Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A
The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.
Antidepressants and weight gain: What causes it? Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall- ... is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. However, each person responds to antidepressants differently. Some ...
Ling, Carol Carlson
Weight gain during pregnancy, relationships among body image, body weight standards, and attitudes toward weight gain were investigated. Weight gain recommendations, based on preconceptional weight status (PCWS) reflected current practices in prenatal care at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, VA, and provided a basis on which to categorize weight gain as inadequate, appropriate, and excess. Women who experienced excess weight gain (EWG) were compared to those who ex...
... Healthy Eating for a Healthy Weight Planning Meals Cutting Calories Eat More, Weigh Less? Rethink Your Drink ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical ...
... your uterus (also called womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. Uterus = 2 pounds. The uterus is the place inside you where your baby grows Last reviewed: November, 2016 Pregnancy Nutrition, weight & ...
Eudy, A M; Siega-Riz, A M; Engel, S M; Franceschini, N; Howard, A G; Clowse, M E B; Petri, M
Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus meeting Institute of Medicine guidelines for gestational weight gain and determine correlates of adherence to guidelines. Methods Singleton, live births in the Hopkins Lupus Pregnancy Cohort 1987-2015 were included. Pre-pregnancy weight was the weight recorded 12 months prior to pregnancy/first trimester. Final weight was the last weight recorded in the third trimester. Adherence to Institute of Medicine guidelines (inadequate, adequate, or excessive) was based on pre-pregnancy body mass index. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance determined factors associated with not meeting guidelines. Stepwise selection estimated predictors of gestational weight gain. Results Of the 211 pregnancies, 34%, 24% and 42% had inadequate, adequate and excessive gestational weight gain, respectively. In exploratory analyses, differences in Institute of Medicine adherence were observed by pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, elevated creatinine during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy blood pressure. Odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain increased 12% with each 1 kg/m 2 increase in pre-pregnancy body mass index. Lower maternal education was associated with increased odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions As in the general population, most women with systemic lupus erythematosus did not meet Institute of Medicine guidelines. Our results identified predictors of gestational weight gain to aid in targeted interventions to improve guideline adherence in this population.
Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per
Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the...
Davis, S R; Castelo-Branco, C; Chedraui, P; Lumsden, M A; Nappi, R E; Shah, D; Villaseca, P
The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of the menopause transition on body weight and body composition. We conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2012) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'menopause', 'midlife', 'hormone therapy' or 'estrogen' combined with 'obesity', 'body weight' or 'body composition'. Whereas weight gain per se cannot be attributed to the menopause transition, the change in the hormonal milieu at menopause is associated with an increase in total body fat and an increase in abdominal fat. Weight excess at midlife is not only associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but also impacts adversely on health-related quality of life and sexual function. Animal and human studies indicate that this tendency towards central abdominal fat accumulation is ameliorated by estrogen therapy. Studies mostly indicate a reduction in overall fat mass with estrogen and estrogen-progestin therapy, improved insulin sensitivity and a lower rate of development of type 2 diabetes. The hormonal changes across the perimenopause substantially contribute to increased abdominal obesity which leads to additional physical and psychological morbidity. There is strong evidence that estrogen therapy may partly prevent this menopause-related change in body composition and the associated metabolic sequelae. However, further studies are required to identify the women most likely to gain metabolic benefit from menopausal hormone therapy in order to develop evidence-based clinical recommendations.
Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen
The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.
Beta blockers: Do they cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol ( ...
Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R
The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Two perinatal deaths occurred, with a perinatal mortality rate of 9.52/ 1000.Their mother's weight gains were not attributable to the deaths. Conclusion The study has shown that parity and social class significantly affect maternal weight gain in pregnancy. Even though the mean weight gain in this study was 8.58 ± 3.61kg, ...
Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...
Laraia, Barbara; Epel, Elissa; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria
Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test asses...
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.
Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....
Apr 11, 2007 ... weight well enough. The only objective way of assessing a child's weight gain is to take repeated measurements on a reliable (or at least the same) scale. Just recording ... illness or acute starvation, and catch-up can occur equally readily. Therefore a .... weight loss or failure to thrive, the child should be ...
V N Pokusaeva
Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.
McNay, David E.G.; Speakman, John R.
Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with...
Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward
In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.
... 5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living ... Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content Article Body The most harmful misconception ...
Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...
... but excess pounds aren't inevitable. To minimize menopause weight gain, step up your activity level and ... In fact, many women gain weight around the menopause transition. Menopause weight gain isn't inevitable, however. ...
Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole
Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...
Rosing, Johanne Aviaja; Walker, Karen Christina; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech
the association between the level of oral Lactobacillus and the subsequent 6-year weight change in a healthy population of 322 Danish adults aged 35-65 years at baseline. Design: Prospective observational study. Results: In unadjusted analysis the level of oral Lactobacillus was inversely associated...... with subsequent 6-year change in BMI. A statistically significant interaction between the baseline level of oral Lactobacillus and the consumption of complex carbohydrates was found, e.g. high oral Lactobacillus count predicted weight loss for those with a low intake of complex carbohydrates, while a medium...... intake of complex carbohydrates predicted diminished weight gain. A closer examination of these relations showed that BMI change and Lactobacillus level was unrelated for those with high complex carbohydrate consumption. Conclusion: A high level of oral Lactobacillus seems related to weight loss among...
Insulin and weight gain: Keep the pounds off Insulin and weight gain often go hand in hand, but weight control is possible. If you need insulin therapy, here's how to minimize — or avoid — weight ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. Methods Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy data were collected from patient records of maternity centers. 123 subsequent breast cancer cases were identified through a record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry, and the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 35 – 74. A sample of 979 women (123 cases, 856 controls from the cohort was linked to the Hospital Inpatient Registry to obtain information on the women's stay in hospitals. Results Mothers in the upper tertile of pregnancy weight gain (>15 kg had a 1.62-fold (95% CI 1.03–2.53 higher breast cancer risk than mothers who gained the recommended amount (the middle tertile, mean: 12.9 kg, range 11–15 kg, after adjusting for mother's age at menarche, age at first birth, age at index pregnancy, parity at the index birth, and body mass index (BMI before the index pregnancy. In a separate nested case-control study (n = 65 cases and 431 controls, adjustment for BMI at the time of breast cancer diagnosis did not modify the findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that high pregnancy weight gain increases later breast cancer risk, independently from body weight at the time of diagnosis.
Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M
to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals
The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...
Stanford, Fatima Cody; Alfaris, Nasreen; Gomez, Gricelda; Ricks, Elizabeth T; Shukla, Alpana P; Corey, Kathleen E; Pratt, Janey S; Pomp, Alfons; Rubino, Francesco; Aronne, Louis J
Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Two academic medical centers. We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost≥5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing≥10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and≥15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose≥5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter
To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....
Abdullah Al Mamun
Full Text Available We have investigated the prospective association between excess gestational weight gain (GWG and development of diabetes by 21 years post-partum using a community-based large prospective cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. There were 3386 mothers for whom complete data were available on GWG, pre-pregnancy BMI and self-reported diabetes 21 years post-partum. We used The Institute of Medicine (IOM definition to categorize GWG as inadequate, adequate and excessive. We found 839 (25.78% mothers gained inadequate weight, 1,353 (39.96% had adequate weight gain and 1,194 (35.26% had gained excessive weight during pregnancy. At 21 years post-partum, 8.40% of mothers self-reported a diagnosis of diabetes made by their doctor. In the age adjusted model, we found mothers who gained excess weight during pregnancy were 1.47 (1.11,1.94 times more likely to experience diabetes at 21 years post-partum compared to the mothers who gained adequate weight. This association was not explained by the potential confounders including maternal age, parity, education, race, smoking, TV watching and exercise. However, this association was mediated by the current BMI. There was no association for the women who had normal BMI before pregnancy and gained excess weight during pregnancy. The findings of this study suggest that women who gain excess weight during pregnancy are at greater risk of being diagnosed with diabetes in later life. This relationship is likely mediated through the pathway of post-partum weight-retention and obesity. This study adds evidence to the argument that excessive GWG during pregnancy for overweight mothers has long term maternal health implications.
BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...
... can do for your health. Fortunately, there are things you can do to keep your weight under control when you quit. Why People Who Quit Smoking Gain Weight There are a couple of reasons why people gain weight when they give up ...
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.
A. Supriyantono; L. Hakim; S. Suyadi; I. Ismudiono
The aim of the research was to evaluate the genetic improving of production traits selected of Bali cattle. Four hundred and twenty eight data of weaning weight, yearling weight and body weight gain were used to estimate genetic improvement for those traits. One hundred and seven data of body dimension (body weight, chest circumference, body length and withers height) at 24 months old were used to estimate genetic improving for those traits. The estimation of genetic and environmental varianc...
Gante, Inês; Amaral, Njila; Dores, Jorge; Almeida, Maria C
Both obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus are increasing in prevalence, being a major health problem in pregnancy with independent and additive impact on obstetrics outcomes. It is recognized that inadequate gestational weight gain is an independent risk factor for pregnancy-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gestational weight gain on obstetric and neonatal outcomes in obese women with gestational diabetes. Retrospective multicenter study of obese women with gestational diabetes. The assessed group was divided into three categories: women who gained below (9 kg) the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared and adjusted odds ratios calculated controlling for confounders. Only 35,1 % of obese women with gestational diabetes (n = 634) achieved the recommended gestational weight gain; 27,8 % (n = 502) gained below and 37,1 % (n = 670) above the recommendations. There was a positive correlation between gestational weight gain and neonatal birthweight (r = 0,225; p obstetric and neonatal outcomes than an excessive or even an adequate weight gain. Therefore, specific recommendations should be created since gestational weight gain could be a modifiable risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes.
Gulanick, Nancy; And Others
Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…
Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M
To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.
Background: Birth-weight remains an indicator for survivalof infants and a summary of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Low birth-weight is prevalent in developing countries and contributes to infant mortality. Weight gain during pregnancy is a good predictor of birth-weight and window of opportunity to reduce LBW rates ...
cafeteria of the university, wheat middlings and wheat bran to make 62, 22, and 15% by air-dry weight, respectively, at the beginning of the trials. The ingredients of the fishmeal ..... The problem of diarrhoea was not manifested in Trial 2. Overall, pigs supplemented with fishmeal seemed healthier than the control group.
Strien, T. van; Konttinen, H.M.; Homberg, J.R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Winkens, L.H.H.
Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to
Jun 28, 2017 ... PMID: XXX. INTRODUCTION. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of fetal growth, birthweight, and infant health outcomes.[1,2] In view of this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States recommended limits of weight gain for women during pregnancy.. This recommendation ...
Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...
Apr 3, 1971 ... SUMMARY. The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain effect of Periactin tablets in anorexic patients. Periactin doses of 2 mg, 4 mg and 8 mg were found to be statistically significantly better than placebo in regard to weight gain. Periactin 4-mg and 8-mg dosage groups showed a statisti-.
Jun 6, 2011 ... Abstract. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. ... college life exposes first-year students to weight gain which they ... Results. The social and demographic characteristics of the study participants.
The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434
Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C
Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (<5 kg) and extreme-high weight gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.
Dipietro, Janet A; Millet, Sarah; Costigan, Kathleen A; Gurewitsch, Edith; Caulfield, Laura E
To examine pregnant women's weight-related attitudes and behaviors in relation to a constellation of psychosocial characteristics, prepregnancy body habitus, and gestational weight gain. One hundred-thirty women with low-risk, normal pregnancies. Cross-sectional, observational study assessed attitudes about weight gain at 36 weeks' gestation. Psychosocial characteristics, including anxiety, depression, social support, emotionality, and pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress appraisal were assessed between 28 and 36 weeks' gestation. Principal components factor analysis, Pearson correlations, t tests, and analysis of variance. A range of positive and negative attitudes about weight gain was expressed. Twenty-one percent (n=27) of the sample endorsed at least one weight-restrictive behavior during pregnancy. Women who reported more weight-restrictive behaviors were more anxious (r=.24, P<.01), depressed (r=.29,P<.001), angry (r=.29, P<.001), stressed (r=.23, P<.01), and felt less uplifted (r=-.21, P<.05) about their pregnancies in general. Higher Positive Pregnancy Body Image scores were associated with feeling better about the pregnancy in general (r=.35, P<.001), fewer depressive symptoms, and less anger (both r=.20, both P<.01). Women who were self conscious about their weight gain felt more hassled by their pregnancies (r=.21, P<.05), greater anger (r=.21, P<.05), and more support from partners (r=.22, P<.05). Prepregnancy body mass index was unrelated, but negative attitudes about weight gain existed even among women who gained within recommended ranges. Women's attitudes about weight gain in pregnancy are imbedded in their orientation toward pregnancy as well as their general psychological functioning. Effective nutrition counseling for pregnant women should include consideration of weight-restrictive behaviors, the degree to which the pregnancy is perceived as positive and uplifting, and whether weight gain attitudes may be associated with their
Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the relative contributions of some selected maternal variables. (independent variables) to the infant's birth weight. (dependent variable). The selected maternal variables included age, height, weight, gestational period and weight gain at second and third trimesters.
Results from Pearson correlation analysis found a positive correlation (P<0.001) between birth weight and variables such as maternal age, gestational period, parity, weight gain in both second and third trimester, birth length and sex of an infant. Multiple regression analysis indicated that birth weight (dependent variable) ...
Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W
Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.
Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva
-11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Salvi, Virginio; Mencacci, Claudio; Barone-Adesi, Francesco
Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are extensively found in patients taking psychotropic medications. Although mainly antipsychotics have been implicated, also antidepressants carry the potential to induce weight gain, with tricyclics and mirtazapine being associated with the greatest weight gain. It has been suggested that this could be due to the different ability of antidepressants to block adrenergic, cholinergic, and histaminergic postsynaptic receptors. To date, however, the link between antidepressant-induced weight gain and their receptor affinity profile has not been established. We reanalysed data from a previous meta-analysis to evaluate whether weight change is associated with specific receptor affinity of antidepressants. We retrieved data from the only meta-analysis that assessed weight change with antidepressants. We searched in the Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) Ki database data on the affinities of antidepressants to receptors hypothetically linked with weight change: H1-histamine, 5HT2c, M3-muscarinic, and α1A-adrenergic receptors. The association between weight change and receptor affinities was estimated using meta-regression. We found a significant association between the affinity of antidepressants to H1-receptor and weight gain (p value: antidepressants. These results further stress a reclassification of antidepressants according to their pharmacodynamic properties, and suggest avoiding prescribing antidepressants with an anti-histaminergic profile to patients at risk for cardio-metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.
Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and...
Larsson, Melanie Wange
Background: Breastfed infants have, except for the first two months, lower weight gain and are shorter and thinner at 12 mo compared to formula-fed infants. Lower protein content in breastmilk and better appetite regulation have been suggested as causes. Furthermore, breastfed infants gain more f...
Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A
To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.
or adequate weight gain should be ensured because children born with low birth weight are prone to stunted growth, cognitive challenges and chronic diseases in later life. Key words: Adolescent ... Ilorin is one of the largest cities in Nigeria with a population of 777, 667 as at the 2006 census, representing 32% of the total ...
dressing percentage (DP) and rib eye muscle area. Concentrate supplementation of goats resulted in high (P < 0.05) dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake, which was reflected in increased (P < 0.05) average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). The empty body weight, hot ...
Moringa leaf meal supplementation for sheep: Effect on weight gain, blood serum chemistry and carcass characteristics. ... However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in dressing percentage, breast muscle and liver weight, with highest values of 94.42% (in 10% MLM), 1.68 % (in 5% MLM), and 1.84 % (in 5% MLM) ...
Althuizen, Ellen; van Poppel, Mireille Nm; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem
OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with weight gain during pregnancy that may be linked to maternal overweight and obesity were examined. METHODS: In this observational study, 144 women reported on demographics, (prepregnancy) body weight, and lifestyles in self-reported questionnaires at 30 weeks
de Vos, Paul; Hanck, Christoph; Neisingh, Marjolein; Prak, Dennis; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.
Background We determined body weight increase in first year Dutch college students. We had the objective to determine whether the awareness of the unhealthy lifestyle raised concerns and willingness to change habits. Methods Body weight, heartbeat, BMI, body fat percentages, and blood pressure values were collected from 1095 students. Comprehensive statistical analysis was performed on the data. Results The students had a mean weight gain of 1.1 kg and an average BMI gain of 0.35. Members of a student corps gained significantly more weight (1.6 ± 3.1 kg) than non-members (1.0 ± 2.5 kg), while students who are living independently gained an average of 0.5 kg more than students living with their parents (p students changed their eating patterns and 30.7% of the students consumed more alcohol. Conclusions Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life. PMID:26844076
Meltzer, Andrea L; Novak, Sarah A; McNulty, James K; Butler, Emily A; Karney, Benjamin R
Prior research makes competing predictions regarding whether marital satisfaction is positively or negatively associated with weight gain. The health regulation model suggests that satisfying relationships facilitate the functions of marriage that promote health. Thus, spouses should be most likely to gain weight when either partner is less satisfied because marital strain causes stress that interferes with self-regulatory behaviors. The mating market model, in contrast, suggests that weight maintenance is motivated primarily by the desire to attract a mate. Thus, spouses should be least likely to gain weight when either partner is less satisfied because they should feel an increased need to attract a new mate. This longitudinal study of 169 newlywed couples evaluated each possibility. Spouses completed measures of height, weight, marital satisfaction, stress, steps toward divorce, and several covariates biannually for 4 years. Supporting the mating market model, own and partner satisfaction were positively associated with changes in weight, and this association was mediated by steps toward divorce: Spouses who were less satisfied than usual or had partners who were less satisfied than usual were more likely to consider divorce and thus less likely to gain weight. These findings challenge the idea that quality relationships always benefit health, suggesting instead that spouses in satisfying relationships relax their efforts to maintain their weight because they are no longer motivated to attract a mate. Interventions to prevent weight gain in early marriage may therefore benefit from encouraging spouses to think about their weight in terms of health rather than appearance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese
Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.
Olson, Brad G; Kurland, Yonatan; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Hobart, Travis R
Prior studies of immigrants to the United States show significant weight gain after 10 years of US residence. Pediatric refugees are a vulnerable population whose post-immigration weight trajectory has not been studied. We examined the longitudinal weight trajectory of 1067 pediatric refugees seen in a single university based refugee health program between the dates of September 3, 2012 and September 3, 2014 to determine how quickly significant weight gain occurs post-arrival. The most recent BMI was abstracted from the electronic health record and charts reviewed to obtain serial BMI measurements in 3 year increments after the date of US arrival. The mean arrival BMI percentile for all refugees was 47th percentile. This increased significantly to the 63rd percentile within 3 years of US arrival (p refugees. The overall prevalence of age and sex adjusted obesity rose from 7.4 % at arrival to 18.3 % within 9 years of US immigration exceeding the pediatric US national obesity prevalence of 16.9 %. Pediatric refugees are at increased risk of rapid weight gain after US immigration. Targeted interventions focused on prevention of weight gain in specific populations are warranted.
Full Text Available The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN or the globus pallidus internus (GPi. Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040. There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6, left superior gyrus (BA 8, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46, and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7. However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067. These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.
Anthanont, Pimjai; Jensen, Michael D
Background: Some previous studies have indicated that a low basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an independent predictor of future weight gain, but low rates of follow-up and highly select populations may limit the ability to generalize the results. Objective: We assessed whether adults with a low BMR gain more weight than do adults with a high BMR who are living in a typical Western environment. Design: We extracted BMR, body-composition, demographic, and laboratory data from electronic databases of 757 volunteers who were participating in our research protocols at the Mayo Clinic between 1995 and 2012. Research study volunteers were always weight stable, had no acute illnesses and no confounding medication use, and were nonsmokers. The top and bottom 15th percentiles of BMR, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, age, and sex, were identified. Follow-up electronic medical record system data were available for 163 subjects, which allowed us to determine their subsequent weight changes for ≥3 y (mean: ∼9.7 y). Results: By definition, the BMR was different in the high-BMR group (2001 ± 317 kcal/d; n = 86) than in the low-BMR group (1510 ± 222 kcal/d; n = 77), but they were comparable with respect to age, body mass index, FFM, and fat mass. Rates of weight gain were not greater in the bottom BMR group (0.3 ± 1.0 kg/y) than in the top BMR group (0.5 ± 1.5 kg/y) (P = 0.17). Conclusion: Adults with low BMRs did not gain more weight than did adults with high BMRs, implying that habitual differences in food intake or activity counterbalance variations in BMR as a risk factor for weight gain in a typical Western population. PMID:27581474
Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja
Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with 5 neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja
Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with five neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. PMID:26854866
Paul de Vos
Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.
Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah; Espeland, Mark; Gorin, Amy; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Erickson, Karen; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E
Background Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young a...
Dinger Mary K
Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.
Nov 14, 2011 ... animals of higher weight gains (54.2 and 53.7%). Key words: Pigs, PEN-AR-LAN, slaughter value, sex, slaughter weight, daily gain. INTRODUCTION. The rapid growth of the worldwide population has resulted in necessity of increasing the food production. In this way, the primary aim of breeding work has ...
Lusk, Anne C.; Mekary, Rania A.; Feskanich, Diane; Willett, Walter C.
Context No research has been conducted on bicycle riding and weight control in comparison to walking. Objective To assess the association between bicycle riding and weight control in premenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a 16-year follow-up of 18, 414 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Main Outcome Measures Weight change between 1989 and 2005 was the primary outcome and odds of gaining >5% of baseline body weight (BBW) by 2005 the secondary outcome. Results At baseline, only 39% walked briskly while only 1.2% bicycled for ≥30 min/d. For a 30 min/d increase in activity between 1989 and 2005, weight gain was significantly less for brisk walking (−1.81 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.05,−1.56), bicycling (−1.59 kg; 95%CI= −2.09, −1.08), and other activities (−1.45 kg; 95%CI= −1.66, −1.24) but not for slow walking (+0.06 kg; 95%CI= −0.22, 0.35). Women who reported no bicycling in 1989 and increased to as little as 5 minutes/day in 2005 gained less weight (−0.74 kg; 95%CI= −1.41, −0.07, P-trend5% of their BBW (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.74, 95%CI=0.56–0.98) compared with those who reported no bicycling; overweight/obese women had lower odds at 2–3 hours/week (OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.34–86). Conclusions Bicycling, similar to brisk walking, is associated with less weight gain and an inverse dose-response relationship exists, especially among overweight/obese women. Future research should focus on brisk walking but also on greater time spent bicycling. PMID:20585071
Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
as amount of influence. Setting: Employed nurses in Denmark. Subjects: We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. Results: A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy...
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.
Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.
Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…
Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.
This study determined the relationship between maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcomes among adolescent and adult mothers in Ilorin, Nigeria. A retrospective review of 1,770 case-notes of adolescent and adult mothers who booked for antenatal care and delivered in the three selected maternity hospitals in Ilorin ...
van der Zwaal, E. M.; Janhunen, S. K.; La Fleur, S. E.; Adan, R. A. H.
The second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine has become a widely prescribed drug in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately, its therapeutic benefits are partly outweighed by significant weight gain and other metabolic side effects, which increase the risk for
and 'chest pain=high', 'a risk level of heart disease =medium' is a fuzzy quantitative associa- tion rule ... to assign different support value at each level of abstraction to produce a large number of rules generated as a .... gain ratio based ranking is used as a user defined weight value for each potential attribute as shown in ...
Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...
Warrington, N M; Richmond, R; Fenstra, B
BACKGROUND: Clinical recommendations to limit gestational weight gain (GWG) imply high GWG is causally related to adverse outcomes in mother or offspring, but GWG is the sum of several inter-related complex phenotypes (maternal fat deposition and vascular expansion, placenta, amniotic fluid and f...
Background: Despite the increasing global importance of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its impact on birthweight, little is known about the patterns of GWG in African populations. Objectives: To determine the pattern of GWG and its association with birthweight in Nigeria. Methods: It was a longitudinal study of 200 ...
Two 7-week trials were carried out to examine the effect of supplementing the existing feed of weaned pigs in Eritrea with locally produced fishmeal on the body weight gain of the pigs. The diet of the weaned pigs consisted of 'bakery waste', wheat middlings and wheat bran to make 62, 22, and I5%, respectively, by air-dry ...
Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C
birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...
Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.
Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868
Full Text Available Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10. Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR and their 95% confidence interval (CI. Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, there was a significant association between high (Q4 PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1 [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2, there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.
Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M
Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM) study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10). Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a significant association between high (Q4) PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1) [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.
Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per
Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...
Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric
Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535
Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric
Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour
Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative
Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M
This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P care. Group prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
McCullough, Peter A; Sandberg, Keisha R; Miller, Wendy M; Odom, Jacqueline S; Sloan, Kevin C; de Jong, Adam T; Nori, Katherine E; Irving, Sarah D; Krause, Kevin R; Franklin, Barry A
We sought to examine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years with the degree and rate of rise in body weight during adulthood among the morbidly obese. We evaluated 196 patients with a standard medical history form and a structured interview with questions regarding weight at age 18 years. The study included 40 (20.4%) men and 156 (79.6%) women. The mean BMI was 50.2+/-8.0 kg/m2, range 37.0-80.0 kg/m2. Based on self-reported weight, 133 (67.9%) were overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) and 68 (34.7%) were obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m2) at age 18 years. The distribution of cumulative weight gain was normal with a mean of 60.8+/-23.7 kg. There was a positive relationship (r=0.36, pweight gain were BMI at age 18 years (pweight gains during adult life, resulting in morbid obesity and high rates of obesity-related comorbidities.
Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.
Robinson, E; Hunger, J M; Daly, M
Correctly identifying oneself as being overweight is presumed to be a prerequisite to successful weight management. The present research examined the effect that perceiving oneself as being 'overweight' has on risk of future weight gain in US and UK adults. Data from three longitudinal studies; US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) 2001/2002-2008/2009, UK National Child Development Study (NCDS) 1981-2002/2004, and Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) 1995/1996-2004/2005, were used to examine the impact of perceiving oneself as being overweight on weight gain across adulthood in over 14 000 US and UK adults. Participants who perceived their weight status as being overweight were at an increased risk of subsequent weight gain. This effect was observed irrespective of weight status at baseline and whether weight status perceptions were accurate or inaccurate. In the MIDUS sample, perceiving oneself as being overweight was associated with overeating in response to stress and this mediated the relationship between perceived overweight and weight gain. Perceiving oneself as being 'overweight' is counter-intuitively associated with an increased risk of future weight gain among US and UK adults.
Webb, Jennifer B; Siega-Riz, Anna M; Dole, Nancy
Pregnancy is a critical time window for evaluating weight gain on subsequent risk for obesity among women of childbearing age. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and fetal health locus of control (FHLC) beliefs were significant risk factors for adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) when maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors were considered. A total of 1,605 women were prospectively followed from relationships were attenuated when adjusted for covariates. The relationship between psychosocial status and adequacy of GWG is significantly impacted by maternal sociodemographic factors and health practices engaged in during pregnancy. Women who tend to believe that external factors primarily determine fetal health appear to be more vulnerable to nonadherence to clinical GWG guidelines. These results have important implications for targeting prevention and intervention efforts for improving maternal and fetal outcomes secondary to GWG patterns.
Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles
, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG...... significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS...
Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra
This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to...
Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.
Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz
Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin
Kominiarek, Michelle A; Seligman, Neil S; Dolin, Cara; Gao, Weihua; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hoffman, Matthew; Hibbard, Judith U
To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese women according to weight change and obesity class. Cohort study from the Consortium on Safe Labor of 20,950 obese women with a singleton, term live birth from 2002-2008. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories (weight loss [9.0 kg]) in each obesity class (I 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), II 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2), and III ≥40 kg/m(2)) and by predicted probabilities with weight change as a continuous variable. Weight loss was associated with decreased cesareans for class I women (nulliparas odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.42; multiparas OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.83) and increased small for gestational age infants (class I OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5; class II OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5-3.2; class III OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6). High weight gain was associated with increased large for gestational age infants (class I OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9-2.9; class II OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; class III OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1). As weight change increased, the predicted probability for cesareans and large for gestational age infants increased. The predicted probability of low birthweight never exceeded 4% for all obesity classes, but small for gestational age infants increased with decreased weight change. The lowest average predicted probability of adverse outcomes (cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, neonatal care unit admission) occurred when women (class I, II, III) lost weight. Optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes appear to occur when weight gain is less than current Institute of Medicine recommendations for obese women. Further study of long-term outcomes is needed with respect to gestational weight changes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Carels, Robert A; Rossi, James; Borushok, Jessica; Taylor, Maija B; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Cross, Nicole; Hinman, Nova; Burmeister, Jacob M
The present weight stigma study examined whether attitudes toward and employability of a normal weight person can change after learning that the person had been obese. Participants (N = 154) viewed an image of a normal weight woman and rated their impression of her. Next, participants rated their impression of her overweight image after learning how she had previously gained and subsequently lost weight. Participants rated the model far less favorably including perceived employability if they thought the once overweight model lost weight through surgery vs. diet and exercise. How the model initially gained the weight had little impact on participant ratings. Surgical weight loss had a significant impact on personality judgments. These negative views extended to hiring decisions.
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam
Weight gain was reported during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, its relation to eating habits and specific risk factors, including methadone dose or serum level, was limited. The aims of this study were to characterize risk factors for weight gain and to study current eating habits, food preferences, and nutrition knowledge. Patients with available measures of weight and height (body mass index [BMI]) at admission to MMT and at follow-up, when methadone serum levels were determined (after 1 year or when stabilized) (N = 114), were studied (using the Addiction Severity Index [ASI], drugs in urine, methadone doses, and serum levels). In addition, 109 current patients with available earlier (5.8 ± 2.6 years earlier) BMI completed eating behavior rating and nutrition knowledge questionnaires, and their current and earlier BMI were compared. The BMI of 114 newly admitted patients increased from 22.5 ± 3.8 to 24.4 ± 4.3 (P methadone, BMI increased further (24.3 ± 4.5 to 25.6 ± 5.0; P methadone doses (125.6 ± 32.5 to 128.0 ± 34.1; F = 1.4, P = .2) or serum levels (495.6 ± 263.7 to 539.8 ± 306.2; F = 1.3, P = .2). Repeated-measures analyses revealed that BMI elevation was higher among 45 hepatitis C virus seronegative and 46 non-benzodiazepine-abusing on-admission patients. Those who scored lower on knowledge about healthy diet and showed a higher sweet-foods preference had a higher BMI. BMI increased over time, but independent of methadone dosage and blood levels. As expected, worse diet habits and a desire for sweet foods are related to higher BMI. Paradoxically, healthier status (i.e., hepatitis C seronegative, no benzodiazepine abuse) at admission is predictive of greater weight gain during MMT. Education about nutrition habits is recommended.
Cohen, Alison K; Kazi, Chandni; Headen, Irene; Rehkopf, David H; Hendrick, C Emily; Patil, Divya; Abrams, Barbara
Education is an important social determinant of many health outcomes, but the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of weight gained over the course of a woman's pregnancy (gestational weight gain [GWG]) has not been established clearly. We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status. In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education. The relationship between educational attainment and GWG is nuanced and nonlinear. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berggren, Erica K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Presley, Larraine; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick M
Weight Gain in Pregnancy. Nonparametric tests and chi-square analyses were performed; a probability value of Overweight and obese women were equally likely to gain excess weight (48% vs 35%; P = .6). Weight gain correlated strongly with fat mass change (r = 0.87; P < .001); women with excess vs adequate vs inadequate weight gain had greater fat mass change overall (5.2 [IQR, 4.2-8.1] vs 0.2 [IQR, -0.4-2.2] vs -2.7 [IQR, -5.2- -0.7] kg, respectively; P < .001) and in all pairwise comparisons. Weight gain also correlated with lean body mass change (r = 0.52; P = .001), but women with excess vs adequate weight gain had similar lean body mass change (8.4 [IQR, 7.2-10.1] vs 7.8 [IQR, 6.0-8.7] kg; P = .1). Excess gestational weight gain is associated primarily with maternal fat, but not with lean body mass accrual. Our results may help explain the reason that excess gestational weight gain or fat mass accrual is associated with long-term obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malshani L. Pathirathna
Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.
Erica Y. Lau
Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.
Ferraz, Sanzia Francisca; Freitas, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; Vaz, Inaiana Marques Filizola; Campos, Marta Isabel Valente Andrade Morais; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Pereira, Edna Regina Silva
The nutritional status (NS) of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is a major concern and challenge. Malnutrition is common in these patients and is related to poorer clinical outcomes. To assess the association between the NS and the interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on HD. Cross-sectional study with 322 patients older than 18 years. The NS was assessed by body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat estimated by the sum of four skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra iliac), lean body mass (LBM), serum creatinine and albumin and rate of nitrogen appearance (PNA). The IDWG was evaluated from the sum of the weight difference of 12 hemodialysis sessions (IDWGm). Considering the sample into quartiles IDWGm, it was found that BMI, LBM, serum creatinine ( p nutritional status of these patients.
Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B.
Background Many studies have linked depression and obesity; few have more than two assessments of depressive symptoms and adiposity to address the potential bi-directional relation between adiposity and depressive symptoms from young adulthood through old age. We test whether baseline depressive symptoms are associated with changes in weight, whether baseline adiposity is associated with changes in depressive symptoms, and whether these associations vary by sex. Methods Participants (N=2,251; 47% female) were from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling on 30 years of data, the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms over adulthood was estimated from >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), waist circumference, and hip circumference and >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Baseline depressive symptoms and adiposity were then tested as predictors of the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Additional analyses tested for sex-specific associations. Results Sex moderated the association between depressive symptoms and weight gain such that women who experienced depressed affect had greater increases in BMI (binteraction=.12, SE=.04), waist (binteraction=.22, SE=.10) and hip circumference (binteraction=.20, SE=.07) across adulthood, controlling for relevant demographic and behavioral covariates. Baseline adiposity was unrelated to the trajectory of depressive symptoms (Median b=.00) for both sexes. Conclusions Women who experience symptoms of depression tend to gain more weight across adulthood than men who experience such symptoms. Whether an individual was normal weight or overweight was unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms across adulthood. PMID:22475128
Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J
To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Pane, Marika; Vasta, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Ricci, Enzo; Mercuri, Eugenio
The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to estimate feeding difficulties, gastrointestinal involvement and weight gain in a population of 118 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients (age range 13.80-35.8 years). All the answers were entered in a database and the data analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (3-9, 9-13, 13-18, 18-24, 24-30, 30-36 years). The results indicate that chewing difficulties are frequent and become increasingly present with age, associated with a progressive increase of the duration of meals. Episodes of choking or other clinical signs of swallowing difficulties are in contrast much less frequent even after age 18. Aspiration pneumonia were also not very frequent and only occurred in 7/118. Clinical signs of gastroesophageal reflux requiring treatment were only found in 5 while 43/118 complained of constipation requiring treatment. Very few of our patients had their weight above 2 SD (n = 4) and this was always found in patients between 9 and 18 years while after this age there was an increasing number of patients with weight below 2 SD. The results of our survey suggest that although choking is one of the most feared complications in patients with DMD, clinical signs of swallowing abnormalities are infrequent when collecting clinical information retrospectively. Further studies using an objective evaluation such as videofluoroscopy are needed to identify minor signs that may not be obvious on clinical examination.
Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Walker, Lorraine O; Brown, Adama; Lee, Ju-Young
Asian-American subgroups are heterogeneous, but few studies had addressed differences on gestational weight gain (GWG) and perinatal outcomes related to GWG among this growing and diverse population. The purposes of this study were to examine whether Asian-American women are at higher risk of inadequate or excessive GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes than non-Hispanic White (NH-White) women, and to compare those risks among Asian-American subgroups. This retrospective study included all singleton births to NH-Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnam, and NH-White women documented in 2009 Texas birth certificate data (N = 150,674). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, multinomial logistic regression, and binary logistic regression. Chinese women were the reference group in the comparisons among Asian subgroups. Asian women had a higher risk of inadequate GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than NH-White women. No difference in the odds of excessive GWG was found among Asian subgroups, although Japanese women had the highest risk of inadequate GWG. After adjusting for confounders, Korean women had the lowest risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49), whereas Filipino women and Asian Indian had the highest risks of gestational hypertension (AOR, 2.01 and 1.61), cesarean birth (AOR, 1.44 and 1.39), and low birth weight (AOR, 1.94 and 2.51) compared with Chinese women. These results support the heterogeneity of GWG and perinatal outcomes among Asian-American subgroups. The risks of adverse perinatal outcomes should be carefully evaluated separately among Asian-American subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Eric; Sutin, Angelina R
The global prevalence of childhood obesity is alarmingly high. Parents' identification of their children as overweight is thought to be an important prerequisite to tackling childhood obesity, but recent findings suggest that such parental identification is counterintuitively associated with increased weight gain during childhood. One possibility is that parental identification of their child as being overweight results in that child viewing his or her body size negatively and attempting to lose weight, which eventually results in weight gain. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies to examine the relation between children's weight gain and their parents' identification of them as being overweight. Across both studies, children whose parents perceive them to be overweight are more likely to view their body size negatively and are more likely than their peers to be actively trying to lose weight. These child-reported outcomes explained part of the counterintuitive association between parents' perceptions of their children as being overweight and the children's subsequent weight. We propose that the stigma attached to being recognized and labeled as "overweight" may partly explain these findings.
Santos, A.L.; Scapinello, C.; Nunes Martins, E.; Granzotto, F.; Carneiro Paula, M.; Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.
This research evaluates whether the selection for feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) and weight gain (WG), based on individual and/or collective performance of rabbits, can lead to genetic gain in collectively-raised rabbit progenies. Animals were submitted to an evaluation period at the age of 50 to 70 days,
Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra
This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander
This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of weight gain is highest during young adulthood. Our study aims to describe weight gain patterns among young adults and to evaluate physician recognition of and counseling for rapid weight gain. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients ages 18-35 at an academic internal medicine clinic between 2004-2008. We conducted chart reviews to determine weight change over time, whether weight gain greater than 3 lbs/year was documented, whether counseling was provided, and whether patients became overweight. We categorized weight gain documentation by location on the problem list, encounter diagnosis, or note text. We categorized counseling as weight-specific or general diet and exercise counseling. We used Chi-square tests to evaluate the relationship between weight change over time and the following variables: gender, diagnosis of weight gain, and counseling for weight gain. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for an association between diagnosis and counseling category. Results The study included 365 patients. Weight gain was greater than 3 lbs/year for 24% (90/365 of patients, of whom 56 (15% gained 3-5.9 lbs/year, and 34 (9% gained more than 6 lbs/year. Among patients gaining more than 3 lbs/year, physicians documented weight gain as a problem in only 10% (9/90. Of the 9 patients for whom weight gain was documented, physicians provided weight-specific counseling in three, and general diet and exercise counseling in four. Of the 81 individuals with no documented diagnosis of weight gain, 63% had no documented counseling, but 34% received general diet and exercise counseling. Among patients with over 180 days of follow-up, 8% (10/126 became overweight. Conclusions Physicians infrequently recognize or counsel for weight gain among young adult patients. Improving identification of patients with rapid weight gain can provide an opportunity for tailored weight-related counseling.
Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna
The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.
Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.
Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær
In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...
Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K
Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Johansen, Mette D
of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain in insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in addition to metformin or placebo, randomized into 18-month treatment groups with three different insulin analogue......AIMS: Weight gain is an ongoing challenge when initiating insulin therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, if prediction of insulin associated weight gain was possible on an individualized level, targeted initiatives could be implemented to reduce weight gain. The objective...... treatment regimens. Participants with excessive weight gain were defined as the group with weight gain in the 4(th) quartile. We developed a pattern classification method to predict individuals prone to excessive weight gain. RESULTS: The median weight gain among all patients (n = 412) was 2.4 (95...
Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.
Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia
To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p < 0.001), and total gestational weight gain (p = 0.047). The odds of LBW (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.06) and prematurity (OR 5.82, 95% CI 3.10 to 10.92) fell when the adolescent received six or more prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.
van der Wijden, C.; Steinbach, S.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; van Mechelen, W.; van Poppel, M.N.M.
Background: Gaining too much weight in pregnancy poses health risks for mother and child. Eating style has been shown to be related to weight gain in general but the relation to maternal weight gain in pregnancy is unclear. Objectives: To assess the influence of eating style and psycho social
Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y
Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.
Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather
Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05, and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05. However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05. The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1% and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%. Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3% and obese (52.5% groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.
Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine
Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...
Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.
Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.
Manyanga, Taru; da Silva, Danilo F; Ferraro, Zachary M; Harvey, Alysha L J; Wilson, Shanna; Ockenden, Holly N; Adamo, Kristi B
A significant proportion of women exceeds or does not meet the Institute of Medicine's gestational weight gain (GWG) guidelines. Inadequate, excessive GWG or weight loss during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of negative maternal and fetal outcomes. Among the many determinants of GWG identified in the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines, culture was named as one of the few whose influence has not been fully explored. Some cultural beliefs may erroneously promote overeating as "eating for two" and discourage physical activity during pregnancy, but there is lack of empirical evidence on how culture affects GWG. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the effects of culture on GWG. Ten electronic databases will be searched to identify studies reporting on the effects of culture on GWG. Grey literature, published conference abstracts, websites of relevant organizations and reference lists of included studies will also be searched. Studies that report on effects of culture, acculturation, ethnicity, race, nationality, ancestry and identity on GWG in adult women will be included. Quality of evidence will be evaluated using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach to rating evidence. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment will be conducted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements being resolved by consensus or third party adjudication as needed. Formal meta-analyses will be conducted among included studies that are sufficiently statistically and clinically homogeneous. This review will provide a comprehensive assessment and synthesis of current evidence and will draw attention to potential gaps where future research on the effects of culture on guideline discordant gestational weight gain remains to be conducted. PROSPERO CRD42015023399.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of
Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah; Espeland, Mark; Gorin, Amy; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Erickson, Karen; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E
Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains. SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18-35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5-10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow-up; secondary outcomes include
Hendrick, Victoria; Dasher, Robert; Gitlin, Michael; Parsi, Mehrban
Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications. Interventions initiated later in the course of treatment-typically after weight gain already has occurred-rarely help patients return to their pretreatment weight. The most commonly used adjunctive intervention has been metformin. Certain patients benefit from initiating metformin early in their exposure to second-generation antipsychotic agents. In particular, young, healthy patients beginning olanzapine or clozapine probably will experience less weight gain if they concomitantly initiate metformin.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics (AP induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss. Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6-16 weeks, 16-38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. RESULTS: 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. CONCLUSION: Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced.
Aars, Nils Abel; Jacobsen, Bjarne K
Overweight individuals desire a lower weight than they actually have. Little is known on the extent to which this discrepancy is reduced over time due to adaptation or resignation. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional relationships and longitudinal changes in desired body weight and differences between actual and desired body weight according to gender, age and category of body mass index in a large, adult cohort in Tromsø, Norway. Cross-sectional analyses of 8960 men and 9992 women aged 25-69 participating in Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995), and longitudinal analyses of 3210 men and 3689 women participating in both Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995) and Tromsø 6 (during 2007-2008). Simple descriptive statistics and linear regression was used to describe actual and desired weight, the difference between them, and how gender and age are related to the changes in actual and desired weight over this 13-year period. The difference between actual and desired body weight was largest for the obese and higher among the overweight than the normal weight for both genders. While normal weight men were quite satisfied with their body weight, normal weight women were not. Actual weight increased more than desired weight for all age groups and both genders except the oldest women. The difference between change in actual body weight and change in desired body weight during the 13-year follow-up was significantly larger among men (2.0 kg) than women (1.5 kg) (p body weight during the 13 years and change in desired body weight in the same period did not differ between men and women and, in gender specific analyses, between subjects with normal weight and those who were overweight or obese at start of follow-up. Older people adapt more to weight gain than younger age groups, with clear gender differences. Further studies of longitudinal changes in desired weight are warranted.
Molyneaux, Emma; Poston, Lucilla; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Louise M
The aims of this paper are to examine: (1) the relationship between high pre-pregnancy BMI and antenatal depression; (2) whether BMI and antenatal depression interact to predict diet and gestational weight gain (GWG). Data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Underweight women were excluded. Pre-pregnancy BMI was self-reported and antenatal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 18 and 32 weeks' gestation to identify persistently elevated depressive symptoms (EPDS>12). Dietary patterns were calculated from food frequency questionnaires at 32 weeks' gestation. GWG was categorised using the USA Institute of Medicine guidelines. This study included 13,314 pregnant women. Obese women had significantly higher odds of antenatal depression than normal weight controls after adjusting for socio-demographics and health behaviours (aOR 1.39, 95%CI 1.05-1.84). Every unit increase in pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with approximately 3% higher odds of antenatal depression (aOR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.05). Antenatal depression was not meaningfully associated with dietary patterns after adjusting for confounders and was not associated with inadequate or excessive GWG. There was no evidence for an interaction of depression and BMI on either diet or GWG. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the dose-response relationship between high pre-pregnancy BMI and antenatal depression.
Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent
Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses...... weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining = 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women...... with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended...
Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning
.0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...
Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Karaman, Kerem; Budak, Ersin; Taymur, İbrahim; Buyukuysal, Cagatay
The effect of preoperative weight changes on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative weight gain on postoperative weight loss outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Ninety-two morbidly obese patients undergoing SG from January 2014 to April 2016 were separated into two groups according to whether they gained weight or not during the waiting time prior to surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42.4 %) gained weight during the waiting time and 53 patients (57.6 %) did not. The median body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) at surgery was significantly higher in weight-gained patients (47.8 (min-max, 40-62)) compared to patients who had not gained weight (45.10 (min-max, 41-67)), (P = 0.034). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the distribution of age, gender, family history of obesity, existence of comorbidity, smoking, weight gain during childhood or adulthood, preoperative Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores, waiting time period, and body weight at the initial visit (P > 0.05). The ASA I score was higher in weight-gained patients whereas ASA II score was higher in those who did not gain, and the difference was significant (P = 0.046). Postoperative % BMI loss and % weight loss were not significantly different between the two groups at the first, third, sixth months, and the end of the first year (P > 0.05). Weight gain during waiting time has no negative impact on % weight loss and % BMI loss after SG.
Waters, Thaddeus P; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M
In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n=87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n=140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n=212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, Pweight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy.
Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J
Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.
de Vos, Paul; Hanck, Christoph; Neisingh, Marjolein; Prak, Dennis; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.
Background. We determined body weight increase in first year Dutch college students. We had the objective to determine whether the awareness of the unhealthy lifestyle raised concerns and willingness to change habits. Methods. Body weight, heartbeat, BMI, body fat percentages, and blood pressure
Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Braxter, Betty J; Eckhardt, Cara L; Himes, Katherine P; Bodnar, Lisa M
Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes and are associated with greater gestational weight gain compared to singleton pregnancies. Studies that disentangle the relationship between gestational duration, weight gain and adverse outcomes are needed to inform weight gain guidelines. We created charts of the mean, standard deviation and select percentiles of maternal weight gain-for-gestational age in twin pregnancies and compared them to singleton curves. We abstracted serial prenatal weight measurements of women delivering uncomplicated twin pregnancies at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2013) and merged them with the hospital's perinatal database. Hierarchical linear regression was used to express pregnancy weight gain as a smoothed function of gestational age according to pre-pregnancy BMI category. Charts of week- and day-specific values for the mean, standard deviation, and percentiles of maternal weight gain were created. Prenatal weight measurements (median: 11 [interquartile range: 9, 13] per woman) were available for 1109 women (573 normal weight, 287 overweight, and 249 obese). The slope of weight gain was most pronounced in normal weight women and flattened with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI (e.g. 50th percentiles of 6.8, 5.7, and 3.6 kg at 20 weeks and 19.8, 18.1, and 14.4 at 37 weeks in normal weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively). Weight gain patterns in twins diverged from singletons after 17-19 weeks. Our charts provide a tool for the classification of maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies. Future work is needed to identify the range of weight gain associated with optimal pregnancy health outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive
Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.
Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600
Choudhry, Khurshid; Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alexandru
To review current studies on obesity and weight within male prisoners. Including assessment of factors which influence obesity and weight change during imprisonment. A systematic review. The systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. A literature search was conducted using defined exclusion and inclusion criteria for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2016. The findings show the prevalence rates of obesity for prisoners range from 8.1% to 55.6%, with prison population often having lower levels of obesity than the general population. The findings are inconclusive into those factors that influence weight change and obesity during imprisonment, though potential factors and their mechanisms are highlighted. Current literature highlights the complex relationship between imprisonment and weight. A significant amount of evidence exists to suggest that obesity levels are similar or lower in prison population compared to the general population. Future research might explore more intensively the various factors influencing prisoners' weight change within prison, including food, diet, activity levels and other relevant factors in relation to weight change, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Copyright © 2018 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... Since sex hormones and glucocorticoids regulate body weight and adipose tissue distribution, the authors hypothesize that sex hormones and cortisol play a role in treatment-induced weight gain...
Nanri, H; Shirasawa, T; Ochiai, H; Nomoto, S; Hoshino, H; Kokaze, A
This study examined the relationship between rapid weight gain during infancy and/or early childhood and anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in preadolescence by sex. Subjects were fourth-grade school children (aged 9 to 10 years) from elementary schools in Ina-town, Japan, in 2010. Measurements of height, weight, %BF and WC were conducted for each subject. We obtained data on height and weight of subjects at birth, age 1.5 years and age 3 years from the Maternal and Child Health handbook. Rapid weight gain was defined as a change in weight-for-age standard deviation score greater than 0.67 from birth to age 1.5 years (infancy) or from age 1.5 to 3 years (early childhood). All anthropometric variables (BMI, %BF, WC and WHtR) at age 9 to 10 years were significantly higher in the rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood period group than in the no rapid weight gain group, regardless of sex. When compared with the no rapid weight gain group, rapid weight gain during early childhood period had significantly higher BMI and WC in boys and BMI, %BF and WC in girls. Compared with the no rapid weight gain group, the rapid weight gain during infancy group had a significantly higher WC in boys and significantly higher BMI and WC in girls. Rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood was related to higher anthropometric measurements, including WHtR, among Japanese preadolescents, regardless of sex. This study suggests that rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood may be a risk factor for general/abdominal obesity later in life. © 2017 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene
AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ... was almost 0.5 kg higher in women with Type 2 diabetes and excessive gestational weight gain than in women with Type 2 diabetes and non-excessive weight gain....... kg/m2, respectively). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive (exceeding the US Institute of Medicine recommendations) or as non-excessive (within or below the Institute of Medicine recommendations). RESULTS: Excessive and non-excessive gestational weight gain were seen in 61 (43...
Fan, Jianqing; Zhou, Yong; Cai, Jianwen; Chen, Min
Multivariate failure time data arise frequently in survival analysis. A commonly used technique is the working independence estimator for marginal hazard models. Two natural questions are how to improve the efficiency of the working independence estimator and how to identify the situations under which such an estimator has high statistical efficiency. In this paper, three weighted estimators are proposed based on three different optimal criteria in terms of the asymptotic covariance of weighted estimators. Simplified close-form solutions are found, which always outperform the working independence estimator. We also prove that the working independence estimator has high statistical efficiency, when asymptotic covariance of derivatives of partial log-likelihood functions is nearly exchangeable or diagonal. Simulations are conducted to compare the performance of the weighted estimator and working independence estimator. A data set from Busselton population health surveys is analyzed using the proposed estimators. PMID:21103020
Full Text Available Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka Abstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine. Weight increases rapidly in the initial period after starting antipsychotics. Patients continue to gain weight in the long term. Children appear to be particularly vulnerable to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Tailoring antipsychotics according to the needs of the individual and close monitoring of weight and other metabolic parameters are the best preventive strategies at the outset. Switching to an agent with lesser tendency to cause weight gain is an option, but carries the risk of relapse of the illness. Nonpharmacologic interventions of dietary counseling, exercise programs and cognitive and behavioral strategies appear to be equally effective in individual and group therapy formats. Both nonpharmacologic prevention and intervention strategies have shown modest effects on weight. Multiple compounds have been investigated as add-on medications to cause weight loss. Metformin has the best evidence in this respect. Burden of side effects needs to be considered when prescribing weight loss medications. There is no strong evidence to recommend routine prescription of add-on medication for weight reduction. Heterogeneity of study methodologies and other
to have a useful place in enhancing the weight loss efforts of individuals and could make a significant difference to quality of life. The technique is being encouraged within the British National Health Service (NHS) and has been taught to medical students in their clinical years across the. UK. Although currently used only for ...
Milagros C. Rosal
Full Text Available This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p<0.016. Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5 and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0 women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8. GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p<0.001. Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.
Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Raymond de Vries; Marianne Nieuwenhuijze
Objective: Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol
Rossum, C.T.M; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J C; Bouchard, C.; van Baak, M. A.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Chagnon, M.; de Graaf, C; Saris, W H M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in several candidate genes for obesity and weight gain. Polymorphisms in these genes may contribute to weight gain through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or adipogenesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: From two large cohorts in
Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland
Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....
Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.
Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:
Pop, V.J.M.; Biondi, B.; Wijnen, H.; Kuppens, S.M.; Vader, H.L.
Context Obesity and too much weight gain during gestation have a negative effect on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Objective To determine the relationship between thyroid hormone parameters, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during gestation. Design Prospective follow-up study of thyroid
Evers, S. S.; Calcagnoli, F.; van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.
