Sample records for inadequate therapy high-quality

  1. Inadequate Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Hospital Acquired Pneumonia. (United States)

    Dahal, S; Rijal, B P; Yogi, K N; Sherchand, J B; Parajuli, K; Parajuli, N; Pokhrel, B M


    Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy for HAP is a common phenomena and one of the indicators of the poor stewardship. This study intended to analyze the efficacy of empirical antibiotics in the light of microbiological data in HAP cases. Suspected cases of HAP were followed for clinico-bacterial evidence, antimicrobial resistance and pre and post culture antibiotic use. The study was taken from February,2014 to July 2014 in department of Microbiology and department of Respiratory medicine prospectively. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Out of 758 cases investigated, 77(10 %) cases were HAP, 65(84%) of them were culture positive and 48(74 %) were late in onset. In early onset cases, isolates were Acinetobacter 10(42%), Escherichia coli 5(21%), S.aureus 4(17%), Klebsiella 1(4%) and Pseudomonas 1(4%). From the late onset cases Acinetobacter 15(28%), Klebsiella 17(32%) and Pseudomonas 13(24%) were isolated. All Acinetobacter, 78% Klebsiella and 36% Pseudomonas isolates were multi drug resistant. Empirical therapies were inadequate in 12(70%) of early onset cases and 44(92%) of late onset type. Cephalosporins were used in 7(41%) of early onset infections but found to be adequate only in 2(12%) cases. Polymyxins were avoided empirically but after cultures were used in 9(19%) cases. Empirical antibiotics were vastly inadequate, more frequently so in late onset infections. Use of cephalosporins empirically in early onset infections and avoiding empirical use of polymyxin antibiotics in late onset infections contributed largely to the findings. Inadequate empirical regimen is a real time feedback for a practitioner to update his knowledge on the local microbiological trends.

  2. Inadequate Response to Therapy as a Predictor of Suicide. (United States)

    Dahlsgaard, Katherine K.; Beck, Aaron T.; Brown, Gregory K.


    The role of response to cognitive therapy as a predictor of suicide was investigated by comparing 17 outpatients with mood disorders who committed suicide with 17 matched patients who did not commit suicide. Significant differences were found on several variables including higher levels of hopelessness at termination of therapy. (Author/EMK)

  3. Delivering high quality hip fracture rehabilitation: the perspective of occupational and physical therapy practitioners. (United States)

    Leland, Natalie E; Lepore, Michael; Wong, Carin; Chang, Sun Hwa; Freeman, Lynn; Crum, Karen; Gillies, Heather; Nash, Paul


    The majority of post-acute hip fracture rehabilitation in the US is delivered in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Currently, there are limited guidelines that equip occupational and physical therapy practitioners with a summary of what constitutes evidence-based high quality rehabilitation. Thus, this study aimed to identify rehabilitation practitioners' perspectives on the practices that constitute high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 99 occupational and physical therapy practitioners working in SNFs in southern California. Purposive sampling of facilities was conducted to capture variation in key characteristics known to impact care delivery for this patient population (e.g., financial resources, staffing, and patient case-mix). Questions aimed to elicit practitioners' perspectives on high quality hip fracture rehabilitation practices. Each session was audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were systematically analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Seven themes emerged: objectives of care; first 72 h; positioning, pain, and precautions; use of standardized assessments; episode of care practices; facilitating insight into progress; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Clinical guidelines are critical tools to facilitate clinical decision-making and achieve desired patient outcomes. The findings of this study highlight the practitioners' perspective on what constitutes high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. This work provides critical information to advance the development of stakeholder-driven rehabilitation clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to verify the findings from other stakeholders (e.g., patients), ensure the alignment of our findings with current evidence, and develop measures for evaluating their delivery and relationship to desired outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation This study highlights occupational and physiotherapy therapy practitioners' perspectives on the cumulative best

  4. Nonoclusive thrombosis of mechanical mitral valve prosthesis caused by inadequate treatment of anticoagulant therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Branislava


    Full Text Available Background. Oral anticoagulants have been used in the prevention of thromboembolic complications for over six decades. A rare, but possible problem in the application of these medications could be resistance to them. Case report. We presented a patient with nonocclusive thrombosis of the mechanical mitral prosthesis due to inadequately treated resistance to peroral anticoagulant therapy. Resistance to oral anticoagulant medications was proven by an increased dosage of warfarin up to 20 mg and, after that, acenokumarol to 15 mg over ten days which did not lead to an increase in the international normalized ratio (INR value over 1.2. On the basis of information that she did not take food rich in vitamin K or medications which could reduce effects of oral anticoagulants, and that she did not have additional illnesses and conditions that could cause an inadequate response to anticoagulant therapy, it was circumstantially concluded that this was a hereditary form of resistance. Because of the existing mechanical prosthetics on the mitral position, low molecular heparin has been introduced into the therapy. The patient reduced it on her own initiative, leading to nonocclusive valvular thrombosis. Conclusion. When associated complications like absolute arrhithmia does not exist, the finding of resistance to oral anticoagulant agents is an indication for the replacement of a mechanical prosthetic with a biological one which has been done in this patients.

  5. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

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    Du, Dongsu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hu, Yanle, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm{sup 3} could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications.

  6. Microbiological changes after periodontal therapy in diabetic patients with inadequate metabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maciel Silva-Boghossian


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP on the composition of the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis (CP in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2 with inadequate metabolic control and in systemically healthy (SH individuals. Forty individuals (20 DM2 and 20 SH with CP underwent full-mouth periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 4 deep sites of each individual and tested for mean prevalence and counts of 45 bacterial taxa by the checkerboard method. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and 3 months after SRP. At baseline, those in the DM2 group presented a significantly higher percentage of sites with visible plaque and bleeding on probing compared with those in the SH group (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group presented significantly higher levels of C. rectus and P. gingivalis, and lower prevalence of P. micra and S. anginosus, compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. At the 3-month visit, both groups showed a significant improvement in all clinical parameters (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group showed significantly higher prevalence and/or levels of A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii I, A. oris, A. odontolyticus, C. sputigena, F. periodonticum, and G. morbillorum compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. However, those in the DM2 group showed a significant reduction in the levels of P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (p ≤ 0.001 over time. Those in the SRP group showed improved periodontal status and reduced levels of putative periodontal pathogens at 3 months’ evaluation compared with those in the DM2 group with inadequate metabolic control.

  7. Automation and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Individualized High-Quality Tangent Breast Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Dinniwell, Robert E.; Fyles, Anthony; Sharpe, Michael B.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the large-scale clinical implementation and performance of an automated treatment planning methodology for tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Automated planning was used to prospectively plan tangential breast IMRT treatment for 1661 patients between June 2009 and November 2012. The automated planning method emulates the manual steps performed by the user during treatment planning, including anatomical segmentation, beam placement, optimization, dose calculation, and plan documentation. The user specifies clinical requirements of the plan to be generated through a user interface embedded in the planning system. The automated method uses heuristic algorithms to define and simplify the technical aspects of the treatment planning process. Results: Automated planning was used in 1661 of 1708 patients receiving tangential breast IMRT during the time interval studied. Therefore, automated planning was applicable in greater than 97% of cases. The time for treatment planning using the automated process is routinely 5 to 6 minutes on standard commercially available planning hardware. We have shown a consistent reduction in plan rejections from plan reviews through the standard quality control process or weekly quality review multidisciplinary breast rounds as we have automated the planning process for tangential breast IMRT. Clinical plan acceptance increased from 97.3% using our previous semiautomated inverse method to 98.9% using the fully automated method. Conclusions: Automation has become the routine standard method for treatment planning of tangential breast IMRT at our institution and is clinically feasible on a large scale. The method has wide clinical applicability and can add tremendous efficiency, standardization, and quality to the current treatment planning process. The use of automated methods can allow centers to more rapidly adopt IMRT and enhance access to the documented

  8. Combination of empagliflozin and linagliptin as second-line therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin. (United States)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Lewin, Andrew; Patel, Sanjay; Liu, Dacheng; Kaste, Renee; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combinations of empagliflozin/linagliptin as second-line therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin. Subjects were randomized to a combination of empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg (n = 137), empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg (n = 136), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 141), empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 140), or linagliptin 5 mg (n = 132) as add-on to metformin for 52 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. At week 24, reductions in HbA1c (mean baseline 7.90-8.02% [62.8-64.1 mmol/mol]) with empagliflozin/linagliptin were superior to those with empagliflozin or linagliptin alone as add-on to metformin; adjusted mean (SE) changes from baseline were -1.19% (0.06) (-13.1 mmol/mol [0.7]) with empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, -1.08% (0.06) (-11.8 mmol/mol [0.7]) with empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, -0.62% (0.06) (-6.8 mmol/mol [0.7]) with empagliflozin 25 mg, -0.66% (0.06) (-7.2 mmol/mol [0.7]) with empagliflozin 10 mg, and -0.70% (0.06) (-7.6 mmol/mol [0.7]) with linagliptin 5 mg (P empagliflozin/linagliptin as second-line therapy for 52 weeks significantly reduced HbA1c compared with the individual components and were well tolerated. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. The Efficacy and Safety of Imeglimin as Add-on Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Metformin Monotherapy


    Fouqueray, Pascale; Pirags, Valdis; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Bailey, Clifford J.; Schernthaner, Guntram; Diamant, Michaela; Lebovitz, Harold E.


    OBJECTIVE - A 12-week study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new oral antidiabetic agent, imeglimin, as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled with metformin alone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 156 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive imeglimin (1,500mg twice a day) or placebo added to a stable dose of metformin (1,500-2,000 mg/day). Change in A1C from baseline was the primary efficacy outcome; secondary outcomes included fasting plasma glucose ...

  10. IDegLira Versus Alternative Intensification Strategies in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Basal Insulin Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freemantle, Nick; Mamdani, Muhammad; Vilsbøll, Tina


    glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other outcomes. METHODS: A pooled analysis of five completed Novo Nordisk randomized clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin was used to compare indirectly IDegLira (N = 199) with: addition of liraglutide to basal insulin (N...... = 225) [glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) add-on strategy]; basal-bolus (BB) insulin [insulin glargine (IGlar) + insulin aspart] (N = 56); or up-titration of IGlar (N = 329). A supplementary analysis was performed with the BB arm including patients who received IGlar or IDeg as basal...... of study, differences between IDegLira and BB or up-titrated IGlar, respectively, were as follows: reduction in HbA1c -0.30%, 95% confidence interval (-0.58; -0.01) and -0.65% (-0.83; -0.47); change in body weight -6.89 kg (-7.92; -5.86) and -4.04 kg (-4.69; -3.40) all in favor of IDegLira. Confirmed...

  11. Changes in Ultrasonographic Vascularity Upon Initiation of Adalimumab Combination Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate. (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Nishio, Midori J; Goyal, Janak R; MacCarter, Daryl K; Wells, Alvin F; Chen, Su; Kupper, Hartmut; Kalabic, Jasmina


    To assess joint disease activity by ultrasound (US) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with adalimumab (ADA) plus methotrexate (MTX). Data for this post hoc analysis originated from the MUSICA trial ( identifier: NCT01185288), which evaluated the efficacy of initiating ADA (40 mg every other week) plus 7.5 or 20 mg/week MTX in 309 patients with RA with an inadequate response to MTX. Synovial vascularization over 24 weeks was assessed bilaterally at metacarpophalangeal joint 2 (MCP2), MCP3, MCP5, metatarsophalangeal joint 5, and the wrists by power Doppler US (PDUS). A semiquantitative 4-grade scale was used. Disease activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI). The correlation between continuous variables was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. After 24 weeks of treatment with ADA plus MTX, rapid improvements in the mean synovial vascularity score were observed; the greatest improvements were in MCP2 (-0.5), MCP3 (-0.4), and the wrist (-0.4). At week 24, patients with the lowest DAS28-CRP ( 0.9). Synovial vascularity scores correlated poorly with DAS28, swollen joint count in 66 joints (SJC66), SJC28, tender joint count in 68 joints (TJC68), TJC28, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), SDAI, physician's global assessment, patient's global assessment of pain, and disease duration (ρ < 0.2). Thirty-two (70%) of 46 patients with a DAS28-CRP of <2.6, and 11 (58%) of 19 patients with an SDAI indicating remission had at least 1 joint with a synovial vascularity score of ≥1. PDUS detects changes in synovial vascularity in RA patients treated with ADA plus MTX, and residual synovial vascularity in patients in whom clinical disease control has been achieved. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. The efficacy and safety of imeglimin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with sitagliptin monotherapy. (United States)

    Fouqueray, Pascale; Pirags, Valdis; Diamant, Michaela; Schernthaner, Guntram; Lebovitz, Harold E; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Bailey, Clifford J


    This 12-week study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of imeglimin as add-on therapy to the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with sitagliptin monotherapy. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, imeglimin (1,500 mg b.i.d.) or placebo was added to sitagliptin (100 mg q.d.) over 12 weeks in 170 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 56.8 years; BMI 32.2 kg/m(2)) that was inadequately controlled with sitagliptin alone (A1C ≥7.5%) during a 12-week run-in period. The primary efficacy end point was the change in A1C from baseline versus placebo; secondary end points included corresponding changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, stratification by baseline A1C, and percentage of A1C responders. Imeglimin reduced A1C levels (least-squares mean difference) from baseline (8.5%) by 0.60% compared with an increase of 0.12% with placebo (between-group difference 0.72%, P < 0.001). The corresponding changes in FPG were -0.93 mmol/L with imeglimin vs. -0.11 mmol/L with placebo (P = 0.014). With imeglimin, the A1C level decreased by ≥0.5% in 54.3% of subjects vs. 21.6% with placebo (P < 0.001), and 19.8% of subjects receiving imeglimin achieved a decrease in A1C level of ≤7% compared with subjects receiving placebo (1.1%) (P = 0.004). Imeglimin was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to placebo and no related treatment-emergent adverse events. Imeglimin demonstrated incremental efficacy benefits as add-on therapy to sitagliptin, with comparable tolerability to placebo, highlighting the potential for imeglimin to complement other oral antihyperglycemic therapies. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Patients with Crohn's disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy are at significant risk of inadequate response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ye, Byong Duk; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, You Sun; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Moon, Won; Koo, Ja-Seol; Lee, Suck-Ho; Seo, Geom Seog; Park, Soo Jung; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung-Ae; Hong, Sung Noh; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Eun Soo


    The effect of immunosuppressants on the efficacy of a variety of vaccines is a controversial issue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we determined whether specific immunosuppressants impair the serological response to the standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in a large cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This was a multi-center, prospective observational study of adult patients with CD at 15 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. The study population received one intramuscular injection of PPSV23. Anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody titers were measured by immunoassay prior to and 4weeks after vaccination. All vaccination-related adverse events and the effect of the vaccine on disease activity were also evaluated. The overall serological response rate was 67.5% (133/197). The serological response rate was significantly lower in patients on anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy (50.0% on anti-TNF alone; 58.0% on anti-TNF combined with an immunomodulator, IM) than patients on 5-aminosalicylate (78.4%; all P-values vs. 5-aminosalicylaterisk of an inadequate response to PPSV23. The pneumococcal vaccination strategy should be optimized for patients with CD on anti-TNF therapy. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The efficacy and safety of imeglimin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy. (United States)

    Fouqueray, Pascale; Pirags, Valdis; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Bailey, Clifford J; Schernthaner, Guntram; Diamant, Michaela; Lebovitz, Harold E


    A 12-week study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new oral antidiabetic agent, imeglimin, as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes patients inadequately controlled with metformin alone. A total of 156 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive imeglimin (1,500 mg twice a day) or placebo added to a stable dose of metformin (1,500-2,000 mg/day). Change in A1C from baseline was the primary efficacy outcome; secondary outcomes included fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and proinsulin/insulin ratio. After 12 weeks, the placebo-subtracted decrease in A1C with metformin-imeglimin was -0.44% (P < 0.001). Metformin-imeglimin also significantly improved FPG and the proinsulin/insulin ratio from baseline (-0.91 mg/dL and -7.5, respectively) compared with metformin-placebo (0.36 mg/dL and 11.81). Metformin-imeglimin therapy was generally well-tolerated with a comparable safety profile to metformin-placebo. Addition of imeglimin to metformin improved glycemic control and offers potential as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  15. Longterm safety and efficacy of abatacept through 5 years of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. (United States)

    Genovese, Mark C; Schiff, Michael; Luggen, Michael; Le Bars, Manuela; Aranda, Richard; Elegbe, Ayanbola; Dougados, Maxime


    To evaluate abatacept safety and efficacy over 5 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had inadequate response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in the ATTAIN trial. Patients completing the 6-month, double-blind (DB) placebo-controlled period were eligible to enter the longterm extension (LTE), where all patients received abatacept every 4 weeks (∼10 mg/kg, according to weight range). Safety, efficacy, physical function, and health-related quality of life were monitored throughout. In total, 317 patients (218 DB abatacept, 99 DB placebo) entered the LTE; 150 (47.3%) completed it. Overall incidences of serious adverse events, infections, serious infections, malignant neoplasms, and autoimmune events did not increase during the LTE versus the DB period. American College of Rheumatology responses with abatacept at Month 6 were maintained over 5 years. At Year 5, among patients who received abatacept for 5 years and had available data, 38/103 (36.9%) achieved low disease activity as defined by the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)/C-reactive protein (CRP); 23/103 (22.3%) achieved DAS28/CRP-defined remission. Health Assessment Questionnaire response was achieved by 62.5% of patients remaining on treatment at Year 5; mean improvements from baseline in physical component summary and mental component summary scores were 7.34 and 6.42, respectively. High proportions of patients maintained efficacy and physical function benefits or improved their disease state at each timepoint throughout the LTE, if remaining on abatacept treatment. Safety remained consistent, and abatacept efficacy was maintained from 6 months to 5 years, demonstrating the benefits of switching to abatacept in this difficult-to-treat population of patients with RA previously failing anti-TNF therapy.

  16. Effect of bromocriptine-QR therapy on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose dysglycemia is inadequately controlled on insulin. (United States)

    Chamarthi, Bindu; Cincotta, Anthony H


    The concurrent use of an insulin sensitizer in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal-bolus insulin may help improve glycemic control while limiting further insulin requirement. Bromocriptine-QR (B-QR), a quick release, sympatholytic, dopamine D2 receptor agonist therapy for T2DM, is a postprandial insulin sensitizer. This study evaluated the effect of B-QR on dysglycemia in T2DM subjects with suboptimal glycemic control on basal-bolus insulin plus metformin. The effect of once-daily morning administration of B-QR on dysglycemia was evaluated in 60 T2DM subjects derived from the Cycloset Safety Trial, with HbA1c >7% on basal-bolus insulin plus metformin at baseline, randomized to B-QR (N = 44) versus placebo (N = 16) and completed 12 weeks of study drug treatment. The analyses also included a subset of subjects on high-dose insulin (total daily insulin dose (TDID) ≥70 units; N = 36: 27 B-QR; 9 placebo). Subjects were well matched at baseline. After 12 weeks of B-QR treatment, mean % HbA1c decreased by -0.73% relative to baseline (p QR therapy resulted in % HbA1c reductions of -0.95 and -1.49 relative to baseline (p QR on HbA1c. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and TDID changes within each treatment group were not significant. More subjects achieved HbA1c ≤7 at 12 weeks with B-QR relative to placebo (36.4% B-QR vs 0% placebo, Fisher's exact 2-sided p = 0.003 in the entire cohort and 37% vs 0%, 2-sided p = 0.039 in the high-dose insulin subset). B-QR therapy improves glycemic control in T2DM subjects whose glycemia is poorly controlled on metformin plus basal-bolus insulin, including individuals on high-dose basal-bolus insulin. This glycemic impact occurred without significant change in FPG, suggesting a postprandial glucose lowering mechanism of action. Cycloset Safety Trial registration: Identifier: NCT00377676.

  17. Inadequate pain relief and large functional loss among patients with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from a prospective multinational longitudinal study of osteoarthritis real-world therapies. (United States)

    Conaghan, Philip G; Peloso, Paul M; Everett, Sharlette V; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Black, Christopher M; Mavros, Panagiotis; Arden, Nigel K; Phillips, Ceri J; Rannou, François; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Moore, R Andrew; Taylor, Stephanie D


    To estimate the prevalence of inadequate pain relief (IPR) among patients with symptomatic knee OA prescribed analgesic therapy and to characterize patients with IPR. Patients ≥50 years old with physician-diagnosed knee OA who had taken topical or oral pain medication for at least 14 days were recruited for this prospective non-interventional study in six European countries. Pain and function were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the WOMAC; quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the 12-item short form. IPR was defined as an average pain score of >4 out of 10 on BPI question 5. Of 1187 patients enrolled, 68% were female and the mean age was 68 years (s.d. 9); 639 (54%) met the definition of IPR. Patient responses for the BPI average pain question were well correlated with responses on the WOMAC pain subscale (Spearman r = 0.64, P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, patients with IPR had greater odds of being female [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.90 (95% CI 1.46, 2.48)] and having OA in both knees [adjOR 1.48 (95% CI 1.15, 1.90)], higher BMI, longer OA duration, depression or diabetes. Patients with IPR (vs non-IPR) were more likely to have worse QoL, greater function loss and greater pain interference. IPR is common among patients with knee OA requiring analgesics and is associated with large functional loss and impaired QoL. Patients at particular risk of IPR, as characterized in this study, may require greater attention towards their analgesic treatment options. (NCT01294696). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  18. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom


    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  19. Kampo medicines improved blood test and QOL in two vasculitis cases of Churg–Strauss syndrome and Henoch–Shönlein purpura after inadequate treatment with conventional therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata


    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Yumiko Ikemoto2, Urara Kohdera31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2St Mary’s Hospital, Himeji, Japan; 3Nakano Children’s Hospital, Osaka, JapanObjective: Based on the tenets of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM theory, Kampo medicines were selected and applied to two cases of Churg–Strauss syndrome and Henoch–Shönlein purpura. Two vasculitis syndrome patients exhibited persistent symptoms and abnormal blood tests after treatment with conventional therapies.Methods: As the two cases had “blood stagnation” and “damps and heat” and one had a “yang deficiency” in terms of TCM theory, we applied certain selected Kampo medicines.Results: In case 1, the patient presented with hypereosinophilia, venous thrombosis, pulmonary infarction, decreased platelet count, ulner nerve palsy and Raynaud’s phenomena, which led to a diminished quality of life. After starting the Kampo medicines, the patient improved quickly and recovered within 11 months. In case 2, persistent purpura, abdominal pain, and bloody feces quickly improved and disappeared after Kampo treatment. After starting the Kampo medicines, prednisolone was stopped at 21 days without any sign of relapse to date.Conclusion: Kampo medicines helped clear the persistent abnormal symptoms and laboratory findings of vasculitis syndromes, Churg–Strauss syndrome and Henoch–Shönlein purpura, which had responded inadequately to the conventional therapies administered.Keywords: Kampo medicine, vasculitis, Churg–Strauss syndrome, Henoch–Shönlein purpura

  20. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  1. Radiologists' responses to inadequate referrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjoern Morten; Espeland, Ansgar


    To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)

  2. High Quality Camera Surveillance System


    Helaakoski, Ari


    Oulu University of Applied Sciences Information Technology Author: Ari Helaakoski Title of the master’s thesis: High Quality Camera Surveillance System Supervisor: Kari Jyrkkä Term and year of completion: Spring 2015 Number of pages: 31 This master’s thesis was commissioned by iProtoXi Oy and it was done to one iProtoXi customer. The aim of the thesis was to make a camera surveillance system which is using a High Quality camera with pan and tilt possibility. It should b...

