and loss of capture reliably identifies atrial capture regardless of intervals.

  3. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the distal fibula. A standard small-fragment, 7-hole, one-third tubular plate was applied to the lateral surface of the fibula, with 3 proximal bicortical cortical screws and 2 distal unicortical cancellous screws. A posterior plate, in which all 5 screws were cortical and achieved bicortical purchase, was subsequently applied to the same bones and positioned so that the screw holes did not overlap. A torque sensor was used to measure the torque of each screw during insertion (Ti) and then stripping (Ts). The effect of bone density, screw location, cortical thickness, and unicortical versus bicortical purchase on Ti and Ts was checked for significance (P screws were inadvertently stripped and 12% were overtightened. Despite 21% of the screws being stripped or being at risk for stripping, we found no significant predictors to warn of impending screw stripping. Additional work is needed to identify clinically useful predictors of screw stripping. PMID:23569675

  4. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  5. Inadvertent Central Arterial Catheterization: An Unusual Cause of Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Nakul; Korzep, Amanda; Newey, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is extensively utilized in Intensive Care Units for evaluation of hemodynamic status, administration of intravenous drugs, and for providing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, CVC use is associated with complications including lung injury, bleeding, infection, and thrombosis. We present a patient with an acute ischemic stroke from an inadvertently placed CVC into the right common carotid artery. A 57-year-old male presented to our institution for left hemiplegia and seizures 2 days after a CVC was placed. He was found to have a right frontal ischemic stroke on computed tomography (CT). CT angiography noted that the catheter was arterial and had a thrombosis around it. He was started on a low-dose heparin infusion. A combination of cardiothoracic surgery and interventional cardiology was required to safely remove the catheter. Central arterial catheterization is an unusual cause for acute ischemic stroke and presents management challenges. PMID:29456363

  6. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  7. Data Cleaning and Semantic Improvement in Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiletti Daniele

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public genomic and proteomic databases can be affected by a variety of errors. These errors may involve either the description or the meaning of data (namely, syntactic or semantic errors. We focus our analysis on the detection of semantic errors, in order to verify the accuracy of the stored information. In particular, we address the issue of data constraints and functional dependencies among attributes in a given relational database. Constraints and dependencies show semantics among attributes in a database schema and their knowledge may be exploited to improve data quality and integration in database design, and to perform query optimization and dimensional reduction.

  8. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meštrović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  9. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  10. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  11. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and

  12. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  13. Semantic Integration Technonolgies Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kalfoglou, Yannis; Hu, Bo; Reynolds, Dave; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    The \\underline{University of Southampton} and \\underline{Hewlett Packard Laboratories at Bristol} are collaborating in a joint project, CROSI, to investigate semantic integration. \\textbf{CROSI}, which stands for Capturing, Representing, and Operationalising Semantic Integration, aims to advance the state-of-the-art for semantic integration technologies. Semantic integration has become a much debated topic in today's research agenda, especially with the advent of the Semantic Web. Its roots, ...

  14. 10 CFR 61.42 - Protection of individuals from inadvertent intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of individuals from inadvertent intrusion. 61.42 Section 61.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.42 Protection of individuals from inadvertent...

  15. Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for Word-Finding Difficulties in Pupils with Persistent Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Nicoll, Hilary; Clark, Becky; Eachus, Beth; Gallagher, Aoife L.; Horniman, Karen; Jennings, Mary; McEvoy, Kate; Nimmo, Liz; Turner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background: Word-finding difficulties (WFDs) in children have been hypothesized to be caused at least partly by poor semantic knowledge. Therefore, improving semantic knowledge should decrease word-finding errors. Previous studies of semantic therapy for WFDs are inconclusive. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of semantic therapy for…

  16. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent insect contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Lars; Villamar-Bouza, Laura; Bruckner, Selina; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Gauthier, Laurent; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Retschnig, Gina; Troxler, Aline; Vidondo, Beatriz; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-27

    There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity. While no significant effects were observed for male teneral (newly emerged adult) body mass and sperm quantity, the data clearly showed reduced drone lifespan, as well as reduced sperm viability (percentage living versus dead) and living sperm quantity by 39%. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect male insect reproductive capacity, and provide a possible mechanistic explanation for managed honeybee queen failure and wild insect pollinator decline. The widespread prophylactic use of neonicotinoids may have previously overlooked inadvertent contraceptive effects on non-target insects, thereby limiting conservation efforts. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent insect contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar-Bouza, Laura; Bruckner, Selina; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Gauthier, Laurent; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Retschnig, Gina; Troxler, Aline; Vidondo, Beatriz; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera. Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity. While no significant effects were observed for male teneral (newly emerged adult) body mass and sperm quantity, the data clearly showed reduced drone lifespan, as well as reduced sperm viability (percentage living versus dead) and living sperm quantity by 39%. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect male insect reproductive capacity, and provide a possible mechanistic explanation for managed honeybee queen failure and wild insect pollinator decline. The widespread prophylactic use of neonicotinoids may have previously overlooked inadvertent contraceptive effects on non-target insects, thereby limiting conservation efforts. PMID:27466446

  18. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  19. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changnon, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally

  20. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  1. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  2. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

  3. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  4. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  5. Semantic Audio Track Mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Uhle, C.; Herre, J.; Ridderbusch, F.; Popp, H.

    2011-01-01

    An audio mixer for mixing a plurality of audio tracks to a mixture signal comprises a semantic command interpreter (30; 35) for receiving a semantic mixing command and for deriving a plurality of mixing parameters for the plurality of audio tracks from the semantic mixing command; an audio track processor (70; 75) for processing the plurality of audio tracks in accordance with the plurality of mixing parameters; and an audio track combiner (76) for combining the plurality of audio tracks proc...

  6. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  7. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  8. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  9. [The SQK: a semantic knowledge questionnaire to specify the severity of semantic deterioration in Alzheimer's disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Loureiro, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Lexico-semantic difficulties are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The bottom-up process theory is today well accepted: superordinate attributes tend to decline slower than subordinate ones. However, a specific issue in semantic memory investigation in AD is to determine the severity of the semantic impairment. Given that the regularity of the semantic disorder in early AD is uncertain, we argue that the constitution of experimental AD groups must consider the semantic deterioration stage. We thus propose a specific semantic knowledge questionnaire (SKQ), based on Laiacona et al.'s work (1993). SKQ was proposed to 49 AD patients and 33 healthy old people. Three experimental AD groups were created, based on the global cognitive deterioration. In a second study, we explore the possibility for early AD to display different semantic deterioration profile. Our results show a significant group effect, a significant type of question effect (superordinate vs subordinate) and a significant interaction effect. Moreover, a significant correlation between the total errors at the SKQ and the MMSE score is observed. Finally, we observe that early AD patients can show different semantic alteration, with mild or very mild semantic deterioration without any differences in the global cognitive alteration. The SKQ seems adapted to highlight the semantic deterioration and the bottom-up process in AD: superordinate information are better preserved than subordinate information. It can also distinguish different semantic deterioration in early AD. Our result clearly show that research on semantic deterioration in early stage of AD must take into account the severity of the semantic alteration.

  10. Lexical-semantic organization in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive vocabulary matches (VM) generated 3 associations to each of 48 words. Associations were coded as semantic (e.g., dog-pet), clang (e.g., cow-how), or erroneous (e.g., spoon-Disney). Relative to the AM children, children with SLI produced fewer semantic responses, more clangs, and more errors. Relative to the VM children, fewer semantic responses and more errors in the children with SLI were found in by-item analyses. Across elicitation trials, semantic responses decreased in the AM and VM children but remained stable in the SLI children. Examination of individual performance in the SLI group revealed that poor semantic performance was associated with a deficit in expressive vocabulary and a gap between receptive and expressive vocabularies. Significant variability in lexical-semantic organization skills exists among children with SLI. Deficits in lexical-semantic organization were demonstrated by a subgroup of children with SLI who likely had concomitant word-finding difficulties.

  11. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information such as verbal argument structure and selectional restrictions, corresponding nominal semantic class, verbal aspectual class...

  12. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  13. Intralipid Therapy for Inadvertent Peripheral Nervous System Blockade Resulting from Local Anesthetic Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although local anesthetics have an acceptable safety profile, significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with their use. Inadvertent intravascular injection of local anesthetics and/or the use of excessive doses have been the most frequent causes of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST. Furthermore, excessive doses of local anesthetics injected locally into the tissues may lead to inadvertent peripheral nerve infiltration and blockade. Successful treatment of LAST with intralipid has been reported. We describe a case of local anesthetic overdose that resulted in LAST and in unintentional blockade of peripheral nerves of the lower extremity; both effects completely resolved with administration of intralipid.

  14. Automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator: inadvertent discharges during permanent pacemaker magnet tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Furman, S; Matos, J A; Waspe, L E; Brodman, R; Fisher, J D

    1987-05-01

    A patient with an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) received two inadvertent shocks when a magnet was placed over the pacer during a routine permanent pacer check. Analysis of the rhythm strip suggested that both patients' QRS complexes (133 beats/minute) and asynchronous pacer artifacts (70 beats/minute) were counted by the AICD sensing system and exceeded the rate criteria of 153 beats/minute. This resulted in shocks from the AICD during sinus rhythm at 133 beats/minute. To avoid possible inadvertent shocks, an AICD should be deactivated while a magnet is placed over the pacemaker during a permanent pacer check.

  15. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  16. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal sem...

  17. Semantic Web challenge 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel; Visser, Ubbo

    The concept of the semantic web application and the challenge of using the semantic web techniques to build an online application that deduces, combines, and integrates information are discussed. The application must use information sources that are heterogeneous and geographically distributed, and

  18. What Is a Reading Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

  19. Case report of a medication error

    OpenAIRE

    Naunton, Mark; Nor, Kowsar; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Thomas, Jackson; Kosari, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The World Health Organisation recognizes confusing drug names as one of the most common causes of medication errors. Other factors include spelling, phonetic, or packaging similarities. Case presentation: We presented a case report of an inadvertent administration of a non-ocular pharmaceutical product (Novasone? lotion) into the eye of an octogenarian individual, and briefly reviewed the relevant literature. Discussion: We discussed prevention strategies to avoid simil...

  20. Misconduct versus Honest Error and Scientific Disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2012-01-01

    Researchers sometimes mistakenly accuse their peers of misconduct. It is important to distinguish between misconduct and honest error or a difference of scientific opinion to prevent unnecessary and time-consuming misconduct proceedings, protect scientists from harm, and avoid deterring researchers from using novel methods or proposing controversial hypotheses. While it is obvious to many researchers that misconduct is different from a scientific disagreement or simply an inadvertent mistake ...

  1. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Prince, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department. PMID:23326718

  2. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department.

  3. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g., Cohen et al., 1990; Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects on response time (RT) both within and between languages. Words cannot be…

  4. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  5. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekenberg, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Ulstrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated...

  6. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Prince, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department.

  7. Late-Onset Inadvertent Bleb Formation following Pars Plana M3 Molteno Implant Tube Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar M. Abdul-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of inadvertent bleb formation presenting 18 months after pars plana M3 Molteno implant tube obstruction in a patient with mixed mechanism glaucoma. Materials and Methods: An 84-year-old Caucasian male with mixed mechanism glaucoma underwent slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, colour anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results: An inadvertent bleb developed 18 months after pars plana implant tube re-positioning with a 6/0 Vicryl tie ligature. The bleb was located in the area anterior to the implant plate; it was characterised by a thin, transparent, avascular and multi-cystic wall, with a visible stoma at the posterior edge of the bleb. The bleb was functioning as demonstrated by an intraocular pressure of 6 mm Hg at presentation and a punctate fluorescein uptake pattern of the bleb wall. The bleb over the plate of the Molteno implant was non-functioning, likely secondary to tube obstruction by vitreous in the early postoperative period. AS-OCT showed a tract from the anterior chamber commencing at an entry wound through a corneal tunnel to the posterior stoma at the base of the inadvertent bleb. Conclusions: We hypothesise that the pathophysiologic factors resulting in an inadvertent bleb are a result of a combination of apoptosis, late-onset wound dehiscence and internal gaping of a centrally placed corneal wound. In addition, aqueous hydrodynamic factors may play a role.

  8. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  9. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Lane F.

    2010-01-01

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  10. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  11. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  12. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  13. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  14. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  15. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  16. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  17. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  18. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  19. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  20. Supervised learning of semantic classes for image annotation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Gustavo; Chan, Antoni B; Moreno, Pedro J; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2007-03-01

    A probabilistic formulation for semantic image annotation and retrieval is proposed. Annotation and retrieval are posed as classification problems where each class is defined as the group of database images labeled with a common semantic label. It is shown that, by establishing this one-to-one correspondence between semantic labels and semantic classes, a minimum probability of error annotation and retrieval are feasible with algorithms that are 1) conceptually simple, 2) computationally efficient, and 3) do not require prior semantic segmentation of training images. In particular, images are represented as bags of localized feature vectors, a mixture density estimated for each image, and the mixtures associated with all images annotated with a common semantic label pooled into a density estimate for the corresponding semantic class. This pooling is justified by a multiple instance learning argument and performed efficiently with a hierarchical extension of expectation-maximization. The benefits of the supervised formulation over the more complex, and currently popular, joint modeling of semantic label and visual feature distributions are illustrated through theoretical arguments and extensive experiments. The supervised formulation is shown to achieve higher accuracy than various previously published methods at a fraction of their computational cost. Finally, the proposed method is shown to be fairly robust to parameter tuning.

  1. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  2. Semantic Web status model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available by researchers and practitioners, spanning a vast landscape of different fields, technologies, concepts and application areas. Furthermore, there is confusion with regards to the current status of the enabling technologies envisioned to realise the Semantic Web...

  3. Semantic Web Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Swick, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    ...) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to industry and government in the form...

  4. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  5. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  6. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  7. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  8. Semantic dementia and the left and right temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Julie S; Harris, Jennifer M; Thompson, Jennifer C; Kobylecki, Christopher; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M; Neary, David

    2017-08-31

    Semantic dementia, a circumscribed disorder of semantic knowledge, provides a unique model for understanding the neural basis for semantic representation. The study addressed areas of contention: the relative roles of the left and right temporal lobe, the contribution of anterior versus posterior temporal cortex and the status of the anterior temporal lobes as amodal hub. Naming and word comprehension was examined in 41 semantic dementia patients, 31 with left-predominant and 10 right-predominant atrophy. In keeping with expectation, naming and comprehension were significantly poorer in left-predominant patients. Structural magnetic resonance image analysis, using a visual rating scale, showed strong inverse correlations between naming scores and severity of both left anterior and posterior temporal lobe atrophy. By contrast, comprehension performance was more strongly correlated with left posterior temporal atrophy. Analysis of naming errors revealed a correlation between anterior temporal atrophy and associative/functional descriptive responses, implying availability of semantic information. By contrast, 'don't know' responses, indicative of loss of semantic knowledge, were linked to left posterior temporal lobe atrophy. Semantic errors, the hallmark of semantic dementia, were linked to right hemisphere atrophy, especially the right posterior temporal lobe. Matched visual-verbal tasks (famous face and name identification, Pyramids and Palm trees pictures and words, animal knowledge from 3-D models and animal names) administered to nine patients elicited variable correspondence between performance on nonverbal and verbal versions of the task. Marked performance dissociations were demonstrated in some patients: poorer understanding of names/words in left-predominant patients and of faces/pictures/models in right-predominant cases. The findings are compatible with the notion of the anterior temporal lobes as areas of convergence, but are less easily accommodated

  9. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  10. Inadvertent Perioperative Hypothermia: A Literature Review of an Old Overlooked Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Fatemi Seyed Naser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common anesthesia-related complication in patients undergoing surgery. This could possibly lead to several clinical consequences, which adversely affect the surgery outcome, particularly in high risk patient. The combination of anesthetic drugs and cold operating room environment are among the most common predisposing factors of perioperative hypothermia. The aim of this comprehensive literature review is to describe the importance, monitoring techniques, potential complications, appropriate pharmacologic interventions and modalities to manage perioperative hypothermia.

  11. Arithmetic knowledge in early semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Simona; Cafazzo, Viviana; Silvestrini, Mauro; Provinciali, Leandro

    2013-09-01

    The issue of whether arithmetic knowledge is invariably spared or impaired in semantic dementia is still under debate. The corpus of data mainly relies on single case-report descriptions. Relative to this issue, only one paper, by Julien et al. (Neuropsychologia 44(10): 2732-2744, 2008) explored in a systematic way arithmetic knowledge in an SD patient group. The present study is aimed to explore calculation in a group of eight patients affected by early semantic dementia (SD) using a neuropsychological battery devised to examine arithmetic knowledge (arithmetic signs recognition, arithmetic facts and written and mental calculation). These SD patients showed problems in recognition of arithmetic signs, difficulty in arithmetic facts and procedural errors in calculation. Still, the pattern of answers that the SD patients showed was not completely homogeneous and some individual variations were present. In contrast with most literature, the present study provides evidence for impairment of arithmetic knowledge in patients with early semantic dementia and contributes to the recent evidence that arithmetic knowledge cannot be considered an independent domain within the semantic system.

  12. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-05-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete's biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4-80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping.

  13. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  14. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  15. Semantic Learning Service Personalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.

  16. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  17. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T. Vallet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, and patients with semantic dementia (SD. The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented. They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background, a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  18. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Guillaume T; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Versace, Rémy; Simard, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with semantic dementia (SD). The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented). They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background), a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  19. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  20. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  1. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  2. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  3. Semantic repository and ontology mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Trna, M.; Lozano, E.; Nguyen, T.T.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Montaña, C.; Liem, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses the core Semantic Technologies in DynaLearn: i) The semantic repository, which supports the online storage and access of qualitative reasoning models, ii) the grounding process, which establishes semantic equivalences between the concepts in the models and the concepts in a

  4. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  5. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  6. Inadvertent raising of levels in the FFTF primary sodium pumps. Final unusual occurrence report, HEDL 79-34 (FFTF-58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechle, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The final unusual occurrence report describes the inadvertent raising of the sodium level in the FFTF primary sodium pumps during system testing. This event is now judged to have caused permanent deformation of the primary pump shaft on loop 1 during a period when pump rotation was stopped and sodium level in the pump tank was inadvertently increased. The shaft was subsequently removed, straightened, and returned to service in the spare FFTF pump

  7. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator.