Olanzapine is an a-typical antipsychotic drug antagonizing predominantly 5-HT and dopamine but also histamine muscarin and a adrenergic receptors In humans Olanzapine induces weight gain and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes The underlying mechanisms of Olanzapine-induced weight gain are unclear
Blackwell, Sean C; Landon, Mark B; Mele, Lisa; Reddy, Uma M; Casey, Brian M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N; Sorokin, Yoram; Grobman, William A
To evaluate the relationships among excessive gestational weight gain, neonatal adiposity, and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Based on self-reported prepregnancy body weight, gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive if it was greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Maternal outcomes and neonatal anthropomorphic characteristics were compared between women with excessive weight gain and those without excessive weight gain. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for confounding factors. We studied 841 women who participated in the main trial and had prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and delivery information available (n=431 treatment group, n=410 no treatment). After adjustment for factors including treatment and prepregnancy BMI, excessive weight gain remained associated with large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-4.93), birth weight greater than 4,000 g (adjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.54-4.40), preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.35-7.03), and cesarean delivery for labor arrest (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.30-4.44). In addition, excessive weight gain was independently associated with increased total neonatal fat (Pweight (Pweight gain was independently associated with both greater birth weight and adiposity.
Tamara R. Cohen
Full Text Available Few studies have investigated if compliance with energy intakes, physical activity, and weight gain guidelines attenuate postpartum weight retention (PPWR in mothers attending prenatal classes. We investigated whether (a daily energy intakes within 300 kcal of estimated energy requirements (EERs, (b walking more than 5000 steps/day, (c targeting the recommended weight gain goals for prepregnancy BMI, and/or (d achieving weekly or total gestational weight gain (GWG recommendations minimized PPWR in 54 women attending prenatal classes in Montreal/Ottawa, Canada. Participants completed a validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ, 3 telephone-validated 24-hr dietary recalls, and wore a pedometer for one week. PPWR was measured 6 weeks after delivery. Results showed that 72% had healthy prepregnancy BMIs. However, 52% consumed >300 kcal/day in excess of their EER, 54% exceeded recommended GWG, and more overweight (93% than normal weight women (38% cited nonrecommended GWG targets. Following delivery, 33% were classified as overweight, and 17% were obese. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that women targeting “recommended weight gain advice” were 3 times more likely to meet total GWG recommendations (OR: 3.2, P<0.05; women who complied with weekly GWG goals minimized PPWR (OR: 4.2, P<0.02. In conclusion, appropriate GWG targets, lower energy intakes, and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal education programs.
Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to
Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah F; Espeland, Mark A; Lewis, Cora E; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Gorin, Amy A; Bahnson, Judy; Perdue, Letitia H; Hatley, Karen E; Ferguson, Erica; Garcia, Katelyn R; Lang, Wei
Weight gain occurs commonly in young adults and has adverse effects on health. To compare 2 self-regulation interventions vs control in reducing weight gain in young adults over a mean follow-up of 3 years. Randomized clinical trial in 2 academic settings of 599 participants aged 18 to 35 years with body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 21.0 to 30.0, recruited via mailings and emails from August 2010 to February 2012. Data were analyzed from January 2015 to January 2016. Participants were randomized to control, self-regulation plus small changes, or self-regulation plus large changes. Both interventions focused on frequent self-weighing to cue behavior changes. "Small changes" taught participants to reduce intake and increase activity, both by approximately 100 calories per day. "Large changes" focused on losing 2.3 to 4.5 kg initially to buffer against expected weight gain. Changes in weight from baseline over mean follow-up of 3 years. Secondary outcomes included proportion gaining at least 0.45 kg from baseline, proportion developing obesity (BMI, ≥30.0), and weight change baseline to 2 years. Among the 599 participants (22% men; 27% minority; mean [SD] age, 27.7 [4.4] years; mean [SD] BMI, 25.4 [2.6]), mean (SE) weight changes over a mean follow-up of 3 years were 0.26 (0.22), -0.56 (0.22), and -2.37 (0.22) kg in the control, small-changes, and large-changes groups, respectively (P Self-regulation with large or small changes both reduced weight gain in young adults over 3 years relative to control, but the large-changes intervention was more effective. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01183689.
Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
The literature on the effect of obesity and weight gain on respiratory outcomes in smokers is contradictory. To examine the cross-sectional effect of body mass index (BMI) and the longitudinal effect of change in BMI upon spirometry and health status among smokers at risk for and with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort were followed for a median period of 6 years, 75% of whom were at risk and 25% of whom had COPD at baseline examination. BMI and gain in BMI were examined as continuous independent variables overall and after stratification into three categories (normal-weight, overweight, and obese) determined on the basis of baseline weight. Spirometry and health status (as assessed by St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total and subscale scores) were dependent variables. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking status. Cross-sectional analysis used linear and logistic regression; longitudinal analysis used a mixed model approach. In cross-sectional analyses, higher BMI was associated with worse health status among obese smokers but with better health status among normal-weight smokers. In longitudinal analyses, weight gain was associated with a decrease in FEV1 and health status among obese smokers and with an increase in these outcomes among normal-weight smokers. Weight gain affects respiratory outcomes differently between obese and normal-weight smokers. Whereas FEV1 and health status decrease with weight gain among obese smokers, they improve among normal-weight smokers. The nonlinear relationship between weight gain and respiratory outcomes suggests that this effect of excess weight is unlikely to be mechanical alone.
Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
OBJECTIVE: Most people maintain almost constant body weight over long time with varying physical activity and food intake. This indicates the existence of a regulation that works well for most individuals. Yet some people develop obesity, indicating that this regulation sometimes fails...... expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... mathematical model of the body as an energy-consuming machine in which the changes in physical activity and food intake are described as feedback effects in addition to the effect of the weight gain on basal metabolic rate. The feedback parameters of the model may differ between individuals and only in some...
Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Lin, Yvonne S; Kernic, Mary A; Foster-Schubert, Karen E
Along with the rising prevalence of obesity, rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated adverse outcomes also have increased. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study to assess the association of weight gain between pregnancies with cesarean delivery for the subsequent pregnancy among women with a history of GDM. Using linked birth-certificate data for women with at least two singleton births in Washington State during the period from 1992-2005, we identified 2,753 women with GDM who delivered vaginally at the baseline pregnancy (first pregnancy on record). The interpregnancy weight change (subsequent-baseline prepregnancy weight) for each woman was calculated and assigned to one of three categories: weight loss (more than 10 lb), weight stable (+/-10 lb), or weight gain (more than 10 lb). Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the risk (odds ratio [OR]) of cesarean delivery at the subsequent pregnancy among the weight-gain and weight-loss groups relative to the weight-stable category. Among 2,581 eligible women, 10.9% lost more than 10 lb between pregnancies, 54.0% were weight-stable, and 35.1% gained more than 10 lb. Women who gained more than 10 lb had an adjusted OR for subsequent cesarean delivery of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.49, 9.7% of women who gained weight), whereas the adjusted OR for women who lost weight was 0.55 (95% CI 0.28-1.10, 4.7% of women who lost weight). Women with a history of GDM who gained more than 10 lb between pregnancies are at increased risk of future cesarean delivery. Appropriate weight management among women with a history of GDM may result in decreased cesarean delivery rates along with decreases in associated excess risks and costs. II.
Guihard-Costa, A M; Papiernik, E; Grangé, G; Richard, A
To study gender differences in fat store in human newborns and their relation to duration of gestation and maternal weight gain. The ratios subscapular skinfold thickness/body weight (SST/BW) and tricipital skinfold thickness/body weight (TST/BW) were calculated in a sample of 13609 premature and term neonates from the maternity hospital of Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, France. Whereas BW, SST and TST increased with gestational age, SST/BW and TST/BW ratios decreased regularly, in males as in females. This result reflects a progressive reduction of subcutaneous fat store per body weight unit as the duration of gestation increases. Males had smaller values of SST/BW and TST/BW ratios than females whatever the gestational age. Increasing maternal weight gain during the third gestational trimester did not improve the subcutaneous fatness per body weight unit of the newborn. Earlier amount of maternal weight gain had an effect on the TST/BW index exclusively in females. In newborns, a gender difference was observed in the ratio of subcutaneous fat per unit of body weight; this ratio is lower in males than in females. This result argues for a gender difference in mobilization of fat store to ensure normal growth in the last weeks of pregnancy: males lose more fat but gain more weight than females in this period. Late maternal weight gain does not affect the proportion of subcutaneous fatness by body weight unit in both genders.
Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel
The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riddle, Daniel L; Singh, Jasvinder A; Harmsen, William S; Schleck, Cathy D; Lewallen, David G
The impact of knee arthroplasty on body weight has not been fully explored. Clinically important weight gain following knee arthroplasty would pose potentially important health risks. We used one of the largest US-based knee arthroplasty registries and a population-based control sample from the same geographic region to determine whether knee arthroplasty increases the risk of clinically important weight gain of ≥5% of baseline body weight over a 5-year postoperative period. Of the persons in the knee arthroplasty sample, 30.0% gained ≥5% of baseline body weight 5 years following surgery as compared to 19.7% of the control sample. The multivariable-adjusted (age, sex, body mass index, education, comorbidity, and presurgical weight change) odds ratio (OR) was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.2-2.2) in persons with knee arthroplasty as compared to the control sample. Additional arthroplasty procedures during followup further increased the risk for weight gain (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1) relative to the control sample. Specifically, among patients with knee arthroplasty, younger patients and those who lost greater amounts of weight in the 5-year preoperative period were at greater risk for clinically important weight gain. Patients who undergo knee arthroplasty are at an increased risk of clinically important weight gain following surgery. The findings potentially have broad implications to multiple members of the health care team. Future research should develop weight loss/maintenance interventions particularly for younger patients who have lost a substantial amount of weight prior to surgery, as they are most at risk for substantial postsurgical weight gain. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy may exert a negative effect on the development of the foetus, the course of pregnancy, and later the state of health of the mother and her baby. Due to the unfavourable health consequences of abnormal body weight gains in expectant mothers studies of the factors that determine the amount of these gains are important. Aim of the research : Evaluation of the relationship between health behaviours in pregnancy, nutritional status before pregnancy, selected socio-demographic factors, and gestational weight gain. Material and methods : The investigation included 274 women. Using a questionnaire, information was collected pertaining to the place of residence, age, body height and weight, cigarette smoking, and eating habits during pregnancy. The total weight gain during pregnancy was calculated as the difference between perinatal weight and pre-pregnancy body weight. Gestational weight gains were classified as low, recommended, or high. Results: Increased risk of high weight gain was associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages (odds ratio (OR = 2.82, especially beer (OR = 2.72, high consumption of products supplying proteins of animal origin (OR = 2.87, and overweight before pregnancy (OR = 3.37, as well as the delivery being the mother’s first, compared to the third and subsequent childbirth (OR = 4.17. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a need for health education among females at reproductive age in order to reduce excess weight before conception, and promotion of adequate health behaviours in pregnancy, which would allow the maintenance of normal weight gain during this period.
Stanislawski, Maggie A; Dabelea, Dana; Wagner, Brandie D; Sontag, Marci K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Eggesbø, Merete
Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life. We categorized the women (1) according to pre-pregnancy body mass index into overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25) or non-overweight/obese (BMI diversity and taxonomic composition of the maternal and infant samples by exposure groups. We also compared taxonomic similarity between maternal and infant gut microbiota. Maternal OW/OB was associated with lower maternal alpha diversity. Maternal pre-pregnancy OW/OB and excessive GWG were associated with taxonomic differences in the maternal gut microbiota, including taxa from the highly heritable family Christensenellaceae, the genera Lachnospira, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia. These maternal characteristics were not associated with overall differences in the infant gut microbiota over the first 2 years of life. However, the presence of specific OTUs in maternal gut microbiota at the time of delivery did significantly increase the odds of presence in the infant gut at age 4-10 days for many taxa, and these included some lean-associated taxa. Our results show differences in maternal gut microbiota composition at the time of delivery by pre-pregnancy weight and GWG, but these changes were only associated with limited compositional differences in the early life gut microbiota of their infants. Further work is needed to determine the degree to which these maternal microbiota differences at time of birth with OW/OB and GWG may affect the
Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan
Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the
Sonneville, K R; Thurston, I B; Milliren, C E; Kamody, R C; Gooding, H C; Richmond, T K
Weight misperception is common among adolescents with obesity, but it is not known whether weight perception is related to future weight gain. The objective of the study was to examine the prospective association between accurate weight perception versus weight misperception and weight change among youth who are overweight or obese. Using a subsample of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave II cohort, we used linear regression modeling (adjusted for age, baseline body mass index (BMI), parental education, household percent federal poverty level, depression, race and ethnicity) to examine the prospective association between weight misperception (that is, perceiving oneself to be under or normal weight) among 2738 overweight and obese youth and subsequent BMI change from Wave II (1996) to Wave IV (2008-2009). Mean age at baseline (Wave II) was 15.9 (0.1). Fifty-seven percent of males and 80% of females accurately perceived themselves as overweight. In fully adjusted models, weight misperception was associated with less BMI gain among youth who were overweight and obese. Specifically, youth who perceived themselves to be at a healthy weight had lower BMI gains (males: β= -1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(-2.26, -0.60), P=0.001; females: β= -1.35, 95% CI=(-2.59, -0.11), P=0.035) from Wave II to IV relative to those who accurately perceived themselves as overweight or obese. Contrary to commonly held assumptions, weight misperception among a non-clinical sample of youth who were overweight or obese predicted lower future weight gain. Efficacy of efforts to correct weight misperception should be rigorously examined to assess for both intended and unintended consequences.
Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.
Camain, J-Y; Renteria, S-C; von Elm, E
Weight gain is a side effect often associated with progestin-only contraceptives. A recently published Cochrane review focuses on this issue that has been addressed in only few studies of good quality. Here we discuss the results of this review in the context of three clinical cases. With progestin-only contraceptives the weight gain is less than often thought, especially after six or twelve months of treatment. Some results are rather reassuring, especially those in obese women and during the post-partum period. This should help improve the compliance of women who fear gaining weight with this type of hormonal contraception.
Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo
This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.
Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin
Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.
Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI or gestational weight gain (GWG, affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51% were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021, LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044 and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016; inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001; excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004. Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009, omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015 and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036, even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both.
Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil
subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...... decreasing the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We also review evidence for the role that lifestyle and stress management may play in achieving weight loss in stress-vulnerable individuals with overweight....
Liu, Jihong; Whitaker, Kara M; Yu, Stella M; Chao, Shin M; Lu, Michael C
This study sought to determine whether women's report of gestational weight gain (GWG) advice from a health care provider is consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and the association between provider advice and women's weight gain during pregnancy. Data came from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (n = 3,402). The 1990 IOM GWG guidelines were used to define whether the provider's advice on weight gain and women's weight gain were below, within, or above the guidelines. Approximately 4 months after delivery, 18.8% of the women reported having not discussed weight gain with any health care providers during pregnancy. Among those who reported such discussions, 42% reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider within IOM guidelines, 16.5% below guidelines, and 10% above. An additional 13.5% reported the discussion but did not report the recommended weight gain amount. Compared with women who reported provider advice on weight gain within guidelines, women who reported advice below guidelines were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2) more likely to gain less than the IOM recommended amount. Women who reported provider advice above IOM guidelines were 2.0 times (95% CI, 1.4-2.9) more likely to exceed guidelines. There is a need for more women to receive advice consistent with the IOM GWG guidelines from their prenatal care providers. Intervention strategies are needed to educate providers about IOM guidelines and how to counsel on GWG. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Haffner, S M; Mykkänen, L A; Gonzalez, C C; Stern, M P
Leptin, a hormone which is produced by adipose tissue, has been shown to inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure. In humans, leptin levels are correlated with body fat. In addition, leptin levels decline in subjects who lose weight. Yet few data exist on whether leptin levels predict weight change, except for a recent report suggesting that low leptin levels predict weight gain in very obese middle-aged Pima Indians. We have examined the association between baseline leptin levels and subsequent weight gain over 3.25 y in 180 non-diabetic participants in the Mexico City Diabetes Study. At baseline, the correlation between leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) was 0.712 in men and 0.691 in women (both P BMI (+/- 2 kg/m2) at baseline. Baseline BMI was 25.3 kg/m2 in men and 27.2 kg/m2 in women. Baseline leptin levels (ng/ml) did not predict weight gain in either men (weight gainers: 4.3; weight stable: 5.8; and weight losers: 5.2) or women (weight gainers: 17.4; weight stable: 17.7; and weight losers: 17.4). We conclude that baseline leptin levels did not predict weight change in moderately obese individuals.
Ding, Ding; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville
To examine the associations of TV viewing time and domain-specific physical activity with weight change; to determine whether domain-specific physical activity moderates the potential association of TV viewing time with weight change. We used four-year longitudinal data (baseline: 2003-2004, follow-up: 2007-2008) on 969 adults from selected neighborhoods in Adelaide, Australia (Age: 48.6 ± 10.6 years, 61% females). Mixed models examined four-year weight change as the dependent variable, with TV viewing time, habitual transport and past week domain-specific physical activity at baseline as independent variables. On average, participants gained 1.6 kg over four years. TV viewing time at baseline was positively associated with weight gain at follow-up. Each additional hour of TV viewing was associated with 0.24-0.27 kg of extra weight gain. This relationship was not moderated by recent recall of transport, leisure-time, and occupational physical activity, but was moderated by habitual transport: an additional hour of TV viewing time at baseline was significantly associated with an extra weight gain of 0.65 kg at follow-up among those who were inactive in everyday transport; TV time was not significantly associated with weight change among those who were regularly active in transport. Habitual active transport may protect adults against risk of weight gain associated with prolonged TV viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.... The goals of the study are to examine weight gain in relation to treatment-related changes in sex hormone levels, and to genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone pathways, accounting for potential...
Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak, Henrik
MRI anticipation signal at baseline, and the patients with the highest weight gain were also showing the highest increase in salience contrast signal over time. We do not know what this change in BOLD response in striatum correspond to at the cellular level. However based on previous work, it seems reasonable...... to the regulation of appetite, and most antipsychotics cause some degree of weight gain. Recently, a relation between weight gain caused by one week of olanzapine treatment and change in reward signalling was found in healthy volunteers. To our knowledge there are no previous studies examining how the effect...... in three parts of striatum was analyzed. RESULTS During the treatment period the patients received on average 248 mg of Amisulpride and improved significantly in PANSS total, positive and general score (all paverage weight gain of 2.2 kilograms in the treatment period...
Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct t...
Kwon, Ha Yan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young-Han
To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for emergency cesarean section were calculated after adjusting for prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain. Three-hundred and fifty nine (13.0%) women underwent emergency cesarean section. The adjusted OR for overweight, obese, and extremely obese women indicated a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery. Gestational weight gain by Institute of Medicine guidelines was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. However, inadequate and excessive weight gain in obese women was highly associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to these in normal BMI (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 22.72; OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.05 to 12.54; respectively), while there was no significant difference between normal BMI and obese women with adequate weight gain. Obese women should be provided special advice before and during pregnancy for controlling weight and careful consideration should be needed at the time of vaginal delivery to avoid emergency cesarean section.
Kwon, Ha Yan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won
Objective To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for emergency cesarean section were calculated after adjusting for prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain. Results Three-hundred and fifty nine (13.0%) women underwent emergency cesarean section. The adjusted OR for overweight, obese, and extremely obese women indicated a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery. Gestational weight gain by Institute of Medicine guidelines was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. However, inadequate and excessive weight gain in obese women was highly associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to these in normal BMI (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 22.72; OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.05 to 12.54; respectively), while there was no significant difference between normal BMI and obese women with adequate weight gain. Conclusion Obese women should be provided special advice before and during pregnancy for controlling weight and careful consideration should be needed at the time of vaginal delivery to avoid emergency cesarean section. PMID:27200306
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a
Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, Jane
Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demo...
Dayabandara, Madhubhashinee; Hanwella, Raveen; Ratnatunga, Suhashini; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Suraweera, Chathurie; de Silva, Varuni A
Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka Abstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrativ...
Ana Carolina Müller Conti
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to estimate the genetic parameters for weight gain and body measurements in the GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain of Nile tilapia by random regression models. Several orders of Legendre polynomials were tested for random effects and modeled with 1, 3, 6 and 9 classes of residual variance. For the effects of permanent environmental and family, third-order polynomials were adjusted in all traits, as well as for the genetic effects of weight, weight gain, length and width. For genetic effects of height and head, fourth-order polynomials were required. To gain weight, height and head, the best model was one that considered the homogenous residual variance; however for width and weight, heterogeneous variance with 3 and 9 age classes was required, respectively. The highest heritability for weight was 0.34 at 240–311 days, and for weight gain it was 0.69 at 311 days. For head and length, the highest heritability was around 270 days at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. The highest heritability found for length was 0.20 at 254 days, 0.2 at 254 days for height, and for width the heritability was 0.54 at 311 days. Since the largest heritabilities were found for weight gain and width at 311 days, selection at these ages, based on these traits, would lead to greater genetic gains. Genetic correlations were higher between adjacent ages and, in general, selections at ages of less than 200 days did not lead to genetic gain correlated with traits at 300 days. The exception was for width, because high correlations were obtained between final and initial ages and the heritability was median in the majority of the period. Thus, selection based on the width at any age would lead to satisfactory genetic gain in this trait at the end of the growing season.
Jung, SY; Vitolins, MZ; Fenton, J; Frazier-Wood, AC; Hursting, SD; Chang, S
© 2015 Jung et al. Purpose: Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while "adjusting for" the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their clustered modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for gaining ≥3% weight. Methods: This study included 612 postmenopausal women 50-79 years old, enrolled in an ancillary stu...
Hartley, Eliza; McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hill, Briony
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have adverse health outcomes for mother and infant throughout pregnancy. However, few studies have identified the psychosocial factors that contribute to women gaining excessive weight during pregnancy. To review the existing literature that explores the impact of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, body image dissatisfaction, social support, self-efficacy and self-esteem) on excessive gestational weight gain. A systematic review of peer-reviewed English articles using Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, Informit, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. Quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial factors of excessive GWG, published between 2000 and 2014 were included. Studies investigating mothers with a low risk of mental health issues and normally-developing foetuses were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 474 articles located, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full. Significant associations were found between depression, body image dissatisfaction, and social support with excessive gestational weight gain. No significant relationships were reported between anxiety, stress, self-efficacy, or self-esteem and excessive gestational weight gain. The relationship between psychosocial factors and weight gain in pregnancy is complex; however depression, body dissatisfaction and social support appear to have a direct relationship with excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to identify how screening for, and responding to, psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain can be successfully incorporated into current antenatal care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calves fed the 14SB and 16SB diets gained more weight than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. These results indicate that the best nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen retention and weight gain occurred in the calves receiving the diet containing 1.2% NaHCO3. Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, buffer, ruminal pH, acidosis, ...
Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.
Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...
Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M.
Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestat...
Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S
Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....
Yanagisawa, K; Iwasaki, N; Sanaka, M; Minei, S; Kanamori, M; Omori, Y; Iwamoto, Y
Inappropriate body weight gain during pregnancy has critical effects on the outcome for both mother and fetus. Therefore, body weight gain is an important issue in the management of pregnancy in women with diabetes. A Trp64Arg substitution in the beta3-AR gene has been reported to be associated with body weight gain and obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of the beta3-AR gene to body weight gain during pregnancy in subjects with diabetes. We analyzed 199 diabetic patients (NIDDM/IDDM; 131/68) and patient data was obtained from the first delivery of each individual. The mean age at diagnosis of diabetes was 22.9 +/- 7.5 years (mean +/- S.D.) and the mean age at delivery was 29.8 +/- 4.5 years. A polymorphism of the beta3-AR gene was detected by PCR-RFLP using Bst OI, which recognizes a Trp64Arg substitution. The frequency of the Trp64Arg allele was 0.15 in NIDDM and 0.17 in IDDM. Among the NIDDM subjects, excess weight gain during pregnancy, as defined by maximum BMI during pregnancy minus basal BMI before pregnancy exceeding five, was observed in 12.2% of the wild-type patients, 19.2% of heterozygotes and 28.6% of homozygotes. Homozygous subjects with NIDDM tended to show excess weight gain during pregnancy, however, this trend did not reach significance. None of the IDDM homozygotes showed excess weight gain. From our study, this beta3-AR gene polymorphism cannot be excluded as a contributing factor to excess weight gain during pregnancy in NIDDM subjects.
Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism
van der Zwaal, E.M.
Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying
Deepak, T S; Raveesh, B N; Parashivamurthy, B M; Kumar, Ms Narendra; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Nagesh, H N
Atypical antipsychotics appear to have the greatest potential to induce weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is the one of main cause of non-compliance and discontinuation of treatment, often resulting in the relapse of psychosis. To compare the weight gain between amisulpride and blonanserin treatment, in persons with psychosis. Fifty six subjects with psychosis attending psychiatry department at KR Hospital, Mysore were randomized into two equal groups. After obtaining informed consent, subjects of group I received amisulpride tablets 200 mg BD, and group II received blonanserin tablets 4 mg BD, for eight weeks. Body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The mean weight gain with amisulpride at 4 weeks was 2.73 kg (5.21%) and at 8 weeks was 4.34 kg (8.28%) from the baseline. The mean weight gain with blonanserin at 4 weeks was 1.77 kg (3.46%) and at 8 weeks was 3.46 kg (6.75%) from the baseline. The mean BMI increase at 8 weeks with amisulpride was 1.66 ± 0.56 and with blonanserin was 1.34 ± 0.77. The mean WHR increase at 8 weeks with amisulpride was 0.036 ± 0.026 and with blonanserin was 0.029 ± 0.020. There was statistically significant increase in weight, BMI and WHR associated with both blonanserin and amisulpride at 8 weeks. But there was no statistically significant difference in those parameters between blonanserin and amisulpride, at eight weeks. Even though there was no significant difference in the weight gain caused by blonanserin, in comparison with amisulpride, both these drugs individually caused significant weight gain at 8 weeks, which is in contrast with the earlier studies, which needs to be further evaluated.
Nyoman Nursari Dewi
Full Text Available Background Massage is a tactile/kinesthetic stimulation with biochemical and physiological effects on the body. Newborn infant massage stimulation given by mothers may promote maternal-infant bonding and attachment, enhance infant weight gain and stimulate the production of breast milk. There have been few studies on the effect of massage stimulation on weight gain in full term infants, and this topic remains controversial. Objective To examine the effect of massage stimulation on weight gain in full term infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study was held in Sanglah Hospital and Bunda Setia Maternity Clinic. Massage stimulation was performed by mothers once daily for a four week period. Massage stimulation was given to 30 full term infants and their weight gain was compared to 31 control infants who did not receive massages. Results There were no differences in subject characteristics between the massage and control groups. Median weight gain in the massage group was 1230 grams, while that in the control group was 830 grams (P=0.028. Conclusion Weight gain in full term infants in the massage group was significantly greater than that in the control group after 4 weeks.
Hart, Sybil L; Jackson, Shera C; Boylan, L Mallory
To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad. N = 50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding. An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight, age, hunger at time of testing, and degree of exclusivity in breastfeeding, found EPDS inversely related to infants' milk intake and latch quality. Following a significant MANOVA on maternal behaviors, ANOVAs revealed EPDS inversely related to mothers' sensitive positioning and touch frequency. Contrastingly, anxiety was associated with increased touch. In the breastfed newborn, mothers' depressed mood is associated with lesser weight gain, lower milk intake, poorer latch to the breast, and receiving less frequent touch and less-sensitive positioning at the breast by mother.
Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie
Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow......-up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P gained weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0...
Johnson, Ping H; Annesi, James J
We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others. Nearly half reported having a weight loss goal. Most reported having used one or more weight loss methods. Few reached short-term weight loss but quickly regained the lost weight. Major reported barriers reflect a lack of self-regulation skills, negative mood and stress, and lack of self-efficacy for healthy eating or physical activity. Results suggest that the perceived ability to control one's behaviors and overcome barriers, self-efficacy, and mood are important in weight-related behaviors, weight, and weight loss success among emerging adults, especially those enrolled in college.
Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.
Adegboye, Amanda R A; Rossner, Stephan; Neovius, Martin; Lourenço, Paulo Mauricio C; Linné, Yvonne
To describe maternal characteristics and lifestyle factors associated with prenatal smoking habits and to appraise the effect of quitting smoking in early gestation on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. This is a follow-up study of 1753 women who gave birth in 1984/1985 in Stockholm, Sweden. Multivariate logistic models were used to evaluate the association between smoking cessation and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, based on pre-pregnancy BMI. About 22% of all participants identified themselves as current smokers and 11.6% reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Smokers were more likely to be single mothers and reported low quality of breakfast (e.g. eating only 1 food group at breakfast). Non-smokers were older, more likely to be married and have a healthier lifestyle. Quitters also adopted healthier eating habits (e.g. improvement in their breakfast quality). Women who quit smoking gained, on average, 15.3 kg (SD 4.4) during pregnancy, non-smokers gained 14.1 kg (SD 4.0) and smokers gained 13.8 kg (SD 4.3). Quitters gained significantly more weight than both non-smokers and smokers (pSmoking cessation was significantly associated with gaining weight above IOM recommendations, even after controlling for potential confounders (OR: 2.0; 95%CI: 1.4-3.0; psmoking cessation in early pregnancy doubled the likelihood of gaining excess weight. This finding highlights the need for supportive measures to help control weight gain among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Copyright 2009 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vargas, Perla A
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A
The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p body weight gain, p gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.
Oliboni, Carolina Marques; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos
To assess attitudes about eating, weight gain and body image of pregnant adolescents. Pregnant adolescents (n=67) were assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire, the Attitude towards Weight Gain during Pregnancy scale (AWGP) and questions about risk behaviors for eating disorders and unhealthy weight control practices. Associations between variables were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson and Spearman tests. The influence of the independent variables regarding skipping meals, body satisfaction and binge eating was evaluated by logistic regression. The average age of the adolescents was 15.3 years (SD=1.14) and their average gestational age was 21.9 weeks (SD=6.53). The average AWGP score was 52.6 points, indicating a positive attitude towards weight gain, and 82.1% of the pregnant girls were satisfied with their bodies. Obese girls had more body dissatisfaction (p=0.001), and overweight girls thought more about food (p=0.02) and eating (p=0.03). The frequency of reported binge eating was 41.8%, and the frequency of skipping meals was 19%. Regression analysis showed that the current Body Mass Index (p=0.03; OR=1.18) and the importance of body awareness and fitness before pregnancy (p=0.03; OR=4.63) were predictors of skipping meals. Higher socioeconomic level (p=0.04; OR=0.55) and greater concern with weight gain (p=0.03; OR=0.32) predicted binge eating. Even though the majority of the pregnant adolescents had positive attitudes toward weight gain and body satisfaction, those heavier and more concerned with weight gain had a higher risk of unhealthy attitudes, while those of lower social class, less concerned with weight gain and less embarrassed about their bodies during pregnancy, had a lower risk of unhealthy attitudes.
Biourge, V; Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Willits, N H; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R
The effects of weight gain and subsequent weight loss on glucose tolerance and insulin response were evaluated in 12 healthy cats. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) were performed at entry into the study, after a significant gain of body weight induced by feeding palatable commercial cat food ad libitum, after a significant loss of body weight induced by feeding a poorly palatable purified diet to discourage eating and promote fasting, and after recovery from fasting when body weight had returned to pre-study values and cats were eating commercial foods. A complete physical examination with measurement of body weight was performed weekly, a CBC and serum biochemistry panel were evaluated at the time of each IVGTT, and a liver biopsy specimen obtained 2 to 4 days after each IVGTT was evaluated histologically for each cat. Mean serum glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose infusion and total amount of insulin secreted during the second 60 minutes and entire 120 minutes after glucose infusion were significantly (P cats had hepatic lipidosis and serum biochemical abnormalities consistent with feline hepatic lipidosis. There was a significant (P glucose concentration and t1/2, and a significant (P glucose disappearance coefficient (K) after glucose infusion for measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain and at baseline. Insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and total amount of insulin secreted during the initial 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 60 minutes after glucose infusion were decreased markedly (P measurements obtained after weight gain and at baseline. In addition, the total amount of insulin secreted for 120 minutes after glucose infusion was decreased markedly (P measurements obtained after weight loss, compared with those obtained after weight gain. At the end of recovery, all cats were voluntarily consuming food, serum biochemical abnormalities identified after weight loss had resolved, the
Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.
Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born
Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S
In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with highe...
Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva
Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,
Verweij, Lisanne M.; Proper, Karin I.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; van Mechelen, Willem
Objective: To evuate the process of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Quantitative data on seven process items were assessed and linked to effects on employees' waist circumference and body weight at 6 months. Results: Occupational physicians (n = 7)
Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes Symptoms: Hunger • increased appetite Medication: GLP-1 receptor agonist • SGLT-2 inhibitor Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine/Diabetology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor. PMID:26638727
Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Amerongen, Arie V. Nieuw
Patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have to maintain a fluid-restricted diet. Severe thirst can induce noncompliance to this diet, resulting in an increase of interdialytic weight gain (IWG = weight predialysis - postdialysis) associated with poor patient outcomes. Because oral dryness may
The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...
From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...
Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...
Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor.
Full Text Available Objective: Large weight gain during pregnancy is a risk factor for complications for mother and fetus. Hunger and satiety are regulated in the hypothalamus, where the gamma-amino-butyric acid system (GABA has an important role. Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, increases during pregnancy and is a potent GABA-A receptor modulating steroid. Allopregnanolone has been shown to induce overeating in rodents. The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between weight gain and allopregnanolone concentrations during pregnancy in humans. Design: A longitudinal, cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 56 were recruited in primary care in northern Sweden. Allopregnanolone concentrations in plasma were measured using radioimmunoassay and weight was measured in gestational weeks 12 and 35. Results: Weight increase correlated significantly to allopregnanolone in late pregnancy increase (rs = 0.320; P = 0.016, indicating a positive relationship between weight increase and allopregnanolone increase. A positive relationship was also noted between allopregnanolone in the 35th gestational week and weight increase. Women who gained ≥11 kg during pregnancy showed higher allopregnanolone concentrations in week 35 and higher increase compared to women who increased <11 kg (P = 0.006 and P = 0.009 resp.. There was no difference in weight or allopregnanolone concentrations at the onset of pregnancy. Conclusions: The results show a relationship between weight gain during pregnancy and increase in allopregnanolone concentrations.
Karagianis, Jamie; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Arranz, Belen; Treuer, Tamás; Maguire, Gerald A.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Chawla, Bharat
Several papers and communications have reported possible weight reduction or less weight gain when patients start or switch to orally disintegrating olanzapine, as contrasted with standard oral olanzapine tablets. In this paper, the current literature is reviewed and hypothesized mechanisms of
Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G
Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring
Nucci Luciana Bertoldi
Full Text Available Obesity is an emerging major health risk for women around the world. In this regard, little attention has been given to pregnancy, a moment of risk not only for major weight gain in these women, but also for macrosomia in their offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate weight gain during pregnancy. Data pertains to a cohort of pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six state capitals in Brazil, from 1991 to 1995. We studied women aged 20 years and over with singleton pregnancies and no diagnosis of diabetes outside pregnancy, enrolled at approximately 20 - 28 weeks of gestation. According to the Institute of Medicine criteria, 38% (95%CI: 36-40% of the women studied gained less and 29% (95%CI: 28-31% had more than the recommended total weight gain. These proportions vary according to pre-pregnancy nutritional status. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian women prior to pregnancy, and the lack of achievement of recommended weight gain during pregnancy, more effective means of managing weight gain during pregnancy are necessary.
Morisaki, Naho; Nagata, Chie; Jwa, Seung Chik; Sago, Haruhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Oken, Emily; Fujiwara, Takeo
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005-2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0-18.4, 18.5-19.9, 20-22.9, 23-24.9, and 25-27.4 kg/m 2 ), we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications) using multivariate regression. Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks) for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m 2 , and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 . Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dedi Kurniawan Saputra; Carolina; Riko Rusli
With increasing maternal age hopefully the mother knows more about raising a baby and supervising their growth and development. With normal birth weight and adequate duration of exclusive breastfeeding the baby can be expected to have optimal growth and development. The goal of this historical-cohort prospective study was to analyze the relation between maternal age, infant birth weight and duration of breastfeeding on the one hand with infant weight gain on the other. The population under st...
Montaurier, C; Morio, B; Bannier, S; Derost, P; Arnaud, P; Brandolini-Bunlon, M; Giraudet, C; Boirie, Y; Durif, F
Chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation leads to a spectacular clinical improvement in patients with motor complications. However, the post-operative body weight gain involved may limit the benefits of surgery and induce critical metabolic disorders. Twenty-four Parkinsonians (61.1 +/- 1.4 years) were examined 1 month before (M - 1) and 3 months after (M + 3) surgery. Body composition and energy expenditure (EE) were measured (1) over 36 h in calorimetric chambers (CC) with rigorous control of food intakes and activities [sleep metabolic rate, resting activities, meals, 3 or 4 sessions of 20 min on a training bicycle at 13 km/h and daily EE] and (2) in resting conditions (basal metabolic rate) during an acute L-dopa challenge (M - 1) or according to acute 'off' and 'on' stimulation (M + 3). Before surgery, EE was compared between the Parkinsonian patients and healthy subjects matched for height and body composition (metabolic rate during sleep, daily EE) or matched to predicted values (basal metabolic rate). Before surgery, in Parkinsonian men but not women, (1) daily EE was higher while sleep metabolic rate was lower compared to healthy matched men (+9.2 +/- 3.9 and -8.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively, P body weight increase together with fat mass (P body weight increase together with fat mass (P body weight gain. Parkinson's disease is associated with profound alterations in the central control of energy metabolism. Normalization of energy metabolism after DBS-STN implantation may favour body weight gain, of which quality was gender specific. As men gained primarily fat-free mass, a reasonable weight gain may be tolerated, in contrast with women who gained only fat. Other factors such as changes in free-living physical activity may help to limit body weight gain in some patients.
We examined the optimal weight gain in the healthy Japanese women with favorable perinatal outcomes of (dichorionic) twin pregnancy. We calculated the average weight gain in the women whose height was 150-164 cm with favorable perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy set for this study. The women were categorized to underweight, normal, overweight and obese based on the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cutoffs. The average GWG in the normal-weight women with the favorable perinatal outcomes was 13.9 ± 3.6 kg. It was significantly different from that in the underweight, overweight and obese women according to the both 2 BMI cutoffs by Student's t-test (p < 0.01). There are optimal ranges of weight gain during twin pregnancy based on the BMI classification.
Rolando G. Díaz-Zavala
Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p0.05 during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies, as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p<0.001. Programs focused on self-monitoring during the holidays (phone calls and daily mailing appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.
Ferguson, Sarah; Al-Rehany, Layla; Tang, Cathy; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Madill, Janet
Bariatric surgery is accepted by the medical community as the most effective treatment for obesity; however, weight regain after surgery remains common. Long-term weight loss and weight maintenance may be aided when dietitians who provide perioperative care understand the causes of weight gain leading to bariatric surgery. In this study, the most common causes for weight gain were examined among prebariatric surgery patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 160 patients enrolled in a bariatric surgery program. Data were collected for 20 variables: puberty, pregnancy, menopause, change in living environment, change in job/career, financial problems, quitting smoking, drug or alcohol use, medical condition, surgery, injury affecting mobility, chronic pain, dieting, others' influence over diet, abuse, mental health condition, stress, death of a loved one, divorce/end of a relationship, and other causes. Frequency distribution and chi-square tests were performed using SPSS. Sixty-three percent of participants selected stress as a cause of weight gain, while 56% selected dieting. Significant differences existed between women and men in the selection of dieting and change in living environment. This information may allow dietitians to better identify causes for weight gain leading to bariatric surgery, and to address these causes appropriately before and after surgery.
Isis Delfrate Rodrigues
Full Text Available The objective of the papper was to verify the relationship between dietary intake and interdialytic weight gain in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cross-sectional study, in a renal clinic in Irati, Paraná, Brazil. Prehemodialysis weight and weight after hemodialysis were evaluated. Food intake was analyzed according to food frequency and usual food day (DAH. The data were evaluated descriptively and also through the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Sixty-one patients (54.1% participated in the study, with a mean age of 57.78±14.58 years, 62.3% of males. The mean pre-hemodialysis weight was 68.28±15.14 kg, while hemodialysis was 65.63±15.01 kg (p0.05. The other food groups (meat, cereals, fats and sweets also had no association with weight gain (p> 0.05. When the nutrients were compared, according to the DAH, there was no relation with the interdialytic weight gain (p>0.05. Thus, it was observed that there was a relationship between interdialytic weight gain and macronutrient consumption; The same was not observed for micronutrients.
Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.
Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...
Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A
Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ 2 statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m 2 to cesarean
Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads
compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...
Claesson, Ing-Marie; Josefsson, Ann; Cedergren, Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan; Jeppsson, Annika; Nyström, Fredrik; Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla
to investigate women's attitudes and satisfaction with a weight-gain intervention programme during pregnancy. exploratory, descriptive study. Data were collected via interviews. University hospital. 56 obese pregnant women who attended antenatal care at the University Hospital of Linköping's obstetrical department and took part in an intervention programme aimed at reducing weight gain during pregnancy, between November 2003 and August 2004. the interviews comprised several questions concerning attitudes and opinions of the programme. Most of the women expressed positive experiences with the treatment and would attend the programme if they became pregnant again. Most of the women stated that they had changed their eating and exercise habits during pregnancy, and almost all of them had continued with these new habits. Even though the weight gain goal of a maximum 6.9 kg was reached by less than half of the participants, most of the women were satisfied with their weight gain. A total of 71.4% of the women participated in aqua aerobics classes. They stated that they were most satisfied with this form of exercise, and that it also was a good social experience. a pregnant woman herself must be actively involved in setting her own goals to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Considerable effort and support must be placed on discussing strategies, pitfalls and risks. In order for the woman to maintain the change in attitude and habits, she must probably be given continuous feedback and reinforcement over the long term.
Full Text Available Background:The quality of life and standard of health care in a society is measured by its preterm infants' mortality rate. The popularity and credibility of alternative treatment such as touch therapy may be effective in preterm and low birth weightinfants in order to increase their survival rate.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of touch intervention on the weight gain of preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unite(NICU. Methods:This study was a randomized controlled trial performed in NICU of Emamreza hospital,Mashhad,Iran,from July 2007 to November 2007. There were two groups (the control group and the case group and one response variable (weight gain.Infants in the control group received routine nursing care. Infants in the case group,in addition to the routine care,received stroking/passive limb movement therapy for three 15 minute sessions per day for a 10 day period.Then weight gaining was compared between the two groups . Results:The weight gain data was analyzed by SPSS software. Over the 10 day study period, the case group gained significantly more weight compared to the control group (p(p<0.001(.Conclusion:The data suggest that stroking/passive limb movement can be an efficientand cost effective way of enhancing growth in stable preterm infants .
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.
Edmonson, M Bruce; Eickhoff, Jens C
An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Study, a 2-year randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants from 2007 to 2011. All 607 children who were randomized to receive antibiotic (n = 302) or placebo (n = 305) were included. Children with urinary tract anomalies, premature birth, or major comorbidities were excluded from participation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo taken orally, once daily, for 2 years. Weight gain as measured by change in weight-for-age z score from baseline to the end-of-study visit at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight gain at 6, 12, and 18 months and the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months. Participants had a median age of 12 months (range, 2-71 months) and 558 of 607 (91.9%) were female. Anthropometric data were complete at the 24-month visit for 428 children (214 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 214 in the placebo group). Weight gain in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and the placebo group was similar (mean [SD] change in weight-for-age z score: +0.14 [0.83] and +0.18 [0.85], respectively; difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.19 to 0.12]; P = .65). There was no significant difference in weight gain at 6, 12, or 18 months or in the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months (24.8% vs 25.7%; P = .82). Subgroup analyses showed no significant interaction between weight gain effect and age, sex, history of breastfeeding, prior antibiotic use, adherence to study
Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S
Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...
Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G
Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.
Stice, Eric; Burger, Kyle S; Yokum, Sonja
Because no large prospective study has investigated neural vulnerability factors that predict future weight gain, we tested whether neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward predicted body fat gain over a 3-year follow-up in healthy-weight adolescent humans and whether the TaqIA polymorphism moderates these relations. A total of 153 adolescents completed fMRI paradigms assessing response to these events; body fat was assessed annually over follow-up. Elevated orbitofrontal cortex response to cues signaling impending milkshake receipt predicted future body fat gain (r = 0.32), which is a novel finding that provides support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity. Neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward did not predict body fat gain, which has not been tested previously. Replicating an earlier finding (Stice et al., 2008a), elevated caudate response to milkshake receipt predicted body fat gain for adolescents with a genetic propensity for greater dopamine signaling by virtue of possessing the TaqIA A2/A2 allele, but lower caudate response predicted body fat gain for adolescents with a genetic propensity for less dopamine signaling by virtue of possessing a TaqIA A1 allele, though this interaction was only marginal [p-value monetary reward predicted body fat gain over 3-year follow-up in healthy-weight adolescent humans and whether the TaqIA polymorphism moderates these relations. Elevated reward activation in response to food cues predicted future body fat gain. Elevated reward response to food receipt predicted body fat gain for adolescents with a TaqIA A2/A2 allele and lower reward response predicted body fat gain for those with a TaqIA A1 allele. Results imply that too much or too little dopamine signaling and reward region responsivity increases risk for overeating. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510316-09$15.00/0.
Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J
The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.
Oscar Daniel Cifuentes Ruiz
Full Text Available Probiotics has been used to substitute antibiotic treatments used as growth promoters and to improve productive performance. The term probiotic is used to namelive micro-organisms such as microbes and bacteria with beneficial effects to livestock farms when consumed as dietary supplements. This review investigates the evidence for the use of probiotics in sheep’s final body weight gain combined with livestock grazing management system with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Twenty one native sheep were chosen randomly for this study, with an average weight of 14.71 kg ± 1.9 under continuous grazing; the meadows are used as sheep pastures where Kikuyo grass grows (Pennisetum clandestinum and water ad libitum. Sheep were classified in three different treatments: T1, control treatment, without adding yeast; T2, added with 5 g/day of yeast; and T3, supplemented with 15 g/day of yeast. Throughout this study was possible to find a beneficial effect on final weight and average daily gain. The results were compared by ANOVA with a significance level of 95%. A significant difference was observed on final body weight of sheep for T3 (p ≤ 0.05. In addition, it was found that daily weight gain was 100 g, 120 g and 220 g for T1, T2 and T3 respectively. This research leads us to conclude that the addition of 15 g of yeast improves daily bodyweight gain and final weight of grazing native sheep.
Dedi Kurniawan Saputra
Full Text Available With increasing maternal age hopefully the mother knows more about raising a baby and supervising their growth and development. With normal birth weight and adequate duration of exclusive breastfeeding the baby can be expected to have optimal growth and development. The goal of this historical-cohort prospective study was to analyze the relation between maternal age, infant birth weight and duration of breastfeeding on the one hand with infant weight gain on the other. The population under study were six-month-old infants in the catchment area of Pagar Gading Community Health Center, Pino Raya Region, South Bengkulu Regency. The total sample consisted of 31 six-month-old infants, selected by consecutive nonrandom sampling of subjects meeting the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the correlation-regression test. There was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and infant weight gain using the correlation test (p0.05. Furthermore, with the multiple linear regression test, duration of breastfeeding affected infant weight gain (p0.05. The conclusion of this study is that duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects infant weight gain. Breastfeeding of infants should be prolonged beyond the age of 6 months.
Dedi Kurniawan Saputra
Full Text Available With increasing maternal age hopefully the mother knows more about raising a baby and supervising their growth and development. With normal birth weight and adequate duration of exclusive breastfeeding the baby can be expected to have optimal growth and development. The goal of this historical-cohort prospective study was to analyze the relation between maternal age, infant birth weight and duration of breastfeeding on the one hand with infant weight gain on the other. The population under study were six-month-old infants in the catchment area of Pagar Gading Community Health Center, Pino Raya Region, South Bengkulu Regency. The total sample consisted of 31 six-month-old infants, selected by consecutive nonrandom sampling of subjects meeting the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the correlation-regression test. There was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and infant weight gain using the correlation test (p0.05. Furthermore, with the multiple linear regression test, duration of breastfeeding affected infant weight gain (p0.05. The conclusion of this study is that duration of exclusive breastfeeding affects infant weight gain. Breastfeeding of infants should be prolonged beyond the age of 6 months.
Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li
This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.
Kao, A C C; Rojnic Kuzman, M; Tiwari, A K; Zivkovic, M V; Chowdhury, N I; Medved, V; Kekin, I; Zai, C C; Lieberman, J A; Meltzer, H Y; Bozina, T; Bozina, N; Kennedy, J L; Sertic, J; Müller, D J
Weight gain and metabolic disturbances represent serious side-effects in antipsychotic (AP) treatment, particularly with clozapine and olanzapine. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a key determinant in the folate metabolism and previous studies reported a significant effect on AP-induced weight gain and related metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we investigated MTHFR gene variants and changes in several important metabolic parameters in AP-treated patients. In this study, two functional MTHFR polymorphisms, rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C), were investigated for changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Genotypic associations were evaluated in a large population (n = 347 including 66 first episode psychosis, FEP patients) treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine. We did not detect any genotypic association with weight changes (p > 0.05) in our total sample and in the sample refined for ancestry and medication. In our allelic analyses, we observed a trend for the 677-C allele to be associated with weight gain in the total sample (p = 0.03). This effect appeared to be driven by the FEP patients where those carrying the C-allele gained, on average, twice as much weight. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphism with HDL cholesterol serum levels in patients (p = 0.031). Overall we did not detect a major effect of two functional MTHFR gene variants and AP-induced weight gain. However, our findings suggest an effect of the C677T polymorphism in FEP patients and changes in weight and cholesterol levels. Further investigations in a larger sample are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bannon, Annika L; Waring, Molly E; Leung, Katherine; Masiero, Jessica V; Stone, Julie M; Scannell, Elizabeth C; Moore Simas, Tiffany A
Objectives To examine clinical and demographic characteristics associated with availability of self-reported and measured pre-pregnancy weight, differences in these parameters, and characteristics associated with self-report accuracy. Methods Retrospective cohort of 7483 women who delivered at a large academic medical center between 2011 and 2014. Measured pre-pregnancy weights recorded within a year of conception and self-reported pre-pregnancy weights reported anytime during pregnancy were abstracted from electronic medical records. Difference in weights was calculated as self-reported minus measured pre-pregnancy weight. Logistic and linear regression models estimated associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, and presence of self-reported and measured weights, and weight differences. Results 42.2% of women had both self-reported and measured pre-pregnancy weight, 49.7% had only self-reported, and 2.8% had only measured. Compared to white women, black women and women of other races/ethnicities were less likely to have self-reported weight, and black, Asian, and Hispanic women, and women of other races/ethnicities were less likely to have measured weights. For 85%, pre-pregnancy BMI categorized by self-reported and measured weights were concordant. Primiparas and multiparas were more likely to underreport their weight compared to nulliparas (b = -1.32 lbs, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.41 lbs and b = -2.74 lbs, 95% CI -3.82 to -1.67 lbs, respectively). Discussion Utilization of self-reported or measured pre-pregnancy weight for pre-pregnancy BMI classification results in identical categorization for the majority of women. Providers may wish to account for underreporting for patients with a BMI close to category cutoff by recommending a range of gestational weight gain that falls within recommendations for both categories where feasible.
Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten
type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During the intervention women in the D+PA group...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...
Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.
The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.
Andrew P Morgan
Full Text Available The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine is effective in reducing psychotic symptoms but can cause extreme weight gain in human patients. We investigated the role of the gut microbiota in this adverse drug effect using a mouse model. First, we used germ-free C57BL/6J mice to demonstrate that gut bacteria are necessary and sufficient for weight gain caused by oral delivery of olanzapine. Second, we surveyed fecal microbiota before, during, and after treatment and found that olanzapine potentiated a shift towards an "obesogenic" bacterial profile. Finally, we demonstrated that olanzapine has antimicrobial activity in vitro against resident enteric bacterial strains. These results collectively provide strong evidence for a mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain in mouse and a hypothesis for clinical translation in human patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents.
Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (overcompensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased dopamine signaling after dopaminergic overstimulation, for example after smoking cessation or overconsumption of high palatable food. This hypothesis is in line with our incidental finding of increased weight gain after discontinuation of pharmaceutical dopaminergic overstimulation in rats. These findings support the crucial role of dopaminergic signaling for eating behaviors and offer an explanation for weight-gain after cessation of activities associated with high dopaminergic signaling. They further support the possibility that dopaminergic medication could be used to moderate food intake.
van der Zwaal, E.M.
Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.
Asad Ullah Hyder, Pervez Akhtar and Omer Usman Haider
Full Text Available Records belonging to 1248 Teddy goats kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, (Okara, Pakistan were analyzed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting pre-weaning average daily weight gain. Sex of kid, season and year of kidding affected average daily weight gain significantly (P<0.01. Male kids gained at a faster rate (111.00 ± 6.01 g/day than female kids (106.00 ± 6.06 g per day. The kids born in summer gained 108.90 + 1.3 g per day, which. was lower (P<0.01 than winter born kids ( 115.4 ± 1.4 9 per day. Different years of birth had shown gradual decrease in pre-weaning average daily gains. The effects of. parity of dam and birth type were found to be non-significant. Habitability estimate for daily weight gain was 0.12 ± 0.06. The phenotypic and genetic trends were negative.
Goldstein, Adam A.; Petrisor, Gregory C.; Jenkins, B. Keith
A gain and exposure schedule that theoretically eliminates the effect of photorefractive weight decay for the general class of outer-product neural-network learning algorithms (e.g., backpropagation, Widrow-Hoff, perceptron) is presented. This schedule compensates for photorefractive diffraction-efficiency decay by iteratively increasing the spatial-light-modulator transfer function gain and decreasing the weight-update exposure time. Simulation results for the scheduling procedure, as applied to backpropagation learning for the exclusive-OR problem, show improved learning performance compared with results for networks trained without scheduling.
Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321
Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:16895873
Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages' high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle.
Full Text Available Castration is a controversial practice in swine production because in some countries is still performed without anaesthesia, and therefore causes intense suffering and stress to animals. This study investigated the effect of pre-surgical administration of local anaesthesia (LA on the growth performance of piglets until the end of the growth phase (102 days. Piglets aged 3 to 5 days were selected in pairs of similar weights and same age. They were originated from 22 litters. The groups were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Castration was performed with (LA; n = 45 or without (NLA; n = 45 intra-testicular administration of 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine plus adrenaline per testicle, administered by an automatic repeating vaccinator. Castration was performed 10 min later. Average daily weight gain and economic impact were evaluated between the intervals before castration until 21 (weaning phase, before castration until 60 (end of the initial nursery phase and before castration until 102 (growth phase days of age. Average daily weight gain data were analyzed by comparing the average daily weight gain between the weaning phase, 60 and 102 days of age versus the initial weight (pre-castration. At the end of the growing phase, animals treated with LA showed greater weight gain than animals castrated without anaesthesia. LA also showed improved cost:benefit ratio and theore might provide greater economic benefit under the conditions used in this study. Our findings have proved that castration with LA improves long-term weight gain of piglets.
Botella-Carretero, J I; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Martín, I; Valero, A M; Alvarez, F; García, G; Varela, C; Cantarero, M
Weight gain is frequent after smoking cessation, and may limit patient's will to quit and long-term success. Nicotine and bupropion are effective drugs for smoking withdrawal. However, their influence on weight gain, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, as well as possible differences in obese and lean subjects, have not been fully evaluated. We randomised 25 lean and 25 obese smokers to receive either bupropion or nicotine patches. Clinical evaluation and lipid profile were performed at baseline and after treatment. Insulin resistance was also assessed at the end. Weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure increased (p < 0.005), whereas lipid profile improved (p < 0.001) after smoking cessation independently of obesity at baseline or drug used. Obese patients had higher insulin resistance at the end (p < 0.05) regardless of drug used. Weight gain was inversely related to age (beta= - 0.125, R = 0.38, p = 0.046), and insulin resistance was related to obesity at baseline (beta = 0.85, R = 0.46, p = 0.02). In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation is not dependent on obesity or drug taken. A beneficial lipid profile is achieved after quitting smoking with either bupropion or nicotine patch in both obese and lean subjects.
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z; Glasofer, Deborah R; Salaita, Christine G
The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents and seems to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has shown efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood.
Pearce, Matthew; Bray, Isabelle; Horswell, Michael
Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue. Understanding environmental factors and their contribution to weight gain is important if interventions are to be effective. The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship between weight gain in children and accessibility of fast-food outlets. A longitudinal sample of 1577 children was created using two time points from the National Child Measurement Programme in South Gloucestershire (2006/7 and 2012/13). A spatial analysis was conducted using a weighted accessibility score on the number of fast-food outlets within a 1-km network radius of each child's residence to quantify access to fast food. The mean accessibility score for all children was 0.73 (standard deviation: 1.14). Fast-food outlets were more prevalent in areas of deprivation. A moderate association was found between deprivation score and accessibilty score (r = 0.4, P fast-food outlets were more likely (odds ratio = 1.89, P = 0.04) to gain significant weight (>50 percentile points) compared to children who had no access to fast-food outlets. This paper supports previous research that fast-food outlets are more prevalent in areas of deprivation and presents new evidence on fast-food outlets as a potential contributor towards weight gain in mid-childhood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads
not inducing weight gain in clinic (haloperidol), on food and water intake and body weight gain in rats. We included both female and male rats in this study. To reduce spontaneous high food intake in rats, and to be able to evaluate the treatment effect on a potential increase of food intake or metabolic......Several clinical reports have demonstrated that most antipsychotics of the new generation, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, induce weight gain in schizophrenic patients. Since weight gain induces serious health complications in humans, it is crucial to test upcoming antipsychotic...... compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...
Soltani, Hora; Lipoeto, Nur I; Fair, Frankie J; Kilner, Karen; Yusrawati, Y
Indonesia has a considerably high incidence of maternal and infant mortality. The country has however been experiencing a social and economic transition, influencing its general population demographics and nutritional status including the state of health and nutrition of pregnant women. This study aimed to explore body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG), and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Indonesian pregnant women. This observational cohort study included a total of 607 pregnant women who were recruited in 2010 from maternity clinics in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Multiple logistic and regression analyses were undertaken to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes for different BMI and GWG, using normal weight women and women with a recommended weight gain as the referent groups. The prevalence of underweight (BMI pregnancy was high at 20.1%; while 21.7% of women were overweight (BMI: 23.0-27.4 kg/m 2 ) and 5.3% obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m 2 ) using the Asian BMI classifications. The incidence of overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 ) according to the international BMI classifications were 13.5% and 1.1% respectively. The majority of women gained inadequate weight in pregnancy compared to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, especially those who had a normal BMI. Birthweight adjusted mean difference aMD (95% confidence interval) 205 (46,365) and the odds of macrosomia adjusted odds ratio aOR 13.46 (2.32-77.99) significantly increased in obese women compared to those with a normal BMI. Birthweight aMD -139 (-215, -64) significantly decreased in women with inadequate GWG compared to those with recommended GWG, while SGA aOR 5.44 (1.36, 21.77) and prematurity aOR 3.55 (1.23, 10.21) increased. Low nutritional status and inadequate GWG remain a cause for concern in these women. The higher odds of macrosomia with increasing maternal BMI and higher odds of prematurity and small for
Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been widely used in the modern diet, and their observed effects on human health have been inconsistent, with both beneficial and adverse outcomes reported. Obesity and type 2 diabetes have dramatically increased in the U.S. and other countries over the last two decades. Numerous studies have indicated an important role of the gut microbiome in body weight control and glucose metabolism and regulation. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener saccharin could alter gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, raising questions about the contribution of artificial sweeteners to the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K, a FDA-approved artificial sweetener, is commonly used, but its toxicity data reported to date are considered inadequate. In particular, the functional impact of Ace-K on the gut microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of Ace-K on the gut microbiome and the changes in fecal metabolic profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics. We found that Ace-K consumption perturbed the gut microbiome of CD-1 mice after a 4-week treatment. The observed body weight gain, shifts in the gut bacterial community composition, enrichment of functional bacterial genes related to energy metabolism, and fecal metabolomic changes were highly gender-specific, with differential effects observed for males and females. In particular, ace-K increased body weight gain of male but not female mice. Collectively, our results may provide a novel understanding of the interaction between artificial sweeteners and the gut microbiome, as well as the potential role of this interaction in the development of obesity and the associated chronic inflammation.
Bian, Xiaoming; Chi, Liang; Gao, Bei; Tu, Pengcheng; Ru, Hongyu; Lu, Kun
Artificial sweeteners have been widely used in the modern diet, and their observed effects on human health have been inconsistent, with both beneficial and adverse outcomes reported. Obesity and type 2 diabetes have dramatically increased in the U.S. and other countries over the last two decades. Numerous studies have indicated an important role of the gut microbiome in body weight control and glucose metabolism and regulation. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener saccharin could alter gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, raising questions about the contribution of artificial sweeteners to the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Acesulfame-potassium (Ace-K), a FDA-approved artificial sweetener, is commonly used, but its toxicity data reported to date are considered inadequate. In particular, the functional impact of Ace-K on the gut microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of Ace-K on the gut microbiome and the changes in fecal metabolic profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics. We found that Ace-K consumption perturbed the gut microbiome of CD-1 mice after a 4-week treatment. The observed body weight gain, shifts in the gut bacterial community composition, enrichment of functional bacterial genes related to energy metabolism, and fecal metabolomic changes were highly gender-specific, with differential effects observed for males and females. In particular, ace-K increased body weight gain of male but not female mice. Collectively, our results may provide a novel understanding of the interaction between artificial sweeteners and the gut microbiome, as well as the potential role of this interaction in the development of obesity and the associated chronic inflammation.
Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette
nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marić Nađa P.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA with a high level of therapeutic effectiveness in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Along with the positive therapeutic effects, an increase of the body weight frequently occurs. According to the literature, the average weight gain is about 6-7 kg during several months of treatment. This could be valued as a moderate weight increase. CASE OUTLINE This article presents a case of a young female with schizophrenia, without clinical improvement with several antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, haloperidol and with the occurrence of significant neurological side effects. The treatment started with olanzapine (baseline was associated with good initial response (PANSS reduction 20% in the first two weeks and the improvement was maintained further on (PANSS reduction 50% after 16 weeks. Significant increase (20 kg, 40% in weight appeared during the following 16 weeks (BMI at baseline 17.9 kg/m2; BMI 16 weeks later 25.1 kg/m2. CONCLUSION High effectiveness of olanzapine in schizophrenia symptoms reduction was accompanied by a significant weight gain. However, this drug leads to impaired glucoregulation, dyslipidaemia etc. It also increases the risk of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, i.e. the main causes of mortality in schizophrenia after a suicide. Therefore, clinicians are suggested to focus on possible predictors of weight gain during olanzapine therapy, and act accordingly in order to prevent serious health consequences.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, body weight and growth rates on basic fattening and slaughter indexes in PEN-AR-LAN fatteners. The research was conducted on 274 PEN-ARLAN hybrid fatteners coming from sows of the Naïma maternal line and was sired by boars of the P-76 meat line. Recorded ...
Kemp, David E; Correll, Christoph U; Tohen, Mauricio; Delbello, Melissa P; Ganocy, Stephen J; Findling, Robert L; Chang, Kiki
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between body weight and illness characteristics, including weight gain and therapeutic efficacy, in adolescents with schizophrenia. Adolescents ages 13-17 years (n = 107) with American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) schizophrenia enrolled in a 6 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing olanzapine and placebo. Therapeutic response was assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C). Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Obesity was defined as sex-/age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between weight gain and psychiatric symptom improvement; logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of baseline obesity. Weight gain was significantly correlated with greater BPRS-C reduction among olanzapine-treated subjects (r = -0.31, ptreatment (p=0.12), and a treatment by weight gain interaction did not emerge in a repeated-measures mixed model analysis that included time in the study (t = 1.27, p = 0.21). Additionally, weight gain ≥ 7% was not significantly associated with response or remission. Among 17 adolescents (16%) with obesity at study entry, obesity was not significantly associated with endpoint BPRS-C illness severity. However, girls (p = 0.03), individuals hospitalized within the past year (p = 0.02), and those with less severe overall (p = 0.03) and negative symptoms (p = 0.003) according to the CGI-S and PANSS negative subscale, respectively, were more likely to be obese at baseline. Baseline obesity was associated with lower illness severity, which could be mediated by greater treatment adherence, leading to more weight gain. Olanzapine-related weight gain was not independently associated with symptomatic outcome when controlling
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule
Rahman, Mohammad L; Kile, Molly L; Rodrigues, Ema G; Valeri, Linda; Raj, Anita; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Mostofa, Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hauser, Russ; Baccarelli, Andrea; Liang, Liming; Christiani, David C
Preterm birth is a disease of multifactorial etiologies that has environmental, social, and maternal health components. Individual studies have shown that exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water, child marriage, and low maternal weight gain during pregnancy contribute to preterm birth. These factors are highly prevalent and often co-exist in Bangladesh, a country in South Asia with one of the world's highest prevalences of preterm birth. To evaluate the individual and interactive effects of prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain on preterm birth in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh. During 2008-2011, we recruited 1613 pregnant women aged ≥18years at ≤16weeks of gestation and followed them until 1-month post-partum. We measured total arsenic in drinking water (n=1184) and in maternal toenails (n=1115) collected at enrollment and ≤1-month post-partum, respectively using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Child marriage (child marriage, and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.42-0.97) for a pound per week increase in maternal weight during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. In stratified analysis by child marriage, pregnancy weight gain was inversely associated with preterm birth among women with a history of child marriage (RR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.37-0.92), but not among women with no history of child marriage (RR=86; 95% CI: 0.37-2.01). Mediation analysis revealed that both arsenic exposure and child marriage had small but significant associations with preterm birth via lowering pregnancy weight gain. Similar associations were observed when arsenic exposure was assessed using maternal toenail arsenic concentrations. Reducing arsenic exposure and ending child marriage could reduce the risk of preterm birth in Bangladesh. Furthermore, enhancing nutritional support to ensure adequate weight gain during pregnancy may provide additional benefits especially for women with a history of child marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Wammes, Birgitte; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes
The objective was to evaluate a 3-year nationwide mass media campaign aimed at preventing weight gain. The campaign was aimed primarily at raising awareness of the importance of weight-gain prevention and bringing these issues to the attention of the Dutch public. Eleven serial, independent, cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys were used to assess campaign awareness and impact (N ranged between 483 and 493 for each of the 11 surveys). The surveys were conducted before and after six campaign waves. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test for trends over time and for differences among the surveys for campaign awareness, message recall, perceived body weight status, overweight-related risk perceptions, attitudes, perceived social support, self-efficacy expectations, and motivations for preventing weight gain. Campaign awareness ranged from 61% after the 1st campaign wave to 88.4% after the final wave. The campaign's television broadcasting activities were an important source of campaign awareness, from both the campaign's television commercials and television-based free publicity. Message recall ranged from 41.9% to 68.1%. Small positive differences were found in attitudes, perceived social support, and intentions for preventing weight gain. Additionally, the results suggest mixed effects on self-efficacy expectations and a negative effect on risk perception. The campaign resulted in high campaign awareness, especially as a result of television commercials and free publicity on television. The results suggest that the campaign was able to create more positive attitudes and motivation but lower risk perceptions and efficacy for preventing weight gain.
Gerber, Jeffrey S; Bryan, Matthew; Ross, Rachael K; Daymont, Carrie; Parks, Elizabeth P; Localio, A Russell; Grundmeier, Robert W; Stallings, Virginia A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E
Early-life antibiotic exposure has been associated with increased adiposity in animal models, mediated through the gut microbiome. Infant antibiotic exposure is common and often inappropriate. Studies of the association between infant antibiotics and childhood weight gain have reported inconsistent results. To assess the association between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood weight gain. Retrospective, longitudinal study of singleton births and matched longitudinal study of twin pairs conducted in a network of 30 pediatric primary care practices serving more than 200,000 children of diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds across Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Children born between November 1, 2001, and December 31, 2011, at 35 weeks' gestational age or older, with birth weight of 2000 g or more and in the fifth percentile or higher for gestational age, and who had a preventive health visit within 14 days of life and at least 2 additional visits in the first year of life. Children with complex chronic conditions and those who received long-term antibiotics or multiple systemic corticosteroid prescriptions were excluded. We included 38,522 singleton children and 92 twins (46 matched pairs) discordant in antibiotic exposure. Final date of follow-up was December 31, 2012. Systemic antibiotic use in the first 6 months of life. Weight, measured at preventive health visits from age 6 months through 7 years. Of 38,522 singleton children (50% female; mean birth weight, 3.4 kg), 5287 (14%) were exposed to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life (at a mean age of 4.3 months). Antibiotic exposure was not significantly associated with rate of weight change (0.7%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 1.5%; P = .07, equivalent to approximately 0.05 kg; 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.11 kg of added weight gain between age 2 years and 5 years). Among 92 twins (38% female; mean birth weight, 2.8 kg), the 46 twins who were exposed to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life
Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly; Fryer, Jayne; Jones, Graeme
Calcium intake is a potential factor influencing weight gain and may reduce body weight, but the evidence for this in children is conflicting. The aim of this study was to use data from randomized controlled trials to determine whether calcium supplementation in healthy children affects weight or body composition. This study is a systematic review. We identified potential studies by searching the following electronic bibliographic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ISI Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and Human Nutrition up until April 1, 2005 and hand-searched relevant conference abstracts. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation, with at least 3 months of supplementation, in healthy children and with outcome measures including weight. Meta-analyses were performed using fixed effects models and weighted mean differences for weight and height and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for body composition measures. There were no statistically significant effects of calcium supplementation on weight [+0.14 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.28, +0.57 kg], height (+0.22 cm; 95% CI, -0.30, +0.74 cm), body fat (SMD, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.08, +0.15), or lean mass (SMD, +0.14; 95% CI, -0.03, +0.31). There is no evidence to support the use of calcium supplementation as a public health intervention to reduce weight gain or body fat in healthy children. Although our results do not rule out an effect of dietary supplementation with dairy products on weight gain or body composition, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis.
Lior Z. Braunstein
Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.
Kwok, Alastair; Palermo, Claire; Boltong, Anna
Weight gain is common but poorly understood in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Overweight and obesity are associated with other co-morbidities, reduced self-esteem and an increased risk of cancer recurrence. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, dietary information and support needs of women who gain weight during chemotherapy treatment. This study used a qualitative approach to explore the experiences of women from three Melbourne breast cancer clinics. Those who gained weight during the period of enrolment in a cohort study of chemotherapy-related taste changes were invited to participate in this qualitative interview study. Eligibility for inclusion was a gain in body weight between the commencement of chemotherapy and 2 months after its completion. Semi-structured interviews explored changes in diet, physical activity patterns, weight changes, dietary information and support needs and sources. Thematic analysis of the interview data was performed. Seventeen women were interviewed. Three key themes emerged from the following data: (i) undesirable impacts of cancer treatment on diet and physical activity, (ii) surprise and concern associated with changes to weight and diet and (iii) insufficient dietary information and support. This study has described the practical and informational dietary support needs of women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and reasons for dietary change. There may be gaps in information and support provision after diagnosis in the areas of weight management, nutrition-related side effects of chemotherapy and healthy eating. Models of dietetic practice and the provision of tailored dietary information should be explored.
N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole)
textabstractThe high prevalence of overweight and obesity is an important determinant of avoidable burden of disease in the Netherlands and worldwide. Preventing excessive weight gain among children and adolescents can contribute to reducing this burden. The present thesis adds to the knowledge on
Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Boniface, D.; Jebb, S.A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.
Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939
Renato da Silva Freitas
Full Text Available Goals/Background. To evaluate children’s growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF, in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50 and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care.
Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.
Objective: Freshman weight gain has been assessed using quantitative inquiry, but this qualitative study allowed for an in-depth exploration of freshmen women's experiences surrounding body image, nutrition, and exercise. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact and explanations for the "Freshman 15." Participants: Freshmen…
Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H
To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.
Sutin, Angelina R; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio
Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this association. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children (N = 3929) were measured every 2 years; BMI and waist circumference were available from ages 4 to 15. Parents reported on bullying at age 6. Children reported on their depressive symptoms at ages 12-13. Participants who weighed in the obese category at age 4 had an over 50% increased risk of being bullied in school at age 6. Being bullied at age 6 was associated with excess weight gain between ages 6 and 15, defined as either BMI or waist circumference. Depressive symptoms at age 12 partially explained the association between bullying and increases in adiposity. None of the associations varied by gender. Similar to other forms of peer victimization, bullying early in school is associated with greater weight gain through early adolescence; depressive symptom is one mechanism that contributes to this association.
da Silva Freitas, Renato; Lopes-Grego, Andrey Bernardo; Dietrich, Helena Luiza Douat; Cerchiari, Natacha Regina de Moraes; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Tonocchi, Rita; Gabardo, Juarez; da Silva, Éder David Borges; Forte, Antonio Jorge
Goals/Background. To evaluate children's growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF), in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50) and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care. PMID:23304489
Ranchers that raise Criollo cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Raramuri Criollo (RC) steers are commonly raised for beef and finished on rangelands, while Corriente (CR) are often raised for rodeo sports. No data exist on weight gains and grazing behavior of ran...
A.J. Vidakovic (Aleksandra Jelena); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); O. Gishti (Olta); J.F. Felix (Janine); M.A. Williams (Michelle); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Demmelmair (Hans); B. Koletzko (Berthold); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R. Gaillard (Romy)
textabstractObesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was
Background: Maternal nutritional state is important for the health and quality of life of women. Nutritional status of women has been considered an important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcome. The study aims to show the pattern of weight gain during pregnancy. Methodology: Five hundred (500) women attending ...
Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter
BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children d...
van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Hu, F.B.; Rimm, E.B.; van Dam, R.M.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and long-term weight gain in an adult male population. Research Methods and Procedures: We evaluated prospective data on 20,064 U.S men, 46 to 81 years of age, who participated in the Health Professionals Follow-up
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael
prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...
Full Text Available An increase in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM was observed using new diagnostic criteria. We evaluated the prevalence of GDM in a population of pregnant women (109 women with gestational age of 24-28 weeks and risk factors for GDM, such as maternal obesity and weight gain. The evaluation of each patient included an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using the new diagnostic criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG for GDM, 2D ultrasounds and the registration of risk factors. The prevalence of GDM in the age group ≥30 years was 11.9%, which is comparable to the results of other studies. The relative risk (RR for GDM was 1.738 (95% CI 0.630-4.795 in women over 30 years and 3.782 (95% CI 1.127-12.686 in women over 35. Weight gain in the group with GDM was significantly higher than in the group that included pregnant women without GDM (p <0.01. Considering the high risk of GDM with excessive gestational weight gain, educational nutrition programs should be established for the fertile-age population, not only to prevent obesity but also to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy.
Wink, Logan K.; Adams, Ryan; Pedapati, Ernest V.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Fox, Emma; Buck, Catherine; Erickson, Craig A.
Antipsychotic treatment in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is becoming increasingly common, placing individuals at risk for antipsychotic-induced weight gain and associated complications. Metformin hydrochloride, a biguanide medication FDA-approved for treatment of type-2 diabetes in youth, may hold promise for treatment of…
Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...
Full Text Available Weight gain and morphometric growth of the genetically improved tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum are evaluated. Current assay was carried out on the Fish Farm Experimental Station of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in the municipality of Santo Antonio de Leverger - MT Brazil. Seven fish families from the breeding program and a control group (not genetically improved were evaluated. All animals were individually identified with a transmitter-responder label (transponder. Weight gain, overall and standard length, head size, height, width and body perimeter were measured. A completely randomized design was used and comparisons among families and the control group were carried out by Dunnett test at 5% significance level. The genetically improved fish families showed a 14.8% higher weight gain when compared to that of control group. Five out of seven families showed greater weight gain when compared to control group, with the best family exhibiting a 24.8% higher rate. Four families had higher growth in all evaluated morphometric characteristics when compared to control group. Only one family did not differ in any of the evaluated characteristics with regard to the control group.
Epstein, Leonard H; Yokum, Sonja; Feda, Denise M; Stice, Eric
Food reinforcement, the extent to which people are willing to work to earn a preferred snack food, and parental obesity are risk factors for weight gain, but there is no research comparing the predictive effects of these factors for adolescent weight gain. 130 non-obese adolescents (M age=15.2 ± 1.0; M BMI=20.7 ± 2.0; M zBMI=0.16 ± 0.64) at differential risk for weight gain based on parental obesity completed baseline food and money reinforcement tasks, and provided zBMI data over a 2-year follow-up. The number of obese (BMI ≥ 30) parents (p=0.007) and high food reinforcement (p=0.046) were both significant independent predictors of greater zBMI increases, controlling for age, sex, parent education and minority status. Having no obese parents or being low or average in food reinforcement was associated with reductions in zBMI, but those high in food reinforcement showed larger zBMI increases (0.102) than having one obese parent (0.025) but less than having two obese parents (0.177). Food reinforcement and parental obesity independently predict future weight gain among adolescents. It might be fruitful for obesity prevention programs to target both high risk groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Antonisamy, Belavendra; Vasan, Senthil K; Geethanjali, Finney S; Gowri, Mahasampath; Hepsy, Y S; Richard, Joseph; Raghupathy, P; Karpe, Fredrik; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D
To investigate independent relationships of childhood linear growth (height gain) and relative weight gain to adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk traits in Asian Indians. Data from 2218 adults from the Vellore Birth Cohort were examined for associations of cross-sectional height and body mass index (BMI) and longitudinal growth (independent conditional measures of height and weight gain) in infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood with adult waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), and plasma glucose and lipid concentrations. Higher BMI/greater conditional relative weight gain at all ages was associated with higher adult WC, after 3 months with higher adult BP, HOMA-IR, and lipids, and after 15 years with higher glucose concentrations. Taller adult height was associated with higher WC (men β = 2.32 cm per SD, women β = 1.63, both P HOMA-IR (men β = 0.08 log units per SD, women β = 0.12, both P ≤ .05) but lower glucose concentrations (women β = -0.03 log mmol/L per SD P = .003). Greater height or height gain at all earlier ages were associated with higher adult CVD risk traits. These positive associations were attenuated when adjusted for adult BMI and height. Shorter length and lower BMI at birth were associated with higher glucose concentration in women. Greater height or weight gain relative to height during childhood or adolescence was associated with a more adverse adult CVD risk marker profile, and this was mostly attributable to larger adult size. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, James A; Manson, JoAnn E; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E; Isasi, Carmen R; Martin, Lisa W; Thomson, Cynthia A
To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. A prospective cohort study involved 107,243 postmenopausal American women aged 50-79 years (mean = 60.7) at enrollment in the Women's Health Initiative, with 3-year follow-up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio economic, anthropomorphic, and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. Compared with women who ate a 1 oz (∼28 g) serving of chocolate candy candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), and was inversely associated with age. Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of postmenopausal women. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele
Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521
Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711
Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Bezençon, Carole; Darimont, Christian; le Coutre, Johannes; Damak, Sami
Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.
Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.
Koh, Houu; Tanimura, Kenji; Nakashima, Yuki; Maruo, Motoyoshi; Sakai, Keiichiro; Ueda, Yasuo; Yamada, Hideto
Two independent guidelines on appropriate weight gain for Japanese pregnant women have been established in 1997 and 2006. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the amount of gestational weight gain in pregnant women, the birth weight of their neonates, and the incidence of complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome in women who delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital. Between 1988 and 2014, 6367 women delivered live singleton neonates at full term. The study period was divided into period I (1988-1996), period II (1997-2005), and period III (2006-2014). Changes in weight gain and birth weight were assessed. Complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome were compared among the periods. Weight gain had been decreased in periods I and II, and weight gain was increased in period III. There was no difference in birth weights between the periods. The incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension in periods II and III were higher than that in period I (pwomen.
Haidar, Suzan A; de Vries, N K; Karavetian, Mirey; El-Rassi, Rola
Stress and anxiety levels are elevated among university and college students. Although high stress levels can lead to an increase in adiposity, it is not clear whether stress and anxiety experienced when in university or college have an influence on students' weight. The aim of this systemic review was to investigate whether stress and anxiety levels encountered during university and college enrollment were associated with higher adiposity or weight changes among students. A search strategy was used to identify peer-reviewed studies published between 1985 and March 2017 using the following databases: Medline using Ovid; PubMed, CINAHL using EBSCO, Embase using Ovid, PSYCHINFO, and Open Access Theses and Dissertation. Two reviewers independently assessed the title, abstract, and then the full article of the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and quality assessment was conducted for the included studies. Twenty-five observational studies were identified in this review (23 cross-sectional and two longitudinal); 11 found that there was no association between stress and body mass index or weight change. In addition, five studies did not find a significant association between anxiety and body mass index. A few studies revealed stress and anxiety might be associated with higher or lower weight status, thus there is a possibility that stress can increase or decrease weight, demonstrating that a bidirectional influence on body mass index may exist. The current data in this review are inadequate to draw firm conclusions about the role of stress on weight change in university and college students. The inconsistency of results in the literature reviewed for this article suggest that a focus on longitudinal studies with adequate sample size would better evaluate the relationship between stress or anxiety and its influence on weight status or weight change among college and university students. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Donny, Eric C.