  3. Empagliflozin as Add-on Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Linagliptin and Metformin: A 24-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial. (United States)

    Søfteland, Eirik; Meier, Juris J; Vangen, Bente; Toorawa, Robert; Maldonado-Lutomirsky, Mario; Broedl, Uli C


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin versus placebo as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control with linagliptin and metformin. Patients with HbA 1c ≥8.0% and ≤10.5% (≥64 and ≤91 mmol/mol) while receiving stable-dose metformin received open-label linagliptin 5 mg (n = 606) for 16 weeks. Subsequently, those with HbA 1c ≥7.0 and ≤10.5% (≥53 and ≤91 mmol/mol) were randomized to receive double-blind, double-dummy treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 112), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 111), or placebo (n = 110) for 24 weeks; all patients continued treatment with metformin and linagliptin 5 mg. The primary end point was the change from baseline in HbA 1c after 24 weeks of double-blind treatment. At week 24, empagliflozin significantly reduced HbA 1c (mean baseline 7.96-7.97% [63-64 mmol/mol]) versus placebo; the adjusted mean differences in the change from baseline with empagliflozin 10 and 25 mg versus placebo were -0.79% (95% CI ‒1.02, ‒0.55) (-8.63 mmol/mol [‒11.20, ‒6.07 mmol/mol]) and -0.70% (95% CI ‒0.93, ‒0.46) (-7.61 mmol/mol [‒10.18, ‒5.05 mmol/mol]), respectively (both P empagliflozin groups versus placebo (P empagliflozin 10 and 25 mg reported adverse events during double-blind treatment (68.2%, 55.4%, and 51.8%, respectively). Empagliflozin treatment for 24 weeks improved glycemic control and weight versus placebo as an add-on to linagliptin 5 mg and metformin and was well tolerated. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. [Inadequate treatment of affective disorders]. (United States)

    Bergsholm, P; Martinsen, E W; Holsten, F; Neckelmann, D; Aarre, T F


    Inadequate treatment of mood (affective) disorders is related to the mind/body dualism, desinformation about methods of treatment, the stigma of psychiatry, low funding of psychiatric research, low educational priority, and slow acquisition of new knowledge of psychiatry. The "respectable minority rule" has often been accepted without regard to the international expertise, and the consequences of undertreatment have not been weighed against the benefits of optimal treatment. The risk of chronicity increases with delayed treatment, and inadequately treated affective disorders are a leading cause of suicide. During the past 20 years the increase in suicide mortality in Norway has been the second largest in the world. Severe mood disorders are often misclassified as schizophrenia or other non-affective psychoses. Atypical mood disorders, notably rapid cycling and bipolar mixed states, are often diagnosed as personality, adjustment, conduct, attention deficit, or anxiety disorders, and even mental retardation. Neuroleptic drugs may suppress the most disturbing features of mood disorders, a fact often misinterpreted as supporting the diagnosis of a schizophrenia-like disorder. Treatment with neuroleptics is not sufficient, however, and serious side effects may often occur. The consequences are too often social break-down and post-depression syndrome.

  5. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff


    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other words......, we put a new tool in the box that computes fast high-quality noise. In addition to being free of artifacts, the noise we present does not rely on tabulated data (everything is computed on the fly) and it is easy to adjust quality vs. quantity for the noise. The noise is based on point rendering (like...... spot noise), but it extends to more than two dimensions. The fact that it is based on point rendering makes art direction of the noise much easier....

  6. Inadequate Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan


    Full Text Available Objective: In oncology practice, nutrition and also metabolic activity are essential to support the nutritional status and prevent malignant cachexia. It is important to evaluate the patients and plan the maneuvers at the start of the therapy. The primary objective of the study is to define the nutritional status of hospitalized patients and the factors affecting it in order to define the most susceptible patients and maneuvers for better nutritional support. Methods: Patients hospitalized in oncology clinic for therapy were evaluated for food intake and nutritional status through structured interviews. The clinical properties, medical therapies, elements of nutritional support were noted and predictors of inadequate nutritional status (INS were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty three patients, between 16-82 years old (median: 52 were evaluated. Nearly half of the patients (185, 43% reported a better appetite at home than in hospital and declared that hospitalization is an important cause of loss of appetite (140/185, 75.6%. Presence of nausea/vomiting (N/V, depression, age less than 65 and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were associated with increased risk of INS in hospitalized cancer patients. On the contrary, steroid medication showed a positive impact on nutritional status of cancer patients. Conclusion: N/V, younger age, presence of depression and NSAIDs medication were associated with INS in hospitalized cancer patients. Clinicians should pay more attention to this group of patients. In addition, unnecessary hospitalizations and medications that may disturb oral intake must be avoided. Corticosteroids are important tools for managing anorexia and INS.

  7. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  8. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100U provides significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms in patients with urinary incontinence regardless of the number of anticholinergic therapies used or reason for inadequate management of overactive bladder. (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Chapple, C; Herschorn, S; Joshi, M; Zhou, J; Nardo, C; Nitti, V W


    A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ≥ 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed. Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups. In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. NCT00910845, NCT00910520. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dulaglutide as add-on therapy to SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (AWARD-10): a 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Ludvik, Bernhard; Frías, Juan P; Tinahones, Francisco J; Wainstein, Julio; Jiang, Honghua; Robertson, Kenneth E; García-Pérez, Luis-Emilio; Woodward, D Bradley; Milicevic, Zvonko


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemic control and reduce bodyweight in patients with type 2 diabetes through different mechanisms. We assessed the safety and efficacy of the addition of the once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide to the ongoing treatment regimen in patients whose diabetes is inadequately controlled with SGLT2 inhibitors, with or without metformin. AWARD-10 was a phase 3b, double-blind, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, 24-week study done at 40 clinical sites in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Mexico, Spain, and the USA. Eligible adult patients (≥18 years) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA 1c concentration ≥7·0% [53 mmol/mol] and ≤9·5% [80 mmol/mol]), a BMI of 45 kg/m 2 or less, and taking stable doses (>3 months) of an SGLT2 inhibitor (with or without metformin) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive web-response system to subcutaneous injections of either dulaglutide 1·5 mg, dulaglutide 0·75 mg, or placebo once per week for 24 weeks. Patients and investigators were masked to dulaglutide and placebo assignment, and those assessing outcomes were masked to study drug assignment. The primary objective was to test for the superiority of dulaglutide (1·5 mg or 0·75 mg) versus placebo for change in HbA 1c concentration from baseline at 24 weeks. All analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, defined as all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with, number NCT02597049. Between Dec 7, 2015, and Feb 3, 2017, 424 patients were randomly assigned to dulaglutide 1·5 mg (n=142), dulaglutide 0·75 mg (n=142), and placebo (n=140). One patient in the dulaglutide 0·75 mg group was excluded from the analysis because they did not receive any dose of the study drug. The reduction in HbA 1c concentration at 24 weeks was larger

  10. Efficacy and safety of the selective co-stimulation modulator abatacept following 2 years of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. (United States)

    Genovese, M C; Schiff, M; Luggen, M; Becker, J-C; Aranda, R; Teng, J; Li, T; Schmidely, N; Le Bars, M; Dougados, M


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of abatacept during 2 years of the ATTAIN (Abatacept Trial in Treatment of Anti-TNF INadequate responders) trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients completing the 6-month, double-blind period were eligible to enter the long-term extension; patients received abatacept approximately 10 mg/kg, plus disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Safety and efficacy (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria responses, DAS28 (C-reactive protein), HAQ-DI, SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index, fatigue VAS) were assessed through 2 years. 317 patients (218 from the abatacept and 99 from the placebo group) entered and 222 (70%) completed 18 months of long-term extension treatment. The incidence and type of adverse events were consistent between the double-blind and cumulative (double-blind plus long-term extension) periods. Rates of serious adverse events were 25.6 and 23.4 per 100 patient-years in the double-blind versus cumulative period. At 6 months and 2 years, using non-responder analyses, ACR responses in abatacept-treated patients were: ACR 20, 59.4% and 56.2%; ACR 50, 23.5% and 33.2%; ACR 70, 11.5% and 16.1%; HAQ-DI responses were 54.4% and 47.9%. At 6 months and 2 years, using post-hoc as-observed analyses, the percentage of patients (95% confidence interval) achieving DAS28 (C-reactive protein) low disease activity score (problems were also maintained throughout the 2 years of abatacept treatment. No unique safety observations were reported during open-label exposure. Improvements in the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, physical function and health-related quality of life observed after 6 months, were maintained throughout the 2 years in this population with difficult-to-treat disease. NCT00124982.

  11. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano


    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  12. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.


    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  13. Radiologists' responses to inadequate referrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke [Oslo University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Hofmann, Bjoern Morten [University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Gjoevik University College, Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Gjoevik (Norway); Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)


    To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)

  14. Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...

  15. Evidence Report: Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina


    The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.

  16. High-quality compressive ghost imaging (United States)

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun


    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  17. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter


    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  18. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.


    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  19. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA


    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  20. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik


    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  1. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette


    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  2. 9 CFR 417.6 - Inadequate HACCP Systems. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadequate HACCP Systems. 417.6... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.6 Inadequate HACCP Systems. A HACCP system may be found to be inadequate if: (a) The HACCP plan in operation does not meet the requirements set forth in...

  3. High-quality binary interactome mapping. (United States)

    Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal


    Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  5. Inadequate control of world's radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of

  6. Inadequate management of pregnancy-associated listeriosis: lessons from four case reports. (United States)

    Charlier, C; Goffinet, F; Azria, E; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M


    Listeria monocytogenes infection during pregnancy can lead to dramatic fetal or neonatal outcomes. No clinical trial has evaluated treatment options, and retrospective studies of cases are therefore important to define optimal regimens. We report four cases of materno-neonatal listeriosis illustrating inadequate antimicrobial therapy management and discuss recommended treatment options. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Inadequate pain relief among patients with primary knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Laires, Pedro A; Laíns, Jorge; Miranda, Luís C; Cernadas, Rui; Rajagopalan, Srini; Taylor, Stephanie D; Silva, José C

    Despite the widespread treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), data on treatment patterns, adequacy of pain relief, and quality of life are limited. The prospective multinational Survey of Osteoarthritis Real World Therapies (SORT) was designed to investigate these aspects. To analyze the characteristics and the patient reported outcomes of the Portuguese dataset of SORT at the start of observation. Patients ≥50 years with primary knee OA who were receiving oral or topical analgesics were eligible. Patients were enrolled from seven healthcare centers in Portugal between January and December 2011. Pain and function were evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and WOMAC. Quality of life was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Inadequate pain relief (IPR) was defined as a score >4/10 on item 5 of the BPI. Overall, 197 patients were analyzed. The median age was 67.0 years and 78.2% were female. Mean duration of knee OA was 6.2 years. IPR was reported by 51.3% of patients. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio - OR 2.15 [95%CI 1.1, 4.5]), diabetes (OR 3.1 [95%CI 1.3, 7.7]) and depression (OR 2.24 [95%CI 1.2, 4.3]) were associated with higher risk of IPR. Patients with IPR reported worst outcomes in all dimensions of WOMAC (p<0.001) and in all eight domains and summary components of SF-12 (p<0.001). Our findings indicate that improvements are needed in the management of pain in knee OA in order to achieve better outcomes in terms of pain relief, function and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults. (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A


    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  9. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.


    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  10. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.


    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  11. Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Michael K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

  12. Generation of High Quality Laser Accelerated Ion Beams


    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Pegoraro, F.; Khoroshkov, V. S.; Mima, K.; Daido, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Nagai, K.; Sakabe, S.


    In order to achieve a high quality, i. e. monoergetic, intense ion beam, we propose the use of a double layer target. The first layer, at the target front, consists of high-Z atoms, while the second (rear) layer is a thin coating of low-Z atoms. The high quality proton beams from the double layer target, irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, are demonstrated with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations.

  13. Role of Sex and the Environment in Moderating Weight Gain Due to Inadequate Sleep. (United States)

    Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A


    The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.

  14. Safety and efficacy of twice-daily exenatide in Taiwanese patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hsiang Lu


    Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of Taiwanese patients was consistent with the overall study results, which showed that exenatide BID is superior to placebo for improving glycemic control in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes who experienced inadequate glycemic control when using oral antidiabetic therapy.

  15. A High-Quality Biobank Supports Breast Cancer Research in Harbin, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; Xia, Bingshu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Jinfeng; Niu, Ming; Xu, Shouping; Bai, Xianan; You, Zilong; Xu, Qiuju; Zhang, Yin; Cleveland, Joseph; Zhang, Dekai; Pang, Da


    We established a standard breast cancer biobank at Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital (HMUCH) in 2009. More than 100,000 biospecimens, including high-quality human breast cancer samples, matched blood samples, and adjacent normal tissues, were collected from patients and healthy donors in HMUCH and were then deposited in the repository. We reported the establishment of a biobank in our hospital and its crucial role in translational medicine research. We stored, processed, and distributed qualified biological specimens in accordance with international standard operating procedures. We also summarized the utilization of this biobank and its influence on research projects over the years since its establishment. Therefore, we can verify specific biomarkers that may aid in the development of targeted breast cancer therapies by using high-quality, well-annotated tissue samples provided by the biobank.

  16. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape ... into their respective receiving water bodies (Tembisa Dam, the Nahoon and Eastern Beach which are part of the Indian Ocean; the Tyume River and the Kat River).

  17. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7950 = Water SA (on-line). 687. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and. Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape Province. MNB Momba1*, AN Osode2 and M Sibewu1.

  18. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter


    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  19. Inadequate Information in Laboratory Test Requisition in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Laboratory investigations are important aspect of patient management and inadequate information or errors arising from the process of filling out laboratory Request Forms can impact significantly on the quality of laboratory result and ultimately on patient care. Objectives: This study examined the pattern of deficiencies ...

  20. Inadequate sleep and muscle strength: Implications for resistance training. (United States)

    Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad


    Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi


    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  2. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA). Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health ...

  3. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal ...

  4. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality Cassava Flour Value Chains in Africa: Challenges for Agricultural Extension Services. ... on smallholders and ensuring that strategies for ensuring benefits for women and other disadvantaged groups are incorporated into extension service operations.

  5. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  6. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta


    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  7. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal growth used in ...

  8. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of high quality alloy Cdx S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. In the present study, we report the synthesis of high quality CdxZn1–xS nanocrystals alloy at. 150°C with changing the composition. The shifting of absorption and emission peak in shorter wave- length is obtained with increasing the mole fraction of zinc. The quantum yield (QY) value decreases with increasing the ...

  9. Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the level of adoption of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) processing technology and its impact on end-users. A random sample of 100 women, mainly bambara processors, was selected from Gushiegu/Karaga, Tolon Kumbungu, Savelugu-Nanton, and Tamale districts of the Northern Region of ...

  10. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction (United States)

    Munter, Charles


    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  11. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalari, G., E-mail:; Maissen, C.; Faist, J. [Institute of Quantum Electronics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland); Cibella, S.; Leoni, R. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)


    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  12. High quality fuel components from C{sub 4} hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Girolamo, M.; Sanfilippo, D. [Snamprogetti S. p. A., S. Donato Milanese (Italy); Patrini, R. [EniTecnologie S. p. A., S. Donato Milanese (Italy); Marchionna, M. [Eni S. p. A., S. Donato Milanese (Italy)


    The paper reports the results achieved in more than a decade of investigations in the Eni Group, regarding conversion of C{sub 4} olefins, either naturally present in the C{sub 4} source or produced deliberately by dehydrogenation of paraffins, to yield oxygenate and hydrocarbon compounds, which can be used as high quality components for cleaner gasoline or diesel fuels. Hydrocarbon gasoline components can be produced both through selective dimerization of isobutene and through alkylation of butenes, while oligomerization of n-butenes provides high quality diesel or jet fuel blend stocks. Oxygenated components for diesel fuels can be obtained by complex schemes, involving either hydroformylation of n-butenes or telomerization of 1,3-butadiene. (orig.)

  13. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  14. Ensuring a High Quality Digital Device through Design for Testability


    Ngene, Christopher Umerah


    An electronic device is reliable if it is available for use most of the times throughout its life. The reliability can be affected by mishandling and use under abnormal operating conditions. High quality product cannot be achieved without proper verification and testing during the product development cycle. If the design is difficult to test, then it is very likely that most of the faults will not be detected before it is shipped to the customer. This paper describes how product quality can b...

  15. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat


    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  16. High-quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to polymers. (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Lee, Woo K; Sheehan, Paul E; Hines, Daniel R; Robinson, Jeremy T; Tosado, Jacob; Fuhrer, Michael S; Hernández, Sandra C; Walton, Scott G


    In this paper we demonstrate high-quality, uniform dry transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil to polystyrene. The dry transfer exploits an azide linker molecule to establish a covalent bond to graphene and to generate greater graphene-polymer adhesion compared to that of the graphene-metal foil. Thus, this transfer approach provides a novel alternative route for graphene transfer, which allows for the metal foils to be reused. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  18. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.


    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  19. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics in patients with adequate versus inadequate response (United States)

    Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael


    Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055

  20. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat


    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  1. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas


    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  2. High-quality MR imaging using flexible transmission line resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, R.; Zabel, H.J.; Lorenz, W.J.


    High-quality MR imaging of partial human body regions can be achieved by using transmission line resonators (TLRs) as surface coils. TLRs with loops of different shapes and sizes are particularly well suited for examinations of the spinal cord, the extremities, the face, and the fairly inaccessible throat. Their high filling factor and loaded Q-value of about 160 greatly improve the quality of the image, compared to images obtained with standard surface coils. The stabilizing effect of the length of the TLR makes tuning between patients unnecessary. Immediate adaptation to the body contours of an individual patient is possible

  3. Internet addiction: reappraisal of an increasingly inadequate concept. (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias


    This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.

  4. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:


    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  5. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  6. Inadequate doses of hemodialysis. Predisposing factors, causes and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehuén Fernández


    Full Text Available Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001 to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292. V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004. The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001 (n = 18. Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2, vascular access recirculation (n = 1, and error in the samples (n = 1. In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon


    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  8. The Effect of Inadequate Initial Empiric Antimicrobial Treatment on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Bloodstream Infections: A Multi-Centre Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D Savage

    Full Text Available Hospital mortality rates are elevated in critically ill patients with bloodstream infections. Given that mortality may be even higher if appropriate treatment is delayed, we sought to determine the effect of inadequate initial empiric treatment on mortality in these patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted across 13 intensive care units in Canada. We defined inadequate initial empiric treatment as not receiving at least one dose of an antimicrobial to which the causative pathogen(s was susceptible within one day of initial blood culture. We evaluated the association between inadequate initial treatment and hospital mortality using a random effects multivariable logistic regression model. Among 1,190 patients (1,097 had bacteremia and 93 had candidemia, 476 (40% died and 266 (22% received inadequate initial treatment. Candidemic patients more often had inadequate initial empiric therapy (64.5% versus 18.8%, as well as longer delays to final culture results (4 vs 3 days and appropriate therapy (2 vs 0 days. After adjustment, there was no detectable association between inadequate initial treatment and mortality among bacteremic patients (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70-1.48; however, candidemic patients receiving inadequate treatment had nearly three times the odds of death (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.05-7.99. Inadequate initial empiric antimicrobial treatment was not associated with increased mortality in bacteremic patients, but was an important risk factor in the subgroup of candidemic patients. Further research is warranted to improve early diagnostic and risk prediction methods in candidemic patients.

  9. Principles for high-quality, high-value testing. (United States)

    Power, Michael; Fell, Greg; Wright, Michael


    A survey of doctors working in two large NHS hospitals identified over 120 laboratory tests, imaging investigations and investigational procedures that they considered not to be overused. A common suggestion in this survey was that more training was required. And, this prompted the development of a list of core principles for high-quality, high-value testing. The list can be used as a framework for training and as a reference source. The core principles are: (1) Base testing practices on the best available evidence. (2) Apply the evidence on test performance with careful judgement. (3) Test efficiently. (4) Consider the value (and affordability) of a test before requesting it. (5) Be aware of the downsides and drivers of overdiagnosis. (6) Confront uncertainties. (7) Be patient-centred in your approach. (8) Consider ethical issues. (9) Be aware of normal cognitive limitations and biases when testing. (10) Follow the 'knowledge journey' when teaching and learning these core principles.

  10. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  11. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.