  8. Semantic Barbs and Biorthogonality

    OpenAIRE

    Rathke, J.; Sassone, V.; Sobocinski, P.

    2007-01-01

    We use the framework of biorthogonality to introduce a novel semantic definition of the concept of barb (basic observable) for process calculi. We develop a uniform basic theory of barbs and demonstrate its robustness by showing that it gives rise to the correct observables in specific process calculi which model synchronous, asynchronous and broadcast communication regimes.

  9. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Junction Extraction and Semantic Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kasper; Nielsen, Mads; Pilz, Florian

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a novel junction descriptor that encodes junctions’ semantic information in terms incoming lines’ orientations, both in 2D and 3D. A Kalman filter process is used to reduce the effect of local noise on the descriptor's error and to track the features. The improvement gained...

  11. Semantic Processing Performance of Internet Machine Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Paul A.; Patel, Malti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the performance of automatic direct machine translation systems available through the Internet and examines semantic processing errors that result in confusion when the intended meaning of sentences is not correctly translated. Suggests the need for Web-based translation systems that have an explicit cross-linguistic representation of…

  12. INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTICS OF BELIEF AND COMMON BELIEF

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Nehring; Giacomo Bonanno

    2003-01-01

    We provide an introduction to interactive belief systems from a qualitative and semantic point of view. Properties of belief hierarchies are formulated locally. Among the properties considered are ""Common belief in no error"" (which has been shown to have important game theoretic applications), ""Negative introspection of common belief"" and ""Truth about common belief."" The relationship between these properties is studied.

  13. Rule-based support system for multiple UMLS semantic type assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Morrey, C. Paul; Xu, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Background When new concepts are inserted into the UMLS, they are assigned one or several semantic types from the UMLS Semantic Network by the UMLS editors. However, not every combination of semantic types is permissible. It was observed that many concepts with rare combinations of semantic types have erroneous semantic type assignments or prohibited combinations of semantic types. The correction of such errors is resource-intensive. Objective We design a computational system to inform UMLS editors as to whether a specific combination of two, three, four, or five semantic types is permissible or prohibited or questionable. Methods We identify a set of inclusion and exclusion instructions in the UMLS Semantic Network documentation and derive corresponding rule-categories as well as rule-categories from the UMLS concept content. We then design an algorithm adviseEditor based on these rule-categories. The algorithm specifies rules for an editor how to proceed when considering a tuple (pair, triple, quadruple, quintuple) of semantic types to be assigned to a concept. Results Eight rule-categories were identified. A Web-based system was developed to implement the adviseEditor algorithm, which returns for an input combination of semantic types whether it is permitted, prohibited or (in a few cases) requires more research. The numbers of semantic type pairs assigned to each rule-category are reported. Interesting examples for each rule-category are illustrated. Cases of semantic type assignments that contradict rules are listed, including recently introduced ones. Conclusion The adviseEditor system implements explicit and implicit knowledge available in the UMLS in a system that informs UMLS editors about the permissibility of a desired combination of semantic types. Using adviseEditor might help accelerate the work of the UMLS editors and prevent erroneous semantic type assignments. PMID:23041716

  14. Inadvertent puncture of the aortic noncoronary cusp during postoperative left atrial tachycardia ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aras, MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transseptal catheterization has become part of the interventional electrophysiologist׳s technical armamentarium since the development of left atrial catheter ablation and percutaneous technologies for treating mitral and aortic valve disease. Although frequently performed, the procedure׳s most feared complication is aortic root penetration. Focal atrial tachycardia has been described as the most common late sequela of surgical valve replacements. We present a complicated case involving the inadvertent delivery of an 8 French sheath across the noncoronary cusp during radiofrequency catheter ablation for left atrial tachycardia originating from the mitral annulus in a patient with prior mitral valve replacement.

  15. Treatment Approach to Small Inadvertent Injury of the Crystalline Lens Anterior Capsule During Iridodialysis Repair Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Gökçe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old man presented to our ophthalmology department with photophobia. On ophthalmic examination, iridodialysis secondary to blunt trauma that occurred 5 years ago was diagnosed. During iridodialysis repair surgery, long curved double-armed needle of 10-0 polypropylene suture (PC-9 inserted into the 19 gauge side port turned down inadvertently by its own weight, resulting in crystalline lens anterior capsule perforation. Postoperative clinical observation revealed no lens opacification affecting visual acuity. This case report showed that lens aspiration surgery should be postponed if the capsule injury is small.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 61-3

  16. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Errors and Patient Safety Centers for Disease Control and ... Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  17. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  18. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  19. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  20. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklas, M.P.; Lefevre, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  1. The uptake of radionuclides from inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of the transfer to man of artificially-produced radionuclides through food chains have shown that the inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals can give variations in estimates of transfer coefficients, especially for radionuclides that are poorly absorbed by plant roots. Even small masses of soil adhering to herbage or directly ingested can make a significant contribution to the intake inventory in terms of activity. Although the activity concentrations of soil-contaminated herbage are elevated, the radionuclides associated with the soil may not necessarily be in a form which is easily absorbed by the animal. Attempts must be made, therefore, to quantify soil intake and the subsequent radionuclide uptake by this mechanism. A field investigation of the uptake of radionuclides by farm animals grazing near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant has been pursued. The aims of the study were to estimate the transfer to muscle and other tissues. This paper describes the methods used to estimate both the soil intake and the consequent availability of radionuclides associated with the soil. The measurements were used to evaluate the contribution to tissue content of inadvertent consumption of soil by cows and sheep. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  2. Procedural semantic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Roglà Pujalt, Otger; Pelechano Gómez, Núria; Patow, Gustavo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Procedural modeling of virtual cities has achieved high levels of realism with little effort from the user. One can rapidly obtain a large city using off-the-shelf software based on procedural techniques, such as the use of CGA. However in order to obtain realistic virtual cities it is necessary to include virtual humanoids that behave realistically adapting to such environment. The first step towards achieving this goal requires tagging the environment with semantics, which is a time consumi...

  3. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  4. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  5. Remodularization Analysis Using Semantic Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Gustavo; Tulio Valente, Marco; Anquetil, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we report an experience on using and adapting Semantic Clustering to evaluate software remodularizations. Semantic Clustering is an approach that relies on information retrieval and clustering techniques to extract sets of similar classes in a system, according to their vocabularies. We adapted Semantic Clustering to support remodularization analysis. We evaluate our adaptation using six real-world remodularizations of four software systems. We report th...

  6. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  7. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  8. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  9. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  10. A unified computational account of cumulative semantic, semantic blocking, and semantic distractor effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2018-03-01

    Computational models of lexical selection in spoken word production have been applied to semantic interference effects in picture naming response times obtained with continuous naming, blocked-cyclic naming, and picture-word interference paradigms. However, a unified computational account of the effects in the three paradigms is lacking. Here, I show that the inclusion of conceptual bias in the WEAVER++model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) explains cumulative semantic and semantic blocking effects while preserving the model's account of semantic distractor effects. The key assumptions of the account are (1) lexical selection by competition, and (2) a conceptual origin and lexical locus of the semantic effects. I provide a proof of concept of the account by reporting computer simulation results, addressing behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. The assumptions are sufficient for a unified account of semantic effects in the three paradigms, contrary to pessimistic views of this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on Semantic Searching, Semantic Search Engines and Technologies Used for Semantic Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid Rashid; Muhammad Wasif Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Semantic search engines(SSE) are more efficient than other web engines because in this era of busy life everyone wants an exact answer to his question which only semantic engines can provide. The immense increase in the volume of data, traditional search engines has increased the number of answers to satisfy the user. This creates the problem to search for the desired answer. To solve this problem, the trend of developing semantic search engines is increasing day by da...

  12. Quality Assurance of UMLS Semantic Type Assignments Using SNOMED CT Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Chen, Y; He, Z; Halper, M; Chen, L

    2016-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is one of the largest biomedical terminological systems, with over 2.5 million concepts in its Metathesaurus repository. The UMLS's Semantic Network (SN) with its collection of 133 high-level semantic types serves as an abstraction layer on top of the Metathesaurus. In particular, the SN elaborates an aspect of the Metathesaurus's concepts via the assignment of one or more types to each concept. Due to the scope and complexity of the Metathesaurus, errors are all but inevitable in this semantic-type assignment process. To develop a semi-automated methodology to help assure the quality of semantic-type assignments within the UMLS. The methodology uses a cross-validation strategy involving SNOMED CT's hierarchies in combination with UMLS semantic types. Semantically uniform, disjoint concept groups are generated programmatically by partitioning the collection of all concepts in the same SNOMED CT hierarchy according to their respective semantic-type assignments in the UMLS. Domain experts are then called upon to review the concepts in any group having a small number of concepts. It is our hypothesis that a semantic-type assignment combination applicable only to a very small number of concepts in a SNOMED CT hierarchy is an indicator of potential problems. The methodology was applied to the UMLS 2013AA release along with the SNOMED CT from January 2013. An overall error rate of 33% was found for concepts proposed by the quality-assurance methodology. Supporting our hypothesis, that number was four times higher than the error rate found in control samples. The results show that the quality-assurance methodology can aid in effective and efficient identification of UMLS semantic-type assignment errors.

  13. Method and apparatus for preventing inadvertent criticality in a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuley, C.R.; Bauman, D.A.; Neuner, J.A.; Feilchenfeld, M.M.; Greenberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    An inadvertent approach to criticality in a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit is detected and an alarm is generated through on-line monitoring of the neutron flux. The difficulties of accurately measuring the low levels of neutron flux in a subcritical reactor are overcome by the use of a microcomputer which continuously generates average flux count rate signals for incremental time periods from thousands of samples taken during each such period and which serially stores the average flux count rate signals for a preselected time interval. At the end of each incremental time period, the microcomputer compares the latest average flux count rate signal with the oldest, and preferably each of the intervening stored values, and if it exceeds any of them by at least a preselected multiplication factor, an alarm is generated. (author)

  14. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  15. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation

  16. Inadvertent 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffer, S.S.; Hamburger, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    Of 963 physicians surveyed to determine therapeutic attitudes toward, and experience with inadvertent radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism during the first trimester of pregnancy, 116 physicians (of 517 responding) reported 237 cases. Therapeutic abortion was advised for 55 patients by 22 physicans. From the 182 remaining pregnancies there were two spontaneous abortions, two stillborn, one neonate with biliary atresia, and one with respiratory distress. This complication rate was not greater than might be expected in a similar number of random pregnancies. On the other hand, six infants were hypothyroid (transient for one) and four of these were mentally deficient. Three mothers of hypothyroid infants had received radioiodine therapy in the second trimester. None of the six mothers of hypothyroid infants had had pregnancy tests prior to radioiodine therapy. Survey responses indicate that routine pregnancy testing prior to radioiodine therapy for patients in the child-bearing age is not yet a standard procedure. It should be

  17. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başer Can, Elif Delve; Karapınar Kazandağ, Meriç; Kaptan, Rabia Figen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident. PMID:25883812

  18. Inadvertent adverse consequences of clinical and forensic hypnosis: minimizing the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Bruce N

    2012-07-01

    Hypnosis is a psychological intervention tool that can make a gamut of psychological, medical, and dental treatments work more rapidly and effectively. It can also be used profitably with some witnesses, victims, and defendants in forensic and investigative contexts as a data gathering tool. As with any other power tool, its use entails some risks. Since risks cannot be totally avoided, this article examines some ways to minimize the risks of inadvertent adverse or negative consequences as a result of the use of the hypnosis tool. Fundamentals of hypnosis risk management are covered as a foundation for beginners and as a review for experienced practitioners. Various straightforward safeguards that should be heeded by all practitioners are discussed.

  19. Semantic content-based recommendations using semantic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weisen; Kraines, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) can be useful for suggesting items that might be of interest to specific users. Most existing content-based recommendation (CBR) systems are designed to recommend items based on text content, and the items in these systems are usually described with keywords. However, similarity evaluations based on keywords suffer from the ambiguity of natural languages. We present a semantic CBR method that uses Semantic Web technologies to recommend items that are more similar semantically with the items that the user prefers. We use semantic graphs to represent the items and we calculate the similarity scores for each pair of semantic graphs using an inverse graph frequency algorithm. The items having higher similarity scores to the items that are known to be preferred by the user are recommended.

  20. Semantics, Conceptual Role

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Ned

    1997-01-01

    According to Conceptual Role Semantics ("CRS"), the meaning of a representation is the role of that representation in the cognitive life of the agent, e.g. in perception, thought and decision-making. It is an extension of the well known "use" theory of meaning, according to which the meaning of a word is its use in communication and more generally, in social interaction. CRS supplements external use by including the role of a symbol inside a computer or a brain. The uses appealed to are not j...

  1. Medical error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    is only when mistakes are recognised that learning can occur...All our previous medical training has taught us to fear error, as error is associated with blame. This fear may lead to concealment and this is turn can lead to fraud'. How real this fear is! All of us, during our medical training, have had the maxim 'prevention is.

  2. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  3. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  4. A Generalization of Inquisitive Semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 399-428 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Intuitionistic logic * Superintuitionistic logics * Inquisitive logic * Topological semantics * Kripke semantics * Disjunction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. The Progressive in Modal Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents a semantic analysis of English progressive as an intentional operator within the framework of modal semantics. The treatment allows a combination of the central idea that the progressive's meaning has a major modal component with insights of other theories. Using a more sophisticated background theory of modality allows natural solutions…

  6. Relative/Identical Semantic Structuralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, George Edward

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of Afrikaans and English to speakers of Xhosa, with semantics as the point of focus. The purpose is to aid the teaching of Afrikaans and English by introducing componential analysis in order to compare the relative/identical aspects of semantic structuralization in these languages with those in Xhosa. (Author/RM)

  7. The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

  8. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  9. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  10. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Browsing Semantic Data in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mojžiš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic data browsing is important task for open and governmental data in behalf of public control. There are many projects and solutions regarding semantic data browsing and navigation, but despite the fact, in Slovakia, the availability of such data is poor. It is a shame, because projects like National Action Plan of Open Government and the site data.gov.sk are already operating for several years. In this work we would like to point out key aspects of semantic data and detail the Slovak market of semantic data. We design and propose oursolution of semantic data browsing, evaluate the implementation in our AGECRT NET tool.

  12. Endovascular repair of inadvertent arterial injury induced by central venous catheterization using a vascular closure device: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Hee; Jang, Woo Jin; Oh, Ju Heyon; Song, Yun Gyu [Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Central venous catheterization can cause various complications. Inadvertent subclavian artery catheterization was performed during insertion of a central venous catheter in a 73-year-old man suffering from panperitonitis due to small-bowel perforation. Endovascular treatment was conducted to treat the injured subclavian artery with a FemoSeal vascular closure device.

  13. 46 CFR 308.536 - Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo... Assured that fails inadvertently to maintain a collateral deposit fund or surety bond in an amount..., which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD. III—Facultative War Risk Cargo...

  14. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  15. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  16. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself......, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses...... a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design...

  17. Neural Semantic Encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read , compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.

  18. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  19. A Joint Investigation of Semantic Facilitation and Semantic Interference in Continuous Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Peressotti, Francesca; Navarrete, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    When speakers name multiple semantically related items, opposing effects can be found. Semantic facilitation is found when naming 2 semantically related items in a row. In contrast, semantic interference is found when speakers name semantically related items separated by 1 or more intervening unrelated items. This latter form of interference is…

  20. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  1. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  2. Potential impact of DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on low-level waste disposals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites include limits on radiation dose to inadvertent intruders. This paper investigates the potential impact of DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders on the acceptability of low-level waste disposals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis is based on waste volumes and radionuclide inventories for recent disposals and estimated doses to an inadvertent intruder for assumed exposure scenarios. The analysis indicates that more than 99% of the total volume of waste in recent disposals meets the performance objective for inadvertent intruders, and the volume of waste found to be unacceptable for disposal is only about 16 m 3 . Therefore, DOE's performance objective for protection of inadvertent intruders probably will not have unreasonably adverse impacts on acceptable waste disposals at ORNL

  3. Semantic White Balance: Semantic Color Constancy Using Convolutional Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Afifi, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the computational color constancy is to preserve the perceptive colors of objects under different lighting conditions by removing the effect of color casts occurred by the scene's illumination. With the rapid development of deep learning based techniques, significant progress has been made in image semantic segmentation. In this work, we exploit the semantic information together with the color and spatial information of the input image in order to remove color casts. We train a co...

  4. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Semantic dementia: Brazilian study of nineteen cases

    OpenAIRE

    Senaha,Mirna Lie Hosogi; Caramelli,Paulo; Porto,Claudia Sellitto; Nitrini,Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The term semantic dementia was devised by Snowden et al. in 1989 and nowadays, the semantic dementia syndrome is recognized as one of the clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and is characterized by a language semantic disturbance associated to non-verbal semantic memory impairment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a Brazilian sample of 19 semantic dementia cases, emphasizing the clinical characteristics important for differential diagnosis of t...