Introduction: The action of nicotine to suppress body weight is often cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Despite the weight-suppressant effects of nicotine, smokers and nonsmokers report equal daily caloric intake. The weight-suppressive effects of nicotine in animal models of smoking are poorly understood. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration has authority to implement a policy markedly reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes; such a reduction could reduce smoking behavior, but have detrimental effects on body weight. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of self-administered nicotine on body weight and food intake in rats. Methods: In Experiment 1, rats with ad libitum access to chow responded for intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 µg/kg/infusion) or saline in daily 1-hour sessions; body weight and 24-hour food intake were measured. Experiment 2 tested the effects of subcutaneous injections of nicotine on food intake. In Experiment 3, rats were food restricted and self-administered nicotine across a range of doses (3.75–60 µg/kg/infusion) while body weight was measured. In Experiment 4, rats self-administered 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine before reduction to one of several doses (1.875–15 µg/kg/infusion) for 50 days. Results: Self-administered nicotine suppressed weight gain independent of food intake. In food restricted rats, self-administered nicotine dose-dependently suppressed body weight gain. In rats self-administering 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine, dose reduction increased body weight. Conclusions: Self-administered nicotine, even at low doses, suppressed body independent of food intake; this may have important implications for nicotine reduction policy. Implications: The results of the present studies demonstrate that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight independent of food intake in rats. Further, the present studies establish that self-administered nicotine suppresses
Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F
The action of nicotine to suppress body weight is often cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Despite the weight-suppressant effects of nicotine, smokers and nonsmokers report equal daily caloric intake. The weight-suppressive effects of nicotine in animal models of smoking are poorly understood. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration has authority to implement a policy markedly reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes; such a reduction could reduce smoking behavior, but have detrimental effects on body weight. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of self-administered nicotine on body weight and food intake in rats. In Experiment 1, rats with ad libitum access to chow responded for intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 µg/kg/infusion) or saline in daily 1-hour sessions; body weight and 24-hour food intake were measured. Experiment 2 tested the effects of subcutaneous injections of nicotine on food intake. In Experiment 3, rats were food restricted and self-administered nicotine across a range of doses (3.75-60 µg/kg/infusion) while body weight was measured. In Experiment 4, rats self-administered 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine before reduction to one of several doses (1.875-15 µg/kg/infusion) for 50 days. Self-administered nicotine suppressed weight gain independent of food intake. In food restricted rats, self-administered nicotine dose-dependently suppressed body weight gain. In rats self-administering 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine, dose reduction increased body weight. Self-administered nicotine, even at low doses, suppressed body independent of food intake; this may have important implications for nicotine reduction policy. The results of the present studies demonstrate that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight independent of food intake in rats. Further, the present studies establish that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight even at very low doses and that reduction of nicotine
Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F
This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Rebecca J. Beeken
Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.
Munim, S.; Maheen, H.
Objective: To determine the association between gestation weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcome in a Pakistani population. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from February 2003 to 2007. Methodology: This study used secondary data of 4,735 women from a large cohort study on fetal growth. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the recommendations from the institute of medicine (IOM, 2009) and gestation weight gain (GWG) was noted. Chi-square test was used to find the association of GWG and pre-pregnancy BMI with low birth, large for gestational age (LGA), and caesarean section. Logistic regression analysis was weight (LBW), preterm delivery performed to control for confounders like age, parity, working status and ethnicity. Results: The prevalence of LBW decreased with increasing BMI. GWG of the population was noted as 8.5 kg. LBW was omen below the age of 19 were twice more likely to have LBW than observed to have an inverse relationship with GWG. W above 35 years of age. Weight gain above the recommended range were twice more likely to have large for dates. Overweight women were 1.5 times more likely to deliver preterm whereas obese women were 1.4 times more likely to undergo caesarean section than women with normal BMI. Conclusion: The optimal weight gain was estimated to be 8.5 kg to prevent low birth weight in our population. Obese women are more likely to have LGA, caesarean sections and pre-term deliveries. (author)
Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P heifer to become pregnant according to DWG is explained by the follow equation: P(y = 1) = (Exp((-1.06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems.
Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano
Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p < 0.0001). Although correlations between WG, WD and boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.
Johnson, Jonetta L; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Sharma, Andrea J; Barfield, Wanda D; Robbins, Cheryl L
Achieving adequate gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for optimal health of the infant and mother. We estimate current population-based trends of GWG. We analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for 124,348 women who delivered live infants in 14 states during 2000 through 2009. We examined prevalence and trends in GWG in pounds as a continuous variable, and within 1990 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations (yes/no) as a dichotomous variable. We examined adjusted trends in mean GWG using multivariable linear regression and GWG within recommendations using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. During 2000 through 2009, 35.8% of women gained within IOM GWG recommendations, 44.4% gained above, and 19.8% gained below. From 2000 through 2009, there was a biennial 1.0 percentage point decrease in women gaining within IOM GWG recommendations (P trend 2000 through 2009 (P trend = .14). The adjusted odds of gaining within IOM recommendations were lower in 2006 through 2007 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96) and 2008 through 2009 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96) relative to 2000 through 2001. Overall, from 2000 through 2009 the percentage of women gaining within IOM recommendations slightly decreased while mean GWG slightly increased. Efforts are needed to develop and implement strategies to ensure that women achieve GWG within recommendations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.
Deanna Marie Arble
Full Text Available The neuroendocrine and metabolic effects of leptin have been extensively researched since the discovery, and the later identification, of the leptin gene mutated within the ob/ob mouse. Leptin is required for optimal health in a number of physiological systems (e.g. fertility, bone density, body weight regulation. Despite the extensive leptin literature and many observations of leptin's cyclical pattern over the 24-hour day, few studies have specifically examined how the circadian rhythm of leptin may be essential to leptin signaling and health. Here we present data indicating that a rhythmic leptin profile (e.g. 1 peak every 24 hours leads to excessive weight gain during desynchronized feeding whereas non-rhythmic leptin provided in a continuous manner does not lead to excessive body weight gain under similar feeding conditions. This study suggests that feeding time can interact with leptin's endogenous rhythm to influence metabolic signals, specifically leading to excessive body weight gains during 'wrongly' timed feeding.
Full Text Available Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG.Results: Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001. The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different.Conclusion: More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes. Keywords: prevalence, pregnancy outcome, inappropriate gestational weight gain, teenage pregnancy
Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C
The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p 1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.
Suelter, C S; Schvey, N; Kelly, N R; Shanks, M; Thompson, K A; Mehari, R; Brady, S; Yanovski, S Z; Melby, C L; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Yanovski, J A; Shomaker, L B
Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m 2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, adolescents and their mothers reported pressure to be thin by questionnaire. At baseline and follow-up, BMI was calculated, and fat mass was assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between baseline pressure to be thin and 1-year changes in BMI and fat mass. Accounting for multiple covariates, including baseline BMI or fat, adolescent-reported pressure from parents and peers and mother-reported pressure toward their teen were associated with greater gains in either adolescent BMI or fat (ps weight status was a moderator of multiple effects (ps < .05). Parental and peer pressure to be thin were associated with increases in BMI and fat mass during adolescence, particularly in heavier adolescents. Further research is necessary to clarify how this association operates reciprocally and to identify underlying explanatory mechanisms. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Dosamantes-Carrasco, Libia Darina; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Flores, Yvonne N; Siani, Carole; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Ramírez, Paula; Rivera-Paredez, Berenice; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge
To prospectively examine the extent to which mealtime habits influences the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults. We performed a prospective cohort study. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale was used for assessing participants' MHQ; the outcomes of interest were gain ≥5 % of body weight, developing overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, after 7 years of follow-up. In order to estimate the independent effect of MHQ on anthropometric indicators, generalized linear models were computed to obtain adjusted relative risks (95 % CI). The state of Morelos, Mexico. Mexican adults (n 837) aged 18-70 years participating in a cohort study. Compared with participants classified in the higher MHQ category, individuals in the middle and lower MHQ groups had a 4·1 (2·5, 6·7) and 6·2 (3·9, 9·7) fold greater risk of gain ≥5 % of body weight, respectively; 6·6 (2·8, 15·5) and 8·6 (3·7, 19·8) fold greater risk of becoming overweight/obese, respectively; and 3·8 (2·0, 7·3) and 5·3 (2·8, 9·8) fold greater risk of developing abdominal obesity, respectively. This study provides evidence about the influence of a set of mealtime habits on obesity indicators, showing that greater adherence to unadvisable mealtime habits increases the risk of developing unhealthy anthropometric indicators. Since the meal is one of the most important sources of food intake, and consequently weight status, the MHQ scale can be a useful population tool to predict weight gain and obesity.
Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn
Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643
Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.
Jharap, Varsha V; Santos, Susana; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy
Not much is known about the associations of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain with body fat in infancy. To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with infant subcutaneous fat. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 845 mothers and their infants, we obtained maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and measured maternal weight during pregnancy. At 1.5, 6 and 24months, we estimated infant total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat). Maternal body mass index was positively associated with higher infant body mass index from 6months onwards. Maternal body mass index was not associated with infant subcutaneous fat measures at 1.5 or 6months. A 1-standard deviation scores (SDS) higher maternal body mass index was associated with a 0.09 (95% Confidence Interval 0.01, 0.17) SDS higher infant total subcutaneous fat at 24months, but not with central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio. No associations were present for maternal total or period-specific gestational weight gain with infant fat. Maternal body mass index was positively associated with infant body mass index and total subcutaneous fat in late infancy. Maternal total and period-specific gestational weight gain were not associated with infant body fat mass measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio
To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.
Chang, Tammy; Verma, Bianca A; Shull, Trevor; Moniz, Michelle H; Kohatsu, Lauren; Plegue, Melissa A; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn
Excess weight gain affects nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States and is a strong risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including long-term obesity. The Internet is a prominent source of information during pregnancy; however, the accuracy of this online information is unknown. To identify, characterize, and assess the accuracy of frequently accessed webpages containing information about weight gain during pregnancy. A descriptive study was used to identify and search frequently used phrases related to weight gain during pregnancy on the Google search engine. The first 10 webpages of each query were characterized by type and then assessed for accuracy and completeness, as compared to Institute of Medicine guidelines, using crowdsourcing. A total of 114 queries were searched, yielding 305 unique webpages. Of these webpages, 181 (59.3%) included information regarding weight gain during pregnancy. Out of 181 webpages, 62 (34.3%) contained no specific recommendations, 48 (26.5%) contained accurate but incomplete recommendations, 41 (22.7%) contained complete and accurate recommendations, and 22 (12.2%) were inaccurate. Webpages were most commonly from for-profit websites (112/181, 61.9%), followed by government (19/181, 10.5%), medical organizations or associations (13/181, 7.2%), and news sites (12/181, 6.6%). The largest proportion of for-profit sites contained no specific recommendations (44/112, 39.3%). Among pages that provided inaccurate information (22/181, 12.2%), 68% (15/22) were from for-profit sites. For-profit websites dominate the online space with regard to weight gain during pregnancy and largely contain incomplete, inaccurate, or no specific recommendations. This represents a significant information gap regarding an important risk factor for obesity among mothers and infants. Our findings suggest that greater clinical and public health efforts to disseminate accurate information regarding healthy weight gain during pregnancy
Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.
To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.
Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars
Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children's weight gain. To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4-8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2% attendance; 82.0% consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained weight and fat mass more rapidly during follow-up. Each SD increase in genetic risk score was
Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included
Zhao, R F; Zhang, W Y; Zhou, L
Objective: To investigate the risk of emergency cesarean section during labor with the pre-pregnancy body mass index or gestational weight gain. Methods: A total of 6 908 healthy nullipara with singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation who was in term labor in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from August 1(st), 2014 to September 30(th), 2015 were recruited. They were divided into two groups, the vaginal delivery group (92.88%, 6 416/6 908) and the emergency cesarean section group (7.12%, 492/6 908). According to WHO body mass index (BMI) classification criteria and the pre-pregnancy BMI, the 6 908 women were divided into three groups, the underweight group(BMIcesarean section were calculated by bivariate logistic regression. Results: (1) Comparing to the vaginal delivery group, women in the emergency cesarean section group were older, with a lower education level. Their prepregnancy BMI was higer and had more gestational weight gain. They had higher morbidity of pregnancy induced hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. Comparing to the vaginal delivery group, the neonates in the emergency cesarean section group were elder in gestational week, with higher birth weight. More male infants and large for gestation age infants were seen in the emergency cesarean section group (all P cesarean section for nullipara, with the unadjusted OR of 1.98 (95% CI : 1.54-2.54), adjusted OR ( aOR ) of 1.66 (95% CI : 1.27-2.16). In the inadequate GWG group and the excessive GWG group, overweight and obese women had increased risk of emergency cesarean section, with adjusted OR of 2.33 (95% CI : 1.06-5.14) and 1.62 (95% CI : 1.44-2.28), respectively. In the appropriate GWG group, there was no significant difference in the risk of emergency cesarean section between the overweight and obese women and the normal weight women, with a OR of 1.54 (95% CI : 0.94-2.54). The underweight group was associated with decreased risk of emergency cesarean section ( OR= 0.55, 95
Biniwale, Manoj; Weiner, Angela; Sardesai, Smeeta; Cayabyab, Rowena; Barton, Lorayne; Ramanathan, Rangasamy
The objective of this study is to validate the reliability of early postnatal weight gain as an accurate predictor of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment in a large predominantly Hispanic US cohort with the use of an online tool called WINROP (weight, neonatal retinopathy of prematurity (IGF-1), neonatal retinopathy of prematurity). Retrospective cohort study consisted of preterm infants <32 weeks gestation and birth weight <1500 g. Weekly weights to 36 weeks post-menstrual age or discharge if earlier were entered into the WINROP tool. This tool generated alarm and risk indicator for developing ROP. The infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment as well as all stages of ROP were compared with the alarms and risks generated by WINROP tool. A total of 492 infants were entered into the WINROP tool. The infants who developed type 1 ROP requiring treatment, the WINROP tool detected 80/89 (90%) at less than 32 weeks gestation. Nine infants developed type 1 ROP were classified as low risk and did not alarm. Postnatal weight gain alone, in predominantly Hispanic US population, predicted type 1 ROP requiring treatment before 32 weeks of gestation in infants with a sensitivity of 90%. The tool appeared to identify majority of affected infants much earlier than the scheduled screening.
Wright, C M; Parkinson, K N; Drewett, R F
Aims To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive) in the first year of life. Methods The Gateshead Millennium Baby Study is a population birth cohort in northeast England studied prospectively from birth, via parental questionnaires and a health check aged 13 months. Data were collected on maternal education, deprivation, eating attitudes, and depression, using the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3 months. Weight gain was assessed using change in weight SD score, conditional on birth weight (Thrive Index); weight faltering was defined as conditional weight gain below the 5th centile. Results Of 923 eligible infants born at term, 774 (84%) had both weight and questionnaire data. Replicating a previous finding, both the highest and the lowest levels of deprivation were associated with weight faltering; this was independent of the type of milk feeding. No relation was found with maternal educational status. Maternal eating restraint was unrelated to weight gain. Infants of mothers with high depression symptom scores (EPDS >12) had significantly slower weight gain and increased rates of weight faltering up to 4 months (relative risk 2.5), especially if they came from deprived families, but by 12 months they were no different from the remainder of the cohort. Conclusions In this setting, social and maternal characteristics had little influence on infants' weight gain, apart from a strong, but transient effect of postnatal depression. PMID:16397011
Full Text Available Our objective was to examine associations of adult weight gain and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Cross-sectional interview data from 844 residents in Wan Song Community from October 2009 to April 2010 were analyzed in multivariate logistic regression models to examine odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI between NAFLD and weight change from age 20. Questionnaires, physical examinations, laboratory examinations, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver were carried out. Maximum rate of weight gain, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, and alanine transaminase were higher in the NAFLD group than in the control group. HDL-C in the NAFLD group was lower than in the control group. As weight gain increased (measured as the difference between current weight and weight at age 20 years, the OR of NAFLD increased in multivariate models. NAFLD OR rose with increasing weight gain as follows: OR (95%CI for NAFLD associated with weight gain of 20+ kg compared to stable weight (change <5 kg was 4.23 (2.49-7.09. Significantly increased NAFLD OR were observed even for weight gains of 5-9.9 kg. For the “age 20 to highest lifetime weight” metric, the OR of NAFLD also increased as weight gain increased. For the “age 20 to highest lifetime weight” metric and the “age 20 to current weight” metric, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR increased as weight gain increased (P<0.001. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, significant association was observed between adult weight gain and NAFLD (OR=1.027, 95%CI=1.002-1.055, P=0.025. We conclude that adult weight gain is strongly associated with NAFLD.
Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit......). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (pbody fat compared to 5-CEL (p... and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats....
Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lencz, Todd; Zhang, Ryan X.; Nitta, Masahiro; Maayan, Lawrence; John, Majnu; Robinson, Delbert G.; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang; Kahn, Rene S.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kane, John M.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Correll, Christoph U.
Although weight gain is a serious but variable adverse effect of antipsychotics that has genetic underpinnings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-related weight gain is missing. In this review, random effects meta-analyses were conducted for dominant and recessive models on associations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with prospectively assessed antipsychotic-related weight or body mass index (BMI) changes (primary outcome), or categorical increases in weight or BMI (≥7%; secondary outcome). Published studies, identified via systematic database search (last search: December 31, 2014), plus 3 additional cohorts, including 222 antipsychotic-naïve youth, and 81 and 141 first-episode schizophrenia adults, each with patient-level data at 3 or 4 months treatment, were meta-analyzed. Altogether, 72 articles reporting on 46 non-duplicated samples (n = 6700, mean follow-up = 25.1wk) with 38 SNPs from 20 genes/genomic regions were meta-analyzed (for each meta-analysis, studies = 2–20, n = 81–2082). Eleven SNPs from 8 genes were significantly associated with weight or BMI change, and 4 SNPs from 2 genes were significantly associated with categorical weight or BMI increase. Combined, 13 SNPs from 9 genes (Adrenoceptor Alpha-2A [ADRA2A], Adrenoceptor Beta 3 [ADRB3], Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor [BDNF], Dopamine Receptor D2 [DRD2], Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein [GNB3], 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin) Receptor 2C [HTR2C], Insulin-induced gene 2 [INSIG2], Melanocortin-4 Receptor [MC4R], and Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa [SNAP25]) were significantly associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain (P-values antipsychotic exposure (pediatric or first episode patients) and short follow-up (1–2 mo) were associated with larger effect sizes. Individual antipsychotics did not significantly moderate effect sizes. In conclusion, antipsychotic-related weight gain is polygenic and associated with specific genetic
Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna
Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E
This article presents a brief case study of "Jane Doe," a 13-year-old, non-Hispanic White girl 2 participating in a clinical research trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-weight gain (IPT-WG). Girls at-risk for adult obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) were randomly assigned to take part in 12 weeks of preventative group treatment. Jane's IPT-WG group included five other early adolescent girls (mostly aged 12-13) at risk for adult obesity and BED. The case of Jane illustrates a successful example of IPT-WG for the prevention of excessive weight gain and for the prevention of BED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S
Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...
Medici, Valentina; McClave, Stephen A; Miller, Keith R
Obesity is one of the most common chronic conditions in the world. Its management is difficult, partly due to the multiple associated comorbidities including fatty liver, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. As a result, the choice of prescription medications in overweight and obese patients has important implications as some of them can actually worsen the fat accumulation and its associated metabolic complications. Several prescription medications are associated with weight gain with mechanisms that are often poorly understood and under-recognized. Even less data are available on the distribution of fat and lipotoxicity (the organ damage related to fat accumulation). The present review will discuss the drugs associated with weight gain, their mechanism of action, and the magnitude and timing of their effect.
Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.
the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self....... Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...
different beef breeds that were performance tested on a central test station in Denmark. Genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions for curves of WGT and FI were estimated using Gibbs sampling. The covariance function were based on fourth order Legendre polynomials but other functions were...... feed intake based on live weight (WGT) and GAIN. In any case the basic traits recorded are always WGT and FI and other the traits are derived from these records. A bivariate longitudinal random regression model were employed on 9284 individual longitudinal records of WGT and FI from 2827 bulls of six...... also possible. Genetic and permanent covariance functions for curves of GAIN were estimated from the derivative of the function for WGT and finally the covariance functions were extended to curves for RFI, based on the conditional distribution of FI given WGT and GAIN. Furthermore, the covariance...
Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the r...
Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo
Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288
Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes Symptoms: Hunger ? increased appetite Medication: GLP-1 receptor agonist ? SGLT-2 inhibitor Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Internal Medicine/Diabetology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: The patient, a 44-year-...
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control eating and high body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Participants from the original trial were recontacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Nearly 60% were reassessed at 3 years, with no group differences in participation (ps ≥ .70). Consistent with 1 year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps ≥ .18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (ps obesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3 years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3 years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M.; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H.; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Objective Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control (LOC)-eating and high BMI (kg/m2) (Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Method Participants from the original trial were re-contacted 3-years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Results Nearly 60% were re-assessed at 3-years, with no group differences in participation (ps≥.70). Consistent with 1-year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps≥.18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (psobesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3-years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3-years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait-anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. PMID:27808536
Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn
Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse preg...
In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline regression controlling for mother fixed effects indic...
Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J
Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.
Tam, Charmaine S; Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Tchoukalova, Yourka; Burk, David; Johannsen, Darcy L; Zingaretti, Cristina M; Cinti, Saverio; Ravussin, Eric
In animal models of obesity, chronic inflammation and dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling in adipose tissue leads to insulin resistance. Whether similar pathophysiology occurs in humans is not clear. The aim of this study was to test whether 10% weight gain induced by overfeeding triggers inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling (gene expression, protein, histology) in skeletal muscle and sc adipose tissue in humans. We also investigated whether such remodeling was associated with an impaired metabolic response (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Twenty-nine free-living males were fed 40% over their baseline energy requirements for 8 weeks. Ten percent body weight gain prompted dramatic up-regulation of a repertoire of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in muscle and to a lesser degree in adipose tissue. The amount of extracellular matrix genes in the muscle were directly associated with the amount of lean tissue deposited during overfeeding. Despite weight gain and impaired insulin sensitivity, there was no change in local adipose tissue or systemic inflammation, but there was a slight increase in skeletal muscle inflammation. We propose that skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling is another feature of the pathogenic milieu associated with energy excess and obesity, which, if disrupted, may contribute to the development of metabolic dysfunction.
Li, H; Wu, R F; Hu, Y; Qi, F; Xiao, A M; Ma, Z; Chen, Y; Zhang, W Y; Liu, X; Wang, Z C
The current study explored the impact of gestational weight gain on postnatal pelvic muscle strength and the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training on strength recovery. A total of 126 mothers six to eight weeks after term delivery were recruited at Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from August 2010 to July 2011. According to gestational weight gain, they were divided into two groups: the or = 15 kg (B) groups. Pelvic floor muscle fibre strength was determined. Target low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training was conducted. After training, pelvic floor muscle fiber strength was determined again for effect evaluation. Before training, types I and II pelvic floor muscle fiber strength of group B was noticeably lower than that of group A (p muscle strength of both groups significantly increased (p muscle fiber strength of group B was still significantly lower than that of group A (p gain negatively influences pelvic floor muscles. Low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback training improves postnatal pelvic floor muscle fiber strength. A less gestational weight increase indicates faster postnatal pelvic muscle strength recovery and a better rehabilitative effect.
Hellström, A; Ley, D; Hansen-Pupp, I; Niklasson, A; Smith, L; Löfqvist, C; Hård, A-L
Evidence is accumulating that one of the strongest predictors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), in addition to low gestational age, is poor weight gain during the first weeks of life. In infants born preterm, the retina is not fully vascularised. The more premature the child, the larger is the avascular area. In response to hypoxia, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is secreted. For appropriate VEGF-induced vessel growth, sufficient levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in serum are necessary. IGF-I is a peptide, related to nutrition supply, which is essential for both pre- and post-natal general growth as well as for growth of the retinal vasculature. In prematurely born infants, serum levels are closely related to gestational age and are lower in more prematurely born infants. At preterm birth the placental supply of nutrients is lost, growth factors are suddenly reduced and general as well as vascular growth slows down or ceases. In addition, the relative hyperoxia of the extra-uterine milieu, together with supplemental oxygen, causes a regression of already developed retinal vessels. Postnatal growth retardation is a major problem in very preterm infants. Both poor early weight gain and low serum levels of IGF-I during the first weeks/months of life have been found to be correlated with severity of ROP. This review will focus on the mechanisms leading to ROP by exploring factors responsible for poor early weight gain and abnormal vascularisation of the eye of the preterm infant.
Tian, Chaoqing; Hu, Chengwen; He, Xiujie; Zhu, Meng; Qin, Fengyun; Liu, Yue; Hu, Chuanlai
This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the relation between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia. We performed a meta-analysis by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for English-language literature from inception to 1 October 2014. Studies assessing the relationship between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia were included. Characteristics including study design, country, sample size, definition of macrosomia, adjusted odds ratios, CIs and adjustment factors were extracted independently by two reviewers. Summary odds ratios were calculated by using a random-effects model meta-analysis. 15 relevant articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. Incorporated by random-effect model before the heterogeneity tests, the value of OR was 2.35 (95 % CI: 1.95, 2.85). Stratified analysis showed no differences regarding different study design, definition of macrosomia and location of study. There was no indication of a publication bias either from the result of Egger's test (P = 0.572) or Begg's test (P = 0.572). Our meta-analysis indicated that excessive gestational weight gain might increase the risk of macrosomia.