    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  12. High quality neutron radiography imaging using cooled CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisao


    An electronic imaging technique using cooled charge-coupled-device camera (C-CCD) was applied to neutron radiography. The camera was examined for linearities of signal outputs and its dynamic ranges about the number of photons generated in a converter by an incident neutron beam. It is expected that the camera can be applied to high quality NR imaging especially to tomographic imaging for static objects. When the C-CCD camera is applied to get tomogram on the basis of its excellent characteristics, the results will be discussed about the quality of the image through a dynamic range of CT value which is defined in this paper, and a guide of dimensional limitation which can reasonably reconstruct tomograms. (author)

  13. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Eggersglüß, Stephan


    This book provides an overview of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and introduces novel techniques to complement classical ATPG, based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT).  A fast and highly fault efficient SAT-based ATPG framework is presented which is also able to generate high-quality delay tests such as robust path delay tests, as well as tests with long propagation paths to detect small delay defects. The aim of the techniques and methodologies presented in this book is to improve SAT-based ATPG, in order to make it applicable in industrial practice. Readers will learn to improve the performance and robustness of the overall test generation process, so that the ATPG algorithm reliably will generate test patterns for most targeted faults in acceptable run time to meet the high fault coverage demands of industry. The techniques and improvements presented in this book provide the following advantages: Provides a comprehensive introduction to test generation and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT); Describes a...

  14. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production......The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every...

  15. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    of the inoculated composts neither did inoculation accelerate compost process (Paper II). The main conclusions of the project are (1) increasing the nutrient recycling from agro-industrial waste in Costa Rica by redirection of more waste from other uses into the “fertilizer use” pool is not likely however......Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...

  16. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.


    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  17. Initial treatment of severe malaria in children is inadequate – a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -medicated at home. Initial consultations are at primary local health facilities where less effective drugs are prescribed at inadequate dosages. Recommended ACTs were also often prescribed at inadequate dosages. Education in the use of ...

  18. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)


    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  19. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application? (United States)

    Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus


    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: Risk factors and impact on outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskin Nihal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial antimicrobial therapy (AB is an important determinant of clinical outcome in patients with severe infections as pneumonia, however well-conducted studies regarding prognostic impact of inadequate initial AB in patients who are not undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV are lacking. In this study we aimed to identify the risk factors for inadequate initial AB and to determine its subsequent impact on outcomes in both ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP. Methods We retrospectively studied the accuracy of initial AB in patients with pneumonia in a university hospital in Turkey. A total of 218 patients with HAP and 130 patients with VAP were included. For each patient clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for risk factor analysis. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test. Results Sixty six percent of patients in VAP group and 41.3% of patients in HAP group received inadequate initial AB. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB in HAP patients were; late-onset HAP (OR = 2.35 (95% CI, 1.05-5.22; p = 0.037 and APACHE II score at onset of HAP (OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12; p = 0.018. In VAP patients; antibiotic usage in the previous three months (OR = 3.16 (95% CI, 1.27-7.81; p = 0.013 and admission to a surgical unit (OR = 2.9 (95% CI, 1.17-7.19; p = 0.022 were found to be independent risk factors for inadequate initial AB. No statistically significant difference in crude hospital mortality and 28-day mortality was observed between the treatment groups in both VAP and HAP. However we showed a significant increase in length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged clinical resolution in the inadequate AB group in both VAP and HAP. Conclusion Our data

  1. Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: risk factors and impact on outcomes. (United States)

    Piskin, Nihal; Aydemir, Hande; Oztoprak, Nefise; Akduman, Deniz; Comert, Fusun; Kokturk, Furuzan; Celebi, Guven


    Initial antimicrobial therapy (AB) is an important determinant of clinical outcome in patients with severe infections as pneumonia, however well-conducted studies regarding prognostic impact of inadequate initial AB in patients who are not undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) are lacking. In this study we aimed to identify the risk factors for inadequate initial AB and to determine its subsequent impact on outcomes in both ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). We retrospectively studied the accuracy of initial AB in patients with pneumonia in a university hospital in Turkey. A total of 218 patients with HAP and 130 patients with VAP were included. For each patient clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for risk factor analysis. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test. Sixty six percent of patients in VAP group and 41.3% of patients in HAP group received inadequate initial AB. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB in HAP patients were; late-onset HAP (OR = 2.35 (95% CI, 1.05-5.22; p = 0.037) and APACHE II score at onset of HAP (OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12); p = 0.018). In VAP patients; antibiotic usage in the previous three months (OR = 3.16 (95% CI, 1.27-7.81); p = 0.013) and admission to a surgical unit (OR = 2.9 (95% CI, 1.17-7.19); p = 0.022) were found to be independent risk factors for inadequate initial AB. No statistically significant difference in crude hospital mortality and 28-day mortality was observed between the treatment groups in both VAP and HAP. However we showed a significant increase in length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged clinical resolution in the inadequate AB group in both VAP and HAP. Our data suggests that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB

  2. Mediocrity or Excellence: An Identity Crisis in Gestalt Therapy Training. (United States)

    Yontef, Gary M.

    Gestalt Therapy is in a growth crisis. In practice, there is an abundance of inadequate practitioners and trainers of Gestalt Therapy. In the literature, there is an abundance of introductory works, a paucity of advanced texts, and a misunderstanding and inadequate representation of Gestalt Therapy. Gestalt Therapy training is confused by unclear…

  3. Metabolic regulation during sport events: factual interpretations and inadequate allegations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Remy Poortmans


    Full Text Available Different fuels are available to generate ATP for muscle activities during sport events. Glycogen from striated muscles and liver stores may be converted to lactic acid or almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2, triacylglycerol within the muscle itself and fatty acids from adipose tissue could be converted to CO2 in acting muscles, some free amino acids can be released within the muscle itself and from intestinal stores to sustain the amount of ATP generation indispensable for muscle contraction. All single biochemical reactions, but one, need one or several enzymes to activate the conversion of a substrate into a product. The energy transformation in biochemical reactions is led by application of so-called free energy. Reversible and non-reversible reactions within a metabolic pathway are dependent on specific enzymes near or far from equilibrium. Allosteric enzymes are regulatory enzymes that provide the direction in the pathway. A regulatory enzyme is either activated or inhibited by small regulators (ligands. A reversible substrate cycle between A and B is catalyzed by two enzymes with different fluxes. The need of ATP production for muscle contraction is under the leadership of regulatory enzymes and available substrate stores. The improvement of adapted metabolic reactions under sport training depends on the appropriate increase of regulatory enzymes within the glycolytic and oxidative pathways. The amount of some specific enzymes is increased by training in order to improve the maximum activity of the metabolic pathway. Unfortunately, several publications do not precisely implicate the appropriate enzyme(s to explain or reject the adaptation induced by the training schedule. A few examples will illustrate the factual interpretation and the inadequate allegation.

  4. The association of xerostomia and inadequate intake in older adults. (United States)

    Rhodus, N L; Brown, J


    Recent studies indicate that nearly one in five older adults has xerostomia (dry mouth). Salivary gland dysfunction and/or inadequate saliva increases the difficulty of these older adults in obtaining proper nutrition. Problems in lubricating, masticating, tolerating, tasting, and swallowing food contribute notably to the complex physiological and psychological manifestations of aging. To our knowledge, the literature has not demonstrated an association between xerostomia and malnutrition in the elderly. We randomly selected 67 older adults from institutionalized and free-living geriatric populations. Nutritional intake analysis was performed on both groups of study subjects, who were found to have xerostomia by use of sialometry, and on control subjects matched for age, sex, and physical status. Intake of total energy, protein, dietary fiber, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, calcium, iron, and zinc was compared with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Subjects' intakes were also compared with that of a control group. Medical systemic information and number and types of medications were compared among the groups. Statistical analysis of the data indicated significant (p less than .001) inadequacies in the nutritional intake patterns of institutionalized and free-living older adults with xerostomia. Subjects with xerostomia (more than 75% of the free-living and institutionalized seniors) had significant deficiencies of fiber, potassium, vitamin B-6, iron, calcium, and zinc. Taste and food perception were significantly reduced in the elders with xerostomia. Our study indicates the potential contribution of xerostomia to the high prevalence of geriatric malnutrition in the United States.

  5. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.


    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  6. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam


    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  7. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana


    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  8. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination. (United States)

    Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D


    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isoniazid-induced status epilepticus in a pediatric patient after inadequate pyridoxine therapy. (United States)

    Minns, Alicia B; Ghafouri, Nazli; Clark, Richard F


    Isoniazid (INH) is an effective treatment for tuberculosis and among the most common causes of drug-induced seizures in the United States. Isoniazid intoxication produces a characteristic clinical syndrome including seizures, metabolic acidosis, and, in severe cases, respiratory depression and coma. A 10-month-old male infant was presented after being found with his father's INH. The patient was brought to a local hospital where he had a witnessed generalized seizure and was given 650 mg pyridoxine intravenously, which was based on a 70 mg/kg recommendation. Five hours after the time of ingestion, the patient developed recurrent generalized seizures. He was given diazepam and then loaded with phenobarbital 20 mg/kg, while awaiting more pyridoxine from the pharmacy. He received an additional 2 g pyridoxine for a suspected ingestion of approximately 2.7 g INH (290 mg/kg total dose), and his seizures subsequently resolved. Treatment of INH toxicity must address correction of gamma-aminobutyric acid deficiency with pyridoxine replacement and management of life-threatening events. For poisonings in which the amount of INH ingested is known, pyridoxine is dosed on a gram-for-gram basis. Several reference textbooks recommend pyridoxine dosing in children to be 70 mg/kg. This was the justification for the initial pyridoxine dose administered in our case. However, after review of the referenced literature, the rationale supporting this recommendation remains unclear. Benzodiazepines should also be given with pyridoxine as they have been shown to have a synergistic effect in terminating seizures in animal models. As soon as possible after INH overdose is suspected or diagnosed, pyridoxine should be administered in a dose approximately equal to the estimated amount of INH ingested regardless of the age of the patient.

  10. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio


    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  11. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  12. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan


    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  13. Circulating sclerostin and estradiol levels are associated with inadequate response to bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. (United States)

    Morales-Santana, Sonia; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Olmos, José M; Nogués, Xavier; Sosa, Manuel; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel; Pérez-Castrillón, José L; Pérez-Cano, Ramón; Torrijos, Antonio; Jodar, Esteban; Rio, Luis Del; Caeiro-Rey, José R; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Fontana, Beatriz; González-Macías, Jesús; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel


    The biological mechanisms associated with an inadequate response to treatment with bisphosphonates are not well known. This study investigates the association between circulating levels of sclerostin and estradiol with an inadequate clinical outcome to bisphosphonate therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. This case-control study is based on 120 Spanish women with postmenopausal osteoporosis being treated with oral bisphosphonates. Patients were classified as adequate responders (ARs, n=66, mean age 68.2±8 years) without incident fractures during 5 years of treatment, or inadequate responders (IRs, n=54, mean age 67±9 years), with incident fractures between 1 and 5 years of treatment. Bone mineral density (DXA), structural analysis of the proximal femur and structural/fractal analysis of the distal radius were assessed. Sclerostin concentrations were measured by ELISA and 17β-estradiol levels by radioimmunoassay based on ultrasensitive methods. In the ARs group, sclerostin serum levels were significantly lower (p=0.02) and estradiol concentrations significantly higher (p=0.023) than in the IRs group. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including as independent variables in the original model femoral fracture load, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, previus history of fragility fracture, sclerostin and estradiol. Only previous history of fragility fracture (OR 14.04, 95% CI 2.38-82.79, p=0.004) and sclerostin levels (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, p=0.011), both adjusted by estradiol levels remained associated with IRs. Also, sclerostin concentrations were associated with the index of resistance to compression (IRC) in the fractal analysis of the distal radius, a parameter on bone microstructure. Sclerostin and estradiol levels are associated with the response to bisphosphonate therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning


    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  15. Inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during mechanical ventilation of the newborn. (United States)

    Tarnow-Mordi, W O; Sutton, P; Wilkinson, A R


    Proximal airway humidity was measured during mechanical ventilation in 14 infants using an electronic hygrometer. Values below recommended minimum humidity of adult inspired gas were recorded on 251 of 396 occasions. Inadequate humidification, largely due to inadequate proximal airway temperature, is commoner than recognised in infants receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:3740912

  16. Inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during mechanical ventilation of the newborn.


    Tarnow-Mordi, W O; Sutton, P; Wilkinson, A R


    Proximal airway humidity was measured during mechanical ventilation in 14 infants using an electronic hygrometer. Values below recommended minimum humidity of adult inspired gas were recorded on 251 of 396 occasions. Inadequate humidification, largely due to inadequate proximal airway temperature, is commoner than recognised in infants receiving mechanical ventilation.

  17. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry


    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK ( and US ( The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  18. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva


    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  19. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers (United States)


    ... rule to potentially make permanent the current waiver for high quality grain exported in containers... evolving sector of the grain industry that specializes in high quality grains. GIPSA believes that the high... Classification System Codes (NAICS).\\1\\ The SBA defines small grain exporters in its regulations (13 CFR 121.201...

  20. The significance of inadequate transcranial Doppler studies in children with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Greenwood

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is a common cause of cerebrovascular disease in childhood. Primary stroke prevention is effective using transcranial Doppler (TCD scans to measure intracranial blood velocities, and regular blood transfusions or hydroxycarbamide when these are abnormal. Inadequate TCD scans occur when it is not possible to measure velocities in all the main arteries. We have investigated the prevalence and significance of this in a retrospective audit of 3915 TCD scans in 1191 children, performed between 2008 and 2015. 79% scans were normal, 6.4% conditional, 2.8% abnormal and 12% inadequate. 21.6% of 1191 patients had an inadequate scan at least once. The median age of first inadequate scan was 3.3 years (0.7-19.4, with a U-shaped frequency distribution with age: 28% aged 2-3 years, 3.5% age 10 years, 25% age 16 years. In young children reduced compliance was the main reason for inadequate TCDs, whereas in older children it was due to a poor temporal ultrasound window. The prevalence of inadequate TCD was 8% in the main Vascular Laboratory at King's College Hospital and significantly higher at 16% in the outreach clinics (P<0.0001, probably due to the use of a portable ultrasound machine. Inadequate TCD scans were not associated with underlying cerebrovascular disease.

  1. Predictors of Inadequate Inpatient Colonoscopy Preparation and Its Association with Hospital Length of Stay and Costs. (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Johnston, Elyse R; Gregory, Dyanna L; Ciolino, Jody D; Cooper, Andrew; Keswani, Rajesh N


    Adequate bowel preparation is essential to safe and effective inpatient colonoscopy. Predictors of poor inpatient colonoscopy preparation and the economic impacts of inadequate inpatient preparations are not defined. The aims of this study were to (1) determine risk factors for inadequate inpatient bowel preparations, and (2) examine the association between inadequate inpatient bowel preparation and hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing inpatient colonoscopy preparation over 12 months (1/1/2013-12/31/2013). Of 524 identified patients, 22.3% had an inadequate preparation. A multiple logistic regression model identified the following potential predictors of inadequate bowel preparation: lower income (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04, 1.22), opiate or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use (OR 1.55; 0.98, 2.46), and afternoon colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 1.07, 2.59); as well as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (OR 1.15; 1.05, 1.25) and symptoms of nausea/vomiting (OR 1.14; 1.04, 1.25) when a fair preparation was considered inadequate. Inadequate bowel preparation was associated with significantly increased hospital LOS (model relative mean estimate 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.51) and hospital costs (estimate 1.31; 1.03, 1.67) when compared to adequate preparations. The rate of inadequate inpatient bowel preparations is high and associated with a significant increase in hospital LOS and costs. We identified five potential predictors of inadequate inpatient preparation: lower socioeconomic class, opiate/TCA use, afternoon colonoscopies, ASA class ≥3, and pre-preparation nausea/vomiting; these data should guide future initiatives to improve the quality of inpatient bowel preparations.

  2. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian


    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  3. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  4. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment in patients with type-1 diabetes and persistent inadequate glycaemic control. A randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Tarnow, L.; Astrup, A.S.


    BACKGROUND: Despite intensive insulin treatment, many patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM) have longstanding inadequate glycaemic control. Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent that improves insulin action in patients with type-2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of a one-year treatment...... with metformin versus placebo in patients with T1DM and persistent poor glycaemic control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred patients with T1DM, preserved hypoglycaemic awareness and HaemoglobinA(1c) (HbA(1c)) > or = 8.5% during the year before enrolment entered a one-month run-in on placebo treatment....... Thereafter, patients were randomized (baseline) to treatment with either metformin (1 g twice daily) or placebo for 12 months (double-masked). Patients continued ongoing insulin therapy and their usual outpatient clinical care. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA(1c) after one year of treatment...

  5. Automatic treatment planning facilitates fast generation of high-quality treatment plans for esophageal cancer. (United States)

    Hansen, Christian Rønn; Nielsen, Morten; Bertelsen, Anders Smedegaard; Hazell, Irene; Holtved, Eva; Zukauskaite, Ruta; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Brink, Carsten; Bernchou, Uffe


    The quality of radiotherapy planning has improved substantially in the last decade with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the plan quality and efficacy of automatically (AU) generated VMAT plans for inoperable esophageal cancer patients. Thirty-two consecutive inoperable patients with esophageal cancer originally treated with manually (MA) generated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were retrospectively replanned using an auto-planning engine. All plans were optimized with one full 6MV VMAT arc giving 60 Gy to the primary target and 50 Gy to the elective target. The planning techniques were blinded before clinical evaluation by three specialized oncologists. To supplement the clinical evaluation, the optimization time for the AU plan was recorded along with DVH parameters for all plans. Upon clinical evaluation, the AU plan was preferred for 31/32 patients, and for one patient, there was no difference in the plans. In terms of DVH parameters, similar target coverage was obtained between the two planning methods. The mean dose for the spinal cord increased by 1.8 Gy using AU (p = .002), whereas the mean lung dose decreased by 1.9 Gy (p plans were more modulated as seen by the increase of 12% in mean MUs (p = .001). The median optimization time for AU plans was 117 min. The AU plans were in general preferred and showed a lower mean dose to the lungs. The automation of the planning process generated esophageal cancer treatment plans quickly and with high quality.

  6. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.


    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I


    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even i...

  7. Facet-Mediated Growth of High-Quality Monolayer Graphene on Arbitrarily Rough Copper Surfaces. (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Chan; Jo, Sae Byeok; Lee, Eunho; Yoo, Min Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho; Lee, Seong Kyu; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Cho, Kilwon


    A synthetic approach for high-quality graphene on rough Cu surfaces via chemical vapor deposition is proposed. High-quality graphene is synthesized on rough Cu surfaces by inducing surface faceting of Cu surfaces prior to graphene growth. The electron mobility of synthesized graphene on the rough Cu surfaces is enhanced to 10 335 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High quality monthly upper-air temperature and humidity datasets for Australia


    Jovanovic, Branislava


    High-quality monthly upper-air temperature and humidity datasets of 22 stations have been developed for monitoring and assessing long-term trends in temperature and humidity over Australia. In addition, high quality monthly upper-air temperature and humidity time series have been developed for five Australian remote island sites: the subantarctic Macquarie Island, Lord Howe Island in the Tasman Sea, Norfolk Island in the southwest Pacific Ocean, Willis Island in the Coral Sea and Cocos Island...

  9. The association between inadequate prenatal care and future healthcare use among offspring in the Bedouin population. (United States)

    Estis-Deaton, Asia; Sheiner, Eyal; Wainstock, Tamar; Landau, Daniella; Walfisch, Asnat


    To evaluate the impact of inadequate prenatal care on long-term morbidity among the offspring of an ethnic minority population. A retrospective population-based cohort analysis was performed among all Bedouin women with singleton pregnancies who delivered in a tertiary medical center in Israel between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2014. Morbidity was defined as pediatric hospitalization across six distinct disease categories before 18 years of age. The cumulative morbidity rates were compared for offspring born following pregnancies with either inadequate (prenatal care facility) or adequate prenatal care. Overall, 127 396 neonates were included; 19 173 (15.0%) were born following inadequate prenatal care. Pediatric hospitalizations for all morbidities other than cardiovascular ones were less frequent among the inadequate prenatal care group than the adequate prenatal care group (Pprenatal care group, with the exception of cardiovascular disease. Inadequate prenatal care correlated with reduced pediatric hospitalization rates among offspring, possibly owing to a lack of child healthcare service utilization within the Bedouin population. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Consequences of Inadequate Staffing Include Missed Care, Potential Failure to Rescue, and Job Stress and Dissatisfaction. (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Ruhl, Catherine


    To evaluate responses of registered nurse members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) to a survey that sought their recommendations for staffing guidelines and their perceptions of the consequences of inadequate nurse staffing. The goal was to use these member data to inform the work of the AWHONN nurse staffing research team. Secondary analysis of responses to the 2010 AWHONN nurse staffing survey. Online. AWHONN members (N = 884). Review of data from an online survey of AWHONN members through the use of thematic analysis for descriptions of the consequences of inadequate nurse staffing during the childbirth process. Three main themes emerged as consequences of inadequate staffing or being short-staffed: Missed Care, Potential for Failure to Rescue, and Job-Related Stress and Dissatisfaction. These themes are consistent with those previously identified in the literature related to inadequate nurse staffing. Based on the responses from participants in the 2010 AWHONN nurse staffing survey, consequences of inadequate staffing can be quite serious and may put patients at risk for preventable harm. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful? (United States)

    Hopper, Kate


    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Skull-base Osteomyelitis: a Dreaded Complication after Trivial Fall and Inadequate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Mittal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Skull-based osteomyelitis is bony infection which generally originates from inadequately treated chronic infection, adjoining tissue infection or after trauma.Case: 11 month female child had a trivial fall while standing near a bucket. The child developed fracture of right clavicle and left orbital swelling which was inadequately treated. This resulted in in spread of infection to adjoining tissues, skull bones, sinuses and brain.Conclusion: Cranial base osteomyelitis is rare but dreaded condition which requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid mortality and morbidity in form of neurological deficits and permanent disability

  13. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s 'high-quality protein crystal growth' project is introduced. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the International Space Station, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained

  14. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Sachiko [Confocal Science Inc., Hayakawa 2nd Building 7F, 2-12-2 Iwamoto-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0032 (Japan); Ohta, Kazunori [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Furubayashi, Naoki [Maruwa Foods and Biosciences Inc., 170-1 Tsutsui-cho, Yamatokoriyama, Nara 639-1123 (Japan); Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako [Confocal Science Inc., Hayakawa 2nd Building 7F, 2-12-2 Iwamoto-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0032 (Japan); Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Inaka, Koji [Maruwa Foods and Biosciences Inc., 170-1 Tsutsui-cho, Yamatokoriyama, Nara 639-1123 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroaki, E-mail: [Confocal Science Inc., Hayakawa 2nd Building 7F, 2-12-2 Iwamoto-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0032 (Japan); Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s 'high-quality protein crystal growth' project is introduced. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the International Space Station, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained.