  6. Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    In July1996, BN transmitted Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site to the United States Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC08-91NV10833. The 1996 paper had a limited distribution and was not reviewed for public release. In 2007, National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) made minor revisions to conform to current editorial standards of the NNSA/NSO and to meet current security requirements for public release. The primary purpose of this study was to identify types of engineered passive barriers that could deter future intrusion into buried low-level radioactive waste, particularly intrusion by drilling water wells. The study considered drilling technology, many natural and man-made materials, and both underground and above-ground barriers. Based on cost and effectiveness, the report recommended underground barriers consisting of a layer of rubble or tires. An aboveground barrier mound might also prove effective, but would cost more, and may become an attractive nuisance (e.g., might, after their purpose has been forgotten, encourage exploration for the sake of satisfying curiosity). Advances in drilling technology could render any engineered barriers ineffective if there is motivation to penetrate the barriers

  7. Inadvertent social information in breeding site selection of natal dispersing birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph J; Forbes, Graham J; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2005-01-01

    Several species use the number of young produced as public information (PI) to assess breeding site quality. PI is inaccessible for synchronously breeding birds because nests are empty by the time the young can collect this information. We investigate if location cues are the next best source of inadvertent social information (ISI) used by young prospectors during breeding site choice. We experimentally deployed ISI as decoys and song playbacks of breeding males in suitable and sub-optimal habitats during pre- and post-breeding periods, and monitored territory establishment during the subsequent breeding season for a social, bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), and a more solitary species, Nelson's sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni). The sparrows did not respond to treatments, but bobolinks responded strongly to post-breeding location cues, irrespective of habitat quality. The following year, 17/20 sub-optimal plots to which bobolink males were recruited were defended for at least two weeks, indicating that song heard the previous year could exert a ‘carry-over attraction’ effect on conspecifics the following year. Sixteen recruited males were natal dispersers, as expected when animals have little opportunity to directly sample their natal habitat quality. We suggest that differences in breeding synchronicity may induce an equivalent clinal distribution of ISI use. PMID:16543178

  8. The role of thromboxane in experimental inadvertent intra-arterial drug injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, L S; Smith, D J; Heggers, J P; Robson, M C; Boertman, J A; Niu, X T; Schileru, R E; Sacks, R J

    1987-03-01

    Inadvertent intra-arterial injection of drugs produces a well-defined clinical syndrome whose pathophysiology remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the role of the inflammatory mediator, thromboxane, in intra-arterial drug injections. The rabbit ear model, as described by Kinmonth and Sheppard, was used. Five of the experimental groups were treated with specific or nonspecific thromboxane blocking agents and two groups served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining of the control ears showed elevated levels of thromboxane within the first 6 hours postinjury. The specific thromboxane blocking agents, methimazole and Aloe vera, showed almost complete blockade of thromboxane production. The percentage of ear survival was significantly greater in the group treated with topical Aloe vera (p less than 0.05) and even greater survival was achieved in the combined Aloe vera/methimazole group (p less than 0.01). On the basis of these results, we have begun treatment of such injuries with specific and nonspecific thromboxane blocking agents.

  9. Is translation semantically mediated? Evidence from Welsh-English bilingual aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kate Hughes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of the semantic system in picture naming is undisputed. However, it has been proposed that translation could take place via direct lexical links between L1 and L2 word forms in addition to or instead of via semantics (i.e., with translation going from a spoken word in L1 accessing its meaning and this meaning then leading to the retrieval of the translation equivalent in L2. There is conflicting evidence in the psycholinguistic literature as to the extent of semantic mediation in translation vs. picture naming tasks (Potter et al, 1984; Kroll and Stewart, 1994. More recently, Hernandez et al (2010 investigated this question in a case study of JFF, a proficient bilingual Spanish-Catalan speaker with Alzheimer’s disease and naming difficulties due to a semantic deficit. As JFF’s semantic deficit did not only affect picture naming but also translation tasks, the authors concluded against the existence of functional direct lexical links to support translation. The goal of our study was to explore this issue further in a larger sample of proficient bilingual patients with aphasia and word finding difficulties in both languages. More specifically, we compare the rate of semantic errors produced in naming vs. translation tasks. Hypotheses: If there is equal involvement of the semantic system in naming and in translation tasks, then there should be no difference in the rate of semantic errors produced in the two tasks. However, if there are at least partly functional direct lexical links between translation equivalents, then we should observe fewer semantic errors in translation than in naming. Participants. Nine Welsh-English early proficient bilingual aphasic participants were selected for participation. Each patient scored significantly lower (p < .05 than age-matched controls (N=37 on at least one task using the modified t-tests for single cases (Crawford & Howell, 1998, and made semantic errors on naming tasks in

  10. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  11. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  12. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  13. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falc?o, Andr? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  14. Children with ADHD Symptoms Are Less Susceptible to Gap-Filling Errors than Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, C.; Paparella, G.; Re, A. M.; Ghetti, S.; Cornoldi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced semantic processing is associated with increased false recognition of items consistent with studied material, suggesting that children with poor semantic skills could produce fewer false memories. We examined whether memory errors differed in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and controls. Children viewed 18…

  15. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  16. Semiotes: a semantics for sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, T

    2000-12-01

    Reliable, automated communication of biological information requires methods to declare the information's semantics. In this paper I describe an approach to semantic declaration intended to permit independent, distributed databases, algorithms, and servers to exchange and process requests for information and computations without requiring coordination or agreement among them on universe of discourse, data model, schema, or implementation. This approach uses Glossa, a formal language defining the semantics of biological ideas, information, and algorithms, to executably define the semantics of complex ideas and computations by constructs of semiotes, terms which axiomatically define very simple notions. A database or algorithm wishing to exchange information or computations maintains a set of mappings between its particular notions and semiotes, and a parser to translate between its indigenous ideas and implementation and the semiotes. Requests from other databases or algorithms are issued as semiotic messages, locally interpreted and processed, and the results returned as semiotes to the requesting entity. Thus, semiotes serve as a shared, abstract layer of definitions which can be computably combined by each database or algorithm according to its own needs and ideas. By combining the explicit declaration of semantics with the computation of the semantics of complex ideas, Glossa and its semiotes permit independent computational entities to lightly federate their capabilities as desired while maintaining their unique perspectives on both scientific and technical questions.

  17. Refractive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Refractive Errors in Children En Español Read in Chinese How does the ... birth and can occur at any age. The prevalence of myopia is low in US children under the age of eight, but much higher ...

  18. Semantic Data Matching: Principles and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Russell; Doan, Thao; Schweiger, Tom

    Automated and real-time management of customer relationships requires robust and intelligent data matching across widespread and diverse data sources. Simple string matching algorithms, such as dynamic programming, can handle typographical errors in the data, but are less able to match records that require contextual and experiential knowledge. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Berry et al. ; Deerwester et al. is a machine intelligence technique that can match data based upon higher order structure, and is able to handle difficult problems, such as words that have different meanings but the same spelling, are synonymous, or have multiple meanings. Essentially, the technique matches records based upon context, or mathematically quantifying when terms occur in the same record.

  19. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent...... splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group...... for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. RESULTS: In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277...

  20. Inadvertently programmed bits in Samsung 128 Mbit flash devices: a flaky investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G.

    2002-01-01

    JPL's X2000 avionics design pioneers new territory by specifying a non-volatile memory (NVM) board based on flash memories. The Samsung 128Mb device chosen was found to demonstrate bit errors (mostly program disturbs) and block-erase failures that increase with cycling. Low temperature, certain pseudo- random patterns, and, probably, higher bias increase the observable bit errors. An experiment was conducted to determine the wearout dependence of the bit errors to 100k cycles at cold temperature using flight-lot devices (some pre-irradiated). The results show an exponential growth rate, a wide part-to-part variation, and some annealing behavior.

  1. Comparison of resistive heating and forced-air warming to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M; Crook, D; Dasari, K; Eljelani, F; El-Haboby, A; Harper, C M

    2016-02-01

    Forced-air warming is a commonly used warming modality, which has been shown to reduce the incidence of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (heating mattresses offer a potentially cheaper alternative, however, and one of the research recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was to evaluate such devices formally. We conducted a randomized single-blinded study comparing perioperative hypothermia in patients receiving resistive heating or forced-air warming. A total of 160 patients undergoing non-emergency surgery were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either forced-air warming (n=78) or resistive heating (n=82) in the perioperative period. Patient core temperatures were monitored after induction of anaesthesia until the end of surgery and in the recovery room. Our primary outcome measures included the final intraoperative temperature and incidence of hypothermia at the end of surgery. There was a significantly higher rate of hypothermia at the end of surgery in the resistive heating group compared with the forced-air warming group (P=0.017). Final intraoperative temperatures were also significantly lower in the resistive heating group (35.9 compared with 36.1°C, P=0.029). Hypothermia at the end of surgery in both warming groups was common (36% forced air warming, 54% resistive heating). Our results suggest that forced-air warming is more effective than resistive heating in preventing postoperative hypothermia. NCT01056991. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  3. Les femmes et le langage selon Charles Bally: "des moments de décevante inadvertance"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durrer, Sylvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les problématiques rassemblées parfois sous la désignation de "Language and Gender" figurent également dans les publications du linguiste suisse Charles Bally. Cet axe de réflexion, qui n’a guère été remarqué dans son œuvre, mérite d’être mis en lumière, non pas pour faire de Bally un féministe avant l’heure, mais simplement, parce qu’il nous semble important de documenter l’histoire d’une problématique en plein essor. Cet article a donc pour objectif de montrer que la question du traitement des femmes et du féminin par la langue française suscite de nombreuses réflexions dès la fin du XIXe. Il s’agira de procéder à une histoire critique d’un épisode de la "linguistique générique", afin de voir si les actuelles thématiques de cette orientation sont abordées, sous quels aspects, dans quels contextes, avec quels résultats, etc. On pourrait alors être surpris-e de découvrir que Charles Bally n’était pas un cas isolé, mais qu’un grand nombre de contemporains (Nyrop, Brunot, Vendryès, Damourette & Pichon, Dauzat, etc., se sont eux aussi interrogés, plus ou moins longuement, sur les rapports entre les femmes, le féminin et le langage. Les réflexions "génériques" de Bally et de ses confrères ne sauraient donc être regardées comme de simples "moments décevante inadvertance".

  4. Inadvertent exaggerated anticoagulation following use of bismuth subsalicylate in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Angela L; Brown, Rex O; Dickerson, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of an inadvertent increase in the international normalized ratio (INR) after the addition of bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of diarrhea in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy. A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple lower extremity fractures. Warfarin was initiated for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis due to the patient's inability to ambulate. The target INR was 2-3. Continuous intragastric enteral feeding was withheld 1 hour before and 1 hour after intragastric administration of warfarin. Bismuth subsalicylate 30 mL every 4 hours was prescribed for diarrhea. Within 3 days after starting bismuth subsalicylate therapy, the patient's INR increased from 2.56 to 3.54 and minor bleeding was noted from the patient's tracheostomy site. No significant change in warfarin dosage, variability in vitamin K intake, or medications that potentially alter warfarin metabolism were present during the unexpected rise in INR. When the bismuth subsalicylate was discontinued, the patient's INR stabilized into the target range on the same warfarin dose given at the time of the supratherapeutic INR. Salicylate displaces warfarin from plasma protein binding sites and may result in a significant increase in INR secondary to redistribution of warfarin to the free active form. Evaluation of this case report using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale and Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale yielded scores consistent with a probable adverse drug interaction. Bismuth subsalicylate exaggerates warfarin's anticoagulant response and its concurrent use during warfarin therapy should be avoided.

  5. Inadvertent brachial plexus anesthesia associated with local anesthetic infiltration during internal jugular venous cannulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyik, L; Tezer, T

    2011-01-01

    In the development of neurological complications due to central venous cannulation, the properties of the anatomical region and the experience of the practitioner are important. In this case report, an inadvertent brachial plexus anesthesia after repeated local anesthetic infiltrations during failed attempts of internal jugular venous cannulation by an inexperienced practitioner in cardiovascular intensive care unit is described. The neurological complications due to central venous cannulation are reviewed in the light of actual literature data.

  6. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  7. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  8. Anatomic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Spelling Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty-one PPA patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words,…

  9. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  10. Design characteristics to reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling during side stick handling of aircraft pitch and roll axis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Marie-Eve

    Integrating a manual flight control inceptor with coupled axes such as the side stick within a flight deck creates challenges for the pilot to input a one-axis command without inadvertently inducing inputs in the opposite axis. The present paper studies three design features of the side stick and armrest setup believed to help reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling occurrences. Design features address the aimed pilot population anthropometry (1.57m woman to 1.9m male) and their variability in upper segment measurements. Seven pilots of varying anthropometric sizes were asked to perform one-axis manoeuvres in pitch and roll for each setup configuration. To compare the setups both the duration and the definite integral of the unintended cross-axis input were processed and analyzed for each manoeuvre. Findings show that a short armrest reduces the occurrences of cross-axis input for the roll manoeuvre, whereas the side stick skew reduces inadvertent cross-axis coupling for the pitch manoeuvres.

  11. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  12. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  13. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  14. The timing of spontaneous detection and repair of naming errors in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchard, Julia; Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the timing of spontaneous self-monitoring in the naming responses of people with aphasia. Twelve people with aphasia completed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions. Naming attempts were scored for accuracy and error type, and verbalizations indicating detection were coded as negation (e.g., "no, not that") or repair attempts (i.e., a changed naming attempt). Focusing on phonological and semantic errors, we measured the timing of the errors and of the utterances that provided evidence of detection. The effects of error type and detection response type on error-to-detection latencies were analyzed using mixed-effects regression modeling. We first asked whether phonological errors and semantic errors differed in the timing of the detection process or repair planning. Results suggested that the two error types primarily differed with respect to repair planning. Specifically, repair attempts for phonological errors were initiated more quickly than repair attempts for semantic errors. We next asked whether this difference between the error types could be attributed to the tendency for phonological errors to have a high degree of phonological similarity with the subsequent repair attempts, thereby speeding the programming of the repairs. Results showed that greater phonological similarity between the error and the repair was associated with faster repair times for both error types, providing evidence of error-to-repair priming in spontaneous self-monitoring. When controlling for phonological overlap, significant effects of error type and repair accuracy on repair times were also found. These effects indicated that correct repairs of phonological errors were initiated particularly quickly, whereas repairs of semantic errors were initiated relatively slowly, regardless of their accuracy. We discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical accounts of self-monitoring and the role of speech error repair in learning. Copyright

  15. EVALUATION OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY FOR SENTENCES IN NATURAL LANGUAGE BY MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pismak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper is focused on Wiktionary articles structural organization in the aspect of its usage as the base for semantic network. Wiktionary community references, article templates and articles markup features are analyzed. The problem of numerical estimation for semantic similarity of structural elements in Wiktionary articles is considered. Analysis of existing software for semantic similarity estimation of such elements is carried out; algorithms of their functioning are studied; their advantages and disadvantages are shown. Methods. Mathematical statistics methods were used to analyze Wiktionary articles markup features. The method of semantic similarity computing based on statistics data for compared structural elements was proposed.Main Results. We have concluded that there is no possibility for direct use of Wiktionary articles as the source for semantic network. We have proposed to find hidden similarity between article elements, and for that purpose we have developed the algorithm for calculation of confidence coefficients proving that each pair of sentences is semantically near. The research of quantitative and qualitative characteristics for the developed algorithm has shown its major performance advantage over the other existing solutions in the presence of insignificantly higher error rate. Practical Relevance. The resulting algorithm may be useful in developing tools for automatic Wiktionary articles parsing. The developed method could be used in computing of semantic similarity for short text fragments in natural language in case of algorithm performance requirements are higher than its accuracy specifications.

  16. Active body surface warming systems for preventing complications caused by inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eva; Urrútia, Gerard; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Campos, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, Pilar; Maestre, Luz; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2016-04-21

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the suppression of the central mechanisms of temperature regulation due to anaesthesia, and of prolonged exposure of large surfaces of skin to cold temperatures in operating rooms. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has been associated with clinical complications such as surgical site infection and wound-healing delay, increased bleeding or cardiovascular events. One of the most frequently used techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is active body surface warming systems (ABSW), which generate heat mechanically (heating of air, water or gels) that is transferred to the patient via skin contact. To assess the effectiveness of pre- or intraoperative active body surface warming systems (ABSW), or both, to prevent perioperative complications from unintended hypothermia during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2015); MEDLINE (PubMed) (1964 to October 2015), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2015), and CINAHL (Ovid) (1982 to October 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ABSW system aimed at maintaining normothermia perioperatively against a control or against any other ABSW system. Eligible studies also had to include relevant clinical outcomes other than measuring temperature alone. Several authors, by pairs, screened references and determined eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and consensus, with the collaboration of a third author. We included 67 trials with 5438 participants that comprised 79 comparisons. Forty-five RCTs compared ABSW versus control, whereas 18 compared two different types of ABSW, and 10 compared two different techniques to administer the same type of ABSW. Forced-air warming (FAW) was by far the most studied intervention.Trials varied widely regarding whether the interventions were

  17. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  18. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. D...

  19. A generalized notion of semantic independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Stengel, Bernhard von; Wittmüss, Arne

    1995-01-01

    For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism.......For programs represented semantically as relations, a concept of semantic independence is defined that is more general than previously stated notions. It allows for shared input variables and irrelevant interference due to nondeterminism....