De Bruyne, Ellen; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Meyns, Tom; Kumar, Smitha; Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Millet, Sam; Dewulf, Jeroen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard
Helicobacter suis is a zoonotically important bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the pars oesophagea of the stomach in pigs. Its exact role in these pathologies, however, still remains controversial. Therefore, a total of 29 medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated intragastrically or orally, with a total of 2 × 10(9) viable H. suis bacteria and the effect on gastric pathology and weight gain was determined. Twenty-three medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated with a sterile culture medium and used as sham-inoculated controls. The animals were euthanized between 28 and 42 days after inoculation. Infected animals showed a more severe gastritis compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction of approximately 60 g per day (10%) in weight gain in H. suis inoculated animals compared to the sham-inoculated control animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that a pure in vitro culture of H. suis not only causes gastritis but also a marked decrease of the daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hong-Tao; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Li, Kui; Zu, Yong; Liu, Ji-wei; Liu, Yong-jie; Zhu, Zhi-chuan; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan
Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH) is the core component in the regulation circuits of food intake and energy homeostasis. ARH projections to other parts of the hypothalamus and to extrahypothalamic areas are established in the postnatal two weeks, which is a pivotal stage for individual development. β-Catenin, a cell adhesion protein and also the mediator of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, plays an important role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. However, whether β-catenin plays any roles in the development of hypothalamus is not clear. Here, we report that perinatal conditional knockout of β-catenin by CamKIIα-Cre in forebrain reduces body weight gain from P8 and dramatically shortens life span. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization results showed the expression of NPY mRNA in the ARH of β-catenin CKO mice at P15 is obviously increased compared with that of littermate controls, whereas the expression of POMC mRNA is significantly decreased, which suggested the reduction of postnatal body weight gain might be due to the deficiency of food intake. Together, β-catenin might play an important role in the regulation of food intake and postnatal body weight gain probably through affecting the development of ARH circuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise
OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...... with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg.CONCLUSIONIn this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity....
Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio
The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.
Wolf, Marc E; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Lütjens, Götz; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K; Blahak, Christian
In patients with Parkinson's disease, significant weight gain following chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported. Recently, relevant weight gain could be demonstrated also following subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Prospective analyses of body weight changes following DBS in patients with dystonia, however, have not been published so far. We aimed to analyse the changes of body weight following DBS in patients with dystonia. The body mass index (BMI) of 17 consecutive patients with segmental or generalised dystonia (mean age 54.6 ± 16.1 years) treated with bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n = 14) or the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (n = 3) was measured preoperatively (pre-OP) and at three follow-up (FU) time points post-DBS surgery (FU1 = 7 months, FU2 = 17 months, FU3 = 72 months). All patients benefited from marked improvement in their dystonia. The mean BMI pre-OP (SD) was 22.5 (±3.7) kg/m(2) and increased stepwise to 24.0 (±3.3) kg/m(2) at FU1, 24.4 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU2 and 24.9 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU3 (p body weight gain, in particular during the first 6 months post-OP. This probably is a result of improvement of dystonic motor symptoms and recovery of eating dysfunction rather than a target-specific phenomenon.
Park, Ji-Hun; Choi, Tae-Saeng
Administering monosodium glutamate (MSG) to neonatal rodents induces obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, several studies have shown that MSG administered to pregnant animals can cross the placenta and reach the foetus. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of administering MSG to pregnant ICR mice on dam and neonatal growth. Pregnant mice were treated with 60 or 120 mg MSG once daily from day 5 of pregnancy to one day before parturition by subcutaneous injection. In addition, the body weights of the neonates were determined until nine weeks of age. The birth weights of neonates were not different between the control and MSG-treated groups. However, MSG treatment resulted in a lower body weight gain of neonates during lactation. In addition, this underweight of the MSG-treated group at weaning returned to normal compared with the control group at five weeks of age. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that the lower body weight gain of neonates in the MSG-treated group during lactation was due to its effects on the dam. Serum prolactin levels and mammary gland development of the mice were examined next to determine the reasons for this lactation problem. Although there were no differences in prolactin levels, morphological analyses of the mammary glands revealed apparent differences, including low numbers and altered phenotype of alveoli, between the control and MSG-treated groups. Taken together, our results show that treating pregnant mice with excess MSG induced lower neonate body weight gain during lactation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Grundy, Anne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kreiger, Nancy
Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression. Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25-74 (n = 3004) who participated as population controls in a cancer case-control study. Participants self-reported information on anxiety, depression, height, current weight and weight at age 25. No association was observed between either anxiety or depression and either current overweight or obesity status. However, depressed women taking antidepressants were more likely to be obese [OR = 1.71 (95%CI = 1.16-2.52) daily antidepressant use; OR = 1.89 (95% CI = 1.21-2.96) ever tricyclic antidepressant use]. In the full study sample consistent positive associations between anxiety, depression and obesity among women with a history of antidepressant use, and generally negative associations among women without, were suggested. Finally, weight gain was associated with history of anxiety [5-19 kg OR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.06-1.57); ≥ 20 kg OR = 1.43 (95% CI = 1.08-1.88)] and depression [≥ 20 kg OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 0.99-1.65)]. These results suggest depression and anxiety may be associated with weight gain and antidepressant use may be associated with obesity.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression. METHODS: Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25-74 (n = 3004 who participated as population controls in a cancer case-control study. Participants self-reported information on anxiety, depression, height, current weight and weight at age 25. RESULTS: No association was observed between either anxiety or depression and either current overweight or obesity status. However, depressed women taking antidepressants were more likely to be obese [OR = 1.71 (95%CI = 1.16-2.52 daily antidepressant use; OR = 1.89 (95% CI = 1.21-2.96 ever tricyclic antidepressant use]. In the full study sample consistent positive associations between anxiety, depression and obesity among women with a history of antidepressant use, and generally negative associations among women without, were suggested. Finally, weight gain was associated with history of anxiety [5-19 kg OR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.06-1.57; ≥ 20 kg OR = 1.43 (95% CI = 1.08-1.88] and depression [≥ 20 kg OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 0.99-1.65]. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest depression and anxiety may be associated with weight gain and antidepressant use may be associated with obesity.
Luo, Xiao-Dong; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Jin
To evaluate whether nutritional management intervention can prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and improve perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study included 276 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care between June 2010 and December 2011 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Second Affiliate Hospital of the ChongQing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China. Of them, 131 women received individualized nutritional management in addition to routine prenatal care (intervention group), and 145 women received only routine prenatal care (control group). The primary study outcome was gestational weight gain (GWG). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, Apgar score, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Baseline demographic characteristics of the 2 groups were the same. The average GWG was higher in the control group (12.57+/-4.62 kg) compared with the intervention group (7.58+/-1.59 kg; p=0.000). The incidence rate of preeclampsia was 3.1% and gestational diabetes was 3.8% for the intervention group, compared with 11% for preeclampsia and 14.5% gestational diabetes for the control group (p<0.05). The incidence rates of premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, birth weight, birth of a newborn, and major congenital anomalies did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Nutritional management intervention prevented excessive GWG and improved perinatal outcomes. These results support the hypothesis that nutritional management intervention can decrease the rate of complications experienced by expecting mothers.
America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.
Yokum, Sonja; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric
Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine attentional bias in 35 adolescent girls ranging from lean to obese using an attention network task involving food and neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with speed of behavioral response to both appetizing food stimuli and unappetizing food stimuli, but not to neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with activation in brain regions related to attention and food reward, including the anterior insula/frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior parietal lobe, during initial orientation to food cues. BMI also correlated with greater activation in the anterior insula/frontal operculum during reallocation of attention to appetizing food images and with weaker activation in the medial OFC and ventral pallidum during reallocation of attention to unappetizing food images. Greater lateral OFC activation during initial orientation to appetizing food cues predicted future increases in BMI. Results indicate that overweight is related to greater attentional bias to food cues and that youth who show elevated reward circuitry responsivity during food cue exposure are at increased risk for weight gain.
Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.
Heylen, Alex Marie Florent; Jacobs, Anja; Lybeer, Monika; Prosst, Ruediger L
The maintenance of the restrictive component of the Fobi pouch gastric bypass is essential for permanent weight control. Dilatation of the pouch-outlet and of the pouch itself is responsible for substantial weight gain by an increased volume per meal and binge-eating due to the rapid emptying. An endoscopic over-the-scope clip (OTSC®; Ovesco AG, Tübingen, Germany) was applied in 94 patients following gastric bypass and unintended weight gain by dilated gastro-jejunostomy to narrow the pouch-outlet. The OTSC®-clip application was safe and efficient to reduce the pouch-outlet in all cases. Best clinical results were obtained by narrowing the gastro-jejunostomy by placing two clips at opposite sites, hence reducing the outlet of more than 80%. Preferably, the clip approximated the whole thickness of the wall to avoid further dilatation of the anastomosis. Between surgery and OTSC®-clip application the mean BMI dropped from 45.8 (±3.6) to 32.8 (±1.9). At the first follow-up about 3 months (mean 118 days, ±46 days) after OTSC®-clip application the mean BMI was 29.7 (±1.8). At the second follow-up about 1 year (mean 352 days, ±66 days) after OTSC®-clip application the mean BMI was 27.4 (±3.8). The OTSC®-clip for revisional endoscopy after gastric bypass is reliable and effective in treating weight gain due to a dilated pouch-outlet with favorable short- and midterm results.
Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37) and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment) were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured) was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite). Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity. PMID:23414332
Rodgers Rachel F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37 and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite. Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity.
Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.
To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....
Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.
Objectives: (1) To investigate weight gain in first-year university students; and (2) to examine whether environmental and psychological factors, specifically accommodation and stress, predict weight gain. Methods: Eighty-four first-year university students (77 per cent female) were weighed and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck…
Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control as amount of influence. Employed nurses in Denmark. We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0·003) or sustained low influence (P=0·02). For speed, no associations were found. Busyness, speed and influence differed in their relationship to subsequent weight gain. A decrease in job influence and a sustained burden of busyness were most strongly related to subsequent weight gain. Focus on job strain reduction and healthy diet is essential for public health.
Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....
Sleister, Heidi M.; Valdovinos, Maria Gabriela
Weight gain is an often-observed side effect of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and is particularly significant in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The majority of individuals treated with AAPs will gain at least 10% of their initial body weight over the course of therapy (Umbricht & Kane, 1996). One's genetic constitution is an…
Haby, Karin; Glantz, Anna; Hanas, Ragnar; Premberg, Åsa
overweight and obesity are growing public health problems and around 13% of women assigned to antenatal health care (AHC) in Sweden have obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI ≥30). The risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth increase with increasing BMI. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) among obese women further increases the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this pilot-study from AHC in Gothenburg, a co-ordinated project with standardised care, given by midwives and supported by dietitian and aiming at reducing weight gain in obese pregnant women, is evaluated. to evaluate the effects of a behavioural intervention programme for women with BMI ≥30, with emphasis on nutrition and physical activity, with regards to GWG and effect on weight at the post partum check-up. in the pilot study, the intervention group consisted of the first 50 enrolled obese pregnant women in a large life style project within the AHC in Gothenburg. The control group consisted of 50 obese pregnant women in the same city. The intervention included 60 minutes extra time with the midwife and also offered food discussion group, walking poles and pedometers. The intervention group was prescribed physical activity and could choose from food advice with different content. If needed, the woman was offered referral to the dietitian for a personal meeting. A network was formed with the surrounding community. Outcome measures were GWG, weight change at the postnatal check-up compared with when signing in to antenatal health care, and change in BMI during the same period. women in the intervention group had a significantly lower GWG (8.6 ± 4.9 kg versus 12.5 ± 5.1 kg; p=0.001) and a significantly lower weight at the postnatal check up versus the first contact with AHC (-0.2 ± 5.7 kg versus +2.0 ± 4.5 kg; p=0.032), as well as a decrease in BMI (-0.04 ± 2.1 versus +0.77 ± 2.0; p=0.037). More women in the intervention than in the control group managed GWG obese pregnant women
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold
Parkinson, K N; Reilly, J J; Basterfield, L; Reilly, J K; Janssen, X; Jones, A R; Cutler, L R; Le Couteur, A; Adamson, A J
There is a plethora of cross-sectional work on maternal perceptions of child weight status showing that mothers typically do not classify their overweight child as being overweight according to commonly used clinical criteria. Awareness of overweight in their child is regarded as an important prerequisite for mothers to initiate appropriate action. The gap in the literature is determining whether, if mothers do classify their overweight child's weight status correctly, this is associated with a positive outcome for the child's body mass index (BMI) at a later stage. To explore longitudinal perceptions of child weight status from mothers of a contemporary population-based birth cohort (Gateshead Millennium Study) and relationships of these perceptions with future child weight gain. Data collected in the same cohort at 7, 12 and 15 years of age: mothers' responses to two items concerning their child's body size; child's and mother's BMI; pubertal maturation; demographic information. Mothers' perceptions of whether their child was overweight did not change markedly over time. Child BMI was the only significant predictor of mothers' classification of overweight status, and it was only at the extreme end of the overweight range and in the obese range that mothers reliably described their child as overweight. Even when mothers did appropriately classify their child as overweight at an earlier stage, this was not related to relatively lower child BMI a few years later. Mothers tend to classify their child as overweight in only more extreme cases. It is an important finding that no beneficial impact was shown on later child BMI in overweight children whose mothers classified their child's weight status as overweight at an earlier stage.
Lindegaard, Birgitte; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus; Hojman, Pernille; Allen, Tamara L; Estevez, Emma; Watt, Matthew J; Bruce, Clinton R; Mortensen, Ole H; Syberg, Susanne; Rudnicka, Caroline; Abildgaard, Julie; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hidalgo, Juan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Alsted, Thomas J; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A
Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R(-/-)) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis.
Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.
Starling, Anne P; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Shapiro, Allison L; Harrod, Curtis S; Lynch, Anne M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana
Maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy are risk factors for child obesity. Associations may be attributable to causal effects of the intrauterine environment or genetic and postnatal environmental factors. We estimated associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) overall and in early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy with neonatal adiposity. Participants were 826 women enrolled in a Colorado prebirth cohort who delivered term infants (2010-2013). GWG to 39 wk of gestation was predicted by using mixed models, and early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG (0-17, 17-27, and 27 wk to delivery) were calculated from repeated weight measures. Neonatal body composition was measured by using air-displacement plethysmography ≤3 d after birth. Each1-kg/m(2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with increased neonatal fat mass (5.2 g; 95% CI: 3.5, 6.9 g), fat-free mass (7.7 g; 95% CI: 4.5, 10.9 g), and percentage of body fat (0.12%; 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.16%). Each 0.1-kg/wk increase in predicted GWG was associated with increased fat mass (24.0 g; 95% CI: 17.4, 30.5 g), fat-free mass (34.0 g; 95% CI: 21.4, 46.6 g), and percentage of body fat (0.55%; 95% CI: 0.37%, 0.72%). No interaction was detected between BMI and GWG in their effects on neonatal body composition. Early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG were independently associated with fat mass and percentage of body fat. Midpregnancy and late pregnancy GWGs were associated with fat-free mass. An observed GWG that exceeded recommendations was associated with higher neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass but not percentage of body fat relative to adequate GWG. Maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG, including period-specific GWG, were positively and independently associated with neonatal adiposity. Associations of early and midpregnancy weight gain with neonatal adiposity support the hypothesis that greater maternal
Castrogiovanni, Silvia; Soreca, Isabella; Troiani, Daniela; Mauri, Mauro
Binge Eating (BE) is a common eating pattern in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). BE may confer an increased risk for obesity, morbidity, mortality and poorer quality of life. We assessed the presence of BE and its impact on body weight, body image and self-esteem in 50 patients with BD and 50 age- and gender-matched controls. The presence and severity of BE was assessed with the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The Body Image and Self-Esteem Evaluation Scale (B-WISE) was used to assess the psychosocial impact of weight gain. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Nine (18%) patients had a score >27, indicating a likely diagnosis of BE. None of the control subjects had a BES score >17. No association between BES score and the medications was found. Patients had a significantly higher BES score, significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Although the B-Wise score was higher in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant. This study suggests that BE is prevalent in patients with BD. The presence of BE eating is a predictor of higher BMI, indicating that the disruption of eating behavior may be a pathway to weight gain.
Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109
Razavi, Zahra; Sanginabadi, Milad
Prolonged potent topical glucocorticoid therapy in infants can cause iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. This case highlights the rarity of poor weight gain in iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. A 17-month-old boy was referred to outpatients pediatric endocrine clinic for evaluation of growth failure. On presentation his weight was 9.7kg (5th percentile) and height was 72cm (-3.6 SD below mean for age and sex). Systemic examination revealed grossly moon-like face, hypertrichosis and thin skin in the genital area. His mother reported using local clobetasol for the previous seven months for his diaper dermatitis. Baseline plasma cortisol was low (0.3ng/ml, normal range: 60 to 280ng/ml). During standard dose of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone test, the peak cortisol level was 0.4ng/ml (N>180ng/ml) and was consistent with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. The patient's clinical presentation and laboratory investigations confirmed the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency and iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. He was treated successfully by discontinuing use of clobetasol. His appearance and growth returned to normal within two months. Morning cortisol was 101.2ng/ml after stopping the oral physiologic dose of hydrocortisone. Our case differed from other reports of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome by presenting in poor weight gain rather than obesity.
Jessica L. Danzeisen
the absence of antibiotics could involve target dominant bacteria identified in the turkey ileum that are associated with increased weight gain.
Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica
the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granstrom, Charlotta; Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Svensson, Jannet; Johannesen, Jesper; Fraser, Abigail; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Joner, Geir; Njølstad, Pål R; Størdal, Ketil; Stene, Lars C
Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding by characteristics linked to BMI in both parents. We studied 132 331 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) who were born between February 1998 and July 2009. Exposures of interest included parental BMI and maternal gestational weight gain obtained by maternal report. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression to examine the risk of type 1 diabetes (n=499 cases), which was ascertained by national childhood diabetes registers. The incidence of type 1 diabetes was 32.7 per 100 000 person-years in MoBa and 28.5 per 100 000 person-years in DNBC. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.89] and paternal obesity, adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.04), were associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. The associations were similar after mutual adjustment. In contrast, maternal total gestational weight gain was not associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes, adjusted HR 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.02) per kilogram increase. Our study suggests that the association between maternal obesity and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes is not likely explained by intrauterine mechanisms, but possibly rather by unknown environmental factors influencing BMI in the family. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup
An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754
Cristianne R M Frazier
Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.
Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A
The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.
Callesen, J; Halas, D; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik
The effects of weaning age, type of creep diet and the classification of piglets as ‘eaters' or ‘non eaters' of creep feed on weight gain to weaning were examined. Four antimicrobial-free diets were offered from day 14 of lactation: (i) wheat-soy based diet with animal and vegetable (‘mixed...... with diet type and eating classification for weaning weight (P weight gain to weaning (P > 0.05)....
Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos. M.
This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of...
The possibility of the occurrence of a generalized edema after initiation or intensification of insulin treatment in patients with diabetes, although considered a rare event, has long been described in the literature. In this case, a state of clinically significant edema, with a concurrent severe weight gain, occurred in a patient with type 1 diabetes in whom the implantation of an insulin pump resulted in a dramatic and abrupt improvement in glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed......: These findings extend the concept of a lower optimal GWG among multiparous than primiparous women to American women....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and
Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M
Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janet Currie; Stefano DellaVigna; Enrico Moretti; Vikram Pathania
We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 3 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. There is no discernable effect...
Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P
van Strien, Tatjana; Koenders, Paul G
To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. One-year follow-up study. Banking environment. 553 women and 911 men. Self-reported emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) at T1 were measured in 2008, and sleep duration and BMI at follow-up (T2) were measured in 2009. A significant emotional eating-sleep duration interaction on BMI change was found in women, but not in men. The finding that the highest weight gain was found in women who combined short sleep duration with high emotional eating-both of them are markers of (chronic) distress-suggests a possible role of poor psychological health and (chronic) stress in this relationship.
Bracken, Michael B.; Sanft, Tara B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Harrigan, Maura; Irwin, Melinda L.
Background: Overweight and obesity are associated with breast cancer mortality. However, the relationship between postdiagnosis weight gain and mortality is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer–specific, all-cause mortality and recurrence outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases identified articles up through December 2014, including: PubMed (1966-present), EMBASE (1974-present), CINAHL (1982-present), and Web of Science. Language and publication status were unrestricted. Cohort studies and clinical trials measuring weight change after diagnosis and all-cause/breast cancer–specific mortality or recurrence were considered. Participants were women age 18 years or older with stage I-IIIC breast cancer. Fixed effects analysis summarized the association between weight gain (≥5.0% body weight) and all-cause mortality; all tests were two-sided. Results: Twelve studies (n = 23 832) were included. Weight gain (≥5.0%) compared with maintenance (breast cancer–specific mortality (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.38, P = .05). Conclusions: Weight gain after diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher all-cause mortality rates compared with maintaining body weight. Adverse effects are greater for weight gains of 10.0% or higher. PMID:26424778
Wang, B.; Levine, M.S.; Rubesin, S.E.; Williams, N.N.; Dumon, K.; Raper, S.
Aim: To determine the utility of barium studies for detecting abnormalities responsible for recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass surgery. Methods: A computerized search identified 42 patients who had undergone barium studies for recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass and 42 controls. The images were reviewed to determine the frequency of staple-line breakdown and measure the length/width of the pouch and gastrojejunal anastomosis. A large pouch exceeded 6 cm in length or 5 cm in width and a wide anastomosis exceeded 2 cm. Records were reviewed for the amount of recurrent weight gain and subsequent weight loss after additional treatment. Results: Staple-line breakdown was present in 6/42 patients (14%) with recurrent weight gain. When measurements were obtained, 13/35 patients (37%) with recurrent weight gain had a large pouch, three (9%) had a wide anastomosis, and four (11%) had both, whereas 22/42 controls (52%) had a large pouch, one (2%) had a wide anastomosis, and two (5%) had both. Ten patients (24%) with recurrent weight gain underwent staple-line repair (n = 3) or pouch/anastomosis revision (n = 7). These 10 patients had a mean weight loss of 38.1 lbs versus a mean loss of 8.6 lbs in 19 patients managed medically. Conclusion: Only 14% of patients with recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass had staple-line breakdown, whereas 57% had a large pouch, wide anastomosis, or both. Not all patients with abnormal anatomy had recurrent weight gain, but those who did were more likely to benefit from surgical intervention than from medical management. - Highlights: • Only 14% of patients with recurrent weight gain after gastric bypass had GGFs. • The majority of patients with recurrent weight gain had a large pouch/wide GJA. • Many patients without recurrent weight gain also had a large pouch/wide GJA. • Those with weight gain and a large pouch/wide GJA are likely to benefit from surgery
Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N; Linde, Jennifer A; Moe, Stacey G; Nanney, Marilyn S; Hannan, Peter J; Erickson, Darin J
The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight-gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015-2016. This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. The intervention was not successful in achieving BMI differences between treatment groups. However, an 8
Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Hannan, Peter J.; Erickson, Darin J.
Introduction The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Design Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015–2016. Setting/participants This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. Intervention The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Main outcome measures Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Results Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. Conclusions The intervention
Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein
Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination
Wijnhoven, H.A.H.; van Zon, S.K.R.; Twisk, J.; Visser, M.
Background: Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods: We used data of five triannual examination
Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes
Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.
William P Melega
Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.
Webster, Vana; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Knight, Jennifer; Comino, Elizabeth
The aims of this paper are to describe the growth of urban Australian Aboriginal infants from birth to 24 months of age and to identify the proportion of these infants experiencing rapid weight gain (RWG) and overweight/obesity. The Gudaga Study is a longitudinal birth cohort of 159 Australian Aboriginal children born on the urban fringe of Sydney. Birthweight and length were extracted from hospital data. Children with a birthweight >1500 grams were included in the analysis (n = 157). Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2-3 weeks and then six-monthly until 24 months of age. Age- and gender-specific Z-scores were determined from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 growth charts for weight, length, head circumference and body mass index (BMI). The proportion of children experiencing RWG (an increase in weight-for-age Z-scores ≥0.67 between birth and 12 months) was calculated. The association between RWG and ≥85th CDC percentile for BMI at 24 months was tested using Pearson's χ². The mean weight of Gudaga infants was less than the CDC mean length-for-age at birth and 2-3 weeks of age but greater than CDC mean length-for-age and weight-for-age at 18 and 24 months of age. Overall, 42 infants (34.4%) experienced RWG, and 45 infants (36.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months of age. A greater proportion of those who experienced RWG (61.9%) were overweight/obese at 24 months than those who did not experience RWG (23.8%). Our study suggests a concerning proportion of urban Indigenous infants experience RWG and overweight/obesity in early childhood.
Blomquist, Kerstin K; Barnes, Rachel D; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Morgan, Peter T; Grilo, Carlos M
To examine weight changes in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) during the year before seeking treatment and to explore correlates of weight changes. Seventy-eight consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese BED patients were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Overall, participants reported a mean weight gain of 15.1 pounds during the 12 months before treatment. This overall weight gain comprised remarkable heterogeneity, ranging from a 30-pound loss to a 53-pound gain. The subgroup of participants who reported gaining weight (76% of sample) reported gaining an average of 22.2 pounds during the 12 months before treatment. Weight change was associated with significantly more frequent binge eating and overeating during breakfasts. Treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported by treatment studies of BED. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S
Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Claret, Marc; Corominola, Helena; Canals, Ignasi; Saura, Josep; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon
The increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and the limitations of current treatments raise the need for finding novel therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. The purpose of the current study was first to investigate the effects of tungstate on body weight and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Second, we aimed to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. Oral administration of tungstate significantly decreased body weight gain and adiposity without modifying caloric intake, intestinal fat absorption, or growth rate in obese rats. Moreover, the treatment ameliorated dislipemia and insulin resistance of obese rats. These effects were mediated by an increase in whole-body energy dissipation and by changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue. Furthermore, treatment increased the number of small adipocytes with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that tungstate treatment may provide the basis for a promising novel therapy for obesity.
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.
Anggraeny Fetty Tri
Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.
Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Stice, Eric
Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in body mass index (BMI). Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 nonfood commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to nonfood commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sandelin-Francke, Lotta; Ubhayasekhera, Kumari; Bergquist, Jonas; Axelsson, Ove; Comasco, Erika; Campbell, Rebecca E; Sundström Poromaa, Inger
Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome. Given the limited information on what maternal characteristics influence maternal testosterone levels, and the even less explored routes by which female fetus androgen exposure would occur, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal age, BMI, weight gain, depressed mood and aromatase SNPs on testosterone levels in maternal serum and amniotic fluid of female fetuses. Blood samples from pregnant women ( n = 216) obtained in gestational weeks 35-39, and pre-labor amniotic fluid samples from female fetuses ( n = 56), taken at planned Caesarean section or in conjunction with amniotomy for induction of labor, were analyzed. Maternal serum testosterone and amniotic fluid testosterone and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Multiparity (β = -0.28, P testosterone levels. Maternal age (β = -0.34, P testosterone in female fetuses, explaining 64.3% of the variability in amniotic fluid testosterone. Young maternal age and excessive maternal weight gain may increase the prenatal androgen exposure of female fetuses. Further studies are needed to explore this finding. © 2017 The authors.
Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li
To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.