  15. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  16. High Quality RNA Isolation from Leaf, Shell, Root Tissues and Callus of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi


    Full Text Available Extraction of high quality RNA is a critical step in molecular genetics studies. Hazelnut is one of the most important nuts plants in the world. The presence of the taxol and other taxanes in hazelnut plant necessitates explaining their biosynthesis pathway and identifying the candidate genes. Therefore, an easy and practical method is necessary for RNA extraction from hazelnuts. Hazelnut has high levels of phenolic compounds. High amounts of polyphenolic and polysaccharide compounds in plants could be causing problems in RNA extraction procedures.  To avoid these problems, a simple and efficient method can be used based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB extraction buffer and lithium chloride for extraction of high quality RNA from different parts of hazelnut plant. Using this method, a high-quality RNA sample (light absorbed in the A260/A280 was 2.04

  17. A predictive model for high-quality blastocyst based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry. (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-He; Zhang, Ruo-Peng; Li, Juan; A, Zhou-Cun


    The aim of this study was to create a predictive model for high-quality blastocyst progression based on the traditional morphology parameters of embryos. A total of 1564 embryos from 234 women underwent conventional in vitro fertilization and were involved in the present study. High-quality blastocysts were defined as having a grade of at least 3BB, and all embryos were divided based on the development of high-quality blastocysts (group HQ) or the failure to develop high-quality blastocysts (group NHQ). A retrospective analysis of day-3 embryo parameters, focused on blastomere number, fragmentation, the presence of a vacuole, symmetry, and the presence of multinucleated blastomeres was conducted. All parameters were related to high-quality blastocysts (p quality blastocysts. Parameters are indicated by s_bn (blastomere number), s_f (fragmentation), s_pv (presence of a vacuole), s_s (symmetry), and s_MNB (multinucleated blastomeres). Subsequently, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore their relationship. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a predictive model was constructed, and a parameter Hc was created based on the s_bn, s_f, and s_s parameters and their corresponding odds ratios. The value of Hc in group HQ was significantly higher than that in group NHQ. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to test the effectiveness of the model. An area under the curve of 0.790, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.766-0.813, was calculated. A dataset was used to validate the predictive utility of the model. Moreover, another dataset was used to ensure that the model can be applied to predict the implantation of day-3 embryos. A predictive model for high-quality blastocysts was created based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry. This model provides novel information on the selection of potential embryos.

  18. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care. (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M


    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  19. Randomized Trial of Once-Daily Fluticasone Furoate in Children with Inadequately Controlled Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, Amanda J.; Covar, Ronina A.; Goldfrad, Caroline H.


    Objective To evaluate the dose-response, efficacy, and safety of fluticasone furoate (FF; 25 µg, 50 µg, and 100 µg), administered once daily in the evening during a 12-week treatment period to children with inadequately controlled asthma. Study design This was a Phase IIb, multicenter, stratified...

  20. Wearable Devices for Classification of Inadequate Posture at Work Using Neural Networks. (United States)

    Barkallah, Eya; Freulard, Johan; Otis, Martin J-D; Ngomo, Suzy; Ayena, Johannes C; Desrosiers, Christian


    Inadequate postures adopted by an operator at work are among the most important risk factors in Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Although several studies have focused on inadequate posture, there is limited information on its identification in a work context. The aim of this study is to automatically differentiate between adequate and inadequate postures using two wearable devices (helmet and instrumented insole) with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and force sensors. From the force sensors located inside the insole, the center of pressure (COP) is computed since it is considered an important parameter in the analysis of posture. In a first step, a set of 60 features is computed with a direct approach, and later reduced to eight via a hybrid feature selection. A neural network is then employed to classify the current posture of a worker, yielding a recognition rate of 90%. In a second step, an innovative graphic approach is proposed to extract three additional features for the classification. This approach represents the main contribution of this study. Combining both approaches improves the recognition rate to 95%. Our results suggest that neural network could be applied successfully for the classification of adequate and inadequate posture.

  1. The Inadequacy of Academic Environment Contributes to Inadequate Teaching and Learning Phenomena (United States)

    Quasim, Shahla; Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz


    This study aims at the inadequacy of academic environment as an indicator contributing to the inadequate teaching and learning situation in Pakistan. The main focus is to look into the low proficiency of students in the subject of English at secondary school level. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed from the literature concerned and The…

  2. 25 CFR 170.811 - What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds...

  3. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D? (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane M; Silva, Silvia A da; Antunes, Margarida M de C; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Brandt, Katia G

    To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29ng/mL; p=0.041) and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p=0.049) than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.002). Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.972). Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep deprivation in the last trimester of pregnancy and inadequate vitamin D: Is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Gunduz


    Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D and poor sleep quality are prevalent in pregnant women, but low levels of vitamin D are not associated with poor sleep quality. Further studies with larger sample sizes and studies that include preterm deliveries and special sleep disorders should be performed to understand this issue better.

  5. Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn


    I (Waterhouse, 2006) argued that, because multiple intelligences, the Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theories have inadequate empirical support and are not consistent with cognitive neuroscience findings, these theories should not be applied in education. Proponents countered that their theories had sufficient empirical support, were…

  6. Saxagliptin is non-inferior to glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin alone: a 52-week randomised controlled trial


    Gause-Nilsson, Ingrid; Göke, Burkhard; Gallwitz, Baptist; Eriksson, Johan; Hellqvist, Asa


    Abstract Aim: Assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin vs. glipizide, as add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone. Methods and patients: A total of 858 patients (age ?18 years; glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] >6.5?10.0%; on stable metformin doses ?1500mg/day) were randomised 1:1 to saxagliptin 5mg/day or glipizide up-titrated as needed from 5?20mg/day for 52 weeks. The primary objective wa...

  7. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko


    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  8. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion (United States)

    Buysse, Virginia


    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  9. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.


    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  10. The role of young, recently disturbed upland hardwood forest as high quality food patches (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord


    Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...

  11. A safe inexpensive method to isolate high quality plant and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... quality DNA from plant and fungal species. This method uses potassium acetate to remove proteins and polysaccharides in an SDS extraction buffer. Further DNA purification is achieved using a low salt. CTAB treatment. This SDS/CTAB protocol was used to isolate high quality genomic DNA subject to.

  12. 10 Principles for Building a High-Quality System of Assessments (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, 2018


    Many states and districts are working toward developing and implementing high-quality systems that align assessments with each other, and to college and career readiness, and a comprehensive set of higher-order thinking skills. In order to support states, districts, and communities in this, the following 10 principles as guidance and common…

  13. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.


    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  14. Availability and Price of High Quality Day Care and Female Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne

    In this paper I analyse to what degree availability and price of high quality publicly subsidised childcare affects female employment for women living in couples following maternity leave. The results show that unrestricted access to day care has a significantly positive effct on female employment...

  15. Designing High Quality Evaluation Systems for High School Teachers: Challenges and Potential Solutions (United States)

    Tyler, John H.


    A central part of education reform today is the wide-ranging and unprecedented effort to either revamp existing teacher evaluation systems or develop and implement entirely new systems. High-quality teacher evaluation systems are seen as one lever for improving the teacher workforce and hence the outcomes of students, including high school…

  16. Dare to share? How people share high-quality knowledge in online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotundo, Enrico; Blank, M.; Moser, C.; Leopold, H.

    The Internet has fundamentally changed how work gets done in the 21st century. For example, people increasingly spend time on the Internet where they share and develop knowledge in online communities. Yet, little is known about how high-quality knowledge comes about in these communities. This is

  17. A method for high-quality RNA extraction from tall fescue | Zhen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation of high-quality RNA was a precondition in molecular biology research of tall fescue. Two common approaches were adopted for the total RNA extraction by using leaves of tall fescue as the material in this experiment in order to seek the optimized total RNA extraction method of tall fescue, as well as the ...

  18. High quality data: An evaluation of AIM data quality and data quality procedures (United States)

    The goal of every monitoring program is to collect high-quality data which can then be used to provide information to decision makers. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program is one such data set which provides rangeland status, condition, and trend in...

  19. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of high quality alloy Cd Zn S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of high quality CdZn1-S nanocrystals alloy at 150°C with changing the composition. The shifting of absorption and emission peak in shorter wavelength is obtained with increasing the mole fraction of zinc. The quantum yield (QY) value decreases with increasing the Cd mole ...

  20. Publishing in High Quality Journals: Perspectives from Overworked and Unpaid Reviewers (United States)

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.


    Our purpose for this article is to provide suggestions on how to get your high quality research published from the perspectives of reviewers. First, good writing is good thinking, and you are much more likely to succeed when you combine good writing with sound research. We then offer an eight-step method of reviewing that may help the author…

  1. The need for a supply of high quality organic vegetable seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Jalink, H.; Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Michta, A.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Bulk, van den R.W.


    Production of high quality organic vegetable seeds encounters several challenges. Research is performed to support seed companies in producing vigorous and healthy organic vegetable seeds. Examples are provided with respect to research on seed vigour, determining critical control points to avoid

  2. Co-extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from rubber tree ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agarose electrophoresis analysis and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) of isolated nucleic acids indicate that high-quality DNA and RNA were extracted by this method. The general applicability of this method was also evaluated, and the results show that it was suitable for a variety of plants. Key words: Hevea brasiliensis, ...

  3. Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  4. Integrated Pathology Informatics Enables High-Quality Personalized and Precision Medicine: Digital Pathology and Beyond. (United States)

    Volynskaya, Zoya; Chow, Hung; Evans, Andrew; Wolff, Alan; Lagmay-Traya, Cecilia; Asa, Sylvia L


    - The critical role of pathology in diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction demands high-quality subspecialty diagnostics that integrates information from multiple laboratories. - To identify key requirements and to establish a systematic approach to providing high-quality pathology in a health care system that is responsible for services across a large geographic area. - This report focuses on the development of a multisite pathology informatics platform to support high-quality surgical pathology and hematopathology using a sophisticated laboratory information system and whole slide imaging for histology and immunohistochemistry, integrated with ancillary tools, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostics. - These tools enable patients in numerous geographic locations access to a model of subspecialty pathology that allows reporting of every specimen by the right pathologist at the right time. The use of whole slide imaging for multidisciplinary case conferences enables better communication among members of patient care teams. The system encourages data collection using a discrete data synoptic reporting module, has implemented documentation of quality assurance activities, and allows workload measurement, providing examples of additional benefits that can be gained by this electronic approach to pathology. - This approach builds the foundation for accurate big data collection and high-quality personalized and precision medicine.

  5. Skills Labs - High quality e-practicals Water Management with EMERGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; Kurvers, Hub


    Nadolski, R. J., & Kurvers, H. (2009). Skills Labs - High quality e-practicals Water Management with EMERGO. Presentation of the project Skills Labs for members of the Learning Media Programme. May, 28, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  6. Vendors Future: Northern Light--Delivering High-Quality Content to a Large Internet Audience. (United States)

    Wiggins, Richard


    Describes a Web-based information service, Northern Light, which demonstrates a new paradigm for serving large populations of users and delivering high-quality content on topics both general and narrow. Discusses performance of the search engine, search syntax, Northern Light's special collection, and pricing. (AEF)

  7. A Novel Approach to High-Quality Postmortem Tissue Procurement: The GTEx Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carithers, Latarsha J.; Ardlie, Kristin; Barcus, Mary; Branton, Philip A.; Britton, Angela; Buia, Stephen A.; Compton, Carolyn C.; Deluca, David S.; Peter-Demchok, Joanne; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Guan, Ping; Korzeniewski, Greg E.; Lockhart, Nicole C.; Rabiner, Chana A.; Rao, Abhi K.; Robinson, Karna L.; Roche, Nancy V.; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shive, Charles E.; Smith, Anna M.; Sobin, Leslie H.; Undale, Anita H.; Valentino, Kimberly M.; Vaught, Jim; Young, Taylor R.; Moore, Helen M.; Barker, Laura; Basile, Margaret; Battle, Alexis; Boyer, Joy; Bradbury, Debra; Bridge, Jason P.; Brown, Amanda; Burges, Robin; Choi, Christopher; Colantuoni, Deborah; Cox, Nancy; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Derr, Leslie K.; Dinsmore, Michael J.; Erickson, Kenyon; Fleming, Johnelle; Flutre, Timothée; Foster, Barbara A.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Getz, Gad; Gillard, Bryan M.; Guigo, Roderic; Hambright, Kenneth W.; Hariharan, Pushpa; Hasz, Rick; Im, Hae K.; Jewell, Scott; Karasik, Ellen; Kellis, Manolis; Kheradpour, Pouya; Koester, Susan; Koller, Daphne; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Little, Roger; Liu, Jun; Lo, Edmund; Lonsdale, John T.; Lu, Chunrong; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Magazine, Harold; Maller, Julian B.; Marcus, Yvonne; Mash, Deborah C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McLean, Jeffrey; Mestichelli, Bernadette; Miklos, Mark; Monlong, Jean; Mosavel, Magboeba; Moser, Michael T.; Mostafavi, Sara; Nicolae, Dan L.; Pritchard, Jonathan; Qi, Liqun; Ramsey, Kimberly; Rivas, Manuel A.; Robles, Barnaby E.; Rohrer, Daniel C.; Salvatore, Mike; Sammeth, Michael; Seleski, John; Shad, Saboor; Siminoff, Laura A.; Stephens, Matthew; Struewing, Jeff; Sullivan, Timothy; Sullivan, Susan; Syron, John; Tabor, David; Taherian, Mehran; Tejada, Jorge; Temple, Gary F.; Thomas, Jeffrey A.; Thomson, Alexander W.; Tidwell, Denee; Traino, Heather M.; Tu, Zhidong; Valley, Dana R.; Volpi, Simona; Walters, Gary D.; Ward, Lucas D.; Wen, Xiaoquan; Winckler, Wendy; Wu, Shenpei; Zhu, Jun


    The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to study the correlation between human genetic variation and tissue-specific gene expression in non-diseased individuals. A significant challenge was the collection of high-quality biospecimens for

  8. Emblems of Quality in Higher Education. Developing and Sustaining High-Quality Programs. (United States)

    Haworth, Jennifer Grant; Conrad, Clifton F.

    This book proposes an "engagement" theory of program quality to evaluate and improve higher education programs at all degree levels. Based on interviews with 781 participants in a national study of Masters degree programs, it focuses on the interactive roles of students, faculty, and administrators in developing high-quality programs…

  9. Exome sequencing generates high quality data in non-target regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is a cost efficient approach to selectively sequencing coding regions of human genome for detection of disease variants. A significant amount of DNA fragments from the capture process fall outside target regions, and sequence data for positions outside target regions have been mostly ignored after alignment. Result We performed whole exome sequencing on 22 subjects using Agilent SureSelect capture reagent and 6 subjects using Illumina TrueSeq capture reagent. We also downloaded sequencing data for 6 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 study. Using these data, we examined the quality of SNPs detected outside target regions by computing consistency rate with genotypes obtained from SNP chips or the Hapmap database, transition-transversion (Ti/Tv ratio, and percentage of SNPs inside dbSNP. For all three platforms, we obtained high-quality SNPs outside target regions, and some far from target regions. In our Agilent SureSelect data, we obtained 84,049 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 65,231 SNPs inside target regions (a 129% increase. For our Illumina TrueSeq data, we obtained 222,171 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 95,818 SNPs inside target regions (a 232% increase. For the data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we obtained 7,139 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 1,548 SNPs inside target regions (a 461% increase. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a significant amount of high quality genotypes outside target regions can be obtained from exome sequencing data. These data should not be ignored in genetic epidemiology studies.

  10. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings: how to make trade-offs. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William


    To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. Donepezil: A cause of inadequate muscle relaxation and delayed neuromuscular recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available A 74-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type II and Alzheimer′s disease, taking donepezil for 4 months was operated for right modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. During the procedure a higher dose of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant was required than those recommended for her age yet the muscle relaxation was inadequate intra-operatively. Residual neuromuscular blockade persisted postoperatively, due to the cumulative effect of large doses of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, needing post-operative ventilatory assistance. After ruling out other causes of resistance to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, we concluded that acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was primarily responsible for inadequate muscle relaxation and delayed post-operative neuromuscular recovery.



    Petar Babović


    Occupational accidents due to inadequate working conditions and work environment present a major problem in highly industrialised countries, as well as in developing ones. Occupational accidents are a regular and accompanying phenomenon in all human activities and one of the main health related and economic problems in modern societies.The aim of this study is the analysis of the connections of unfavourable working conditions and working environment on occupational accidents. Occurrence of oc...

  13. Global trends in dietary micronutrient supplies and estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty Beal

    Full Text Available Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million, micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion, and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion. We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density. This decline has been particularly strong in East and Southeast Asia and weaker in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where dietary micronutrient density has declined over this 50-year period. At the global level, micronutrients with the lowest levels of adequate estimated intake are calcium, iron, vitamin A, and zinc, but there are strong differences between countries and regions. Fortification has reduced the estimated prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in all low-income regions, except South Asia. The food supply in many countries is still far below energy requirements, which suggests a need to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods. Countries where the food energy supply is adequate show a very large variation in dietary quality, and in many of these countries people would benefit from more diverse diets with a greater proportion of micronutrient-dense foods. Dietary quality can be improved through fortification, biofortification, and agricultural diversification, as well as efforts to improve access to and use of micronutrient-dense foods and nutritional knowledge. Reducing poverty and increasing education, especially of women, are integral to sustainably addressing malnutrition.

  14. Global trends in dietary micronutrient supplies and estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes. (United States)

    Beal, Ty; Massiot, Eric; Arsenault, Joanne E; Smith, Matthew R; Hijmans, Robert J


    Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million), micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion), and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion). We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density. This decline has been particularly strong in East and Southeast Asia and weaker in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where dietary micronutrient density has declined over this 50-year period. At the global level, micronutrients with the lowest levels of adequate estimated intake are calcium, iron, vitamin A, and zinc, but there are strong differences between countries and regions. Fortification has reduced the estimated prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in all low-income regions, except South Asia. The food supply in many countries is still far below energy requirements, which suggests a need to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods. Countries where the food energy supply is adequate show a very large variation in dietary quality, and in many of these countries people would benefit from more diverse diets with a greater proportion of micronutrient-dense foods. Dietary quality can be improved through fortification, biofortification, and agricultural diversification, as well as efforts to improve access to and use of micronutrient-dense foods and nutritional knowledge. Reducing poverty and increasing education, especially of women, are integral to sustainably addressing malnutrition.

  15. Cognitive Dissonance, Confirmatory Bias and Inadequate Information Processing: Evidence from Experimental Auctions


    Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian


    Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...

  16. Growth inhibition in rats fed inadequate and incomplete proteins: repercussion on mandibular biomechanics


    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela Monica; Bozzini, Carlos Eduardo Jose; Alippi, Rosa Maria


    This study describes the effects of feeding growing rats with a diet containing inadequate and incomplete proteins on both the morphological and the biomechanical properties of the mandible. Female rats aged 30 d were fed freely with one of two diets, control (CD, 301 Cal/100g) and experimental (ED, 359 Cal/100g). CD was a standard laboratory diet, while ED was a synthetic diet containing cornflower supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Both diets had the same physical characteristics. Con...

  17. Inadequate vocal hygiene habits associated with the presence of self-reported voice symptoms in telemarketers. (United States)

    Fuentes-López, Eduardo; Fuente, Adrian; Contreras, Karem V


    The aim of this study is to determine possible associations between vocal hygiene habits and self-reported vocal symptoms in telemarketers. A cross-sectional study that included 79 operators from call centres in Chile was carried out. Their vocal hygiene habits and self-reported symptoms were investigated using a validated and reliable questionnaire created for the purposes of this study. Forty-five percent of telemarketers reported having one or more vocal symptoms. Among them, 16.46% reported that their voices tense up when talking and 10.13% needed to clear their throat to make their voices clearer. Five percent mentioned that they always talk without taking a break and 40.51% reported using their voices in noisy environments. The number of working hours per day and inadequate vocal hygiene habits were associated with the presence of self-reported symptoms. Additionally, an interaction between the use of the voice in noisy environments and not taking breaks during the day was observed. Finally, the frequency of inadequate vocal hygiene habits was associated with the number of symptoms reported. Using the voice in noisy environments and talking without taking breaks were both associated with the presence of specific vocal symptoms. This study provides some evidence about the interaction between these two inadequate vocal hygiene habits that potentiates vocal symptoms.