  20. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  1. Semantic effects in sentence recall: the contribution of immediate vs delayed recall in language assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Comer, Amanda; McKenzie, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Sentence recall is increasingly used to assess language. It is widely debated what the task is actually testing, but one rarely explored aspect is the contribution of semantics to sentence recall. The few studies that have examined the role of semantics in sentence recall have employed an 'intrusion paradigm', following Potter and Lombardi (1990), and their paradigm relies on interference errors with conclusions based on an analysis of error patterns. We have instead manipulated the semantic plausibility of whole sentences to investigate the effects of semantics on immediate and delayed sentence recall. In Study 1, adults recalled semantically plausible and implausible sentences either immediately or after distracter tasks varying in lexical retrieval demands (backward counting and picture naming). Results revealed significant effects of plausibility, delay, and a significant interaction indicating increasing reliance on semantics as the demands of the distracter tasks increased. Study 2, conducted with 6-year-old children, employed delay conditions that were modified to avoid floor effects (delay with silence and forward counting) and a similar pattern of results emerged. This novel methodology provided robust evidence showing the effectiveness of delayed recall in the assessment of semantics and the effectiveness of immediate recall in the assessment of morphosyntax. The findings from our study clarify the linguistic mechanisms involved in immediate and delayed sentence recall, with implications for the use of recall tasks in language assessment. The reader will be able to: (i) define the difference between immediate and delayed sentence recall and different types of distractors, (ii) explain the utility of immediate and delayed recall sentence recall in language assessment, (iii) discuss suitability of delayed recall for the assessment of semantics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Misconduct versus honest error and scientific disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    Researchers sometimes mistakenly accuse their peers of misconduct. It is important to distinguish between misconduct and honest error or a difference of scientific opinion to prevent unnecessary and time-consuming misconduct proceedings, protect scientists from harm, and avoid deterring researchers from using novel methods or proposing controversial hypotheses. While it is obvious to many researchers that misconduct is different from a scientific disagreement or simply an inadvertent mistake in methods, analysis or misinterpretation of data, applying this distinction to real cases is sometimes not easy. Because the line between misconduct and honest error or a scientific dispute is often unclear, research organizations and institutions should distinguish between misconduct and honest error and scientific disagreement in their policies and practices. These distinctions should also be explained during educational sessions on the responsible conduct of research and in the mentoring process. When researchers wrongfully accuse their peers of misconduct, it is important to help them understand the distinction between misconduct and honest error and differences of scientific judgment or opinion, pinpoint the source of disagreement, and identify the relevant scientific norms. They can be encouraged to settle the dispute through collegial discussion and dialogue, rather than a misconduct allegation.

  3. Query Optimization by Semantic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Haas, Doug Hofstadter, Elaine Kant, Peggy Karp , Fred Lakin, Ruth Andrea Levinson, Paul Martin, Larry Masinter, Thorne McCarty, Brian McCune, Charles...design. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977. [Wilson80) Wilson, Gerald A. A conceptual model for semantic integrity checking. In Proc. Sixth Itl. Conference on

  4. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  5. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  6. Taxonomic and thematic semantic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Britt, Allison E

    2017-05-01

    Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory. We propose 2 principles that may drive the development of distinct taxonomic and thematic semantic systems: differences between which features determine taxonomic versus thematic relations, and differences in the processing required to extract taxonomic versus thematic relations. This review brings together distinct threads of behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research on semantic memory in support of a functional and neural dissociation, and defines a framework for future studies of semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...

  8. Semantic Characterizations of Navigational XPath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    We give semantic characterizations of the expressive power of navigational XPath (a.k.a. Core XPath) in terms of first order logic. XPath can be used to specify sets of nodes and sets of paths in an XML document tree. We consider both uses. For sets of nodes, XPath is equally expressive as first

  9. Semantic characterizations of navigational XPath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, D.

    2004-01-01

    We give semantic characterizations of the expressive powerof navigational XPath (also called Core XPath) in terms offirst order logic. XPath can be used to specify sets of nodesand to specify sets of paths in a document tree. We considerboth uses. For sets of nodes, we show that first orderlogic in

  10. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  11. Cross-Modal Semantic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabossi, Patrizia

    1996-01-01

    Describes the cross-modal semantic priming paradigm, including its underlying rationale and the different tasks with which it is combined. Introduces the type of stimuli used and the dependent and independent variables typically manipulated; discusses the paradigm's main advantages and drawbacks; and considers its most important areas of…

  12. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  13. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...

  14. Bare coordination: the semantic shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Henriette|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074764187; Le Bruyn, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484912X

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the syntax-semantics interface of two types of split coordination structures. In the first type, two bare singular count nouns appear as arguments in a coordinated structure, as in bride and groom were happy. We call this the N&N construction. In the second type,

  15. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...

  16. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  17. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  18. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  19. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  20. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular deve...

  1. Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdenfors, Peter

    The overall goal is to show that conceptual spaces are more promising than other ways of modelling the semantics of natural language. In particular, I will show how they can be used to model actions and events. I will also outline how conceptual spaces provide a cognitive grounding for word classes, including nouns, adjectives, prepositions and verbs.

  2. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Warming of intravenous and irrigation fluids for preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gillian; Alderson, Phil; Smith, Andrew F; Warttig, Sheryl

    2015-04-13

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (a drop in core temperature to below 36°C) occurs because of interference with normal temperature regulation by anaesthetic drugs, exposure of skin for prolonged periods and receipt of large volumes of intravenous and irrigation fluids. If the temperature of these fluids is below core body temperature, they can cause significant heat loss. Warming intravenous and irrigation fluids to core body temperature or above might prevent some of this heat loss and subsequent hypothermia. To estimate the effectiveness of preoperative or intraoperative warming, or both, of intravenous and irrigation fluids in preventing perioperative hypothermia and its complications during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid SP (1956 to 4 February 2014), EMBASE Ovid SP (1982 to 4 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 4 February 2014), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCOhost (1980 to 4 February 2014) and reference lists of identified articles. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials website and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing fluid warming methods versus standard care or versus other warming methods used to maintain normothermia. Two review authors independently extracted data from eligible trials and settled disputes with a third review author. We contacted study authors to ask for additional details when needed. We collected data on adverse events only if they were reported in the trials. We included in this review 24 studies with a total of 1250 participants. The trials included various numbers and types of participants. Investigators used a range of methods to warm fluids to temperatures between 37°C and 41°C. We found that evidence was of moderate quality because descriptions of trial design were

  4. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites

  5. A Denotational Semantics for Communicating Unstructured Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Jähnig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important property of programming language semantics is that they should be compositional. However, unstructured low-level code contains goto-like commands making it hard to define a semantics that is compositional. In this paper, we follow the ideas of Saabas and Uustalu to structure low-level code. This gives us the possibility to define a compositional denotational semantics based on least fixed points to allow for the use of inductive verification methods. We capture the semantics of communication using finite traces similar to the denotations of CSP. In addition, we examine properties of this semantics and give an example that demonstrates reasoning about communication and jumps. With this semantics, we lay the foundations for a proof calculus that captures both, the semantics of unstructured low-level code and communication.

  6. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  7. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Mieke Pauline; Hermans, Suzanne Irene Alphonsus; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-02-01

    The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically developing children completed receptive vocabulary, picture naming, and definition tasks. The PLI group scored lower on the receptive vocabulary and picture naming tasks. Word length and frequency affected naming accuracy in both groups. Children with PLI showed higher numbers of semantic errors, nonrelated errors, and omissions and circumlocutions. The error-type distribution differed between groups: PLI children showed disproportionate levels of nonrelated errors. In the definition task, PLI children showed lower information accuracy for accurately named pictures and comparable accuracy for incorrectly named pictures. Qualitative analysis suggested a high incidence of pragmatically inappropriate definitions for the PLI group. Naming accuracy for both groups improved equally after giving semantic cues. These findings suggest a deficit in object identification and/or naming selection. It might be premature to conclude that children with PLI show normal semantic abilities. The results are largely consistent with a general language delay; however, there is also some evidence of a qualitative difference between both groups.

  8. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as ...

  9. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  10. Anatomic, clinical, and neuropsychological correlates of spelling errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, HyungSub; Hurley, Robert S.; Rogalski, Emily; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates spelling errors in the three subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): agrammatic (PPA-G), logopenic (PPA-L), and semantic (PPA-S). Forty one PPA-patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls were administered a test of spelling. The total number of errors and types of errors in spelling to dictation of regular words, exception words and nonwords, were recorded. Error types were classified based on phonetic plausibility. In the first analysis, scores were evaluated by...

  11. Semantic dementia: Brazilian study of nineteen cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract The term semantic dementia was devised by Snowden et al. in 1989 and nowadays, the semantic dementia syndrome is recognized as one of the clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and is characterized by a language semantic disturbance associated to non-verbal semantic memory impairment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a Brazilian sample of 19 semantic dementia cases, emphasizing the clinical characteristics important for differential diagnosis of this syndrome. Methods: Nineteen cases with semantic dementia were evaluated between 1999 and 2007. All patients were submitted to neurological evaluation, neuroimaging exams and cognitive, language and semantic memory evaluation. Results: All patients presented fluent spontaneous speech, preservation of syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, word-finding difficulty, semantic paraphasias, word comprehension impairment, low performance in visual confrontation naming tasks, impairment on tests of non-verbal semantic memory and preservation of autobiographical memory and visuospatial skills. Regarding radiological investigations, temporal lobe atrophy and/or hypoperfusion were found in all patients. Conclusions: The cognitive, linguistic and of neuroimaging data in our case series corroborate other studies showing that semantic dementia constitutes a syndrome with well defined clinical characteristics associated to temporal lobe atrophy.

  12. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  13. Semantic Networks and Neural Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    and memory retrieval [Anderson 83]. Most other work using semantic network models assumes that the network is passive and is interpreted by a control...representation also permits representation of sufficient conditions. Imagine that being blue is a sufficient property of blueberries i.e. "if something...B BALL .LB 25 3. Inference in memory networks Section 2 described a notation for representing knowledge and also provided a partial specification of

  14. How Conceptual Are Semantic Maps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sansò

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed in this paper is whether (and to what extent a semantic map aimed at representing the multifunctionality of a given construction (or set of constructions in discourse can be thought of as endowed with conceptual reality. To be considered as a mental representa-tion that is essentially similar in all human brains, such a map should meet two requirements: (i its nodes should be bundles of semantic and pragmatic properties that form conceptual arche-types, that is, ways of conceptualizing and categorizing dynamic or static configurations that are fundamental to human experience; (ii there should be a high degree of regularity in the data material, i.e. each construction should be associated with a node or a contiguous set of nodes in a regular way. However, observing the use of grammatical constructions in discourse provides us with compelling evidence that discourse contexts are complex entities involving many differ-ent variables, and that ?a perfect fit is not the usual state of affairs for models of complex human behavior (including language? (Croft and Poole 2008:6. Based on a previous analysis of vari-ous passive and impersonal constructions in a parallel corpus of five European languages, I will argue that a first-generation semantic map representing the distribution of these constructions in discourse and comprising a few conceptual archetypes may be only an idealized abstraction over the conflicting evidence of the association between discourse contexts and construction types. As an idealization, such a map is not particularly informative as to language-specific tendencies and idiosyncrasies and does not allow us to analyze all the datasets that we might be interested in analyzing. On the other hand, a second-generation semantic map proves to be a more reliable tool for representing variation in discourse and does not force the analyst to posit (and multiply conceptual structures where there may be none

  15. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  16. Semantic congruency of auditory warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, Sarah J; McKeown, Denis

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore operator experience and performance for semantically congruent and incongruent auditory icons and abstract alarm sounds. It was expected that performance advantages for congruent sounds would be present initially but would reduce over time for both alarm types. Twenty-four participants (12M/12F) were placed into auditory icon or abstract alarm groupings. For each group both congruent and incongruent alarms were used to represent different driving task scenarios. Once sounded, participants were required to respond to each alarm by selecting a corresponding driving scenario. User performance for all sound types improved over time, however even with experience a decrement in speed of response remained for the incongruent iconic sounds and in accuracy of performance for the abstract warning sounds when compared to the congruent auditory icons. Semantic congruency was found to be of more importance for auditory icons than for abstract sounds. Practitioner Summary: Alarms are used in many operating systems as emergency, alerting, or continuous monitoring signals for instance. This study found that the type and representativeness of an auditory warning will influence operator performance over time. Semantically congruent iconic sounds produced performance advantages over both incongruent iconic sounds and abstract warnings.

  17. Semantic search via concept annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  18. Semantic Memory in the Clinical Progression of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakoute, Christophe T; Sainani, Kristin L; Henderson, Victor W

    2017-09-01

    Semantic memory measures may be useful in tracking and predicting progression of Alzheimer disease. We investigated relationships among semantic memory tasks and their 1-year predictive value in women with Alzheimer disease. We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of raloxifene in 42 women with late-onset mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. We assessed semantic memory with tests of oral confrontation naming, category fluency, semantic recognition and semantic naming, and semantic density in written narrative discourse. We measured global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale), dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes), and daily function (Activities of Daily Living Inventory) at baseline and 1 year. At baseline and 1 year, most semantic memory scores correlated highly or moderately with each other and with global cognition, dementia severity, and daily function. Semantic memory task performance at 1 year had worsened one-third to one-half standard deviation. Factor analysis of baseline test scores distinguished processes in semantic and lexical retrieval (semantic recognition, semantic naming, confrontation naming) from processes in lexical search (semantic density, category fluency). The semantic-lexical retrieval factor predicted global cognition at 1 year. Considered separately, baseline confrontation naming and category fluency predicted dementia severity, while semantic recognition and a composite of semantic recognition and semantic naming predicted global cognition. No individual semantic memory test predicted daily function. Semantic-lexical retrieval and lexical search may represent distinct aspects of semantic memory. Semantic memory processes are sensitive to cognitive decline and dementia severity in Alzheimer disease.

  19. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  20. Boundary error analysis and categorization in the TRECVID news story segmentation task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlandis, J.; Over, P.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an error analysis based on boundary error popularity (frequency) including semantic boundary categorization is applied in the context of the news story segmentation task from TRECVTD1. Clusters of systems were defined based on the input resources they used including video, audio and

  1. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  2. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  3. Unit of measurement used and parent medication dosing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Dreyer, Benard P; Ugboaja, Donna C; Sanchez, Dayana C; Paul, Ian M; Moreira, Hannah A; Rodriguez, Luis; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-08-01

    Adopting the milliliter as the preferred unit of measurement has been suggested as a strategy to improve the clarity of medication instructions; teaspoon and tablespoon units may inadvertently endorse nonstandard kitchen spoon use. We examined the association between unit used and parent medication errors and whether nonstandard instruments mediate this relationship. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a larger study of provider communication and medication errors. English- or Spanish-speaking parents (n = 287) whose children were prescribed liquid medications in 2 emergency departments were enrolled. Medication error defined as: error in knowledge of prescribed dose, error in observed dose measurement (compared to intended or prescribed dose); >20% deviation threshold for error. Multiple logistic regression performed adjusting for parent age, language, country, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults); child age, chronic disease; site. Medication errors were common: 39.4% of parents made an error in measurement of the intended dose, 41.1% made an error in the prescribed dose. Furthermore, 16.7% used a nonstandard instrument. Compared with parents who used milliliter-only, parents who used teaspoon or tablespoon units had twice the odds of making an error with the intended (42.5% vs 27.6%, P = .02; adjusted odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.4) and prescribed (45.1% vs 31.4%, P = .04; adjusted odds ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.5) dose; associations greater for parents with low health literacy and non-English speakers. Nonstandard instrument use partially mediated teaspoon and tablespoon-associated measurement errors. Findings support a milliliter-only standard to reduce medication errors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate......, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...

  5. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  6. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Landeau, B; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2009-07-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neuroimaging data, the musical lexicon (and most widely musical semantic memory) appears to be sustained by a temporo-prefrontal cerebral network involving right and left cerebral regions.

  7. SEMANTIC WEB MINING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Singh*, Anil kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the two fast evolving scientific research areas “Semantic Web” and “Web Mining” are well-known as “Semantic Web Mining” in computer science. These two areas cover way for the mining of related and meaningful information from the web, by this means giving growth to the term “Semantic Web Mining”. The “Semantic Web” makes mining easy and “Web Mining” can construct new structure of Web. Web Mining applies Data Mining technique on web content, Structure and Usage. This paper gi...

  8. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  9. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  10. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  11. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  12. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  13. Frontal lobe damage impairs process and content in semantic memory: evidence from category-specific effects in progressive non-fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2011-06-01

    Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prewarming according to the AWMF S3 guidelines on preventing inadvertant perioperative hypothermia 2014 : Retrospective analysis of 7786 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, R; Wetz, A J; Bräuer, A; Menzel, M

    2018-01-01

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, which is defined as a core body temperature of less than 36.0 °C, can have serious consequences in surgery patients. These include cardiac complications, increased blood loss, wound infections and postoperative shivering; therefore, the scientific evidence that inadvertent perioperative hypothermia should be avoided is undisputed and several national guidelines have been published summarizing the scientific evidence and recommending specific procedures. The German AWMF guidelines were the first to emphasize the importance of prewarming for surgery patients to avoid inadvertant perioperative hypothermia; however, in contrast to intraoperative warming, prewarming is so far not sufficiently implemented in clinical practice in many hospitals. Furthermore, a recent study has questioned the effectiveness of prewarming. The aim of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the hypothermia rates that can be achieved when prewarming in the anesthesia induction room is introduced into the clinical practice and performed in addition to intraoperative warming. The ethics committee of the Medical Faculty of the Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg gave approval for data storage and retrospective data analysis from the anesthesia database. According to the existing local standard operating procedure, prewarming with forced air was performed in addition to intraoperative warming in the anesthesia induction room in 3899 patients receiving general anesthesia with a duration of 30 min or longer from January 2015 to December 2016. The results were compared with a control group of 3887 patients from July 2012 to August 2014 who received intraoperative warming but were not subjected to prewarming. Tracheal intubation was carried out in all patients and temperature measurements after the induction of anesthesia were performed using esophageal, urinary catheter or intra-arterial temperature probes. The mean duration of prewarming

  15. A Technique to Salvage Big-Bubble Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty after Inadvertent Full-Thickness Trephination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei-Ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a technique for management of large inadvertent full-thickness trephination during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique without converting to penetrating keratoplasty. First, the anterior chamber is formed with an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Then, the full-thickness wound is secured with one X-type 10-0 nylon suture. A 27-gauge needle is attached to a 2 ml air-filled syringe and inserted into the corneal stroma in the meridian opposite to the site of full-thickness trephination. Air is gently injected to produce a limited area of "big-bubble" detaching Descemet′s membrane (DM from the corneal stroma. The "big bubble" is slowly expanded with injection of OVD. Finally, the recipient stroma is removed, the donor lenticule is placed and the DM tear is secured with one full thickness 10-0 nylon suture.