Gien, Jason; Murthy, Karna; Pallotto, Eugenia K; Brozanski, Beverly; Chicoine, Louis; Zaniletti, Isabella; Seabrook, Ruth; Keene, Sarah; Alapati, Deepthi; Porta, Nicolas; Rintoul, Natalie; Grover, Theresa R
Appropriate post-natal growth remains a mainstay of therapeutic goals for infants with CDH, with the hypothesis that optimizing linear growth will improve survival through functional improvements in pulmonary hypoplasia. However, descriptions of growth and the effect on survival are limited in affected infants. Describe in-hospital weight gain related to survival among infants with CDH. Children's Hospitals Neonatal Database (CHND) identified infants with CDH born ≥34weeks' gestation (2010-14). Exclusion criteria were: admission age>7days, death/discharge ageCDH repair prior to admission. Weight gain velocity (WGV: g/kg/day) was calculated using an established exponential approximation and the cohort stratified by Q1: 75%ile. Descriptive measures and unadjusted Kaplan-Meier analyses describe the implications of WGV on mortality/discharge. In 630 eligible infants, median WGV was 4.6g/kg/day. After stratification by WGV [Q1: (n=156; 5.9g/kg/day)] infants in Q1 had shortest median length of stay, less time on TPN and intervention for gastro-esophageal reflux relative to the other WGV strata (pCDH. Highest and lowest WGV appear to be related to adverse outcomes. Efforts are needed to develop nutritional strategies targeting optimal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn
To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG. Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes.
Bohnert, Amy; Zarrett, Nicole; Beets, Michael W; Hall, Georgia; Buscemi, Joanna; Heard, Amy; Pate, Russell
The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends adoption of policies at the district, state, and federal levels that minimize weight gain among youth over the summertime, particularly among low-income, minority school-age youth who appear to be at greater risk. Policies that facilitate (1) partnerships between school districts and community organizations to provide affordable summertime programming, (2) strategic efforts by schools and communities to encourage families to enroll and attend summertime programming via the creation of community-wide summertime offerings offices, (3) adoption of joint-use/shared use agreements in communities to promote use of indoor and outdoor school facilities to provide affordable programming during the summer months, and (4) implementation of strategies that help summer programs achieve the Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) standards which have been endorsed by the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition. Research is needed to elucidate key mechanisms by which involvement in structured programming may reduce weight gain over the summer months.
Our dramatically changed food environment--since periods in our history when food sources were highly constrained--has presented new challenges for obesity research. For example, these alterations have strongly emphasized the physiological differences between the homeostatic and the hedonic regulation of food intake--the latter being largely responsible for the pronounced increase in obesity in the past few decades. There is also increasing agreement that compulsive overeating shares many parallels with addiction disorders such as drug abuse. These factors have also fostered a renewed interest in identifying individual differences in personality and motivational systems that increase the risk for overeating and weight gain in our population. Reward sensitivity has been the focus of a recent body of compelling research, with evidence favoring two seemingly opposite points of view. On the one hand, studies have found support for a link between low reward sensitivity and obesity, whereas other evidence suggests that a strong appetitive motivation leads to overeating and weight gain. Arguments are provided to reconcile these apparently disparate theories. Finally, the role of impulsivity and its links with symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are discussed, as well as their respective roles in the risk profile for obesity.
Despite being wealthier, Indian children are significantly shorter and smaller than African children. These differences begin very early in life, suggesting that they may in part reflect differences in maternal health. By applying reweighting estimation strategies to the Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper reports, to my knowledge, the first representative estimates of prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy for India and sub-Saharan Africa. I find that 42.2% of prepregnant women in India are underweight compared with 16.5% of prepregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Levels of prepregnancy underweight for India are almost seven percentage points higher than the average fraction underweight among women 15–49 y old. This difference in part reflects a previously unquantified relationship among age, fertility, and underweight; childbearing is concentrated in the narrow age range in which Indian women are most likely to be underweight. Further, because weight gain during pregnancy is low, averaging about 7 kg for a full-term pregnancy in both regions, the average woman in India ends pregnancy weighing less than the average woman in sub-Saharan Africa begins pregnancy. Poor maternal health among Indian women is of global significance because India is home to one fifth of the world’s births. PMID:25733859
Full Text Available Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW gain after feed restriction and realimentation. We compared adipose samples from cows with greater gain based on average daily gain (ADG during realimentation with samples from cows with lesser gain. Specifically, there were four comparisons including two comparing the high and low gain animals across each feeding period (feed restriction and realimentation and two that compared differences in feed restriction and realimentation across high or low gain classifications. Using microarray analysis, we provide a set of differentially expressed genes identified between the high and low gain at both periods of nutrient restriction and realimentation. These data identify multiple differentially expressed genes between these two phenotypes across both nutritional environments. Keywords: Beef cows, Subcutaneous fat, Transcriptome
Williams, Paul T.
Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.
Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri
There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day -1 and 471 ± 124 g・day -1 , respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg -1 ) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg -1 ). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.
Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex
Skouteris, Helen; McPhie, Skye; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Bruce, Lauren; Herring, Sharon; Gale, Janette; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy; Teale, Glyn; Lachal, Jennifer
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and promote positive psychosocial and motivational outcomes in comparison with an Education Alone (EA) group. Randomized-controlled trial. Two hundred and sixty-one women who were <18 weeks pregnant consented to take part. Those allocated to the HC group received a tailored HC intervention delivered by a Health Coach, whilst those in the EA group attended two education sessions. Women completed measures, including motivation, psychosocial variables, sleep quality, and knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning GWG, at 15 weeks of gestation (Time 1) and 33 weeks of gestation (Time 2). Post-birth data were also collected at 2 months post-partum (Time 3). There was no intervention effect in relation to weight gained during pregnancy, rate of excessive GWG or birth outcomes. The only differences between HC and EA women were higher readiness (b = 0.29, 95% CIs = 0.03-0.55, p < .05) and the importance to achieve a healthy GWG (b = 0.27, 95% CIs = 0.02-0.52, p < .05), improved sleep quality (b = -0.22, 95% CIs = -0.44 to -0.03, p < .05), and increased knowledge for an appropriate amount of GWG that would be best for their baby's health (b = -1.75, 95% CI = -3.26 to -0.24, p < .05) reported by the HC at Time 2. Whilst the HC intervention was not successful in preventing excessive GWG, several implications for the design of future GWG interventions were identified, including the burden of the intervention commitment and the use of weight monitoring. What is already known on the subject? Designing interventions to address gestational weight gain (GWG) continues to be a challenge. To date, health behaviour change factors have not been the focus of GWG interventions. What does this study add? Our health coaching (HC) intervention did not reduce GWG more so than education alone (EA). There was an intervention effect
Nyrop, Kirsten A; Deal, Allison M; Lee, Jordan T; Muss, Hyman B; Choi, Seul Ki; Wheless, Amy; Carey, Lisa A; Shachar, Shlomit S
This study investigates weight trajectories in pre- versus postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive tumors, with a specific focus on discerning menopausal status and type of endocrine treatment (ET) as risk factors for weight gain during ET. We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical records. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared and t tests were used to compare pre- and postmenopausal women. Chi-squared tests and ANOVA were used for within-group associations between patient characteristics and weight trajectories. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate relative risk for weight gain. The final sample was 32% premenopausal (n = 140) and 68% postmenopausal (n = 298). Relative risk (RR) for weight gain during ET was highest in women who were premenopausal (RR = 1.29, 1.03-1.52) and had Stage 3 BC (RR = 2.12, 1.59-2.82), mastectomy (RR = 1.49, 1.19-1.88), axillary node dissection (RR = 1.39, 1.11-1.73), and chemotherapy (RR = 1.80, 1.37-2.36). For each kg of weight gained between BC diagnosis and start of ET, and for each additional year of age, RR of gaining weight during ET decreased (RR = 0.98, 0.97-0.99, and RR = 0.99, 0.98-0.99, respectively). Menopausal status and type of ET were not significant predictors of weight gain. In multivariable analysis, only weight loss between BC diagnosis and start of ET was significant. The association of weight loss prior to ET and subsequent substantial weight gain during ET warrants further investigation.
Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.
Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee
Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.
The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns. PMID:22666778
Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.
The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns
Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.
Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.
Melin, Anna; Lenner, Ragnhild Arvidsson
Involving school nurses in weight gain prevention activities in already overweight children may be a means to address childhood obesity prevention. To describe and evaluate a treatment method aimed for implementation in school care centres. Twenty families (20 overweight children aged 7 years) were interviewed at baseline with standardized questionnaires, received simple dietary and lifestyle advice. Weight was measured and advice/support by school nurses was available monthly during the 1-year period. A follow-up was made after 1 year. Changes in wellbeing, life style and body mass index (BMI) z-score were recorded and analysed. Experiences from parents and nurses were also examined. A good (91%) or fair (54%) adherence to dietary advice was found in children who decreased or maintained their z-score respectively. Mean BMI z-score reduced [-0.16 (p = 0.03)] during the intervention period. Generally, parents and school nurses were satisfied with the programme, helping them to set limits and be more self-confident in their role as 'health adviser' respectively. Overweight progression in younger children is possible to modify by increased awareness of the problem, of their food habits and lifestyle practices. Providing school nurses with the knowledge to address the problem and working in collaboration with dieticians and a healthcare team can be an effective means to prevent further weight gain in overweight school-age children. Possibility of stigmatization was expressed thus efforts will need to be made to carry out such a programme to preserve the children's integrity and run activities in a discrete manner in the school environment. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Markus, C Rob; Rogers, Peter J; Brouns, Fred; Schepers, Robbie
There is an increasing societal concern that consumption of specific foods such as sugar might become 'addictive' and, hence, promote weight gain. Claims about the addictiveness of sugar however are based largely on findings from few animal studies, whereas there is a lack of direct human evidence for symptoms of sugar-related substance dependence. The current study examined in a large sample of human participants whether foods mainly containing sugar in particular might cause 'addiction-like' problems that meet clinical DSM criteria for substance dependence, and, also whether in turn this relates to body weight and negative affectivity (depressed mood). In a cross-sectional study, n = 1495 university students from a variety of faculties were assessed for DSM-related signs of food addiction for particular food categories (YFAS), and, also BMI and negative affectivity. Results revealed that from the total sample, 95% experienced at least one symptom of food dependence and 12.6% met the YFAS classification for 'food addiction' as related to DSM-IV criteria. The majority of respondents experienced these problems for combined high-fat savoury (30%) and high-fat sweet (25%) foods, whereas only a minority experienced such problems for low-fat/savoury (2%) and mainly sugar-containing foods (5%). Overweight correlated only with addictive-like problems for high-fat savoury and high-fat sweet foods (P foods mainly containing sugar. The current findings indicate that sugary foods contribute minimally to 'food dependence' and increased risk of weight gain. Instead, they are consistent with the current scientific notion that food energy density, and the unique individual experience of eating, plays an important role in determining the reward value of food and promoting excessive energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Lauren T; Hollis, Jenna L; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J
Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44-50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25-29.9 kg/m²) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led
Trevor J. B. Dummer
Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.
Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Woo Yong; Choi, Kyong Eun; Choe, Yon Ho
This retrospective-medical-record review was conducted to evaluate effect of infliximab therapy, particularly with a top-down strategy, on the nutritional parameters of children with Crohns disease (CD). 42 patients who were diagnosed with Crohns disease at the Pediatric Gastroenterology center of a tertiary care teaching hospital and achieved remission at two months and one year after beginning of treatment were divided into four subgroups according to the treatment regimen; azathioprine group (n = 11), steroid group (n = 11), infliximab top-down group (n = 11) and step-up group (n = 9). Weight, height, and serum albumin were measured at diagnosis, and then at two months and one year after the initiation of treatment. At 2 months, the Z score increment for weight was highest in the steroid group, followed by the top-down, step-up, and azathioprine groups. At one year, the Z score increment was highest in top-down group, followed by steroid, azathioprine, and step-up group. There were no significant differences between the four groups in Z score increment for height and serum albumin during the study period. The top-down infliximab treatment resulted in superior outcome for weight gain, compared to the step-up therapy and other treatment regimens.
Yaghmaie, Pedram; Ramin, Aligholi; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Zamani, Asghar
Blood selenium and trace minerals play an important role in animal's health and production. The aims of this study were to determine selenium effect on blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, trace minerals and weight gain in lambs. Twelve female Makuei breed were studied for 63 days in groups of control, nanoselenium (NanoSe) and sodium selenite (NaSe). Mean concentrations of GPX, Cu and Fe in selenium supplemented groups were higher than in control group but the differences were not significant. Mean GPX and selenium was significant among the bleeding times, for Cu and Zn significant occasionally while not for weight gain. The percentages of weight gain in groups were 34.20, 38.90 and 36.30, respectively, which was not different. The individual comparison of parameters among groups showed differences for GPX, selenium and Cu. Correlations were observed between weight & Fe, weight & GPX, weight & selenium, Zn & Fe and GPX & selenium in NanoSe group. Weight gain showed negative correlations with Fe and positive correlation with GPX. In conclusion, selenium compounds increased GPX activity and selenium in which it was predominant in NanoSe than in NaSe group. Selenium compounds showed no effects on Cu, Zn and Fe but caused weight gain to increase. NanoSe revealed correlations between weight gain, GPX, Fe and selenium and was preferable to NaSe. Thus, the effect of NanoSe on reducing the oxidative stress and increased weight gain was acceptable and probably an option to NaSe administration in lambs.
Associations between size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and potential risk for adult disease have been variably explained by in utero exposures or genetic risk that could affect both outcomes. We utilized a twin model to explore these hypotheses.
Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi
Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.
Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have focused on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid weight gain (RWG during infancy, the dose-response relationship has not yet been confirmed, and very few studies have included Asian populations. Using a record-linkage method, we examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and RWG in infants at around 4 months of age to clarify the dose-response relationship. Methods: Two databases were used: maternal check-ups during pregnancy and early infancy check-ups (between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 in Okinawa, Japan were linked via IDs and provided to us after unlinkable anonymizing. For 10,433 subjects (5229 boys and 5204 girls, we calculated the change in infants' weight z-score by subtracting the z-score of their birth weight from their weight at early infancy check-ups. Smoking exposure was categorized into five groups. We used Poisson regression to examine the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with RWG in early infancy. Results: Overall, 1524 (14.6% were ex-smoker and 511 (4.9% were current smoker. Compared with the reference category of non-smokers, the adjusted risk ratio of RWG was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.32 for ex-smokers, 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93–1.50 for those who smoked 1–5 cigarettes per day, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.24–2.00 for those who smoked 6–10 cigarettes per day, and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.51–3.01 for those who smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day. There was a clear dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated in a dosedependent manner with increased risk of RWG in early infancy.
Wright, Charlotte M; Chillingworth, Anna
Many children referred to a tertiary feeding clinic are already taking high-energy oral nutritional supplements (HEOS), but these often seem not clinically useful. We undertook a retrospective review of all children on HEOS at the time of referral to the clinic in order to describe their subsequent progress in terms of growth and feeding behaviour. A total of 48 children were on HEOS at referral and withdrawal of HEOS was attempted in 38 children, aged median 3.0 years (range 0.7-10 years) who were taking volumes equivalent to 2/3 of total daily energy requirements. The children tended to be very short and slim (median height SD score (SDS) -2.0 (range -5.7 to 1.9); body mass index -2.0 (-5.1 to 1.9)). Half had normal neurodevelopment (ND) but 4 (11%) had learning disability and 4 (11%) severe ND problems. By last follow-up after 0.86 (0-2.9) years, 30 (79%) had stopped all feeds. Those who stopped had a mean (SD) change in weight of 0.08 (0.6) SDS (range -0.88 to +1.59). Five children (17%) showed significant catch-up weight gain after stopping feeds, of whom three had been referred for weight faltering and possible tube feeding. Improvement in feeding behaviour was documented in 76% (29). The use of HEOS in children suppresses appetite for solid food due to energy compensation. In some cases, HEOS may perpetuate or even cause weight faltering. It should not be assumed that failure to respond to HEOS is an indication for tube feeding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.
Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles
Shanahan, William R; Rose, Jed E; Glicklich, Alan; Stubbe, Scott; Sanchez-Kam, Matilde
Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chronic weight management. Preclinical data suggest that it may also be effective in smoking cessation through modulation of the dopaminergic reward system. This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 30 centers in the United States. Six hundred three adult smokers with a Body Mass Index of 18.5-35 kg/m2, averaging at least 10 cigarettes/day with no period of abstinence >3 months for the past year were randomized to lorcaserin 10 mg once daily (QD), 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo; all received standardized smoking cessation counseling weekly. The target quit date was day 15. The primary endpoint was the exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed Continuous Abstinence Rate for weeks 9-12 (month 3). Continuous Abstinence Rates for month 3 were 5.6%, 8.7%, and 15.3% for the placebo, QD and BID groups, respectively (BID vs. placebo odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.47, 6.22, p = .0027. Change in weight at week 12 (randomized population) was -0.01, -0.35 and -0.98 kg, respectively (p = .0004, BID vs. placebo), and +0.73, +0.76, and -0.41 kg in participants achieving month 3 continuous abstinence. The most frequent adverse events were headache, nausea, constipation, and fatigue. Lorcaserin with counseling was associated with dose-related increases in smoking cessation and prevention of associated weight gain over a 3-month period. Further investigation of lorcaserin in smoking cessation is warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02044874. This randomized, controlled trial demonstrated that lorcaserin used in conjunction with standard cessation counseling was associated with dose-related increases in smoking cessation and prevention of associated weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in humans of a potential role of 5-HT2C agonism in the modulation of central neurological
Kirkegaard, Helene; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...
Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granstrom, Charlotta
100 000 person-years in MoBa and 28.5 per 100 000 person-years in DNBC. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.89] and paternal obesity, adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.04), were associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes....... The associations were similar after mutual adjustment. In contrast, maternal total gestational weight gain was not associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes, adjusted HR 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.02) per kilogram increase. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the association between maternal obesity...
Dong, Yuwen; Rivera, Daniel E; Downs, Danielle S; Savage, Jennifer S; Thomas, Diana M; Collins, Linda M
Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) represents a major public health issue. In this paper, we pursue a control engineering approach to the problem by applying model predictive control (MPC) algorithms to act as decision policies in the intervention for assigning optimal intervention dosages. The intervention components consist of education, behavioral modification and active learning. The categorical nature of the intervention dosage assignment problem dictates the need for hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) schemes, ultimately leading to improved outcomes. The goal is to design a controller that generates an intervention dosage sequence which improves a participant's healthy eating behavior and physical activity to better control GWG. An improved formulation of self-regulation is also presented through the use of Internal Model Control (IMC), allowing greater flexibility in describing self-regulatory behavior. Simulation results illustrate the basic workings of the model and demonstrate the benefits of hybrid predictive control for optimized GWG adaptive interventions.
Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.
Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...... environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...
Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only, the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.
Eiber, Rénate; Berlin, Ivan; de Brettes, Benoît; Foulon, Christine; Guelfi, Julien Daniel
Previous research has shown that patients with bulimia nervosa (B), anorexia nervosa, restricting type, or restrictive-anorectic (RA), and anorexia nervosa, binge eating, purging type, or anorectic-bulimic (AB) exhibit a reduced hedonic response to sucrose compared with control subjects. We hypothesized that this response could be linked to an excessive fear of weight gain rather than a decreased ability to experience pleasure. We therefore compared the hedonic responses to sucrose solutions in B, RA and AB women (n=20/group) in two different conditions: sucrose solution swallowed vs. sucrose solution spit. Under double-blind conditions and according to a Latin square design, patients received sucrose in solution (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40%) and rated each concentration for pleasantness on a nine-point scale. The two test conditions were randomly administered. The threshold concentration of sweet taste perception was also assessed, and the subjects filled out Chapman's Social and Physical Anhedonia Scale. The hedonic response to sucrose adjusted for the sweet taste perception threshold was significantly lower in the 'swallow' than in the 'spit' condition. There was a significant effect of sucrose concentrations as well as a significant condition by concentration interaction. When 'fear to swallow' sucrose solution responses were included as a covariate, the significant difference between the conditions of 'swallow' or 'spit' disappeared, but there was a significant concentration by condition by fear to swallow interaction and an almost significant covariate effect. When 'Drive for Thinness' on the Eating Disorder Inventory was included as a covariate, similar results were obtained. Social Anhedonia but not Physical Anhedonia correlated positively with 'Drive for Thinness' and 'fear of swallowing sucrose solutions', and correlated inversely with maximal hedonic response to the 'swallow' condition. 'We conclude that the hedonic responses to sucrose in patients with eating
Megan E. Jensen
Full Text Available A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4 years and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3 years, referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness. Sleep latency (56.6 (25.5 vs. 40.9 (16.9 min, p = 0.042 and plasma triglycerides (1.0 (0.8, 1.2 vs. 0.7 (0.7, 0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.013 were significantly greater in asthmatic versus non-asthmatic children. No group difference was observed in appetite hormones, dietary intake, or activity levels (p > 0.05. Sleep duration paralleled overall diet quality (r = 0.36, p = 0.04, whilst daytime sleepiness paralleled plasma lipids (r = 0.61, p =0.001 and sedentary time (r = 0.39, p = 0.02. Disturbances in sleep quality and plasma triglycerides were evident in non-obese asthmatic children referred for polysomnography, versus non-asthmatic children. Observed associations between diet quality, sedentary behavior, and metabolic and sleep-related outcomes warrant further investigation, particularly the long-term health implications.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Menopause induces redistribution of fat mass and development of abdominal obesity, increasing risk for metabolic syndrome (MS by 60%. Related cardiovascular diseases become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women after fifty years of age. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gaining weight on components of MS in the menopause. METHOD The study included 50 obese women, BMI=31.92± 5.83 kg/m2, age 54.40±3.64, time since menopause 5.90±5.46 years, and 37 normal weight women, BMI=23.50±2.13 kg/m2, age 53.92±3.95, time since menopause 5.96±4.92 years. Both groups were divided according to the presence of MS into two subgroups. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 8 am for the following: fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, FSH, LH, prolactin, oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormonebinding globulin (SHBG. RESULTS 66% of obese women had MS compared with 22% normal weight women. Significant differences between groups were found for the following: weight, BMI, waist, hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a, FSH, LH, prolactin (all p<0.01 and fasting glucose (p<0.05. Obese women with and without MS were significantly diverse for the following: waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose (all p<0.01; age, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, Lp(a and SHBG (all p<0.05. Normal weight women with and without MS had significantly different values of waist/hip ratio, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides (all p<0.01; HDL and testosterone (p<0.05. Significant differences were found between obese and normal weight women with MS in anthropometric characteristics, ApoA, Lp(a, fibrinogen (all p<0.01 and FSH (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Abdominal obesity significantly
Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R
Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morlacchi, Laura; Roggero, Paola; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Bracco, Beatrice; Porri, Debora; Battiato, Enrico; Menis, Camilla; Liotto, Nadia; Mallardi, Domenica; Mosca, Fabio
Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. A prospective observational study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were as follows: healthy infants, gestational age ≤32 wk, birth weight milk or formula at discharge. Infants were enrolled at hospital discharge. At enrollment, macronutrient intakes and protein balance were determined. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were also assessed. The nutritional composition of human milk was calculated by infrared spectroscopy. The protein balance was determined according to the nitrogen balance standard method. Body composition was assessed by an air-displacement plethysmography system. At the term-corrected age, anthropometry and body composition assessments were repeated. Seventeen preterm infants fed fortified human milk and 15 preterm infants fed formula were enrolled. At discharge, despite similar macronutrient intakes, infants fed fortified human milk showed a higher nitrogen balance (expressed as mg · kg-1 · d-1) compared with preterm formula-fed infants (mean ± SD: 488.3 ± 75 compared with 409.8 ± 85 mg · kg-1 · d-1, P = 0.009). At term-corrected age, growth was similar in the 2 groups, whereas fortified human milk-fed infants showed a higher percentage of fat-free mass (85.1% ± 2.8% compared with 80.8% ± 3.2%, P = 0.002). Moreover, at multiple linear regression, fat-free mass content was independently associated with being fed human milk (R2 = 0.93, P milk feeding is associated with early fat-free mass deposition in healthy and stable preterm infants. This trial was
Adriana L. Somavilla
Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.
Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
Podolsky, Scott H
In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition. Nevertheless, early enthusiasm was tempered by controlled studies showing that antibiotics did not serve as useful, nonspecific growth promoters for humans. In subsequent decades, against the backdrop of rising concern over antibiotic resistance, investigators studying the role of antibiotics in acute malnutrition have had to navigate a more complicated public health calculus. In a related historical stream, scientists since the 1910s have explored the role of the intestinal microflora in human health. By the 2000s, as increasing resources and more sophisticated tools were devoted to understanding the microbiome (a term coined in 2001), attention would turn to the role of antibiotics and the intestinal microflora in the rising obesity epidemic. Despite scientific and commercial enthusiasm, easy answers (whether about antibiotics or probiotics) have again given way to an appreciation for the complexity of human growth. History encourages caution about our hopes for simplistic answers for presumed "fat drugs" and slimming probiotics alike.
Yang, Su-Chen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Hung, Kuan-Yu
Our objective was to investigate the correlations of interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) with the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) and other nutritional markers, especially when age difference is considered. This was a cross-sectional study. The setting was an outpatient hemodialysis (HD) center in a community hospital. Excluding those with obvious inflammatory diseases, hospitalizations, and major surgery within the preceding 3 months, we enrolled all anuric patients who had undergone maintenance hemodialysis three times a week for >1 year. In total, 84 women and 80 men were enrolled. Their age (mean +/- SD) was 57.9 +/- 13.0 years. The conditions of food intake and nutritional status were evaluated with MIS items. Concerning IDWG, the average of 12 sessions within 4 weeks was used. The relative IDWG (RIDWG) was calculated as IDWG divided by the respective dry weight. Other laboratory data were obtained from routine monthly sampling. Whereas IDWG and RIDWG had no significant correlation with any of the MIS items in younger patients (food intake, gastrointestinal upset, functional incapacity, and wasting of muscle and subcutaneous fat in older patients (>/=65 years old; n = 58). On the other hand, IDWG and RIDWG had no significant correlation with serum albumin level in younger and older HD patients, respectively. Our findings suggest that in older HD patients, the greater that the RIDWG is, the poorer the nutritional status will be. However, there is still controversy regarding IDWG and RIDWG as nutritional markers in HD patients.
Thakali, Keshari M; Faske, Jennifer B; Ishwar, Arjun; Alfaro, Maria P; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik
Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct targeted DNA methylation association analysis of maternal obesity and excessive GWG with DNA methylation of select metabolism-related and imprinted genes. Umbilical cord (UC) tissue from infants born to normal weight and overweight/obese women from the Glowing study were utilized (n = 78). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for relevant confounders, Institute on Medicine (IOM) GWG category and infant sex were significantly associated with UC IGFBP1 methylation, while gestation length was significantly associated with UC PRKAA1 methylation. In addition, infant fat mass (%) at 2 weeks of age was significantly associated with umbilical cord methylation of RAPTOR. While regression tree analysis confirmed findings from multivariable models demonstrating that maternal early pregnancy BMI and IOM GWG category are associated with fetal UC DNA methylation patterns for select metabolic and imprinted genes, in general, effect sizes were quite small and statistical significance was not maintained when accounting for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that maternal obesity and excessive GWG are weakly correlated with offspring DNA methylation patterns at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene
OBJECTIVE: We e