  18. Managing inadequate responses to frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: a case-based review. (United States)

    Bixby, Dale L


    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are the standard of care for treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Compared with interferon-based treatment, the previous standard of care, imatinib is associated with significantly higher cytogenetic response rates and prolonged overall survival. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both newer and more potent TKIs, significantly improve cytogenetic and molecular response rates compared with imatinib. Despite significant advances in CML treatment enabled by the TKIs, a fraction of patients who receive frontline treatment with a TKI demonstrate inadequate response. The reasons for this vary, but in many cases, inadequate response can be attributed to non-adherence to the treatment regimen, intolerance to the drug, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug, or a combination of reasons. More often than not, strategies to improve response necessitate a change in treatment plan, either a dose adjustment or a switch to an alternate drug, particularly in the case of drug intolerance or drug resistance. Improved physician-patient communication and patient education are effective strategies to address issues relating to adherence and intolerance. Because inadequate response to TKI treatment correlates with poor long-term outcomes, it is imperative that patients who experience intolerance or who fail to achieve appropriate responses are carefully evaluated so that appropriate treatment modifications can be made to maximize the likelihood of positive long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Predictors of inadequate initial echocardiography in suspected Kawasaki disease: Criteria for sedation. (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Raymond P; Choi, Jaeun; Choueiter, Nadine F; Munjal, Iona M; Katyal, Chhavi; Stern, Kenan W D


    Kawasaki disease is the primary cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in developed nations. Timely diagnosis of Kawasaki disease incorporates transthoracic echocardiography for visualization of the coronary arteries. Sedation improves this visualization, but not without risks and resource utilization. To identify potential sedation criteria for suspected Kawasaki disease, we analyzed factors associated with diagnostically inadequate initial transthoracic echocardiography performed without sedation. This retrospective review of patients Kawasaki disease from 2009 to 2015 occurred at a medium-sized urban children's hospital. The primary outcome was diagnostically inadequate transthoracic echocardiography without sedation due to poor visualization of the coronary arteries, determined by review of clinical records. The associations of the primary outcome with demographics, Kawasaki disease type, laboratory data, fever, and antipyretic or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment prior to transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed. In total, 112 patients (44% female, median age 2.1 years, median BSA 0.54 m 2 ) underwent initial transthoracic echocardiography for suspected Kawasaki disease, and 99 were not sedated. Transthoracic echocardiography was diagnostically inadequate in 19 out of these 99 patients (19.2%) and was associated with age ≤ 2.0 years, weight ≤ 10.0 kg, and antipyretic use ≤ 6 hours before transthoracic echocardiography (all P Kawasaki disease. These factors should be considered when deciding which patients to sedate for initial Kawasaki disease transthoracic echocardiography. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Factors associated with inadequate work ability among women in the clothing industry. (United States)

    Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini


    Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.

  1. Marine Corps Contract Supply Model for High Quality Male Enlistment Contracts at the Recruiting Sub Station Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welsh, Brian K


    .... This research develops contract production models at the Recruiting Sub Station level to estimate the effects of local economic conditions, demographics, and recruiting resources on new high quality...

  2. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan


    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  3. A Novel Approach to High-Quality Postmortem Tissue Procurement: The GTEx Project. (United States)

    Carithers, Latarsha J; Ardlie, Kristin; Barcus, Mary; Branton, Philip A; Britton, Angela; Buia, Stephen A; Compton, Carolyn C; DeLuca, David S; Peter-Demchok, Joanne; Gelfand, Ellen T; Guan, Ping; Korzeniewski, Greg E; Lockhart, Nicole C; Rabiner, Chana A; Rao, Abhi K; Robinson, Karna L; Roche, Nancy V; Sawyer, Sherilyn J; Segrè, Ayellet V; Shive, Charles E; Smith, Anna M; Sobin, Leslie H; Undale, Anita H; Valentino, Kimberly M; Vaught, Jim; Young, Taylor R; Moore, Helen M


    The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to study the correlation between human genetic variation and tissue-specific gene expression in non-diseased individuals. A significant challenge was the collection of high-quality biospecimens for extensive genomic analyses. Here we describe how a successful infrastructure for biospecimen procurement was developed and implemented by multiple research partners to support the prospective collection, annotation, and distribution of blood, tissues, and cell lines for the GTEx project. Other research projects can follow this model and form beneficial partnerships with rapid autopsy and organ procurement organizations to collect high quality biospecimens and associated clinical data for genomic studies. Biospecimens, clinical and genomic data, and Standard Operating Procedures guiding biospecimen collection for the GTEx project are available to the research community.

  4. Reducing Magnetic Noise of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for High-Quality Magnetic Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sterligov


    Full Text Available The use of light and ultralight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for magnetic data acquisition can be efficient for resolving multiple geological and engineering tasks including geological mapping, ore deposits’ prospecting, and pipelines’ monitoring. The accuracy of the aeromagnetic data acquired using UAV depends mainly on deviation noise of electric devices (engine, servos, etc.. The goal of this research is to develop a nonmagnetic unmanned aerial platform (NUAP for high-quality magnetic surveys. Considering parameters of regional and local magnetic survey, a fixed-wing UAV suits geological tasks better for plain area and copter type for hills and mountains. Analysis of the experimental magnetic anomalies produced by a serial light fixed-wing UAV and subsequent magnetic and aerodynamic modeling demonstrates a capacity of NUAP with internal combustion engine carrying an atomic magnetic sensor mounted on the UAV wings to facilitate a high-quality magnetic survey.

  5. (-201) β-Gallium oxide substrate for high quality GaN materials

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.


    (-201) oriented β-Ga2O3 has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. The key advantages of Ga2O3 are its small lattice mismatches (4.7%), appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties and a competitive price compared to other substrates. Optical characterization show that GaN layers grown on (-201) oriented β-Ga2O3 are dominated by intense bandedge emission with a high luminescence efficiency. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ~108 cm-2, while complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the GaN epilayer is of high quality with slight compressive strain. Room temperature time-findings suggest that the limitation of the photoluminescence lifetime (~500 ps) is due to nonradiative recombination arising from threading dislocation. Therefore, by optimizing the growth conditions, high quality material with significant optical efficiency can be obtained.

  6. Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu


    Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun is expected for formation of a next generation high brilliant X-ray beam and a source for electron and positron collider. And, on a field of material science, as is possible to carry out an experiment under ultra short pulse and extremely high precision in time, it collects large expectation. Recently, formation of high quality beam possible to develop for multi directions and to use by everyone in future has been able to realize. Here were explained on electron beam source, principle and component on RF electron gun, working features on RF gun, features and simulation of RF gun under operation, and some views in near future. (G.K.)

  7. The Barriers to High-Quality Inpatient Pain Management: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Lin, Richard J; Reid, M Carrington; Liu, Lydia L; Chused, Amy E; Evans, Arthur T


    The current literature suggests deficiencies in the quality of acute pain management among general medical inpatients. The aim of this qualitative study is to identify potential barriers to high-quality acute pain management among general medical inpatients at an urban academic medical center during a 2-year period. Data are collected using retrospective chart reviews, survey questionnaires, and semistructured, open-ended interviews of 40 general medical inpatients who have experienced pain during their hospitalization. Our results confirm high prevalence and disabling impacts of pain and significant patient- and provider-related barriers to high-quality acute pain management. We also identify unique system-related barriers such as time delay and pain management culture. Efforts to improve the pain management experience of general medical inpatients will need to address all these barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. High quality atomically thin PtSe2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Wang, Eryin; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guangqi; Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Kenan; Yao, Wei; Lu, Nianpeng; Yang, Shuzhen; Wu, Shilong; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Wu, Yang; Yu, Pu; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun


    Atomically thin PtSe2 films have attracted extensive research interests for potential applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Obtaining high quality thin films with large size and controlled thickness is critical. Here we report the first successful epitaxial growth of high quality PtSe2 films by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomically thin films from 1 ML to 22 ML have been grown and characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Moreover, a systematic thickness dependent study of the electronic structure is revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and helical spin texture is revealed by spin-ARPES. Our work provides new opportunities for growing large size single crystalline films to investigate the physical properties and potential applications of PtSe2.

  9. A green method of diaphragm spring's anti-rusting with high quality and efficiency (United States)

    Huang, Xinming; Hua, Wenlin


    This paper introduces a green method of diaphragm spring's anti-rusting, which is of high quality, high efficiency and low consumption. It transforms the phosphating way of anti-rusting to physical anti-rusting that directly coat anti-rusting oil on the surface of the spring, and transforms the manual-oiling or oil-immersion to fully-automatically ultrasonic oiling. Hence, this method will completely change the way of diaphgragm spring's anti-rusting.

  10. Characteristics of primary care practices associated with high quality of care. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Haggerty, Jeannie; Tousignant, Pierre; Barnsley, Janet; Hogg, William; Geneau, Robert; Hudon, Éveline; Duplain, Réjean; Denis, Jean-Louis; Bonin, Lucie; Del Grande, Claudio; Dragieva, Natalyia


    No primary practice care model has been shown to be superior in achieving high-quality primary care. We aimed to identify the organizational characteristics of primary care practices that provide high-quality primary care. We performed a cross-sectional observational study involving a stratified random sample of 37 primary care practices from 3 regions of Quebec. We recruited 1457 patients who had 1 of 2 chronic care conditions or 1 of 6 episodic care conditions. The main outcome was the overall technical quality score. We measured organizational characteristics by use of a validated questionnaire and the Team Climate Inventory. Statistical analyses were based on multilevel regression modelling. The following characteristics were strongly associated with overall technical quality of care score: physician remuneration method (27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0-35.0), extent of sharing of administrative resources (7.6; 95% CI 0.8-14.4), presence of allied health professionals (15.3; 95% CI 5.4-25.2) and/or specialist physicians (19.6; 95% CI 8.3-30.9), the presence of mechanisms for maintaining or evaluating competence (7.7; 95% CI 3.0-12.4) and average organizational access to the practice (4.9; 95% CI 2.6-7.2). The number of physicians (1.2; 95% CI 0.6-1.8) and the average Team Climate Inventory score (1.3; 95% CI 0.1-2.5) were modestly associated with high-quality care. We identified a common set of organizational characteristics associated with high-quality primary care. Many of these characteristics are amenable to change through practice-level organizational changes.

  11. Project outline of high quality electron beam generation at Waseda University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Hama, Y.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kuroda, R.; Kobuki, T.; Hirose, T.


    High quality electron beam generation project has been started at Waseda University under the grant of Ministry of Education, named High-Tech Research Center Project. In the project, we will install a laser photo-cathode RF Gun system with 1.6 accelerating structure cells of s-band and a stabilized RF power source. This RF Gun is expected to produce single electron bunch up to 1 or 2nC with around 10ps pulse duration. (author)

  12. High-quality AlN films grown on chemical vapor-deposited graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin-Hao


    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene. The graphene films were synthesized by CVD and then transferred onto silicon substrates. Epitaxial aluminum nitride films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on both graphene as an intermediate layer and silicon as a substrate. The structural characteristics of the AlN films and graphene were investigated. Highly c-axis-oriented AlN crystal structures are investigated based on the XRDpatterns observations.

  13. Improving Data Management for Better Itemization Process : Towards the High Quality Data in Product Data Management


    Korpiniemi, Antti


    This Thesis focuses on improving data management for better itemization processes in the case company. Focus of the research is to identify and solve the root causes behind the problem why confirmed information in the product data management is not systematically received. This problem affects the processes where items are created and maintained and where there is a critical need for complete and high quality information. The objective of this Thesis is thus to create an approach to impr...

  14. Preparation of high-quality poly-Si films by a solid phase crystallizing method

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Ruo He


    A solid phase crystallizing method has been developed to grow a Si crystal at temperatures as low as 550 degree C. Using this method, a high-quality thin-film polycrystalline silicon (Poly-Si) was obtained. The largest grain size, examined with X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy images of recrystallized samples, is approximately 1 mu m for substrate temperature at 300 degree C and annealed at 550 degree C for 3 hours

  15. Development of high quality plastic fuel shells for laser fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimatsu, T.; Nagai, K.; Yamanaka, T.


    An overview of the emulsion process to make fuel capsules for a laser fusion power plant is presented, emphasizing the fact that high quality shells, of which sphericity is close to the extrapolated NIF standard, were successfully fabricated. A simulation model for the centering process, by which uniformly thick shells were formed, was compared with the experiment, and showed good agreement. It was indicated that the water core approaches the center by repeated instantaneous deformations. (author)

  16. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part III. High-quality forced-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.


    This is the final part of a review of burnout during boiling heat transfer. The status of burnout in high-quality forced-convection systems is reviewed, and recent developments are summarized in detail. A general guide to the considerable literature is given. Parametric effects and correlations for water in circular and noncircular ducts are presented. Other topics discussed include transients, steam-generator applications, correlations for other fluids, fouling, and augmentation

  17. Development of new international services - Provision of high quality, reliable services to customers (United States)

    Guillot, Francois; Coppey, Marguerite; Javerzac, Annie

    The main goals of France Telecom International are the continued development of new services, and the provision of high quality, reliable services to customer. Through the answers brought to a representative customer (SITA), this conference will express the viewpoint of the France Telecom Group. The experience of France is intended to help show what Europe can do to keep up with worldwide advances in telecommunications.

  18. RNA isolation from loquat and other recalcitrant woody plants with high quality and yield


    Morante Carriel, Jaime; Sellés Marchart, Susana; Martínez Márquez, Ascensión; Martínez Esteso, María José; Luque Romero, Ignacio; Bru, Roque


    RNA isolation is difficult in plants that contain large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds. To date, no commercial kit has been developed for the isolation of high-quality RNA from tissues with these characteristics, especially for fruit. The common protocols for RNA isolation are tedious and usually result in poor yields when applied to recalcitrant plant tissues. Here an efficient RNA isolation protocol based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and two successive preci...

  19. High-quality reduced graphene oxide by a dual-function chemical reduction and healing process. (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, Saemi; Park, Younghun; Lee, Hyoyoung


    A new chemical dual-functional reducing agent, thiophene, was used to produce high-quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a result of a chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the healing of rGO. Thiophene reduced GO by donation of electrons with acceptance of oxygen while it was converted into an intermediate oxidised polymerised thiophene that was eventually transformed into polyhydrocarbon by loss of sulphur atoms. Surprisingly, the polyhydrocarbon template helped to produce good-quality rGOC (chemically reduced) and high-quality rGOCT after thermal treatment. The resulting rGOCT nanosheets did not contain any nitrogen or sulphur impurities, were highly deoxygenated and showed a healing effect. Thus the electrical properties of the as-prepared rGOCT were superior to those of conventional hydrazine-produced rGO that require harsh reaction conditions. Our novel dual reduction and healing method with thiophene could potentially save energy and facilitate the commercial mass production of high-quality graphene.

  20. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research. (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey


    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  1. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes (United States)

    Haddock, Luis J.; Kim, David Y.


    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine. PMID:24171108

  2. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Haddock


    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  3. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes. (United States)

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo


    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  4. Postgraduate students' perceptions of high-quality precepting in critical care nursing. (United States)

    Nyhagen, Ragnhild; Strøm, Anita


    Education of critical care nurses in Norway consists of equal parts clinical practice and theoretical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate postgraduate students' perceptions of the one-on-one, bedside precepting they received during their critical care education. Two focus group interviews with students at a Norwegian university college were conducted, and a thematic cross-case analysis was done. The interviewees characterized high-quality precepting as precepting where proper precepting strategies are applied, right priorities in precepting are made, the preceptor possesses desirable qualities, and there is a good preceptor-student relationship. High-quality precepting of postgraduate critical care nursing students should reflect the complexity of the profession, emphasizing both practical and theoretical knowledge. Strategies resembling both the master-apprentice model and the reflective counselling model should be applied. Postgraduate students' characterizations of high-quality precepting should be taken into consideration when preparing critical care nurses to undertake precepting within clinical education. Attention should be paid to the difference between undergraduate students and postgraduate students educating for a speciality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rainwater harvesting systems for a high quality, supplementary water supply in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Nichols


    Full Text Available Although Nepal is rich in water resources, in 2011 it was estimated that water supply coverage across Nepal is only 80.4 % of which only 17.9 % of water supply systems are considered to be functioning well. Nepal Water for Health (NEWAH is a Nepali non-government organisation that has implemented several rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS in the rural hilly regions of Nepal. Hydrological modelling and analysis of NEWAH’s RWHS allowed for the development of a strategy to improve the effectiveness of the systems. RWHS will always be limited in Nepal due to monsoonal rainfall patterns however this high quality water supply should be prioritised for cooking and drinking. Increasing catchment areas to at least 30 m² instead of increasing tank volumes can efficiently increase the water supply. A literature review on the quality of harvested rainwater was completed, and recommendations were made for maintaining the high quality of water throughout collection, conveyance, storage and use. Monitoring and evaluation of installed systems is necessary and recommendations need to be further investigated and considered in Nepal where the social and cultural context can be fully understood. Appropriate use of this technology can provide a high quality supplementary water supply that can directly improve the health of consumers and provide those living in the hilly regions of Nepal with the foundations for further development.

  6. Inadequate emergence after anesthesia: emergence delirium and hypoactive emergence in the Postanesthesia Care Unit. (United States)

    Xará, Daniela; Silva, Acácio; Mendonça, Júlia; Abelha, Fernando


    To evaluate the frequency, determinants, and outcome of inadequate emergence after elective surgery in the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Prospective observational study. 12-bed PACU of a tertiary-care hospital in a major metropolitan area. 266 adult patients admitted to the PACU. To evaluate inadequate emergence, the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) was administered to patients 10 minutes after their admission to the PACU. Demographic data, perioperative variables, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) in the PACU and the hospital were recorded. 40 (15%) patients showed symptoms of inadequate emergence: 17 patients (6.4%) screened positive for emergence delirium and 23 patients (8.6%) showed hypoactive emergence. Determinants of emergence delirium were longer duration of preoperative fasting (P = 0.001), higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (P = 0.002), and major surgical risk (P = 0.001); these patients had a higher frequency of postoperative delirium (P = 0.017) and had higher nausea VAS score 6 hours after surgery (P = 0.001). Determinants of hypoactive emergence were duration of surgery (P = 0.003), amount of crystalloids administered during surgery (P = 0.002), residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001), high-risk surgery (P = 0.002), and lower core temperature on PACU admission (P = 0.028); these patients also had more frequent residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001) postoperative delirium (P < 0.001), and more frequent adverse respiratory events (P = 0.02). Patients with hypoactive emergence had longer PACU and hospital LOS. Preventable determinants for emergence delirium were higher postoperative pain scores and longer fasting times. Hypoactive emergence was associated with longer postoperative PACU and hospital LOSs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for and consequences of inadequate surgical margins in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Mads; Homøe, Preben


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine which factors are associated with inadequate surgical margins and to assess the postoperative consequences. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 110 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery during a 2-year period...... was examined. Clinical, histopathologic, and operative variables were related to the surgical margin status. Furthermore postoperative treatment data were compared with margin status. RESULTS: Univariate statistically significant associations were found between the tumor site in the floor of mouth, more...

  8. The role of abutment-attachment selection in resolving inadequate interarch distance: a clinical report. (United States)

    Alsiyabi, Abdullah S; Felton, David A; Cooper, Lyndon F


    A critical factor that needs to be evaluated during the diagnosis and treatment planning phase for patients seeking an implant-tissue-supported overdenture or metal-resin implant fixed denture is the presence of adequate interarch distance. The amount of interarch distance is critical to the selection of appropriate implant abutments and attachments for both implant-tissue-supported overdentures and metal-resin implant fixed complete dentures. This clinical report describes a patient with complications related to the failure to diagnose inadequate interarch distance, and the methods used to resolve the patient's chief complaint. A guide for abutment-attachment selection using one commercially available implant system is given.

  9. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.


    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  10. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China... (United States)


    ...)] Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper'') from... paper industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise from China and...

  11. 76 FR 16754 - Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION... and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools grant competition. The Assistant Deputy Secretary may...

  12. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment in patients with type-1 diabetes and persistent inadequate glycaemic control. A randomized study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Søgaard Lund

    Full Text Available Despite intensive insulin treatment, many patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM have longstanding inadequate glycaemic control. Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent that improves insulin action in patients with type-2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of a one-year treatment with metformin versus placebo in patients with T1DM and persistent poor glycaemic control.One hundred patients with T1DM, preserved hypoglycaemic awareness and HaemoglobinA(1c (HbA(1c > or = 8.5% during the year before enrolment entered a one-month run-in on placebo treatment. Thereafter, patients were randomized (baseline to treatment with either metformin (1 g twice daily or placebo for 12 months (double-masked. Patients continued ongoing insulin therapy and their usual outpatient clinical care. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA(1c after one year of treatment. At enrolment, mean (standard deviation HbA(1c was 9.48% (0.99 for the metformin group (n = 49 and 9.60% (0.86 for the placebo group (n = 51. Mean (95% confidence interval baseline-adjusted differences after 12 months with metformin (n = 48 versus placebo (n = 50 were: HbA(1c, 0.13% (-0.19; 0.44, p = 0.422; Total daily insulin dose, -5.7 U/day (-8.6; -2.9, p<0.001; body weight, -1.74 kg (-3.32; -0.17, p = 0.030. Minor and overall major hypoglycaemia was not significantly different between treatments. Treatments were well tolerated.In patients with poorly controlled T1DM, adjunct metformin therapy did not provide any improvement of glycaemic control after one year. Nevertheless, adjunct metformin treatment was associated with sustained reductions of insulin dose and body weight. Further investigations into the potential cardiovascular-protective effects of metformin therapy in patients with T1DM are NCT00118937.

  13. Approach to the patients with inadequate response to colchicine in familial Mediterranean fever. (United States)

    Gül, Ahmet


    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common form of monogenic autoinflammatory conditions, and response to colchicine has been considered as one of its distinctive features among other hereditary periodic fever disorders. Prophylactic colchicine has been shown to be effective in the prevention of inflammatory attacks and development of amyloidosis. However, the highest tolerable doses of colchicine may not be adequate enough to manage these goals in approximately 5% of FMF patients. Inadequate response to colchicine in fully compliant FMF patients may be associated with genetic and/or environmental factors affecting disease severity and colchicine bioavailability. Clarification of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of FMF has revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) cytokine is the most likely target to attack, and several case reports and case series have already documented the efficacy and safety of available anti-IL-1 agents, such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab in those patients inadequately responding to colchicine. Characterization and early identification of those FMF patients with uncontrolled inflammatory activity have become more important after the availability of new treatment options for the prevention of disease-associated complications and permanent damages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inadequate Sleep and Exercise Associated with Burnout and Depression Among Medical Students. (United States)

    Wolf, Megan R; Rosenstock, Jason B


    The authors studied whether low levels of exercise or inadequate sleep correlated with higher levels of burnout and depression in medical students. Medical students of all years at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in Fall 2012 and Winter 2013. Validated measures were used to assess exercise, sleep, burnout, and depression. Response rates were 28.7 % at the beginning of the school year and 22.6 % at the middle of the school year. Burnout rates overall were 22.4 % at the beginning of the year and 19.2 % in the middle of the year. Eight percent of students screened positive for depression at the beginning of the year and 9.3 % in the middle of the year. Decreased exercise frequency was significantly correlated with lower professional efficacy. Pathological sleepiness was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of burnout. Inadequate sleep correlated with significantly lower professional efficacy and higher exhaustion scores. Burnout was associated with a positive depression screen. Positive depression screening, pathological sleepiness, and sleeping less than 7 h a night were independent predictors of burnout. Sleep habits, exercise, and a positive depression screen were associated with burnout risk within the medical student population.