  16. Influence of sternal size and inadvertent paramedian sternotomy on stability of the closure site: a clinical and mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitani, J; Penta de Peppo, A; Moscarelli, M; Guerrieri Wolf, L; Scafuri, A; Nardi, P; Nanni, F; Di Marzio, E; De Vico, P; Chiariello, L

    2006-07-01

    The influence of sternal size and of inadvertent paramedian sternotomy on stability of the closure site is not well defined. Data on 171 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery through a midline sternotomy were prospectively collected. Intraoperative measurements of sternal dimension included thickness and width at the manubrium, the third and fifth intercostal spaces; paramedian sternotomy was defined as width of one side of the sternum equaling 75% or more of the entire width, at any of the three levels. The chest was closed with simple peristernal steel wires and inspected to detect deep wound infection and/or instability for 3 postoperative months. The sternal factors and several patient/surgery-related factors were included in a multivariate analysis model to identify factors affecting stability. An electromechanical traction test was conducted on 6 rewired sternal models after midline or paramedian sternotomy and separation data were analyzed. Chest instability was detected in 12 (7%) patients and wound infection in 2 (1.2%). Patient weight (P = .03), depressed left ventricular function (P = .04), sternum thickness (indexed to body weight, P = .03), and paramedian sternotomy (P = .0001) were risk factors of postoperative instability; paramedian sternotomy was the only independent predictor (P = .001). The electromechanical test showed more lateral displacement of the two rewired sternal halves after paramedian than midline sternotomy (P = .002); accordingly, load at fracture point was lower after paramedian sternotomy (220 +/- 20 N vs 545 +/- 25 N, P = 0.001). Inadvertent paramedian sternomoty strongly affects postoperative chest wound stability independently from sternal size, requiring prompt reinforcement of chest closure.

  17. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Use of Underspecified Data-Type Semantics for Type Safety in Low-Level Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjark Weber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent projects on operating-system verification, C and C++ data types are often formalized using a semantics that does not fully specify the precise byte encoding of objects. It is well-known that such an underspecified data-type semantics can be used to detect certain kinds of type errors. In general, however, underspecified data-type semantics are unsound: they assign well-defined meaning to programs that have undefined behavior according to the C and C++ language standards. A precise characterization of the type-correctness properties that can be enforced with underspecified data-type semantics is still missing. In this paper, we identify strengths and weaknesses of underspecified data-type semantics for ensuring type safety of low-level systems code. We prove sufficient conditions to detect certain classes of type errors and, finally, identify a trade-off between the complexity of underspecified data-type semantics and their type-checking capabilities.

  19. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    , 2013-2015 (Levisen 2016a, 2016b). I willfocus on the keyword tingting ‘mind, heart’ (from English ‘think-think’), and the related concepts speret(from English ‘spirit’), devil (from English ‘devil’), and pija (from English ‘picture’), as well as morerecent imports from English: maen (mind), sol (soul......This paper explores the semantics of personhood constructs in Urban Bislama, an English-relatedcreole variety spoken in Vanuatu’s capital (Crowley 1990; Meyerhoff 2013). Personhood constructsare words such as mind, soul, and heart in English, and similar conceptual constructs in otherlanguages...

  20. Logic with a Probability Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Hailperin, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The present study is an extension of the topic introduced in Dr. Hailperin's Sentential Probability Logic, where the usual true-false semantics for logic is replaced with one based more on probability, and where values ranging from 0 to 1 are subject to probability axioms. Moreover, as the word "sentential" in the title of that work indicates, the language there under consideration was limited to sentences constructed from atomic (not inner logical components) sentences, by use of sentential connectives ("no," "and," "or," etc.) but not including quantifiers ("for all," "there is"). An initial

  1. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  2. Semantic Radicals Contribute More Than Phonetic Radicals to the Recognition of Chinese Phonograms: Behavioral and ERP Evidence in a Factorial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xieshun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese phonograms consist of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical. The two types of radicals have different functional contributions to their host phonogram. The semantic radical typically signifies the meaning of the phonogram, while the phonetic radical usually contains a phonological clue to the phonogram’s pronunciation. However, it is still unclear how they interplay with each other when we attempt to recognize a phonogram because previous studies rarely manipulated the functionality of the two types of radicals in a single design. Using a full factorial design, the present study aimed to probe this issue by directly manipulating the functional validity of the two types of radicals in a lexical decision task with both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measurements. The results showed that recognition of phonograms which were related to their semantic radicals in meaning took a shorter reaction time, showed a lower error rate, and elicited a smaller P200 and a larger N400 than did recognition of those which had no semantic relation with their semantic radicals. However, the validity of phonetic radicals did not show any main effect or interaction with that of semantic radicals on either behavioral or ERP measurements. These results indicated that semantic radicals played a dominant role in the recognition of phonograms. Transparent semantic radicals, which provide valid semantic cues to phonograms, can facilitate the recognition of phonograms.

  3. Effects of perceptual similarity but not semantic association on false recognition in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Burnside

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated semantic and perceptual influences on false recognition in older and young adults in a variant on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In two experiments, participants encoded intermixed sets of semantically associated words, and sets of unrelated words. Each set was presented in a shared distinctive font. Older adults were no more likely to falsely recognize semantically associated lure words compared to unrelated lures also presented in studied fonts. However, they showed an increase in false recognition of lures which were related to studied items only by a shared font. This increased false recognition was associated with recollective experience. The data show that older adults do not always rely more on prior knowledge in episodic memory tasks. They converge with other findings suggesting that older adults may also be more prone to perceptually-driven errors.

  4. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials.

  5. Semantic wireless localization of WiFi terminals in smart buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H.; Polo, A.; Moriyama, T.; Salucci, M.; Viani, F.

    2016-06-01

    The wireless localization of mobile terminals in indoor scenarios by means of a semantic interpretation of the environment is addressed in this work. A training-less approach based on the real-time calibration of a simple path loss model is proposed which combines (i) the received signal strength information measured by the wireless terminal and (ii) the topological features of the localization domain. A customized evolutionary optimization technique has been designed to estimate the optimal target position that fits the complex wireless indoor propagation and the semantic target-environment relation, as well. The proposed approach is experimentally validated in a real building area where the available WiFi network is opportunistically exploited for data collection. The presented results point out a reduction of the localization error obtained with the introduction of a very simple semantic interpretation of the considered scenario.

  6. Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment: From fluent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the literature. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fluent primary progressive aphasia. Methods: A 66 year-old woman with selective impairment of semantic memory was examined on two occasions, undergoing neuropsychological and language evaluations, the results of which were compared to those of three paired control individuals. Results: In the first evaluation, physical examination was normal and the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 26. Language evaluation revealed fluent speech, anomia, disturbance in word comprehension, preservation of the syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, besides surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Autobiographical and episodic memories were relatively preserved. In semantic memory tests, the following dissociation was found: disturbance of verbal semantic memory with preservation of non-verbal semantic memory. Magnetic resonance of the brain revealed marked atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe. After 14 months, the difficulties in verbal semantic memory had become more severe and the semantic disturbance, limited initially to the linguistic sphere, had worsened to involve non-verbal domains. Conclusions: Given the dissociation found in the first examination, we believe there is sufficient clinical evidence to refute the existence of a unitary semantic system.

  7. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPT’s left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a “rabbit” transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities

  8. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  9. Acquiring Structural Knowledge from Semantically Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    Hypertext researchers and designers contend that the hypertext information structures may reflect the semantic structures of human memory. Further, they believe that mapping the semantic structure of an expert onto hypertext information structure and explicitly illustrating that structure in the hypertext will result in improved comprehension…

  10. Semantic annotation in biomedicine: the current landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Jelena; Bagheri, Ebrahim

    2017-09-22

    The abundance and unstructured nature of biomedical texts, be it clinical or research content, impose significant challenges for the effective and efficient use of information and knowledge stored in such texts. Annotation of biomedical documents with machine intelligible semantics facilitates advanced, semantics-based text management, curation, indexing, and search. This paper focuses on annotation of biomedical entity mentions with concepts from relevant biomedical knowledge bases such as UMLS. As a result, the meaning of those mentions is unambiguously and explicitly defined, and thus made readily available for automated processing. This process is widely known as semantic annotation, and the tools that perform it are known as semantic annotators.Over the last dozen years, the biomedical research community has invested significant efforts in the development of biomedical semantic annotation technology. Aiming to establish grounds for further developments in this area, we review a selected set of state of the art biomedical semantic annotators, focusing particularly on general purpose annotators, that is, semantic annotation tools that can be customized to work with texts from any area of biomedicine. We also examine potential directions for further improvements of today's annotators which could make them even more capable of meeting the needs of real-world applications. To motivate and encourage further developments in this area, along the suggested and/or related directions, we review existing and potential practical applications and benefits of semantic annotators.

  11. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  12. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  13. Transitions toward a Semantics for Real Possibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumberg, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis consists in developing a semantics for the notion of real possibility. Real possibilities are alternative possibilities for the future in an indeterministic world. In our investigations, we depart from the theory of branching time. The task of providing a semantics for the

  14. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  15. Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic Broadening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this paper lies on semantic changes associated with additive and substitutive borrowing in Bantu-speaking communities in Tanzania. Due to contact of languages, semantic differences of the terms related to architectural structures emanate. Apart from data from a few elderly native speakers, research was ...

  16. Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, José Júlio; Eckert, Michael; May, Wolfgang

    Evolution and reactivity in the Semantic Web address the vision and concrete need for an active Web, where data sources evolve autonomously and perceive and react to events. In 2004, when the Rewerse project started, regarding work on Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web there wasn’t much more than a vision of such an active Web.

  17. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  18. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  19. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  20. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  1. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  2. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  3. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  4. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  5. Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:16049233

  6. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  7. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  8. Newly-acquired words are more phonologically robust in verbal short-term memory when they have associated semantic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savill, Nicola; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is a crucial cognitive function central to language learning, comprehension and reasoning, yet the processes that underlie this capacity are not fully understood. In particular, although STM primarily draws on a phonological code, interactions between long-term phonological and semantic representations might help to stabilise the phonological trace for words ("semantic binding hypothesis"). This idea was first proposed to explain the frequent phoneme recombination errors made by patients with semantic dementia when recalling words that are no longer fully understood. However, converging evidence in support of semantic binding is scant: it is unusual for studies of healthy participants to examine serial recall at the phoneme level and also it is difficult to separate the contribution of phonological-lexical knowledge from effects of word meaning. We used a new method to disentangle these influences in healthy individuals by training new 'words' with or without associated semantic information. We examined phonological coherence in immediate serial recall (ISR), both immediately and the day after training. Trained items were more likely to be recalled than novel nonwords, confirming the importance of phonological-lexical knowledge, and items with semantic associations were also produced more accurately than those with no meaning, at both time points. For semantically-trained items, there were fewer phoneme ordering and identity errors, and consequently more complete target items were produced in both correct and incorrect list positions. These data show that lexical-semantic knowledge improves the robustness of verbal STM at the sub-item level, even when the effect of phonological familiarity is taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust Indoor Mobile Localization with a Semantic Augmented Route Network Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, using smartphones to determine pedestrian locations in indoor environments is an extensively promising technique for improving context-aware applications. However, the applicability and accuracy of the conventional approaches are still limited due to infrastructure-dependence, and there is seldom consideration of the semantic information inherently existing in maps. In this paper, a semantically-constrained low-complexity sensor fusion approach is proposed for the estimation of the user trajectory within the framework of the smartphone-based indoor pedestrian localization, which takes into account the semantic information of indoor space and its compatibility with user motions. The user trajectory is established by pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR from the mobile inertial sensors, in which the proposed semantic augmented route network graph with adaptive edge length is utilized to provide semantic constraint for the trajectory calibration using a particle filter algorithm. The merit of the proposed method is that it not only exploits the knowledge of the indoor space topology, but also exhausts the rich semantic information and the user motion in a specific indoor space for PDR accumulation error elimination, and can extend the applicability for diverse pedestrian step length modes. Two experiments are conducted in the real indoor environment to verify of the proposed approach. The results confirmed that the proposed method can achieve highly acceptable pedestrian localization results using only the accelerometer and gyroscope embedded in the phones, while maintaining an enhanced accuracy of 1.23 m, with the indoor semantic information attached to each pedestrian’s motion.

  10. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block for the management of inadvertent intraarterial drug administration after arterial insertion of a venous cannula during ultrasound-guided venous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Anne-Marie; Mislovic, Branislav

    2014-09-15

    This case report documents the inadvertent placement of an arterial cannula despite using realtime ultrasound to insert a peripheral venous cannula in a child with difficult venous access. The resultant limb ischemia was treated with an infraclavicular ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block as sympatholytic treatment.

  11. Effects of human errors on the determination of surveillance test interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook; Koo, Bon Hyun

    1990-01-01

    This paper incorporates the effects of human error relevant to the periodic test on the unavailability of the safety system as well as the component unavailability. Two types of possible human error during the test are considered. One is the possibility that a good safety system is inadvertently left in a bad state after the test (Type A human error) and the other is the possibility that bad safety system is undetected upon the test (Type B human error). An event tree model is developed for the steady-state unavailability of safety system to determine the effects of human errors on the component unavailability and the test interval. We perform the reliability analysis of safety injection system (SIS) by applying aforementioned two types of human error to safety injection pumps. Results of various sensitivity analyses show that; 1) the appropriate test interval decreases and steady-state unavailability increases as the probabilities of both types of human errors increase, and they are far more sensitive to Type A human error than Type B and 2) the SIS unavailability increases slightly as the probability of Type B human error increases, and significantly as the probability of Type A human error increases. Therefore, to avoid underestimation, the effects of human error should be incorporated in the system reliability analysis which aims at the relaxations of the surveillance test intervals, and Type A human error has more important effect on the unavailability and surveillance test interval

  12. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist A. Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1 were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2 showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3 were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4 exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD. SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

  13. Naming without knowing and appearance without associations: evidence for constructive processes in semantic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, K R; Evans, J J; Hodges, J R; McCarthy, R A

    1995-01-01

    This study describes a patient (SE) with temporal lobe injury resulting from Herpes Simplex Encephalitis, who displayed a previously unreported impairment in which his knowledge of associative and functional attributes of animals was disproportionately impaired by comparison with his knowledge of their sensory attributes (including their visual properties and characteristic sounds). His knowledge of man-made objects was preserved. A striking aspect of the present case was that the patient remained able to name many animals from their pictures, despite making gross errors in generating associative information about these same animals. This suggests that a semantic representation incorporating stored sensory knowledge may be sufficient for naming (at least for biological categories) and associative information may be unnecessary. Semantic knowledge may normally incorporate more information than is necessary for identification. SE's errors were found to be confabulatory and reconstructive in nature and it is argued that this aspect of his performance challenges passive conceptions of semantic memory couched in terms of a catalogue of stored representations. It is proposed that the patient's disorder affects a dynamic, constructive, and inferential component of his knowledge base, and that this component is sensitive to semantic category.

  14. ALGORITHM FOR SEMANTIC TEXT ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF BASIC SEMANTIC TEMPLATES WITH DELETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mochalova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The systems of automatic text processing have become more and more important due to the constant growth of textual data. One of the main issues arising in such systems is a problem of semantic analysis. The paper deals with an algorithm for finding semantic dependencies by means of basic semantic templates with deletion. While working with the Drools expert system (and PHREAK algorithm for fast pattern matching we have developed and implemented a semantic analyzer for construction of semantic dependencies between parts of a sentence. During the semantic analysis we add some text parts to the priority queue according to the rules described in the semantic templates, and then at each iteration of the sentence being analyzed we drop some segment of the analyzed text which has the highest priority in the queue. To determine the priority in this queue two values are used: the priority of semantic relationship group and word position. The proposed algorithm is implemented in Java. We have prepared 2160 rules using Drools expert system. The software implementation of the proposed algorithm has shown its applicability for the systems of automatic text processing. Testing results have proved that suggested algorithm of semantic analysis without Drools expert system operates 6-8 times slower, on the average. We use proposed semantic analyzer as a composite module to intellectual question-answering system.

  15. Incidence of Inadvertent Dural Puncture During CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Interlaminar Epidural Corticosteroid Injections in the Cervical Spine: An Analysis of 974 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, T J; Parivash, S N; Gray, L; Kranz, P G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the rate of inadvertent dural puncture during CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection. In addition, in a subanalysis, we aim to assess the rate of inadvertent dural puncture superior to C5-C6 occurring during interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injection using CT fluoroscopy guidance because such injections are not performed using conventional fluoroscopy. Images obtained from consecutive CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections conducted from November 2009 to November 2015 were reviewed. The following information was recorded: the presence of inadvertent dural puncture, the level of the cervical interlaminar space, approach laterality (left or right), anteroposterior spinal canal diameter, and the presence of a trainee. Two-tailed Fisher exact tests were used for assessment of categoric variables, and t tests were used for continuous variables. A total of 974 cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were identified in 728 patients. Inadvertent dural punctures were identified in association with 1.4% (14/974) of these injections; all punctures were recognized during the procedure. Needle placements were performed at every cervical level (C1-C2 through C7-T1). The highest rate of dural puncture (2.8%) occurred at C5-C6. No dural punctures occurred superior to C5-C6 (16.6% of cases). The complication rate was 0.4%. Only greater anteroposterior spinal canal diameter was associated with increased dural puncture rates (p = 0.049). CT fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural corticosteroid injections were performed at all levels throughout the cervical spine. A very low complication rate and a minimal rate of inadvertent dural puncture were noted, similar to previously reported rates for conventional fluoroscopy-guided injections limited to the lower cervical spine only.

  16. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F; Bulut, Orhan; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Rosenstock, Steffen J

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group and merged with data from the National Patient Registry and the National Pathology Databank. Danish patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curatively intended resection between 2001 and 2011 were included in the study. The primary outcome was long-term mortality for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277 (1.2%) underwent inadvertent splenectomy. There was no association between inadvertent splenectomy and long-term mortality (adjusted HR = 1.15 (95% CI, 0.95-1.40); p = 0.16) in the propensity score-matched model, whereas 30-day mortality was significantly increased (adjusted HR = 2.31 (95% CI, 1.71-3.11); p splenectomy was most often seen during left hemicolectomy (left hemicolectomy vs right hemicolectomy: OR = 24.76 (95% CI, 15.30-40.06); p splenectomy during resection for colorectal cancer does not seem to increase long-term mortality. The previously reported reduced overall survival after inadvertent splenectomy may be explained by excess mortality in the immediate postoperative period.

  17. Triangulation of language-cognitive impairments, naming errors and their neural bases post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Halai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia. This model was subsequently mapped onto the patients' lesion profiles to generate the triangulation of language-cognitive impairments, naming errors and their neural correlates. Specifically, we established the pattern of co-occurrence between fifteen error types, which avoids focussing on a subset of errors or the use of experimenter-derived methods to combine across error types. We obtained five principal components underlying the patients' errors: omission errors; semantically-related responses; phonologically-related responses; dysfluent responses; and a combination of circumlocutions with mixed errors. In the second step, we aligned these paraphasia-related principal components with the patients' performance on a detailed language and cognitive assessment battery, utilising an additional PCA. This omnibus PCA revealed seven unique fused impairment-paraphasia factors: output phonology; semantics; phonological working memory; speech quanta; executive-cognitive skill; phonological (input discrimination; and the production of circumlocution errors. In doing so we were able to resolve the complex relationships between error types and impairments. Some are relatively straightforward: circumlocution errors formed their own independent factor; there was a one-to-one mapping for phonological errors with expressive phonological abilities and for dysfluent errors with speech fluency. In

  18. The relative role of semantic and sublexical processes in reading, writing and repetition: evidence from a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    The evolution in time of a number of language tasks in a longitudinal study of a 61-year-old aphasic patient is described. The patient, examined twice, in a 10 month follow-up, showed a dissociation between preserved reading with respect to impaired other modalities as well as a qualitative change in errors' type. A reduction of neologisms and phonologically based errors, with a concurrent increase of semantic paraphasias in naming and repetition, as well as an amelioration in reading, with a reduction of stress assignment errors was exhibited at the follow-up. The results are interpreted by postulating an improved performance of the phonological output processes, allowing non-phonologically based errors to emerge, thus revealing the underlying semantic damage. The Summation Hypothesis [14] seems a general framework better interpreting these findings, more than highly specialized production models, which could explain separately only different modalities' impairments.

  19. The Relative Role of Semantic and Sublexical Processes in Reading, Writing and Repetition: Evidence from a Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    The evolution in time of a number of language tasks in a longitudinal study of a 61-year-old aphasic patient is described. The patient, examined twice, in a 10 month follow-up, showed a dissociation between preserved reading with respect to impaired other modalities as well as a qualitative change in errors' type. A reduction of neologisms and phonologically based errors, with a concurrent increase of semantic paraphasias in naming and repetition, as well as an amelioration in reading, with a reduction of stress assignment errors was exhibited at the follow-up. The results are interpreted by postulating an improved performance of the phonological output processes, allowing non-phonologically based errors to emerge, thus revealing the underlying semantic damage. The Summation Hypothesis [14] seems a general framework better interpreting these findings, more than highly specialized production models, which could explain separately only different modalities’ impairments. PMID:20543456

  20. Towards semantic interoperability for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra; Hovenga, Evelyn; Heard, Sam

    2007-01-01

    In the field of open electronic health records (EHRs), openEHR as an archetype-based approach is being increasingly recognised. It is the objective of this paper to shortly describe this approach, and to analyse how openEHR archetypes impact on health professionals and semantic interoperability. Analysis of current approaches to EHR systems, terminology and standards developments. In addition to literature reviews, we organised face-to-face and additional telephone interviews and tele-conferences with members of relevant organisations and committees. The openEHR archetypes approach enables syntactic interoperability and semantic interpretability -- both important prerequisites for semantic interoperability. Archetypes enable the formal definition of clinical content by clinicians. To enable comprehensive semantic interoperability, the development and maintenance of archetypes needs to be coordinated internationally and across health professions. Domain knowledge governance comprises a set of processes that enable the creation, development, organisation, sharing, dissemination, use and continuous maintenance of archetypes. It needs to be supported by information technology. To enable EHRs, semantic interoperability is essential. The openEHR archetypes approach enables syntactic interoperability and semantic interpretability. However, without coordinated archetype development and maintenance, 'rank growth' of archetypes would jeopardize semantic interoperability. We therefore believe that openEHR archetypes and domain knowledge governance together create the knowledge environment required to adopt EHRs.

  1. Nicotine does not enhance basic semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Anna D; Chenery, Helen J; Copland, David A

    2010-08-01

    Utilising a cognitively demanding strategy-based priming paradigm, we recently observed that acute transdermal nicotine selectively influenced controlled semantic processing but not related-word links within semantic memory per se as reported by Holmes et al. (Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11:389-399, 2008). The current study employed a less cognitively demanding priming paradigm to investigate whether nicotine influences the activation/access of links within semantic memory, and if the selective nicotinic influence on controlled but not automatic semantic processing could also be observed with these more general priming procedures. Transdermal nicotine patches (7 mg/24 h) were administered to healthy young adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The automatic priming task ( n = 18) had a low relatedness proportion (RP) and was presented at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), while the controlled priming task ( n = 18) had a high RP and long SOA. The patterns of priming effects indicated that automatic and controlled processing were operating for the respective tasks. However, a nicotinic influence on semantic processing was not evident for either task, nor was interplay of nicotine and relatedness observed. Together, the findings from the previous and current study suggest that an influence of nicotine on semantic processing may only emerge when effortful controlled processing is invoked. Furthermore, the findings suggest that nicotinic modulation of links within semantic memory may only be mediated by mnemonic processes.

  2. Biotea: semantics for Pubmed Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. We expose our models, services, software and datasets. Our infrastructure enables manual and semi-automatic annotation, resulting data are represented as RDF-based linked data and can be readily queried using the SPARQL query language. We illustrate the utility of our system with several use cases. Our datasets, methods and techniques are available at http://biotea.github.io.

  3. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  4. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  5. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  6. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  7. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  8. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with

  9. Varieties of semantic ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of semantic ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the semantic ‘access’ deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially

  10. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  11. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  12. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specifie...

  13. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  14. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  15. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  16. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  17. On the relations between monadic semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computational metalanguage with general recursive types and multiple notions of effects, through which a variety of concrete denotational semantics can be conveniently factored, by suitably interpreting the effects as monads. We then propose a methodology for relating two...... such interpretations of the metalanguage, with the aim of showing that the semantics they induce agree for complete programs. As a prototypical instance of such a relation, we use the framework to show agreement between a direct and a continuation semantics of the simple, untyped functional language from Reynolds...

  18. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  19. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  20. Out-of-hospital medication errors among young children in the United States, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell D; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Brophy, Todd J; Xiang, Huiyun

    2014-11-01

    To investigate out-of-hospital medication errors among young children in the United States. Using data from the National Poison Database System, a retrospective analysis of out-of-hospital medication errors among children medication errors, averaging 63,358 episodes per year, or 1 child every 8 minutes. The average annual rate of medication errors was 26.42 per 10,000 population. Cough and cold medication errors decreased significantly, whereas the number (42.9% increase) and rate (37.2% increase) of all other medication errors rose significantly during the 11-year study period. The number and rate of medication error events decreased with increasing child age, with children medication errors, followed by cough and cold preparations (24.6%). Ingestion accounted for 96.2% of events, and 27.0% of medication errors were attributed to inadvertently taking or being given medication twice. Most (93.5%) cases were managed outside of a health care facility; 4.4% were treated and released from a health care facility; 0.4% were admitted to a non-critical care unit; 0.3% were admitted to a critical care unit; and 25 children died. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of out-of-hospital medication errors among children medication errors, especially those involving non-cough and cold preparations, among young children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The role of within-language vocabulary size in children's semantic development: evidence from bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their errors were coded for schematic or categorical relations. The bilingual children made more schematic errors than monolinguals, a difference that was accounted for statistically by vocabulary score differences. This result suggests that within-language vocabulary size is one important factor in semantic development and may explain why bilingual children sometimes show a lag relative to monolingual children in one of their languages, perhaps the language in which they have received less formal instruction.

  2. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation-passing style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  3. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  4. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  5. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-1/4 inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12)

  6. Evidence utilisation project: Management of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. The challenges of implementing best practice recommendations in the perioperative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Judy; Hines, Sonia Jane; Chang, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    The prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) remains an important issue in perioperative healthcare. The aims of this project were to: (i) assess current clinical practice in the management of IPH and (ii) promote best practice in the management of IPH in adult operating theatres. This project from August 2010 to March 2012 utilised a system of audit and feedback to implement best practice recommendations. Data were collected via chart audits against criteria developed from best practice recommendations for managing IPH. Evidence-based best practices, such as consistent temperature monitoring and patient warming, were implemented using multifaceted interventions. Perioperative records for 73 patients (baseline) and 72 patients (post-implementation) were audited. Post-implementation audit showed an increase in patients with temperatures >36°C admitted to the post-anaesthetic care unit (PACU) (8%) and discharged from PACU (28%). The percentage of patients receiving preoperative temperature monitoring increased (38%); however, low levels of intraoperative monitoring remained (31% of patients with surgery of 30 min or longer duration). Small increases were found in patient warming of 5% intraoperatively and 8% postoperatively. Preoperative warming was not successfully implemented during this phase of the project. Temperature monitoring, warming and rates of normothermia improved; however, barriers to best practice of IPH management were experienced, which negatively impacted on the project. Further stages of implementation and audit were added to further address IPH management in this department. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2013 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  7. Inadvertent chest tube insertion in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and congenital lobar emphysema-highlighting an important problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Shailesh M; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Solanki, Ravi S; Shetty, Gurucharan S; Agarwala, Surenderkumar

    2013-01-01

    Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lung lesions is an important problem in children with acute respiratory distress having a cystic lucent lesion on chest radiograph. To evaluate the imaging findings and complications in cases of congenital cystic lung lesions with chest tube insertion and suggest the role of appropriate imaging for management of these patients. Chest radiographs and CT scans of children with congenital cystic lung lesions who had inadvertent chest tube insertion preoperatively were retrospectively reviewed for imaging appearances and complications. Fifteen patients comprising 10 cases of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and 5 cases of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) were included. Majority of the cases were infants. CCAM was misdiagnosed as complicated pneumatocele (n = 5) and pneumothorax (n = 5), while CLE was misdiagnosed as tension pneumothorax (n = 5) on the chest radiograph findings. Final diagnosis was made on CT and operative findings with histopathology. Complications noted were pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, and infection in cases of CCAM, and change in imaging appearance and pneumothorax in cases of CLE. Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lesions increases the rate of associated complications. Chest CT has a definite role in early diagnosis and deciding appropriate management in these cases

  8. Does naming accuracy improve through self-monitoring of errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F; Middleton, Erica L; Brecher, Adelyn; Gagliardi, Maureen; Garvey, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    This study examined spontaneous self-monitoring of picture naming in people with aphasia. Of primary interest was whether spontaneous detection or repair of an error constitutes an error signal or other feedback that tunes the production system to the desired outcome. In other words, do acts of monitoring cause adaptive change in the language system? A second possibility, not incompatible with the first, is that monitoring is indicative of an item's representational strength, and strength is a causal factor in language change. Twelve PWA performed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions, without extrinsic feedback. At each timepoint, we scored the first complete response for accuracy and error type and the remainder of the trial for verbalizations consistent with detection (e.g., "no, not that") and successful repair (i.e., correction). Data analysis centered on: (a) how often an item that was misnamed at one timepoint changed to correct at the other timepoint, as a function of monitoring; and (b) how monitoring impacted change scores in the Forward (Time 1 to Time 2) compared to Backward (Time 2 to Time 1) direction. The Strength hypothesis predicts significant effects of monitoring in both directions. The Learning hypothesis predicts greater effects in the Forward direction. These predictions were evaluated for three types of errors--Semantic errors, Phonological errors, and Fragments--using mixed-effects regression modeling with crossed random effects. Support for the Strength hypothesis was found for all three error types. Support for the Learning hypothesis was found for Semantic errors. All effects were due to error repair, not error detection. We discuss the theoretical and clinical implications of these novel findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  10. Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealey, Douglas

    This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

  11. Assembly design semantic recognition using solid works-API

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Baha; Wikander, Jan; Onori, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to recognize and model assembly semantic knowledge enclosed in product assembly features. The proposed approach is based on two stages: assembly semantic recognition and assembly semantic modelling. In the first stage, the internal boundary representation (B-rep) recognition method is utilized to extract assembly semantic knowledge from assembly CAD models using SolidWorks' API functions. In the second stage, a multi-level semantic assembly model is gener...

  12. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...

  13. Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y. Tsvetkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

  14. Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex.

  15. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  16. The Semantics and Paradigmatics of Word Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Linda R.

    1976-01-01

    Semantic and paradigmatic analyses are employed to show that deixis of the lexical content is the differentiating factor between pre- and post-position of the attributive adjective in French. The nature of modification in general is also discussed. (DB)

  17. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  18. Metamodeling of Semantic Web Enabled Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardas, G.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.; Weyns, D.; Holvoet, T.

    2006-01-01

    Several agent researchers are currently studying agent modeling and they propose dierent architectural metamodels for developing Multiagent Systems (MAS) according to specic agent development methodologies. When support for Semantic Web technology and its related constructs are considered, agent

  19. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  20. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  1. Integration of Semantic and Episodic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzyk, Adrian; Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the integration of semantic and episodic memory (EM) models and the benefits of such integration. Semantic memory (SM) is used as a foundation of knowledge and concept learning, and is needed for the operation of any cognitive system. EM retains personal experiences stored based on their significance-it is supported by the SM, and in return, it supports SM operations. Integrated declarative memories are critical for cognitive system development, yet very little research has been done to develop their computational models. We considered structural self-organization of both semantic and episodic memories with a symbolic representation of input events. Sequences of events are stored in EM and are used to build associations in SM. We demonstrated that integration of semantic and episodic memories improves the native operation of both types of memories. Experimental results are presented to illustrate how the two memories complement each other by improving recognition, prediction, and context-based generalization of individual memories.

  2. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  3. Learning from Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-03

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Corrective feedback, including analysis of the reasoning leading up to the mistake, is crucial. Aside from the direct benefit to learners, teachers gain valuable information from errors, and error tolerance encourages students' active, exploratory, generative engagement. If the goal is optimal performance in high-stakes situations, it may be worthwhile to allow and even encourage students to commit and correct errors while they are in low-stakes learning situations rather than to assiduously avoid errors at all costs.

  4. Machine Translation as a Model for Overcoming Some Common Errors in English-into-Arabic Translation among EFL University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Adel I.; Naeem, Marwa A.

    2016-01-01

    This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic. Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the "Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…

  5. Error Analysis for Arithmetic Word Problems--A Case Study of Primary Three Students in One Singapore School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some…

  6. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment.By using symbolic values instead of...

  7. Semantic Identification Attacks on Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Neel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Semantic Identification Attack, in which an adversary uses semantic signals about the pages visited in one browsing session to identify other browsing sessions launched by the same user. This attack allows an adver- sary to determine if two browsing sessions originate from the same user regardless of any measures taken by the user to disguise their browser or network. We use the MSNBC Anonymous Browsing data set, which contains a large set of user visits (labeled by category) t...

  8. Semantic technologies for distributed information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this book we show how semantic technologies and in particular the use of ontologies can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay networks.

  9. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  10. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  11. The association between semantic dementia and surface dyslexia in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Takao; Komori, Kenjiro; Ikeda, Manabu; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-03-01

    One theory about reading suggests that producing the correct pronunciations of written words, particularly less familiar words with an atypical spelling-sound relationship, relies in part on knowledge of the word's meaning. This hypothesis has been supported by reports of surface dyslexia in large case-series studies of English-speaking/reading patients with semantic dementia (SD), but would have increased credibility if it applied to other languages and writing systems as well. The hypothesis predicts that, of the two systems used to write Japanese, SD patients should be unimpaired at oral reading of kana because of its invariant relationship between orthography and phonology. By contrast, oral reading of kanji should be impaired in a graded fashion depending on the consistency characteristics of the kanji target words, with worst performance on words whose component characters take 'minority' (atypical) pronunciations, especially if the words are of lower frequency. Errors in kanji reading should primarily reflect assignment of more typical readings to the component characters in these atypical words. In the largest-ever-reported case series of Japanese patients with semantic dementia, we tested and confirmed this hypothesis.

  12. Complex dynamics of semantic memory access in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosué; Fonseca, André

    2012-02-07

    Understanding a word in context relies on a cascade of perceptual and conceptual processes, starting with modality-specific input decoding, and leading to the unification of the word's meaning into a discourse model. One critical cognitive event, turning a sensory stimulus into a meaningful linguistic sign, is the access of a semantic representation from memory. Little is known about the changes that activating a word's meaning brings about in cortical dynamics. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while participants read sentences that could contain a contextually unexpected word, such as 'cold' in 'In July it is very cold outside'. We reconstructed trajectories in phase space from single-trial EEG time series, and we applied three nonlinear measures of predictability and complexity to each side of the semantic access boundary, estimated as the onset time of the N400 effect evoked by critical words. Relative to controls, unexpected words were associated with larger prediction errors preceding the onset of the N400. Accessing the meaning of such words produced a phase transition to lower entropy states, in which cortical processing becomes more predictable and more regular. Our study sheds new light on the dynamics of information flow through interfaces between sensory and memory systems during language processing.