  15. Inadequate ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis prevention in public hospitals in Central Thailand. (United States)

    Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W


    Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.

  16. Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria. (United States)

    Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi


    Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.

  17. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuker; Carlton, Victoria E.H.; Karlin-Neumann, George; Sapolsky, Ronald; Zhang, Li; Moorhead, Martin; Wang, Zhigang C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Warren, Robert; Walther, Axel; Bondy, Melissa; Sahin, Aysegul; Krahe, Ralf; Tuna, Musaffe; Thompson, Patricia A.; Spellman, Paul T.; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Faham, Malek


    A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN) studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE). DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small ({approx}40 bp) target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%), with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  18. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondy Melissa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE. DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small (~40 bp target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Results Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%, with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. Conclusion MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  19. Fast Synthesis of High Quality Biodiesel from ‘Waste Fish Oil’ by Single Step Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Sharma


    Full Text Available A large volume of fish wastes is produced on a daily basis in the Indian sub-continent. This abundant waste source could serve as an economic feedstock for bioenergy generation. In the present study, oil extracted from discarded fish parts was used for high quality biodiesel production. More specifically, a single step transesterification of ‘waste fishoil’ with methanol using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa as homogeneous catalyst under moderate operational conditions resulted in highly pure biodiesel of > 98% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content. Characterization was performed by Fourier Transform-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-NMR.

  20. Fabrication of high-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions on thin SiN membranes (United States)

    Garcia, Edouard; Jacobson, Brian R.; Hu, Qing


    We have successfully fabricated high-quality and high-current density superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions on freestanding thin silicon nitride (SIN) membranes. These devices can be used in a novel millimeter-wave and THz receiver system which is made using micromachining. The SIS junctions with planar antennas were fabricated first on a silicon wafer covered with a SiN membrane, the Si wafer underneath was then etched away using an anisotropic KOH etchant. The current-voltage characteristics of the SIS junctions remained unchanged after the whole process, and the junctions and the membrane survived thermal cycling.

  1. Production of high-quality marketing applications: strategies for biotechnology companies working with contract research organizations. (United States)

    Hecker, Sandra J; Preston, Christopher; Foote, MaryAnn


    Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies use clinical research organizations (CROs) to assist in the writing and preparation of clinical documents intended for submission to health authorities. Start-up companies often require the expertise of a CRO to prepare their first regulatory documents. Larger or more experienced companies often require CRO staff to assist at times of multiple simultaneous submissions. The timely production of high-quality new drug marketing applications requires close collaborations between the drug company and the CRO. The views of both CRO and industry in ensuring best practices are discussed.

  2. Joining forces: collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management. (United States)

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip


    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives.

  3. ATR-FTIR as a potential tool for controlling high quality vinegar categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos-Reina, Rocío; Callejón, Raquel M.; Oliver-Pozo, Celia


    Characterization of wine vinegars qualified with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) is crucial to certify their quality and authenticity. Spectroscopic techniques as Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) has been applied to investigate its...... potential as a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive tool for characterizing different categories of high-quality vinegars. Spectra from 67 wine vinegars belonging to the PDOs “Vinagre de Jerez” and “Vinagre Condado de Huelva”, including their different established categories, were analyzed in the 4000...

  4. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng


    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  5. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management (United States)

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J


    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  6. High quality ion channels recordings on an injection molded polymer chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone

    In this thesis we demonstrate high quality recordings of the ion channel activity across the cell membrane in a biological cell by employing the so called patch clamping technique on an injection molded polymer microfluidic device. Such recordings are traditionally made using glass micropipettes...... the cheapest materials and production platform to date, and with the potential for very high throughput. The employment of cornered apertures for cell capture allowed the fabrication of devices without through holes via a process comprising master origination by dry etching in a silicon substrate...

  7. Low-cost high-quality crystalline germanium based flexible devices

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.


    High performance flexible electronics promise innovative future technology for various interactive applications for the pursuit of low-cost, light-weight, and multi-functional devices. Thus, here we show a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication of flexible metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with high-κ/metal gate stack, using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) cost-effective technique to obtain a high-quality Ge channel. We report outstanding bending radius ~1.25 mm and semi-transparency of 30%.

  8. Facilitating the openEHR approach - organizational structures for defining high-quality archetypes. (United States)

    Kohl, Christian Dominik; Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra


    Using openEHR archetypes to establish an electronic patient record promises rapid development and system interoperability by using or adopting existing archetypes. However, internationally accepted, high quality archetypes which enable a comprehensive semantic interoperability require adequate development and maintenance processes. Therefore, structures have to be created involving different health professions. In the following we present a model which facilitates and governs distributed but cooperative development and adoption of archetypes by different professionals including peer reviews. Our model consists of a hierarchical structure of professional committees and descriptions of the archetype development process considering these different committees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viara Slavianska


    Full Text Available The present paper consecutively puts an accent on 1 the quality of higher education as a national priority, 2 the qualification and motivation of the academic staff as factors for offering an educational product of high quality, 3 the strategies, policies and practices for motivating the academic personnel. The necessity of education improvement is adduced, the strategies and politics in the field of academic personnel training are presented, and the possible effects from a wrong approach to employees’ motivation in academic environment are commented.

  10. Comparison of three different kits for extraction of high-quality RNA from frozen blood


    Kim, Jin-Hee; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung


    Extraction of high-quality RNA is a crucial step in gene expression profiling. To achieve optimal RNA extraction from frozen blood, the performance of three RNA extraction kits- TRI reagent, PAXgene blood RNA system (PAXgene) and NucleoSpin RNA blood kit (NucleoSpin)- was evaluated. Fifteen blood specimens collected in tubes containing potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and stored at −80°C for approximately 5 years were randomly selected. The yield and purity of RNA, RIN (RNA in...

  11. High Quality Model Predictive Control for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil


    Single phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect the photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the presented control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but are more complex to implement. Recently, the model-predictive control...... is low, the inverter output current has a high total harmonic distortions. In order to reduce the total harmonic distortions of the injected current, this paper presents a high-quality model-predictive control for one of the newest structure of the grid connected photovoltaic inverter, i.e., HERIC...

  12. Fabrication of high-quality Josephson junctions for applications as particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R.; Frunzio, L.; Pagano, S.; Spina, G.


    The use of Josephson junctions as particle detectors requires, besides high quality of the tunnel characteristics, special geometrical configurations, and fabrication processes. A new fabrication process for Josephson junctions is presented. 'Island' geometry junctions with rhomboid shape (in order to minimize the magnetic field necessary to suppress the critical current) have been fabricated with a special Si O 'bridge' that minimized the overlap area between the insulating layer and the junction. The measured junctions exhibit high levels of tunneling quality (V m = 91 mV at T = 4.2 K)

  13. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P., E-mail:; Ramasamy, P. [Center for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110 (India)


    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  14. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of quilizumab in adults with inadequately controlled allergic asthma. (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey M; Maciuca, Romeo; Bradley, Mary S; Cabanski, Christopher R; Scheerens, Heleen; Lim, Jeremy; Cai, Fang; Kishnani, Mona; Liao, X Charlene; Samineni, Divya; Zhu, Rui; Cochran, Colette; Soong, Weily; Diaz, Joseph D; Perin, Patrick; Tsukayama, Miguel; Dimov, Dimo; Agache, Ioana; Kelsen, Steven G


    Quilizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, targets the M1-prime segment of membrane-expressed IgE, leading to depletion of IgE-switched and memory B cells. In patients with mild asthma, quilizumab reduced serum IgE and attenuated the early and late asthmatic reaction following whole lung allergen challenge. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of quilizumab in adults with allergic asthma, inadequately controlled despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and a second controller. Five hundred seventy-eight patients were randomized to monthly or quarterly dosing regimens of subcutaneous quilizumab or placebo for 36 weeks, with a 48-week safety follow-up. Quilizumab was evaluated for effects on the rate of asthma exacerbations, lung function, patient symptoms, serum IgE, and pharmacokinetics. Exploratory analyses were conducted on biomarker subgroups (periostin, blood eosinophils, serum IgE, and exhaled nitric oxide). Quilizumab was well tolerated and reduced serum total and allergen-specific IgE by 30-40 %, but had no impact on asthma exacerbations, lung function, or patient-reported symptom measures. At Week 36, the 300 mg monthly quilizumab group showed a 19.6 % reduction (p = 0.38) in the asthma exacerbation rate relative to placebo, but this was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Biomarker subgroups did not reveal meaningful efficacy benefits following quilizumab treatment. Quilizumab had an acceptable safety profile and reduced serum IgE. However, targeting the IgE pathway via depletion of IgE-switched and memory B cells was not sufficient for a clinically meaningful benefit for adults with allergic asthma uncontrolled by standard therapy. NCT01582503.

  15. Defining localities of inadequate treatment for childhood asthma: A GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliskin Joseph S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS has great potential for the management of chronic disease and the analysis of clinical and administrative health care data. Asthma is a chronic disease associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care use. Epidemiologic data from all over the world show an increasing prevalence of asthma morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective treatment. These facts led to the emergence of strategies developed to improve the quality of asthma care. The objective To develop an efficient tool for quality assurance and chronic disease management using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Geographic location The southern region of Israel. January 1998 – October 2000. Databases Administrative claims data of the largest HMO in Israel: drug dispensing registry, demographic data, Emergency Room visits, and hospitalization data bases. Methods We created a list of six markers for inadequate pharmaceutical treatment of childhood asthma from the Israeli clinical guidelines. We used this list to search the drug dispensing registry to identify asthmatic children who received inadequate treatment and to assess their health care utilization and bad outcomes: emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Using GIS we created thematic maps on which we located the clinics with a high percentage of children for whom the treatment provided was not in adherence with the clinical guidelines. Results 81% of the children were found to have at least one marker for inadequate treatment; 17.5% were found to have more than one marker. Children with markers were found to have statistically significant higher rates of Emergency Room visits, hospitalizations and longer length of stay in hospital compared with children without markers. The maps show in a robust way which clinics provided treatment not in accord with the clinical guidelines. Those clinics have high rates of Emergency Room

  16. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea. (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young


    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed

  17. Avoidable waste of research related to inadequate methods in clinical trials. (United States)

    Yordanov, Youri; Dechartres, Agnes; Porcher, Raphaël; Boutron, Isabelle; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe


    To assess the waste of research related to inadequate methods in trials included in Cochrane reviews and to examine to what extent this waste could be avoided. A secondary objective was to perform a simulation study to re-estimate this avoidable waste if all trials were adequately reported. Methodological review and simulation study. Trials included in the meta-analysis of the primary outcome of Cochrane reviews published between April 2012 and March 2013. We collected the risk of bias assessment made by the review authors for each trial. For a random sample of 200 trials with at least one domain at high risk of bias, we re-assessed risk of bias and identified all related methodological problems. For each problem, possible adjustments were proposed that were then validated by an expert panel also evaluating their feasibility (easy or not) and cost. Avoidable waste was defined as trials with at least one domain at high risk of bias for which easy adjustments with no or minor cost could change all domains to low risk. In the simulation study, after extrapolating our re-assessment of risk of bias to all trials, we considered each domain rated as unclear risk of bias as missing data and used multiple imputations to determine whether they were at high or low risk. Of 1286 trials from 205 meta-analyses, 556 (43%) had at least one domain at high risk of bias. Among the sample of 200 of these trials, 142 were confirmed as high risk; in these, we identified 25 types of methodological problem. Adjustments were possible in 136 trials (96%). Easy adjustments with no or minor cost could be applied in 71 trials (50%), resulting in 17 trials (12%) changing to low risk for all domains. So the avoidable waste represented 12% (95% CI 7% to 18%) of trials with at least one domain at high risk. After correcting for incomplete reporting, avoidable waste due to inadequate methods was estimated at 42% (95% CI 36% to 49%). An important burden of wasted research is related to inadequate

  18. Identify High-Quality Protein Structural Models by Enhanced K-Means (United States)

    Li, Haiou; Chen, Cheng; Lv, Qiang; Wu, Chuang


    Background. One critical issue in protein three-dimensional structure prediction using either ab initio or comparative modeling involves identification of high-quality protein structural models from generated decoys. Currently, clustering algorithms are widely used to identify near-native models; however, their performance is dependent upon different conformational decoys, and, for some algorithms, the accuracy declines when the decoy population increases. Results. Here, we proposed two enhanced K-means clustering algorithms capable of robustly identifying high-quality protein structural models. The first one employs the clustering algorithm SPICKER to determine the initial centroids for basic K-means clustering (SK-means), whereas the other employs squared distance to optimize the initial centroids (K-means++). Our results showed that SK-means and K-means++ were more robust as compared with SPICKER alone, detecting 33 (59%) and 42 (75%) of 56 targets, respectively, with template modeling scores better than or equal to those of SPICKER. Conclusions. We observed that the classic K-means algorithm showed a similar performance to that of SPICKER, which is a widely used algorithm for protein-structure identification. Both SK-means and K-means++ demonstrated substantial improvements relative to results from SPICKER and classical K-means. PMID:28421198

  19. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils (United States)

    Azpeitia, J.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Palacio, I.; Martinez, J. I.; del Árbol, N. Ruiz; Santoro, G.; Gutiérrez, A.; Aballe, L.; Foerster, M.; Kalbac, M.; Vales, V.; Mompeán, F. J.; García-Hernández, M.; Martín-Gago, J. A.; Munuera, C.; López, M. F.


    We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. This protocol is a self-limiting process leading exclusively to one single graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms the high quality of the grown graphene. This layer exhibits an unperturbed Dirac-cone with a clear n-doping of 0.77 eV, which is caused by the interaction between graphene and substrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this interaction can be induced by a coupling between graphene and substrate at specific points of the structure leading to a local sp3 configuration, which also contribute to the D-band in the Raman spectra. PMID:28507390

  20. High-quality crystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia thin layer for photonic applications (United States)

    Marcaud, Guillaume; Matzen, Sylvia; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Le Roux, Xavier; Berciano, Mathias; Maroutian, Thomas; Agnus, Guillaume; Aubert, Pascal; Largeau, Ludovic; Pillard, Valérie; Serna, Samuel; Benedikovic, Daniel; Pendenque, Christopher; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Lecoeur, Philippe; Vivien, Laurent


    Functional oxides are considered as promising materials for photonic applications due to their extraordinary and various optical properties. Especially, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has a high refractive index (˜2.15), leading to a good confinement of the optical mode in waveguides. Furthermore, YSZ can also be used as a buffer layer to expand toward a large family of oxides-based thin-films heterostructures. In this paper, we report a complete study of the structural properties of YSZ for the development of integrated optical devices on sapphire in telecom wavelength range. The substrate preparation and the epitaxial growth using pulsed-laser deposition technique have been studied and optimized. High-quality YSZ thin films with remarkably sharp x-ray diffraction rocking curve peaks in 10-3∘ range have then been grown on sapphire (0001). It was demonstrated that a thermal annealing of sapphire substrate before the YSZ growth allowed controlling the out-of-plane orientation of the YSZ thin film. Single-mode waveguides were finally designed, fabricated, and characterized for two different main orientations of high-quality YSZ (001) and (111). Propagation loss as low as 2 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1380 nm has been demonstrated for both orientations. These results pave the way for the development of a functional oxides-based photonics platform for numerous applications including on-chip optical communications and sensing.

  1. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk In Park


    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm2 at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  2. High quality diabetes care: testing the effectiveness of strategies of regional implementation teams. (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Shadmi, Efrat; Freund, Anat; Goldfracht, Margalit


    The purpose of this article is to identify and test the effectiveness of work strategies employed by regional implementation teams to attain high quality care for diabetes patients. The study was conducted in a major health maintenance organization (HMO) that provides care for 70 per cent of Israel's diabetes patients. A sequential mixed model design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with members of six regional implementation teams, each responsible for the care of 25,000-34,000 diabetic patients. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that teams employed four key strategies: task-interdependence, goal-interdependence, reliance on top-down standardised processes and team-learning. These strategies were used to predict the mean percentage performance of eight evidence-based indicators of diabetes care: percentage of patients with HbA1c Teams were found to vary in their use of the four strategies. Mixed linear models analysis indicated that type of indicator (simple process, compound process, and outcome) and goal interdependence were significantly linked to team effectiveness. For simple-process indicators, reliance on top-down standardised processes led to team effectiveness, but for outcome measures this strategy was ineffective, and even counter-effective. For outcome measures, team-learning was more beneficial. The findings have implications for the management of chronic diseases. The advantage of allowing team members flexibility in the choice of the best work strategy to attain high quality diabetes care is attested.

  3. Angle-resolved reflection spectroscopy of high-quality PMMA opal crystal (United States)

    Nemtsev, Ivan V.; Tambasov, Igor A.; Ivanenko, Alexander A.; Zyryanov, Victor Ya.


    PMMA opal crystal was prepared by a simple hybrid method, which includes sedimentation, meniscus formation and evaporation. We investigated three surfaces of this crystal by angle-resolved reflective light spectroscopy and SEM study. The angle-resolved reflective measurements were carried out in the 400-1100 nm range. We have determined the high-quality ordered surface of the crystal region. Narrow particle size distribution of the surface has been revealed. The average particle diameter obtained with SEM was nearly 361 nm. The most interesting result was that reflectivity of the surface turned out up to 98% at normal light incidence. Using a fit of dependences of the maximum reflectivity wavelength from an angle based on the Bragg-Snell law, the wavelength of maximum 0° reflectivity, the particle diameter and the fill factor have been determined. For the best surface maximum reflectivity wavelength of a 0° angle was estimated to be 869 nm. The particle diameter and fill factor were calculated as 372 nm and 0.8715, respectively. The diameter obtained by fitting is in excellent agreement with the particle diameter obtained with SEM. The reflectivity maximum is assumed to increase significantly when increasing the fill factor. We believe that using our simple approach to manufacture PMMA opal crystals will significantly increase the fabrication of high-quality photonic crystal templates and thin films.

  4. High-quality multispectral bio-sensing with asymmetric all-dielectric meta-materials (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Zhongmin; Liu, Guiqiang


    We propose and demonstrate a strategy for achieving high-quality bio-sensing in an asymmetric all-dielectric meta-material (α-ADM), which can provide multispectral narrowband optical extinction with enhanced electromagnetic field and eventually paves a novel efficient sensing platform. High performance optical sensing with figure of merit (FoM) reaching 353 and spectral intensity change related FoM* exceeding 4700 is achieved in this lossless α-ADM platform, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the metallic plasmonic sensors. In particular, due to the high sensitivity and complete extinction existed in the sharp spectrum, a remarkable spectral intensity change from a ‘dark’ state to a ‘bright’ state is obtained when the surrounding refractive index value is only varied slightly. Moreover, ultra-low detection limitation of the protein layer down to sub-nanometer thickness can be achieved. The sensing contrast ratio exceeding 34 dB is obtained for the sensor adsorbed with protein films, which suggests an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio detection for this ultra-thin bio-molecule layer. In contrast to the traditional plasmonic sensors, these features lay a foundation for new sensing schemes based on the all-dielectric structures. The sensing performance including the spectral sensitivity and the detecting signal-to-noise ratio can hold the proposed α-ADM with applications in high-quality refractive index sensing and optical bio-sensing.

  5. Frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in high quality embryos from young couples using preimplantation genetic screening. (United States)

    Fesahat, Farzaneh; Montazeri, Fatemeh; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Saeedi, Hojjatollah; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi


    Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Using morphological assessment for this selection demonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantation potential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factor that can influence human reproductive success in ART. The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence of aneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryos from young patients undergoing ART for sex selection. A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at the age of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides of blastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryos using preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomal chromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sex chromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000). The most frequent detected chromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13. There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems that morphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing the embryos without these abnormalities.

  6. Providing high-quality care at the end of life: the role of education and guidance. (United States)

    Dobson, Jill


    Palliative care in the UK has been ranked as the best in the world. So where did palliative care go so wrong that a 168-page document is required to inform staff how to care for dying patients if it has been going so well for so long? Those nearing the end of their life deserve to be given optimum care, attention, compassion and consideration, but this is not always the case. The Liverpool Care Pathway was a tool originally devised to help health professionals provide high-quality end-of-life care to people in the final phase of life. This tool, when used in the correct way, could provide the 'gold standard' of end-of-life care for patients. However, a national review found that rather than a tick-box exercise, care of the dying should be centred around individualised care planning for the dying patient, as highlighted in the publication of the guidance: One Chance to Get It Right. Care of the dying is a complex skill that requires nurses to provide some of the most challenging care, and for which many nurses have received little or no training. The implementation of this guidance into practice will require thoughtful change management, abandoning an old way of working in order to ensure excellence and high-quality care for patients nearing the end of life.

  7. A Systematic Process for Developing High Quality SaaS Cloud Services (United States)

    La, Hyun Jung; Kim, Soo Dong

    Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a type of cloud service which provides software functionality through Internet. Its benefits are well received in academia and industry. To fully utilize the benefits, there should be effective methodologies to support the development of SaaS services which provide high reusability and applicability. Conventional approaches such as object-oriented methods do not effectively support SaaS-specific engineering activities such as modeling common features, variability, and designing quality services. In this paper, we present a systematic process for developing high quality SaaS and highlight the essentiality of commonality and variability (C&V) modeling to maximize the reusability. We first define criteria for designing the process model and provide a theoretical foundation for SaaS; its meta-model and C&V model. We clarify the notion of commonality and variability in SaaS, and propose a SaaS development process which is accompanied with engineering instructions. Using the proposed process, SaaS services with high quality can be effectively developed.