  13. Semantic Similarity Assessment of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maythm M. Albakri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development in communication technologies between individuals allows for the establishment of more informal collaborative map data projects which are called volunteered geographic information (VGI. These projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM project, seek to create free alternative maps which let users add or input new materials to the data of others. The information of different VGI data sources is often not compliant to any standard and each organization is producing a dataset at various level of richness. In this research the assessment of semantic data quality provided by web sources, e.g. OSM will depend on a comparison with the information from standard sources. This will include the validity of semantic accuracy as one of the most important parameter of spatial data quality parameters. Semantic similarity testing covered feature classification, in effect comparing possible categories (legend classes and actual attributes attached to features. This will be achieved by developing a tool, using Matlab programming language, for analysing and examining OSM semantic accuracy. To identify the strength of semantic accuracy assessment strategy, there are many factors should be considered. For instance, the confusion matrix of feature classifications can be assessed, and different statistical tests should be passed. The results revealed good semantic accuracy of OSM datasets.

  14. Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

  15. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  16. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  17. Semantics of Kinship Terms in Tamil from the Semantic Typology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Смирнитская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the lexical-semantic group “kinship terms” in Tamil, applying the attainments of modern semantic typology and the theory of semantic derivation. The kinship terms describing nuclear and extended family are explored. The “semantic shift” relation between two different meanings is established if such relation is realized by synchronous polysemy in one lexeme, semantic derivation, diachronic semantic change, cognates or some other means. The starting point of the study is the typological data from the DatSemShift catalogue of semantic shifts in languages of the world developed by a group of researchers under the guidance of Anna A. Zalizniak in the Institute of Linguistics, RAS. We verify the presence of semantic shifts described in the Database in Tamil. Also, we propose new semantic shifts specific only for this language. We confirm the presence of semantic relation of the studied type among the meanings with English “labels”: father - parents, girl - daughter, to deliver (a child - parents, - child, old woman - wife, owner - wife and others. The data also allows the assumption that the same relation exists between the meanings: old - grandfather, earth - mother, son - courage, unripe - son and others. The meanings of this field are the sources of semantic movements to abstract notions, lexicon of posession, forms of address and others; in addition many inner semantic relations inside this field are revealed. The meanings covering the nuclear part of the kinship system participate in universal semantic shifts described in the DatSemShift catalogue, while the meanings from collateral branches of this bifurcative kinship system (uncle, aunt turn out to be incomparable with kinship terms from indo-european lineal systems. Their meanings can be included in the DatSemShift catalogue only with an indication of system specifics. The information about semantic shifts can be useful for

  18. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  19. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  20. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eJezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  1. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Errorful and errorless learning: The impact of cue-target constraint in learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-08-01

    The benefits of testing on learning are well described, and attention has recently turned to what happens when errors are elicited during learning: Is testing nonetheless beneficial, or can errors hinder learning? Whilst recent findings have indicated that tests boost learning even if errors are made on every trial, other reports, emphasizing the benefits of errorless learning, have indicated that errors lead to poorer later memory performance. The possibility that this discrepancy is a function of the materials that must be learned-in particular, the relationship between the cues and targets-was addressed here. Cued recall after either a study-only errorless condition or an errorful learning condition was contrasted across cue-target associations, for which the extent to which the target was constrained by the cue was either high or low. Experiment 1 showed that whereas errorful learning led to greater recall for low-constraint stimuli, it led to a significant decrease in recall for high-constraint stimuli. This interaction is thought to reflect the extent to which retrieval is constrained by the cue-target association, as well as by the presence of preexisting semantic associations. The advantage of errorful retrieval for low-constraint stimuli was replicated in Experiment 2, and the interaction with stimulus type was replicated in Experiment 3, even when guesses were randomly designated as being either correct or incorrect. This pattern provides support for inferences derived from reports in which participants made errors on all learning trials, whilst highlighting the impact of material characteristics on the benefits and disadvantages that accrue from errorful learning in episodic memory.

  3. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Semantic analysis based forms information retrieval and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Alqahtani, Fatimah Ayidh

    2013-09-01

    Data entry forms are employed in all types of enterprises to collect hundreds of customer's information on daily basis. The information is filled manually by the customers. Hence, it is laborious and time consuming to use human operator to transfer these customers information into computers manually. Additionally, it is expensive and human errors might cause serious flaws. The automatic interpretation of scanned forms has facilitated many real applications from speed and accuracy point of view such as keywords spotting, sorting of postal addresses, script matching and writer identification. This research deals with different strategies to extract customer's information from these scanned forms, interpretation and classification. Accordingly, extracted information is segmented into characters for their classification and finally stored in the forms of records in databases for their further processing. This paper presents a detailed discussion of these semantic based analysis strategies for forms processing. Finally, new directions are also recommended for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Semantic Labelling of Road Furniture in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-09-01

    Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  6. SEMANTIC LABELLING OF ROAD FURNITURE IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  7. Research Prototype: Automated Analysis of Scientific and Engineering Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Follen, Greg (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Physical and mathematical formulae and concepts are fundamental elements of scientific and engineering software. These classical equations and methods are time tested, universally accepted, and relatively unambiguous. The existence of this classical ontology suggests an ideal problem for automated comprehension. This problem is further motivated by the pervasive use of scientific code and high code development costs. To investigate code comprehension in this classical knowledge domain, a research prototype has been developed. The prototype incorporates scientific domain knowledge to recognize code properties (including units, physical, and mathematical quantity). Also, the procedure implements programming language semantics to propagate these properties through the code. This prototype's ability to elucidate code and detect errors will be demonstrated with state of the art scientific codes.

  8. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani GA. An ...

  9. Semantics, cross-cultural style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machery, Edouard; Mallon, Ron; Nichols, Shaun; Stich, Stephen P

    2004-07-01

    Theories of reference have been central to analytic philosophy, and two views, the descriptivist view of reference and the causal-historical view of reference, have dominated the field. In this research tradition, theories of reference are assessed by consulting one's intuitions about the reference of terms in hypothetical situations. However, recent work in cultural psychology (e.g. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic vs. analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291-310.) has shown systematic cognitive differences between East Asians and Westerners, and some work indicates that this extends to intuitions about philosophical cases (Weinberg, J., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2001). Normativity and epistemic intuitions. Philosophical Topics 29(1&2), 429-459.) In light of these findings on cultural differences, an experiment was conducted which explored intuitions about reference in Westerners and East Asians. The experiment indicated that, for certain central cases, Westerners are more likely than East Asians to report intuitions that are consistent with the causal-historical view. These results constitute prima facie evidence that semantic intuitions vary from culture to culture, and the paper argues that this fact raises questions about the nature of the philosophical enterprise of developing a theory of reference. Copryright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  11. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  12. Can direct immunofluorescence testing still be accurate if performed on biopsy specimens after brief inadvertent immersion in formalin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Joshua; Grover, Raminder; Helm, Thomas N; Beutner, Ernst H

    2011-07-01

    Direct immunofluorescence is useful in the diagnosis of autoimmune, vesiculobullous, and connective tissue diseases. Michel medium is typically indicated for transport, but clinicians may inadvertently place samples into formalin. We set out to determine the amount of time that specimens can remain in 10% buffered formalin and still retain their diagnostic properties. Biopsy samples were examined from cases with established diagnoses of bullous pemphigoid (n = 12), dermatitis herpetiformis (n = 6), and pemphigus vulgaris (n = 6) and exposed to formalin for time points ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours. We found that immunoreactants were detectable in the majority of samples when subjected to 2 minutes of formalin exposure. Dermatitis herpetiformis and pemphigoid samples retained immunogenicity for 10 minutes, whereas pemphigus showed reduced immunogenicity for all samples studied. A nonimmunologic nuclear fluorochroming pattern was noted in some of the specimens after formalin immersion. Sample size, only examining 3 disease processes, and samples already having been in Michel medium were the major limitations in the study. In direct immunofluorescence studies, formalin exposure to biopsy specimens causes two types of artifactual changes: (1) the shortest exposure (2 minutes) causes complete loss of diagnostic markers of pemphigus; and (2) prolonged exposure changes tissue to a form that allows fluorescein-labeled antibodies to give fluorochroming reactions of nuclei (which can be mistaken for in vivo antinuclear antibody reactions of lupus erythematosus). After time intervals of 10 minutes to 2 hours, direct immunofluorescence studies of proven cases of bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis retained variable levels of specific reactivity. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of LP-MOCVD grown (Al, Ga)As/GaAs heterostructures by photoluminescence - Single heterojunction and inadvertent quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemon, S.; Norris, P.; Lee, J.; Lambert, G.; Black, J.

    1984-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) was used to detect rapid alloy compositional fluctuations which were found in (Al, Ga)As/GaAs heterostructures grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). PL data are employed to estimate the thickness and aluminum composition of the resulting inadvertent quantum well. A way to eliminate these artifacts was found. Using the improved growth procedures, modulation-doped heterostructures showing two-dimensional electron-gas behavior were then achieved.

  14. A common-sense probabilistic approach to assessing inadvertent human intrusion into low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.; Hooten, M.; Black, K.; Moore, B.; Rawlinson, S.; Barker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Each site disposing of low-level radioactive waste is required to prepare and maintain a site-specific performance assessment (1) to determine potential risks posed by waste management systems to the public, and the environment, and (2) to compare these risks to established performance objectives. The DOE Nevada Operations Office, Waste Management Program recently completed a one-year study of site-specific scenarios for inadvertent human intrusion by drilling into buried low-level radioactive waste sites, as part of ongoing performance assessment studies. Intrusion scenarios focus on possible penetration of buried waste through drilling for sources of groundwater. The probability of drilling penetration into waste was judged to be driven primarily by two settlement scenarios: (1) scattered individual homesteaders, and (2) a community scenario consisting of a cluster of settlers that share drilling and distribution systems for groundwater. Management control factors include institutional control, site knowledge, placards and markers, surface barriers, and subsurface barriers. The Subject Matter Experts concluded that institutional control and site knowledge may be important factors for the first few centuries, but are not significant over the evaluation period of 10,000 years. Surface barriers can be designed that would deter the siting of a drill rig over the waste site to an effectiveness of 95%. Subsurface barriers and placards and markers will not as effectively prevent inadvertent human intrusion. Homestead and community scenarios were considered by the panel to render a site-specific probability of around 10% for inadvertent human intrusion. If management controls are designed and implemented effectively, then the probability of inadvertent human intrusion can be reduced to less than 1%

  15. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: An event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning. PMID:23103410

  16. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    .e., big-step operational semantics) specified in Abadi and Cardelli's monograph. This abstract machine therefore embodies the soundness of Abadi and Cardelli's reduction semantics and natural semantics relative to each other. To move closer to actual implementations, which use environments rather than......We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  17. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  18. Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Winston D; Yap, Melvin J; Lau, Mabel C; Ng, Melvin M R; Tan, Luuan-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction-faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features-while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed.

  19. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B.; Johnson, N.F.; Morris, R.A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.; Robertson, T.; Remsen, D.; Stoev, P.; Parr, C.; Knapp, S.; Kress, W.J.; Thompson, F.C.; Erwin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged

  20. Drug Errors in Anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The incidence of these drug errors during anaesthesia is not certain. They impose a considerable financial burden to health care systems apart from the patient losses. Common causes of these errors and their prevention is discussed.

  1. ATC operational error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The primary causes of operational errors are discussed and the effects of these errors on an ATC system's performance are described. No attempt is made to specify possible error models for the spectrum of blunders that can occur although previous res...

  2. Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cleber Nogueira de; Monti, Carlos Roberto; Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    2001-01-01

    Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapy planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment, as well as the verification of the calculations of the patient's dose and the revision of the plan charts. As a contribution to the improvement of quality control, we present some recommendations to avoid failure of treatment due to error in the delivered dose, such as redundant check of the manual or computer calculations, weekly check of the total dose for each patient, and prevention of inadvertent access to any safety system of the equipment by any staff member that is only supposed to operate the machine. Moreover, the use of a computerized treatment record and verification system should be considered in order to eliminate errors due to incorrect selection of the treatment parameters, in a daily basis. We report four radioactive incidents with patient injuries occurred throughout the world and some gross errors of dose. (author)

  3. Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Mexican Subjects with Gluten-Related Disorders: A High Prevalence of Inadvertent Gluten Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cervantes, Karen Lizzette; Romero-López, Angélica Viridiana; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos Alberto; Uscanga-Domínguez, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The rate of compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with gluten-related disorders is unknown in most Latin American countries. To study the adherence to a gluten-free diet of Mexican individuals with celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity at the time of their first medical and nutritional consultation at a tertiary referral center. A cross-sectional study was performed. A specific questionnaire was used to gather information on demographics, clinical condition, and self-reported adherence to a gluten-free diet, and to determine strict compliance and intentional or inadvertent gluten consumption. All questionnaires were applied by a nutritionist with expertise in gluten-related disorders. Fifty-six patients with celiac disease and 24 with non-celiac gluten sensitivity were included. Overall, 46 (57.5%) subjects perceived themselves as strictly adherent; however, inadvertent gluten intake was frequent in both celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (39.2 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.2). Intentional consumption was more prevalent in subjects with celiac disease (48.8 vs. 29.1%; p = 0.048) and individuals with non-celiac gluten sensitivity showed better adherence (37.5 vs. 12.5%; p = 0.035). The importance of a gluten-free diet is underestimated by Mexican patients with celiac disease. The role of a team with expertise in gluten-related disorders is essential to identify inadvertent gluten intake.

  4. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Damian D G; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T

    2009-09-23

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains). The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies), providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies), and discovery servers (semantic search engines) interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info") uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet"). SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery) while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i) the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii) the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii) the

  5. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static

  6. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  7. Expanding the Extent of a UMLS Semantic Type via Group Neighborhood Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Xu, Junchuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Each Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept is assigned one or more semantic types (ST). A dynamic methodology for aiding an auditor in finding concepts that are missing the assignment of a given ST, S is presented. Design The first part of the methodology exploits the previously introduced Refined Semantic Network and accompanying refined semantic types (RST) to help narrow the search space for offending concepts. The auditing is focused in a neighborhood surrounding the extent of an RST, T (of S) called an envelope, consisting of parents and children of concepts in the extent. The audit moves outward as long as missing assignments are discovered. In the second part, concepts not reached previously are processed and reassigned T as needed during the processing of S's other RSTs. The set of such concepts is expanded in a similar way to that in the first part. Measurements The number of errors discovered is reported. To measure the methodology's efficiency, “error hit rates” (i.e., errors found in concepts examined) are computed. Results The methodology was applied to three STs: Experimental Model of Disease (EMD), Environmental Effect of Humans, and Governmental or Regulatory Activity. The EMD experienced the most drastic change. For its RST “EMD ∩ Neoplastic Process” (RST “EMD”) with only 33 (31) original concepts, 915 (134) concepts were found by the first (second) part to be missing the EMD assignment. Changes to the other two STs were smaller. Conclusion The results show that the proposed auditing methodology can help to effectively and efficiently identify concepts lacking the assignment of a particular semantic type. PMID:19567802

  8. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999....

  9. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design......In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...

  10. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...

  11. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    of generic run-time error types, design of methods of observing application software behaviorduring execution and design of methods of evaluating run time constraints. In the definition of error types it is attempted to cover all relevant aspects of the application softwaree behavior. Methods of observation......In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...... and constraint evaluation is designed for the modt interesting error types. These include: a) semantical errors in data communicated between application tasks; b) errors in the execution of application tasks; and c) errors in the timing of distributed events emitted by the application software. The design...

  12. Statistical search on the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Norio; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2008-04-01

    Statistical analysis of links on the Semantic Web is important for various evaluation purposes such as quantifying an individual's scientific research output based on citation links. SPARQL has been proposed as a standardized query language for the Semantic Web and is intuitively understandable; however, it does not adequately support statistical evaluation of semantic links. We have extended SPARQL to a novel Resource Description Framework (RDF) query language termed General and Rapid Association Study Query Language (GRASQL) to generate inferences connecting semantic Boolean-based deduction and statistical evaluation of RDF resources. We have verified the descriptive capability of GRASQL by writing GRASQL queries for practical biomedical search patterns including in silico positional cloning studies and for ranking researchers in a specific domain of expertise by introducing k index, the number of papers containing specific keywords that are published in a fixed period by a researcher. We have also developed a search engine termed General and Rapid Association Study Engine (GRASE), which executes a restricted variety of GRASQL queries by requesting a dynamic and comprehensive evaluation of statistical significance of intersections between each group of documents assigned to URIs and those documents matching user-specified keywords and omics conditions. By performing practical in silico positional cloning searches with GRASE, we show the relevance of our approach on the Semantic Web for biomedical knowledge discovery problem solving. GRASE is used as the search engine for the Positional Medline (PosMed) service and Researcher Finder service at http://omicspace.riken.jp/.

  13. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  14. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  15. Automatic Estimation of Verified Floating-Point Round-Off Errors via Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Mariano; Titolo, Laura; Dutle, Aaron; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a static analysis technique for computing formally verified round-off error bounds of floating-point functional expressions. The technique is based on a denotational semantics that computes a symbolic estimation of floating-point round-o errors along with a proof certificate that ensures its correctness. The symbolic estimation can be evaluated on concrete inputs using rigorous enclosure methods to produce formally verified numerical error bounds. The proposed technique is implemented in the prototype research tool PRECiSA (Program Round-o Error Certifier via Static Analysis) and used in the verification of floating-point programs of interest to NASA.