  8. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong


    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ∼0.02 to ∼0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters “HELLO” and “USTC” under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2 × 2, 5 × 5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5 × 5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1 min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems

  9. Frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in high quality embryos from young couples using preimplantation genetic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat


    Full Text Available Background: Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Using morphological assessment for this selection demonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantation potential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factor that can influence human reproductive success in ART. Objective: The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence of aneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryos from young patients undergoing ART for sex selection. Materials and Methods: A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at the age of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation genetic screening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides of blastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Results: There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryos using preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomal chromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sex chromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000. The most frequent detected chromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13. Conclusion: There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in embryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems that morphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing the embryos without these abnormalities

  10. High-quality RNA extraction from copepods for Next Generation Sequencing: A comparative study. (United States)

    Asai, Sneha; Ianora, Adrianna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lindeque, Penelope K; Carotenuto, Ylenia


    Despite the ecological importance of copepods, few Next Generation Sequencing studies (NGS) have been performed on small crustaceans, and a standard method for RNA extraction is lacking. In this study, we compared three commonly-used methods: TRIzol®, Aurum Total RNA Mini Kit and Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit, in combination with preservation reagents TRIzol® or RNAlater®, to obtain high-quality and quantity of RNA from copepods for NGS. Total RNA was extracted from the copepods Calanus helgolandicus, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera and its quantity and quality were evaluated using NanoDrop, agarose gel electrophoresis and Agilent Bioanalyzer. Our results demonstrate that preservation of copepods in RNAlater® and extraction with Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit were the optimal isolation method for high-quality and quantity of RNA for NGS studies of C. helgolandicus. Intriguingly, C. helgolandicus 28S rRNA is formed by two subunits that separate after heat-denaturation and migrate along with 18S rRNA. This unique property of protostome RNA has never been reported in copepods. Overall, our comparative study on RNA extraction protocols will help increase gene expression studies on copepods using high-throughput applications, such as RNA-Seq and microarrays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a biotechnological process for the production of high quality linen fibers. (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Rost, Gernot; Heitmann, Uwe; Heger, Egon; Müller, Rudolf


    A novel biotechnological process for the production of high-quality flax fibers was developed. In this process, decorticated fibers from green flax were washed with 0.5% soda solution and treated with the pectinolytic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius PB94A. Before drying the fibers, they were treated with the textile softener Adulcinol BUN. If the fibers contained contaminant shives, a bleaching step with hydrogen peroxide was performed before the softener treatment. In experiments where fibers were treated by the new process, and in which the bacterial solutions were reused seven times, the fiber quality was similar in all batches. The resolution of the treated fibers was 2.7 ± 0.4 and the fineness was 11.1 ± 1.1 dtex, while the starting material had a resolution of 7.3 and a fineness of 37 dtex. The new biotechnological treatment eliminates the weather-associated risks of the traditional fiber retting completely and produces consistently high-quality fibers that can be used to produce fine linen yarns.

  12. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  13. Achieving graphical excellence: suggestions and methods for creating high-quality visual displays of experimental data. (United States)

    Schriger, D L; Cooper, R J


    Graphics are an important means of communicating experimental data and results. There is evidence, however, that many of the graphics printed in scientific journals contain errors, redundancies, and lack clarity. Perhaps more important, many graphics fail to portray data at an appropriate level of detail, presenting summary statistics rather than underlying distributions. We seek to aid investigators in the production of high-quality graphics that do their investigations justice by providing the reader with optimum access to the relevant aspects of the data. The depiction of by-subject data, the signification of pairing when present, and the use of symbolic dimensionality (graphing different symbols to identify relevant subgroups) and small multiples (the presentation of an array of similar graphics each depicting one group of subjects) to portray stratification are stressed. Step-by-step instructions for the construction of high-quality graphics are offered. We hope that authors will incorporate these suggestions when developing graphics to accompany their manuscripts and that this process will lead to improvements in the graphical literacy of scientific journals. We also hope that journal editors will keep these principles in mind when refereeing manuscripts submitted for peer review.

  14. Promoting High-Quality Cancer Care and Equity Through Disciplinary Diversity in Team Composition. (United States)

    Parsons, Susan K; Fineberg, Iris C; Lin, Mingqian; Singer, Marybeth; Tang, May; Erban, John K


    Disciplinary diversity in team composition is a valuable vehicle for oncology care teams to provide high-quality, person-centered comprehensive care. Such diversity facilitates care that effectively addresses the complex needs (biologic, psychosocial, and spiritual) of the whole person. The concept of professional or disciplinary diversity centers on differences in function, education, and culture, reflecting variety and heterogeneity in the perspectives of team members contributing to care. Thorough understanding of the skills, knowledge, and education related to each team member's professional or lay expertise is critical for members to be able to optimize the team's potential. Furthermore, respect and appreciation for differences and similarities across disciplinary cultures allow team members to create a positive collaboration dynamic that maintains a focus on the care of the person with cancer. We present a case study of one oncology team's provision of care to the patient, a Chinese immigrant woman with breast cancer. The case illuminates the strengths and challenges of disciplinary diversity in team composition in assessing and addressing potential barriers to care. Coordinated sharing of information among the varied team members facilitated understanding and care planning focused on the patient's concerns, needs, and strengths. Importantly, collaboration across the disciplinarily diverse set of team members facilitated high-quality oncology care and promoted equity in access to the full range of care options, including enrollment on a National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trial. Further implications of disciplinary diversity in oncology care teams are considered for both clinical practice and research.

  15. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method.

  16. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus


    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  17. Key elements of high-quality practice organisation in primary health care: a systematic review. (United States)

    Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L


    To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.

  18. High-quality collection and disposal of WEEE: Environmental impacts and resultant issues. (United States)

    Baxter, John; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Askham, Cecilia; Hanssen, Ole Jørgen


    Life cycle assessment of the collection, transport and recycling of various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Norway shows that small amounts of critical materials (refrigerants, precious/trace metals) are vital for the overall environmental accounts of the value chains. High-quality recycling ensures that materials and energy are effectively recovered from WEEE. This recovery means that responsible waste handling confers net environmental benefits in terms of global warming potential (GWP), for all types of WEEE analysed. For refrigeration equipment, the potential reduction of GWP by high-quality recycling is so large as to be of national significance. For all waste types, the magnitude of the net benefit from recovering materials and energy exceeds the negative consequences of irresponsible disposal. One outcome of this may be widespread misunderstanding of the need for recycling. Furthermore, framing public communication on recycling in terms of avoiding negative consequences, as is essentially universal, may not convey an appropriate message. The issue is particularly important where the consumer regards products as relatively disposable and environmentally benign, and/or where the "null option" of retaining the product at end-of-life is especially prevalent. The paper highlights the implications of all these issues for policy-makers, waste collectors and recyclers, and consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of high-quality RNA from Platycladus orientalis and other Cupressaceae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermei Chang


    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis has a lifespan of several thousand years in China, making it a good plant in which to study aging at the molecular level, but this requires sufficient quantities of high-quality P. orientalis RNA. However, no appropriate methods have been reported for total RNA isolation from P. orientalis leaves. The TRIzol method did not extract RNA, while cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol, and plant RNAout kit (Tianz, Inc., China protocols resulted in low yields of poor quality RNA. Isolating total RNA using the Spectrum™ Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA resulted in a high-quality product but a low yield. However, the two-step removal of polyphenols and polysaccharides in the improved plant RNAout kit protocol resulted in the isolation of RNA with a 28S:18S rRNA ratio of band intensities that was ~2:1, the A260/A280 absorbance ratio was 2.03, and the total RNA yield from P. orientalis leaves was high. This protocol was tested on different P. orientalis tissues of different ages and on leaves of five other Cupressaceae plants. The total RNAs were successfully used in complementary DNA synthesis for transcriptome sequencing and would be suitable to use in additional experiments. The results of this study will benefit future studies in Cupressaceae plants.

  20. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils. (United States)

    Azpeitia, J; Otero-Irurueta, G; Palacio, I; Martinez, J I; Del Árbol, N Ruiz; Santoro, G; Gutiérrez, A; Aballe, L; Foerster, M; Kalbac, M; Vales, V; Mompeán, F J; García-Hernández, M; Martín-Gago, J A; Munuera, C; López, M F


    We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C 60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C 60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. This protocol is a self-limiting process leading exclusively to one single graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms the high quality of the grown graphene. This layer exhibits an unperturbed Dirac-cone with a clear n-doping of 0.77 eV, which is caused by the interaction between graphene and substrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this interaction can be induced by a coupling between graphene and substrate at specific points of the structure leading to a local sp 3 configuration, which also contribute to the D-band in the Raman spectra.

  1. Different paths to high-quality care: three archetypes of top-performing practice sites. (United States)

    Feifer, Chris; Nemeth, Lynne; Nietert, Paul J; Wessell, Andrea M; Jenkins, Ruth G; Roylance, Loraine; Ornstein, Steven M


    Primary care practices use different approaches in their quest for high-quality care. Previous work in the Practice Partner Research Network (PPRNet) found that improved outcomes are associated with strategies to prioritize performance, involve staff, redesign elements of the delivery system, make patients active partners in guideline adherence, and use tools embedded in the electronic medical record. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the adoption of improvements among sites achieving the best outcomes. This study used an observational case study design. A practice-level measure of adherence to clinical guidelines was used to identify the highest performing practices in a network of internal and family medicine practices participating in a national demonstration project. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative information derived from project documents, field notes, and evaluation questionnaires to develop and compare case studies. Nine cases are described. All use many of the same improvement strategies. Differences in the way improvements are organized define 3 distinct archetypes: the Technophiles, the Motivated Team, and the Care Enterprise. There is no single approach that explains the superior performance of high-performing practices, though each has adopted variations of PPRNet's improvement model. Practices will vary in their path to high-quality care. The archetypes could prove to be a useful guide to other practices selecting an overall quality improvement approach.

  2. High-Quality Feedback Regarding Professionalism and Communication Skills in Otolaryngology Resident Education. (United States)

    Faucett, Erynne A; McCrary, Hilary C; Barry, Jonnae Y; Saleh, Ahlam A; Erman, Audrey B; Ishman, Stacey L


    Objective The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires competency-based education for residents and recommends 5 basic features of high-quality feedback. Our aim was to examine the incorporation of feedback in articles regarding professionalism and interpersonal/communication skills for otolaryngology residency training curriculum. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and . Methods We used studies identified during a systematic review of all indexed years through October 4, 2016. Results Eighteen studies were included in this review. Professionalism was discussed in 16, of which 15 (94%) examined aspects of feedback. Interpersonal/communication skills were the focus of 16 articles, of which 14 16 (88%) discussed aspects of feedback. Our assessment demonstrated that timeliness was addressed in 8 (44%) articles, specificity in 4 (22%), learner reaction and reflection in 4 (22%), action plans in 3 (20%), and balancing reinforcing/corrective feedback in 2 (13%). Two articles did not address feedback, and 6 did not address aspects of high-quality feedback. The ACGME-recommended feedback systems of ADAPT (ask, discuss, ask, plan together) and R2C2 (relationship, reactions, content, and coach) were not reported in any of the studies. Conclusion Feedback is an essential component of graduate medical education and is required by the ACGME milestones assessment system. However, the core feedback components recommended by the ACGME are rarely included in the otolaryngology resident education literature.

  3. High-quality slab-based intermixing method for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects. (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil


    The visualization of multiple 3D objects has been increasingly required for recent applications in medical fields. Due to the heterogeneity in data representation or data configuration, it is difficult to efficiently render multiple medical objects in high quality. In this paper, we present a novel intermixing scheme for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects while preserving the real-time performance. First, we present an in-slab visibility interpolation method for the representation of subdivided slabs. Second, we introduce virtual zSlab, which extends an infinitely thin boundary (such as polygonal objects) into a slab with a finite thickness. Finally, based on virtual zSlab and in-slab visibility interpolation, we propose a slab-based visibility intermixing method with the newly proposed rendering pipeline. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers more effective multiple-object renderings in terms of rendering quality, compared to conventional approaches. And proposed intermixing scheme provides high-quality intermixing results for the visualization of intersecting and overlapping surfaces by resolving aliasing and z-fighting problems. Moreover, two case studies are presented that apply the proposed method to the real clinical applications. These case studies manifest that the proposed method has the outstanding advantages of the rendering independency and reusability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FastRoute: An Efficient and High-Quality Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan


    Full Text Available Modern large-scale circuit designs have created great demand for fast and high-quality global routing algorithms to resolve the routing congestion at the global level. Rip-up and reroute scheme has been employed by the majority of academic and industrial global routers today, which iteratively resolve the congestion by recreating the routing path based on current congestion. This method is proved to be the most practical routing framework. However, the traditional iterative maze routing technique converges very slowly and easily gets stuck at local optimal solutions. In this work, we propose a very efficient and high-quality global router—FastRoute. FastRoute integrates several novel techniques: fast congestion-driven via-aware Steiner tree construction, 3-bend routing, virtual capacity adjustment, multisource multi-sink maze routing, and spiral layer assignment. These techniques not only address the routing congestion measured at the edges of global routing grids but also minimize the total wirelength and via usage, which is critical for subsequent detailed routing, yield, and manufacturability. Experimental results show that FastRoute is highly effective and efficient to solve ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmark suites. The results outperform recently published academic global routers in both routability and runtime. In particular, for ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmarks, FastRoute generates 12 congestion-free solutions out of 16 benchmarks with a speed significantly faster than other routers.

  5. The perspective awareness model - Eliciting multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Laurel


    A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)

  6. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract. (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella


    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Risk Factors for Inadequate Defibrillation Safety Margins Vary With the Underlying Cardiac Disease: Implications for Selective Testing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnes, J.L.; Westra, S.W.; Bouwels, L.H.; Boer, M.J. de; Brouwer, M.A.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.


    INTRODUCTION: In view of the shift from routine toward no or selective defibrillation testing, optimization of the current risk stratification for inadequate defibrillation safety margins (DSMs) could improve individualized testing decisions. Given the pathophysiological differences in myocardial

  8. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær


    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  9. 2013 Nutrition Risk Evidence Review Panel. Evidence Review for: The Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (United States)


    The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 20 - 21, 2013. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (from here on referred to as the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk. Overall, the SRP thinks the well-qualified research team has compiled an excellent summary of background information in the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report. The SRP would like to commend the authors in general and particularly note that while the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report has been written using a single nutrient approach, the research plan takes a much more integrated and physiologically based approach.

  10. Predictors of an inadequate defibrillation safety margin at ICD implantation: insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. (United States)

    Hsu, Jonathan C; Marcus, Gregory M; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Sood, Nitesh; Parker, Matthew W; Kluger, Jeffrey; Lampert, Rachel; Russo, Andrea M


    Defibrillation testing is often performed to establish effective arrhythmia termination, but predictors and consequences of an inadequate defibrillation safety margin (DSM) remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to develop a simple risk score predictive of an inadequate DSM at implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation and to examine the association of an inadequate DSM with adverse events. A total of 132,477 ICD Registry implantations between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Using logistic regression models, factors most predictive of an inadequate DSM (defined as the lowest successful energy tested 3 days (odds ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.30; p < 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.63 to 2.36; p < 0.0001). A simple risk score identified ICD recipients at risk for an inadequate DSM. An inadequate DSM was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital adverse events. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanically stable tuning fork sensor with high quality factor for the atomic force microscope. (United States)

    Kim, Kwangyoon; Park, Jun-Young; Kim, K B; Lee, Naesung; Seo, Yongho


    A quartz tuning fork was used instead of cantilever as a force sensor for the atomic force microscope. A tungsten tip was made by electrochemical etching from a wire of 50 µm diameter. In order to have mechanical stability of the tuning fork, it was attached on an alumina plate. The tungsten tip was attached on the inside end of a prong of a tuning fork. The phase shift was used as a feedback signal to control the distance between the tip and sample, and the amplitude was kept constant using a lock-in amplifier and a homemade automatic gain controller. Due to the mechanical stability, the sensor shows a high quality factor (∼10(3)), and the image quality obtained with this sensor was equivalent to that of the cantilever-based AFM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, Kang; Hill, Martin T; Ning, Cun-Zheng


    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP structures. The unprecedented high quality of etched wires is evidenced by the narrowest photoluminescence linewidth ever produced in similar wavelengths, indistinguishable from that of the corresponding wafer. This top-down, mask-free, large scale approach is compatible with the established device fabrication processes and could serve as an important alternative to the bottom-up approach, significantly expanding ranges and varieties of applications of nanowire technology.

  13. High quality factor surface Fabry-Perot cavity of acoustic waves (United States)

    Xu, Yuntao; Fu, Wei; Zou, Chang-ling; Shen, Zhen; Tang, Hong X.


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are critical components in wireless communications and many sensing applications. They have also recently emerged as a subject of study in quantum acoustics at the single phonon level. Acoustic loss reduction and mode confinement are key performance factors in SAW resonators. Here, we report the design and experimental realization of high quality factor Fabry-Perot SAW resonators formed in between the tapered phononic crystal mirrors patterned on a GaN-on-sapphire material platform. The fabricated SAW resonators are characterized by both an electrical network analyzer and an optical heterodyne vibrometer. We observed standing Rayleigh waves inside the cavity, with an intrinsic quality factor exceeding 1.3 × 104 at ambient conditions.

  14. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop. (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun


    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  15. Growth of high quality InGaAsN heterostructures and their laser application (United States)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Bernklau, D.; Borchert, B.; Illek, S.; Livshits, D.; Rucki, A.; Schuster, M.; Kaschner, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Dumitras, Gh.; Amann, M. C.; Riechert, H.


    Focus of this work is the optimization of growth to achieve high quality laser material for emission at 1.3 μm and beyond. GaAs/GaAsN/InGaAsN heterostructures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve optimum crystal quality of InGaAsN heterostructures, growth was followed by a high temperature treatment at about 700°C. The high optical quality of our annealed material is attested by large exciton recombination lifetimes (more than 2 ns). Consequently, a decrease of single quantum well transparency current density down to 100 A/cm 2 is found and SWQ lasers with threshold current densities as low as 350 A/cm 2 have been made. This represents clearly the lowest laser thresholds reported so far for emission around 1.3 μm from the InGaAsN material system.

  16. High-quality unsaturated zone hydraulic property data for hydrologic applications (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie; Nimmo, John R.


    In hydrologic studies, especially those using dynamic unsaturated zone moisture modeling, calculations based on property transfer models informed by hydraulic property databases are often used in lieu of measured data from the site of interest. Reliance on database-informed predicted values has become increasingly common with the use of neural networks. High-quality data are needed for databases used in this way and for theoretical and property transfer model development and testing. Hydraulic properties predicted on the basis of existing databases may be adequate in some applications but not others. An obvious problem occurs when the available database has few or no data for samples that are closely related to the medium of interest. The data set presented in this paper includes saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, water retention, particle-size distributions, and bulk properties. All samples are minimally disturbed, all measurements were performed using the same state of the art techniques and the environments represented are diverse.

  17. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste. (United States)

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M


    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bettini


    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of a Lean Six Sigma (LSS project to a winemaking process in a high-quality, Italian winery. LSS is used to focus on the problem through a quantitative analysis of waste and quality performances. The LSS basic algorithm (called “DMAIC” helps to detect and quantify critical aspects of the process for transferring liquid used in the cellar. The improvement solution is developed and applied through the modification of the cellar system and the process procedure. The results obtained with this solution are shown and discussed in this paper, so too the long term reliability of the improved process analyzed. The results obtained by this case study can help to understand the importance of the LSS method to drive the improvement of agricultural and agrofood productions also in terms of environmental impact which is strongly connected to waste reduction.

  19. Hybrid Active-Passive Microwave Photonic Filter with High Quality Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Ming, Xu; Xin-Liang, Zhang; Li-Na, Zhou; Yu, Zhang; De-Xiu, Huang


    A hybrid high quality factor (Q-factor) microwave photonic filter with a cascaded active filter and a passive filter is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The active infinite impulse response filter is realized by a recirculating delay line loop with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and a much narrower 3 dB bandwidth of response peaks can be achieved. A passive finite impulse response filter is realized by an unbalance Mach–Zehnder interferometer, and it is cascaded to select the desired filter frequencies and to suppress the intermediate peaks. Compared with the purely active filter scheme, the free spectrum range and the Q-factor of the hybrid structure can be doubled. Stable operation and a high Q-factor of 362 are experimentally demonstrated

  20. Micropropagation: a tool for the production of high quality plant-based medicines. (United States)

    Debnath, Mousumi; Malik, C P; Bisen, P S


    Medicinal plants are the most important source of life saving drugs for the majority of the world's population. The biotechnological tools are important to select, multiply and conserve the critical genotypes of medicinal plants. Plant tissue culture techniques offer an integrated approach for the production of standardized quality phytopharmaceutical through mass-production of consistent plant material for physiological characterization and analysis of active ingredients. Micropropagation protocols for cloning of some medicinal plants such as Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Chlorophytum borivilianum (Liliaceae), Datura metel (Solanaceae), and Bacopa monnieri (Scrophulariaceae) have been developed. Regeneration occurred via organogenesis and embryogenesis in response to auxins and cytokinins. The integrated approaches of our culture systems will provide the basis for the future development of novel, safe, effective, and high-quality products for consumers.

  1. The PyPES library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces. (United States)

    Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L


    In this article, we present a Python-based library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules with up to six atoms. We anticipate that these surfaces will find widespread application in the testing of new potential energy surface construction algorithms and nuclear ro-vibrational structure theories. To this end, we provide the ability to generate the energy derivatives required for Taylor series expansions to sixth order about any point on the potential energy surface in a range of common coordinate systems, including curvilinear internal, Cartesian, and normal mode coordinates. The PyPES package, along with FORTRAN, C, MATLAB and Mathematica wrappers, is available at © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. High-quality Wind Power Scenario Forecasts for Decision-making Under Uncertainty in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre


    The large scale integration of wind generation in existing power systems requires novel operational strategies and market clearing mechanisms to account for the variable nature of this energy source. An efficient method to cope with this uncertainty is stochastic optimization which however requires......-valued and probabilistic predictions as well as scenarios representing the spatio-temporal dependence structure of forecast errors. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated with a small-scale stochastic unit commitment model....... high-quality forecasts in the form of scenarios. The main goal of this work is to release a public dataset of wind power forecasts to be used as a reference for future research. To that extent, we provide a complete framework to describe wind power uncertainty in terms of single...