  16. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  17. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analgesic-Related Medication Errors Reported to US Poison Control Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Madhulika; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thitphalak; Conner, Kristen A; Smith, Gary A

    2017-11-23

    This study investigates the characteristics and trends of medication errors involving analgesic medications. A retrospective analysis was conducted of analgesic-related medication errors reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2000 through 2012. From 2000 through 2012, the NPDS received 533,763 reports of analgesic-related medication errors, averaging 41,059 medication errors annually. Overall, the rate of analgesic-related medication errors reported to the NPDS increased significantly by 82.6% from 2000 to 2009, followed by a 5.7% nonsignificant decrease from 2009 to 2012. Among the analgesic categories, rates of both acetaminophen-related and opioid-related medication errors reported to the NPDS increased during 2000-2009, but the opioid error rate leveled off during 2009-2012, while the acetaminophen error rate decreased by 17.9%. Analgesic-related medication errors involved nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (37.0%), acetaminophen (35.5%), and opioids (23.2%). Children five years or younger accounted for 38.8% of analgesics-related medication errors. Most (90.2%) analgesic-related medication errors were managed on-site, rather than at a health care facility; 1.6% were admitted to a hospital, and 1.5% experienced serious medical outcomes, including 145 deaths. The most common type of medication error was inadvertently taking/given the medication twice (26.6%). Analgesic-related medication errors are common, and although most do not result in clinical consequences, they can have serious adverse outcomes. Initiatives associated with the decrease in acetaminophen-related medication errors among young children merit additional research and potential replication as a model combining government policy and multisectoral collaboration.

  19. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  20. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW......, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW......-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  1. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  2. On semantics and applications of guarded recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation we study applications and semantics of guarded recursion, which is a method for ensuring that self-referential descriptions of objects define a unique object. The first two chapters are devoted to applications. We use guarded recursion, first in the form of explicit step...... chapter we study a simply typed calculus with additional "later" and "constant" modalities and a guarded fixed-point combinator. These are used for encoding and working with guarded recursive and coinductive types in a modular way. We develop a normalising operational semantics, provide an adequate...... denotational model and a logic for reasoning about program equivalence. In the last three chapters we study syntax and semantics of a dependent type theory with a family of later modalities indexed by the set of clocks, and clock quantifiers. In the fourth and fifth chapters we provide two model constructions...

  3. [Why radiologists should be concerned with semantics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstmair, A; Kotter, E

    2013-08-01

    Radiological image and data archives contain huge amounts of data which are barely utilized by current technologies. In the future semantic technologies currently under development will enable analysis of the contents not only on the level of individual patients but also along entire data collections thereby resulting in new applications that will benefit routine clinical practice, teaching activities and research. As a prerequisite the development of software for semantic analysis of image and report contents is necessary, i.e. an "understanding" of the contents by the software. Based on specific ontologies, standardized protocols and semantic image annotation new systems will be developed that make the content of these data archives accessible and support diagnosis, quality assurance, innovative research applications and last not least, the merging of data of different medical disciplines, such as radiology, pathology and clinical chemistry.

  4. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  5. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  6. The Semantics of Englishes and Creoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol; Nicholls, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides a lexical-semantic comparison of a selection of Englishes and English-related creoles in the Australia-Pacific area. Faced with the conundrum in sociolinguistic classificatory practice and its contested categories: “language”, “creole”, “dialect”, “variety”, and “English......(es)”, we will attempt to circumvent the problematic of metavocabulary by taking a new, two-pronged approach. Firstly, we rely on semantic primes, simple words meanings such asI, you, people, body, big, small, know,think, see, hearas our comparandum, and compare and contrast the lexicalizations...... languages in order to explore the language-dialect question, and against Trinidadian – a Caribbean creole, in order to explore the extent of lexical-semantic areality. We conclude that current sociolinguistic metavocabulary is inadequate for representing the complexity of the new ways of speaking...

  7. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  8. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.......Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...

  9. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  10. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980.

  11. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages...... of game semantics to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way programs with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite-state symbolic-automata although the standard automata representation is infinite-state, i.e. the standard regular-language representation has...... infinite summations. Moreover, in this way significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of programs by our prototype tool based on symbolic game models, which is illustrated with several examples....

  12. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-04-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  13. Linked data scientometrics in semantic e-Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, Tom; Wimmer, Hayden

    2017-03-01

    The Semantic Web is inherently multi-disciplinary and many domains have taken advantage of semantic technologies. Yet, the geosciences are one of the fields leading the way in Semantic Web adoption and validation. Astronomy, Earth science, hydrology, and solar-terrestrial physics have seen a noteworthy amount of semantic integration. The geoscience community has been willing early adopters of semantic technologies and have provided essential feedback to the broader semantic web community. Yet, there has been no systematic study of the community as a whole and there exists no quantitative data on the impact and status of semantic technologies in the geosciences. We explore the applicability of Linked Data to scientometrics in the geosciences. In doing so, we gain an initial understanding of the breadth and depth of the Semantic Web in the geosciences. We identify what appears to be a transitionary period in the applicability of these technologies.

  14. Semantic Web Technologies to Reconcile Privacy and Context Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gandon, Fabien L; Sadeh, Norman M

    2003-01-01

    ...; they may use different calendar systems, etc. In this article, we describe work on a Semantic e-Wallet aimed at supporting automated identification and access of personal resources, each represented as a Semantic Web Service...

  15. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  16. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Joanne S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

  17. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  18. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  19. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  20. A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

  1. Two-Level Semantics and Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1988-01-01

    A two-level denotational metalanguage that is suitable for defining the semantics of Pascal-like languages is presented. The two levels allow for an explicit distinction between computations taking place at compile-time and computations taking place at run-time. While this distinction is perhaps...... not absolutely necessary for describing the input-output semantics of programming languages, it is necessary when issues such as data flow analysis and code generation are considered. For an example stack-machine, the authors show how to generate code for the run-time computations and still perform the compile...

  2. Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar S. Dimovski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata interpretation is infinite. Moreover, significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of terms, which is illustrated with several examples.

  3. Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Parreiras, Fernando S

    2012-01-01

    The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

  4. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  5. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  6. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  7. Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

  8. Exploring Words with Semantic Correlations from Chinese Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Kaiyan; Tsuchiya, Seiji; Ren, Fuji; Zhong, Yixin

    In this paper, we work on semantic correlation between Chinese words based on Wikipedia documents. A corpus with about 50,000 structured documents is generated from Wikipedia pages. Then considering of hyper-links, text overlaps and word frequency, about 300,000 word pairs with semantic correlations are explored from these documents. We roughly measure the degree of semantic correlations and find groups with tight semantic correlations by self clustering.

  9. Spatiotemporal Convergence of Semantic Processing in Reading and Speech Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, J.; Parviainen, T.; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of word meaning from the semantic system and its integration with context are often assumed to be shared by spoken and written words. How is modality-independent semantic processing manifested in the brain, spatially and temporally? Time-sensitive neuroimaging allows tracking of neural activation sequences. Use of semantically related versus unrelated word pairs or sentences ending with a semantically highly or less plausible word, in separate studies of the auditory and visual moda...

  10. A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    LI Zedong; DUAN Xiaodong; ZHANG Qingling

    2013-01-01

    The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available in...

  11. CNN-aware Binary Map for General Semantic Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Rastegari, Mohammad; Regazzoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel method for general semantic segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary codes are very robust against noise and non-semantic changes in the image. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN...

  12. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  13. Correction for quadrature errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, A.; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1994-01-01

    In high bandwidth radar systems it is necessary to use quadrature devices to convert the signal to/from baseband. Practical problems make it difficult to implement a perfect quadrature system. Channel imbalance and quadrature phase errors in the transmitter and the receiver result in error signals......, which appear as self-clutter in the radar image. When digital techniques are used for generation and processing or the radar signal it is possible to reduce these error signals. In the paper the quadrature devices are analyzed, and two different error compensation methods are considered. The practical...

  14. Requirements of a security framework for the semantic web

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbaya, IR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available introduce new security challenges. Consequently, security becomes a crucial factor for the adoption of the Semantic Web. There are existing suggested security frameworks for the Semantic Web, however none of these address all issues related to the Semantic...

  15. Semantic Web Technologies as the Foundation for the Information Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S.; Van Harmelen, Frank; Van Oosterom, Peter; Zlatanova, S

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web is arising over the pas few years as a realistic option for a world wide Information Infrastructure, with its promises of semantic interoperability and serendipitous reuse. In this paper we will analyse the essential ingredients of semantic technologies, what makes them suitable as

  16. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  17. Approximate semantic matching of music classes on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksovski, Zharko; Kate, Warner Ten; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of semantic matching, which concerns the search for semantic agreement between heterogeneous concept hierarchies. We propose a new approximation method to discover and assess the "strength" (preciseness) of a semantic match between concepts from two such concept hierarchies.

  18. A real-time execution semantics for UML activity diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Hussmann, Heinrich

    We define a formal execution semantics for UML activity diagrams that is appropriate for workflow modelling. Our semantics is aimed at the requirements level by assuming that software state changes do not take time. It is based upon the STATEMATE semantics of statecharts, extended with some

  19. A Semantic Web-based System for Managing Clinical Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Breis, Jesualdo Tomas; Menarguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Martinez-Costa, Catalina; Fernandez-Breis, Eneko; Herrero-Sempere, Jose; Moner, David; Sanchez, Jesus; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael; Robles, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Archetypes facilitate the sharing of clinical knowledge and therefore are a basic tool for achieving interoperability between healthcare information systems. In this paper, a Semantic Web System for Managing Archetypes is presented. This system allows for the semantic annotation of archetypes, as well for performing semantic searches. The current system is capable of working with both ISO13606 and OpenEHR archetypes.

  20. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD...

  1. Serial processing in melody identification and the organization of musical semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2004-11-01

    Unlike the visual stimuli used in most object identification experiments, melodies are organized temporally rather than spatially. Therefore, they may be particularly sensitive to manipulations of the order in which information is revealed. Two experiments examined whether the initial elements of a melody are differentially important for identification. Initial exposures to impoverished versions of a melody significantly decreased subsequent identification, especially when the early exposures did not include the initial notes of the melody. Analyses of the initial notes indicated that they are differentially important for melody identification because they help the listener detect the overall structure of the melody. Confusion errors tended to be songs that either were drawn from the same genre or shared similar phrasing. These data indicate that conceptual processing influences melody identification, that phrase-level information is used to organize melodies in semantic memory, and that phrase-level information is required to effectively search semantic memory.

  2. Complex Biological Event Extraction from Full Text using Signatures of Linguistic and Semantic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Liam R.; Domico, Kelly O.; Corley, Courtney D.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2011-06-24

    Building on technical advances from the BioNLP 2009 Shared Task Challenge, the 2011 challenge sets forth to generalize techniques to other complex biological event extraction tasks. In this paper, we present the implementation and evaluation of a signature-based machine-learning technique to predict events from full texts of infectious disease documents. Specifically, our approach uses novel signatures composed of traditional linguistic features and semantic knowledge to predict event triggers and their candidate arguments. Using a leave-one out analysis, we report the contribution of linguistic and shallow semantic features in the trigger prediction and candidate argument extraction. Lastly, we examine evaluations and posit causes for errors of infectious disease track subtasks.

  3. Mining Genotype-Phenotype Associations from Public Knowledge Sources via Semantic Web Querying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard C; Freimuth, Robert R; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-01-01

    Gene Wiki Plus (GeneWiki+) and the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) are publicly available resources for sharing information about disease-gene and gene-SNP associations in humans. While immensely useful to the scientific community, both resources are manually curated, thereby making the data entry and publication process time-consuming, and to some degree, error-prone. To this end, this study investigates Semantic Web technologies to validate existing and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations in GWP and OMIM. In particular, we demonstrate the applicability of SPARQL queries for identifying associations not explicitly stated for commonly occurring chronic diseases in GWP and OMIM, and report our preliminary findings for coverage, completeness, and validity of the associations. Our results highlight the benefits of Semantic Web querying technology to validate existing disease-gene associations as well as identify novel associations although further evaluation and analysis is required before such information can be applied and used effectively.

  4. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  5. Open semantic analysis: The case of word level semantics in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2017-01-01

    The present research is motivated by the need for accessible and efficient tools for automated semantic analysis in Danish. We are interested in tools that are completely open, so they can be used by a critical public, in public administration, non-governmental organizations and businesses. We...... describe data-driven models for Danish semantic relatedness, word intrusion and sentiment prediction. Open Danish corpora were assembled and unsupervised learning implemented for explicit semantic analysis and with Gensim’s Word2vec model. We evaluate the performance of the two models on three different...... annotated word datasets. We test the semantic representations’ alignment with single word sentiment using supervised learning. We find that logistic regression and large random forests perform well with Word2vec features....

  6. A comprehensive approach to the word semantic structure definition within a semantic

    OpenAIRE

    Е В Калинычева

    2008-01-01

    The article describes a comprehensive approach to the word semantic structure definition that serves a foundation for the exploration and definition of meanings of modern English verbs denoting light.

  7. A comprehensive approach to the word semantic structure definition within a semantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е В Калинычева

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a comprehensive approach to the word semantic structure definition that serves a foundation for the exploration and definition of meanings of modern English verbs denoting light.

  8. Medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  10. Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

  11. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept.

  12. Semantic Boggle: A Game for Vocabulary Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Irina; Alexandru, Cristina-Elena; Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language is a difficult endeavor, the main encountered problem being vocabulary acquisition. The learning process can be improved through visual representations of coherent contexts, best represented in serious games. The game described in this paper, Semantic Boggle, is a serious

  13. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  14. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  15. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  16. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  17. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  18. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  19. Subtyping can have a simple semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consider a first order typed language, with semantics $S$ for expressions and types. Adding subtyping means that a partial order $<$; on types is defined and that the typing rules are extended to the effect that expression $e$ has type $t$ whenever $e$ has type $s$ and $s

  20. Graph Transformation Semantics for a QVT Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Nederpel, Ronald; Bruni, Roberto; Varró, Dániel

    It has been claimed by many in the graph transformation community that model transformation, as understood in the context of Model Driven Architecture, can be seen as an application of graph transformation. In this paper we substantiate this claim by giving a graph transformation-based semantics to

  1. Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

    2013-01-01

    "Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might…

  2. Canonical Processes of Semantically Annotated Media Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardman, L.; Obrenović, Ž.; Nack, F.; Troncy, R.; Huet, B.; Schenk, S.

    2011-01-01

    While many multimedia systems allow the association of semantic annotations with media assets, there is no agreed way of sharing these among systems. This chapter identifies a small number of fundamental processes of media production, which the author terms canonical processes, which can be

  3. Canonical processes of semantically annotated media production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Hardman (Lynda); Z. Obrenovic; F.-M. Nack (Frank); B. Kerhervé; K. Piersol

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWhile many multimedia systems allow the association of semantic annotations with media assets, there is no agreed-upon way of sharing these among systems. As an initial step within the multimedia community, we identify a small number of fundamental processes of media production, which we

  4. Canonical processes of semantically annotated media production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardman, L.; Obrenović, Ž.; Nack, F.; Kerhervé, B.; Piersol, K.

    2008-01-01

    While many multimedia systems allow the association of semantic annotations with media assets, there is no agreed-upon way of sharing these among systems. As an initial step within the multimedia community, we identify a small number of fundamental processes of media production, which we term

  5. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, X.; Bouma, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal

  6. A Vectorial Semantics Approach to Personality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, Yair; Cohen, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    Personality assessment and, specifically, the assessment of personality disorders have traditionally been indifferent to computational models. Computational personality is a new field that involves the automatic classification of individuals' personality traits that can be compared against gold-standard labels. In this context, we introduce a new vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment, which involves the construction of vectors representing personality dimensions and disorders...

  7. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  8. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  9. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  10. Action Semantics and ASF+SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Modularity and tool support are crucial features for practical use of formal descriptions of programming languages. The combination of unrestricted context-free grammars with action semantics allows complete language descriptions with exceptionally good modularity. Moreover, by specifying the des...... the descriptions in ASF+SDF, the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment can be used to provide appropriate tool support....

  11. SEMANTIC EVIDENCE AGAINST THE AUTONOMY OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Botha. 1. This paper deals at two levels with the question of whether there is a separate component of the grammar that is specifically concerned with the structure of words.1 At a more concrete level, the paper presents semantic evidence.

  12. Generating English Discourse from Semantic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R. F.; Slocum, Jonathan

    The system described in this report is designed for use as a computational tool that allows a linguist to develop and study methods for generating surface strings from an underlying semantic structure. Initial findings with regard to form-determiners (such as voice, form, tense, and mood), some rules for embedding sentences, and some attention to…

  13. Exploring Context Semantics for Proactive Cooperative Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Ramón; Nava, Salvador W.; Fontecha, Jesús; Casero, Gregorio; Laguna, Javier; Bravo, José

    Context-awareness offers opportunities in proactive adaptation of visualization services. The acquisition and representation of the user situation can better support the cooperative tasks, adapting the interactive services at run-time. This paper proposes a formal context model, based on Semantic Web languages, and providing interoperation between heterogeneous services and mechanisms for a dynamic definition of user interfaces.

  14. Efficient genre-specific semantic video indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2012-01-01

    Large video collections such as YouTube contain many different video genres, while in many applications the user might be interested in one or two specific video genres only. Thus, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept like AnchorPerson, and MovieStars, they are likely

  15. Processing Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of Semantic Compositionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the main claims of the idiom decomposition hypothesis: People have clear intuitions on the semantic compositionality of idiomatic expressions, which determines the syntactic behavior of these expressions and how they are recognized. Experiment 1 showed that intuitions are clear only for a very restricted number of…

  16. Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role…

  17. Semantics, pragmatics and the theory of meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.A.G.; Stokhof, M.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper arguments are given for the thesis that an adequate theory of meaning for a natural language has to consist at least of a recursive specification of the truth conditions (semantics) and of a recursive specification of the correctness conditions (pragmatics) of the sentences of that

  18. Smart Style on the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWeb publishing systems have to take into account a plethora of Web-enabled devices, user preferences and abilities. Technologies generating these presentations will need to be explicitly aware of the context in which the information is being presented. Semantic Web technology can be a

  19. Semantic results for ontic and epistemic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditmarsch, Hans; Kooi, Barteld; Bonanno, G.; van der Hoek, W.; Wooldridge, M.

    2008-01-01

    Hans van Ditmarsch and Barteld Kooi (2008). Semantic results for ontic and epistemic change. In: G. Bonanno, W. van der Hoek and M. Wooldridge (editors). Logic and the Foundations of Game and Decision Theory (LOFT 7). Texts in Logic and Games 3, pp. 87-117, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...