  3. Rapid continuous flow synthesis of high-quality silver nanocubes and nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim


    We report a biphasic-liquid segmented continuous flow method for the synthesis of high-quality plasmonic single crystal silver nanocubes and nanospheres. The nanocubes were synthesized with controllable edge lengths from 20 to 48 nm. Single crystal nanospheres with a mean size of 29 nm were obtained by in-line continuous-flow etching of as-produced 39 nm nanocubes with an aqueous solution of FeNO3. In comparison to batch synthesis, the demonstrated processes represent highly scalable reactions, in terms of both production rate and endurance. The reactions were conducted in a commercially available flow-reactor system that is easily adaptable to industrial-scale production, facilitating widespread utilization of the procedure and the resulting nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  4. A review of the strategies for obtaining high-quality crystals utilizing nanotechnologies and microgravity. (United States)

    Pechkova, Eugenia; Bragazzi, Nicola; Bozdaganyan, Marine; Belmonte, Luca; Nicolini, Claudio


    Crystallization is a highly demanding and time-consuming task that causes a real bottle-neck in basic research. Great effort has been made to understand the factors and parameters that influence this process and to finely tune them to facilitate crystal growth. Different crystallization techniques have been proposed over the past decades, such as the classical vapor hanging drop method, its variant the sitting drop method, dialysis, cryo-temperature, gel, batch, and the innovative microgravity (space) techniques like free interface diffusion (FID) and counter-ion diffusion (CID). Here, we present a review of the strategies utilizing Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-based nanotechnologies, and microgravity techniques for obtaining optimal high-quality crystals, as proven by molecular dynamics (MD) and bioinformatics approaches, namely using a clustering algorithm and protein alignment.

  5. High-quality protein knowledge resource: SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. (United States)

    O'Donovan, Claire; Martin, Maria Jesus; Gattiker, Alexandre; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf


    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and a high level of integration with other databases. Together with its automatically annotated supplement TrEMBL, it provides a comprehensive and high-quality view of the current state of knowledge about proteins. Ongoing developments include the further improvement of functional and automatic annotation in the databases including evidence attribution with particular emphasis on the human, archaeal and bacterial proteomes and the provision of additional resources such as the International Protein Index (IPI) and XML format of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL to the user community.

  6. Precision picosecond-pulse measurements using a high-quality superconducting delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.R.


    A high-quality superconducting delay line now makes it possible to perform direct oscillographic measurements of the picosecond transition times of very fast electrical signals that do not furnish pretriggers. A 15-m superconducting delay line package has been assembled. The package consists of connectors, connector adapters, normally conducting input/output air lines, and a 15 m length of a miniature 1.6-mm superconducting coaxial transmission line. The package exhibits an attenuation of 0.8 db at 10 GHz and a system 10-90 percent transition time of 18 psec. Some applications of this delay line are shown. They include the measurement of the pulse output from a mercury switch and the transient response of a traveling-wave oscilloscope. 13 refs

  7. RF-sputter-deposited magnesium oxide films as high-quality adjustable tunnel barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegier, J.C.; Radparvar, M.; Yu, L.S.; Faris, S.M.


    High quality RF-sputtered MgO films are used as tunnel barriers to fabricate small area, niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions. A magnesium oxide barrier deposited as a single layer, or as a multilayer film, results in devices with similar characteristics. Annealing trilayers at temperatures in excess of 250 0 C for several hours decrease junction current density and improve device quality presumably by increasing barrier heights through reducing resonant tunneling states. A self-aligned process utilizing only two mask levels is used to produce junctions as small as 0.5 μm/sup 2/ with excellent critical current uniformity. These junctions exhibit energy gaps of 5.1 mV and low subgap currents at current densities in excess of 1000 A/cm/sup 2/ which make them suitable for a variety of applications such as SIS mixers and logic circuits

  8. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Minh Cong


    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  9. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin


    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkov components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed


    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  11. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.


    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  12. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  13. High-quality ChIP-seq analysis of MBD3 in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Shimbo, Takashi; Takaku, Motoki; Wade, Paul A


    Chromatin accessibility is tightly regulated by multiple factors/mechanisms to establish different cell type-specific gene expression programs from a single genome. Dysregulation of this process can lead to diseases including cancer. The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is thought to orchestrate chromatin structure using its intrinsic nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the NuRD complex regulates chromatin structure in vivo are not yet known. To explore the regulatory mechanisms of the NuRD complex, we mapped genome-wide localization of MBD3, a structural component of NuRD, in a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) using a modified ChIP-seq protocol. Our data showed high quality localization information (i.e., high mapping efficiency and low PCR duplication rate) and excellent consistency between biological replicates. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE76116).

  14. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.


    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  15. High quality transmission Kikuchi diffraction analysis of deformed alloys - Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarski, Tomasz; Cios, Grzegorz; Kula, Anna; Bała, Piotr


    Modern scanning electron microscopes (SEM) equipped with thermally assisted field emission guns (Schottky FEG) are capable of imaging with a resolution in the range of several nanometers or better. Simultaneously, the high electron beam current can be used, which enables fast chemical and crystallographic analysis with a higher resolution than is normally offered by SEM with a tungsten cathode. The current resolution that limits the EDS and EBSD analysis is related to materials' physics, particularly to the electron-specimen interaction volume. The application of thin, electron-transparent specimens, instead of bulk samples, improves the resolution and allows for the detailed analysis of very fine microstructural features. Beside the typical imaging mode, it is possible to use a standard EBSD camera in such a configuration that only transmitted and scattered electrons are detected. This modern approach was successfully applied to various materials giving rise to significant resolution improvement, especially for the light element magnesium based alloys. This paper presents an insight into the application of the transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) technique applied to the most troublesome, heavily-deformed materials. In particular, the values of the highest possible acquisition rates for high resolution and high quality mapping were estimated within typical imaging conditions of stainless steel and magnesium-yttrium alloy. - Highlights: •Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate EBSD camera intensity for various measuring conditions. •Transmission Kikuchi diffraction parameters were evaluated for highly deformed, light and heavy elements based alloys. •High quality maps with 20 nm spatial resolution were acquired for Mg and Fe based alloys. •High speed TKD measurements were performed at acquisition rates comparable to the reflection EBSD.

  16. High-Quality Randomized Controlled Trials in Pediatric Critical Care: A Survey of Barriers and Facilitators. (United States)

    Duffett, Mark; Choong, Karen; Foster, Jennifer; Meade, Maureen; Menon, Kusum; Parker, Melissa; Cook, Deborah J


    High-quality, adequately powered, randomized controlled trials are needed to inform the care of critically ill children. Unfortunately, such evidence is not always available. Our objective was to identify barriers and facilitators of conducting high-quality randomized controlled trials in pediatric critical care, from the perspective of trialists in this field. Self-administered online survey. Respondents rated the importance of barriers and effectiveness of facilitators on seven-point scales. Authors of 294 pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials (published 1986 to June 2015). One hundred sixteen researchers from 25 countries participated. None. Respondents reported a median (Q1, Q3) of 21 years (15, 26 yr) of experience and 41 (36%) had authored more than one randomized controlled trial. More survey respondents, compared with nonrespondents, had published more than one trial (35% vs 26%; p = 0.002) and their trials were more often cited (median citations/yr, 2.4 vs 1.5; p research, ability to recruit participants 24 hours per day/7 days per week, conducting randomized controlled trials in collaboration with a research network, funding from government agencies specifically for randomized controlled trials in critically ill children, and academic department support for conducting randomized controlled trials. Respondent experience and country income level were associated with differences in importance ratings for eight of 41 barriers. There were fewer such differences for facilitators. Lack of funding and time are major barriers to conducting pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials worldwide. Although barriers varied among country income levels, the facilitators of such trials were more consistent. In addition to increased funding, respondents identified other strategies such as research networks that are within the purview of the pediatric critical care research community, to facilitate the conduct of rigorous randomized controlled trials.

  17. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, Curtis B.


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  18. Corpoica H5: the first high quality protein (QPM hybrid maize for Colombian eastern plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Campuzano D.


    Full Text Available Colombia has an annual deficit of maize to meet the feed industry. In 2012, the country produced only 20.2% of the corn required by the industry; 1.0% of this production is obtained on the Colombian high plains (20,000 hectares; however, this region has an area of 500,000 hectares suitable for growing corn. To meet domestic demand, the government implemented the National Maize Plan (Plan País Maíz: a promoting and research strateg y to assess and identify hybrids with yield and quality attributes that allow the competitiveness of this crop. In this context the present research was conducted, which identified the maize hybrid H5, with the following characteristics: high quality protein; grain yield of 5.05 t/ha, statistically similar to that obtained with commercial controls; male and female flowering of 56 and 57 days; period from planting to harvest of 112 days; plant height and cob of 185 and 94 cm, respectively; resistance to stem and root tumble, and to Cercospora sp. and Phaeosphaeria sp. Hybrid H5 showed per 100 g of protein, 4.10 g of lysine and 0.87 g of tryptophan; these values were higher by 1.7 and 2.0 times than those obtained by conventional maize (P30K73 having 2.32 g of lysine and 0.43 g of tryptophan. These characteristics of crystalline grain texture and high quality protein confer it commercial recommendation, because it is appropriate for the feed industry.

  19. Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System (United States)

    Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah


    NASA is preparing for long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit that will be challenged in several ways, including long-term exposure to the space environment, impacts to crew physiological and psychological health, limited resources, and no resupply. The food system is one of the most significant daily factors that can be altered to improve human health, and performance during space exploration. Therefore, the paramount importance of determining the methods, technologies, and requirements to provide a safe, nutritious, and acceptable food system that promotes crew health and performance cannot be underestimated. The processed and prepackaged food system is the main source of nutrition to the crew, therefore significant losses in nutrition, either through degradation of nutrients during processing and storage or inadequate food intake due to low acceptability, variety, or usability, may significantly compromise the crew's health and performance. Shelf life studies indicate that key nutrients and quality factors in many space foods degrade to concerning levels within three years, suggesting that food system will not meet the nutrition and acceptability requirements of a long duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit. Likewise, mass and volume evaluations indicate that the current food system is a significant resource burden. Alternative provisioning strategies, such as inclusion of bioregenerative foods, are challenged with resource requirements, and food safety and scarcity concerns. Ensuring provisioning of an adequate food system relies not only upon determining technologies, and requirements for nutrition, quality, and safety, but upon establishing a food system that will support nutritional adequacy, even with individual crew preference and self-selection. In short, the space food system is challenged to maintain safety, nutrition, and acceptability for all phases of an exploration mission within resource constraints. This document presents the

  20. Racial and Social Class Differences in How Parents Respond to Inadequate Achievement: Consequences for Children's Future Achievement. (United States)

    Robinson, Keith; Harris, Angel L


    Despite numerous studies on parental involvement in children's academic schooling, there is a dearth of knowledge on how parents respond specifically to inadequate academic performance. This study examines whether 1) racial differences exist in parenting philosophy for addressing inadequate achievement, 2) social class has implications for parenting philosophy, and 3) parents' philosophies are consequential for children's academic achievement. Using data from the Child Development Supplement (N=1041) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we sort parents into two categories-those whose parenting repertoires for addressing poor achievement include punitive responses and those whose repertoires do not. We then determine whether racial differences exist between these categories and how various responses within the aforementioned categories are related to students' academic achievement. The findings show that white and black parents have markedly different philosophies on how to respond to inadequate performance, and these differences appear to impact children's achievement in dramatically different ways. Educators and policy makers should pay particular attention to how parents respond to inadequate achievement as imploring parents of inadequately performing students to be more involved without providing them with some guidance might exacerbate the problem.

  1. Public health safety and environment in inadequate hospital and healthcare settings: a review. (United States)

    Baguma, D


    Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchscherer Margret


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 13, low (LP, 6.5%; n = 15, or high (HP, 30%; n = 14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P P P P + cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P P = 0.09 and HP (P P  Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

  3. Dutch healthcare professionals inadequately perceived if three- and four-year-old preschool children were overweight. (United States)

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Broens, Jasper; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J


    We studied whether healthcare professionals adequately perceived if preschool children were overweight and whether this was influenced by their own body mass index (BMI). We sent 716 Dutch healthcare professionals questionnaires containing seven pictures and seven sketches of three- and four-year-old children showing body weights from underweight to morbidly obese. The professionals rated the pictures on a five-point scale from too heavy to too light and chose the sketch that they felt best depicted the child's body shape. They also reported their own height and weight and their BMI was calculated. Of the 716 questionnaires, 346 (48.3%) were returned with complete information and analysed. Healthcare professionals mostly chose sketches that showed children as being lighter than they really were. Depending on their own BMI group, the overweight child was perceived as having a normal weight by 74-79% of the healthcare professionals. The obese children were rated correctly by 44-52% of the professionals, but 14-15% said their weight was normal. The morbidly obese child was adequately assessed by 93-98% of the professionals. Healthcare professionals inadequately perceived whether three- and four-year-old children were overweight and this may have hindered early interventions, leading to overweight children becoming overweight adolescents. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Inadequate child supervision: The role of alcohol outlet density, parent drinking behaviors, and social support. (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Kepple, Nancy J


    Supervisory neglect, or the failure of a caregiver to appropriately supervise a child, is one of the predominant types of neglectful behaviors, with alcohol use being considered a key antecedent to inadequate supervision of children. The current study builds on previous work by examining the role of parental drinking and alcohol outlet densities while controlling for caregiver and child characteristics. Data were obtained from 3,023 participants via a telephone survey from 50 cities throughout California. The telephone survey included items on neglectful parenting practices, drinking behaviors, and socio-demographic characteristics. Densities of alcohol outlets were measured for each of the 202 zip codes in the study. Multilevel Bernoulli models were used to analyze the relationship between four supervisory neglect parenting practices and individual-level and zip code-level variables. In our study, heavy drinking was only significantly related to one of our four outcome variables (leaving a child where he or she may not be safe). The density of on premise alcohol outlets was positively related to leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. This study demonstrates that discrete relationships exist between alcohol related variables, social support, and specific supervisory neglect subtypes at the ecological and individual levels.

  5. Increasing Trends in Orthopedic Fellowships Are Not due to Inadequate Residency Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Almansoori


    Full Text Available Orthopedic residents have one of the highest fellowship participation rates among medical specialities and there are growing concerns that inadequate residency training may be contributing to this trend. Therefore, a mixed-exploratory research survey was distributed to all 148 graduating Canadian orthopedic residents to investigate their perceptions and attitudes for pursuing fellowships. A response rate of 33% (n=49 was obtained with the majority of residents undertaking one (27% or two (60% fellowships. Surgical-skill development was reported as the most common motivating factor, followed by employment and marketability; malpractice protection and financial reasons were the least relevant. The overwhelming majority of residents (94%, n=46 felt adequately prepared by their residency training for independent general practice, and 84% (n=41 of respondents did not feel that current fellowship trends were due to poor residency training. Three common themes were expressed in their comments: the growing perceived expectation by healthcare professionals and employers to be fellowship-certified, the integration of fellowship training into the surgical education hierarchy, and the failure of residency training curriculums to accommodate for this trend. In conclusion, Canadian orthopedic residents are confident of their residency training and are increasingly pursuing fellowships to primarily develop their surgical skills and expertise.

  6. The challenge of inadequate achievement in mathematics: Focus on a meta-approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobus Maree


    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, all stakeholders in South Africa are deeply concerned about the level and scope of underachievement in mathematics, not only at Grade 12 level, but, indeed, at University, University of Technology and Further Education and Training levels. These concerns assume a deeper dimension in light of the fact that inadequate achievement in mathematics inevitably will have a ripple effect on the academic situation in any country: inadequate achievement in mathematics precludes learners from applying for admission to sought-after fi elds of study, which, in turn, prevents numerous learners from realising their true potential and, eventually, from being happy and successful in careers that they might otherwise have been able to execute successfully. It goes without saying that inadequate achievement in mathematics will impact negatively on the overall economic situation in any country (even more so in a developing country such as South Africa. Truth being, achievement in mathematics amounts to equipping oneself with survival skills. In this article, the spotlight shifts from a narrow and outdated focus on problems that are associated with inadequate achievement in mathematics to possible solutions for this disconcerting situation and the implied challenge it raises. The focus is thus on three levels that collectively underpin and impact on achievement in mathematics, viz. the macro level, the meso level and the micro level. The macro level refers mainly to the input by the national government (and, by default, the National Department of Education. In the fi rst instance, it is the responsibility of the state to provide adequate schooling facilities for all learners, irrespective of where they fi nd themselves. Furthermore, it is the duty of the state to ensure that every learner has access to basic facilities, including food, water, sanitation and housing. The state (via the National Department of Education is also

  7. Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Onyeji, Ijeoma


    We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ► We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ► Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ► Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

  8. Creating High Quality DEMs of Large Scale Fluvial Environments Using Structure-from-Motion (United States)

    Javernick, L. A.; Brasington, J.; Caruso, B. S.; Hicks, M.; Davies, T. R.


    During the past decade, advances in survey and sensor technology have generated new opportunities to investigate the structure and dynamics of fluvial systems. Key geomatic technologies include the Global Positioning System (GPS), digital photogrammetry, LiDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The application of such has resulted in a profound increase in the dimensionality of topographic surveys - from cross-sections to distributed 3d point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs). Each of these technologies have been used successfully to derive high quality DEMs of fluvial environments; however, they often require specialized and expensive equipment, such as a TLS or large format camera, bespoke platforms such as survey aircraft, and consequently make data acquisition prohibitively expensive or highly labour intensive, thus restricting the extent and frequency of surveys. Recently, advances in computer vision and image analysis have led to development of a novel photogrammetric approach that is fully automated and suitable for use with simple compact (non-metric) cameras. In this paper, we evaluate a new photogrammetric method, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), and demonstrate how this can be used to generate DEMs of comparable quality to airborne LiDAR, using consumer grade cameras at low costs. Using the SfM software PhotoScan (version 0.8.5), high quality DEMs were produced for a 1.6 km reach and a 3.3 km reach of the braided Ahuriri River, New Zealand. Photographs used for DEM creation were acquired from a helicopter flying at 600 m and 800 m above ground level using a consumer grade 10.1mega-pixel, non-metric digital camera, resulting in object space resolution imagery of 0.12 m and 0.16 m respectively. Point clouds for the two study reaches were generated using 147 and 224 photographs respectively, and were extracted automatically in an arbitrary coordinate system; RTK-GPS located ground control points (GCPs) were used to define a 3d non

  9. High quality uniform YBCO film growth by the metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.S., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Beihang University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Dingchen Superconducting Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Z.L. [Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Beihang University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, L. [Applied superconductivity research center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao, L.K.; Liu, J. [Beijing Dingchen Superconducting Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China)


    Highlights: • High quality double-sided YBCO films are fabricated on LaAlO3 substrates by TFA-MOD method with diameters up to 2 in. • Large area YBCO films were very uniform in microstructure and thickness distribution, an average inductive Jc in excess of 6 MA/cm{sup 2} and low R{sub s} (10 GHz) of 0.3 mΩ at 77 K were obtained. • It will greatly promoted the research and applications of large-area YBCO films by chemical solution method. - Abstract: A need exists for the large-area superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) films with high critical current density for microwave communication and/or electric power applications. Trifluoroacetic metalorganic (TFA-MOD) method is a promising low cost technique for large-scale production of YBCO films, because it does not need high vacuum device and is easily applicable to substrates of various shape and size. In this paper, double-sided YBCO films with maximum 2 in diameter were prepared on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by TFA-MOD method. Inductive critical current densitiy J{sub c}, microwave surface resistance R{sub s}, as well as the microstructure were characterized. A newly homemade furnace system was used to epitaxially grown YBCO films, which can improve the uniformity of YBCO film significantly by gas supply and temperature distribution proper design. Results showed that the large area YBCO films were very uniform in microstructure and thickness distribution, an average inductive J{sub c} in excess of 6 MA/cm{sup 2} with uniform distribution, and low R{sub s} (10 GHz) below 0.3 mΩ at 77 K were obtained. Andthe film filter may be prepared to work at temperatures lower than 74 K. These results are very close to the highest value of YBCO films made by conventional vacuum method, so we show a very promising route for large-scale production of high quality large-area YBCO superconducting films at a lower cost.

  10. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls. (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador


    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country

  12. Risk Factors for Inadequate Defibrillation Safety Margins Vary With the Underlying Cardiac Disease: Implications for Selective Testing Strategies. (United States)

    Bonnes, Judith L; Westra, Sjoerd W; Bouwels, Leon H R; DE Boer, Menko Jan; Brouwer, Marc A; Smeets, Joep L R M


    In view of the shift from routine toward no or selective defibrillation testing, optimization of the current risk stratification for inadequate defibrillation safety margins (DSMs) could improve individualized testing decisions. Given the pathophysiological differences in myocardial substrate between ischemic and nonischemic heart disease (IHD/non-IHD) and the accompanying differences in clinical characteristics, we studied inadequate DSMs and their predictors in relation to the underlying etiology. Cohort of routine defibrillation tests (n = 785) after first implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)-implantations at the Radboud UMC (2005-2014). A defibrillation threshold >25 J was regarded as an inadequate DSM. In total, 4.3% of patients had an inadequate DSM; in IHD 2.5% versus 7.3% in non-IHD (P = 0.002). We identified a group of non-IHD patients at high risk (13-42% inadequate DSM); the remainder of the cohort (>70%) had a risk of only 2% (C-statistic entire cohort 0.74; C-statistic non-IHD 0.82). This was based upon two identified interaction terms: (1) non-IHD and age (aOR 0.94 [95% CI 0.91-0.97]); (2) non-IHD and the indexed left ventricular (LV) internal diastolic diameter (aOR 3.50 [95% CI 2.10-5.82]). The present study on risk stratification for an inadequate DSM not only confirms the importance of making a distinction between IHD and non-IHD, but also shows that risk factors in an entire cohort (LV dilatation, age) may only apply to a subgroup (non-IHD). Appreciation of this concept could favorably affect current risk stratification. If confirmed, our approach may be used to optimize individualized testing decisions in an upcoming era of non-routine testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Income-related inequalities in inadequate dentition over time in Australia, Brazil and USA adults. (United States)

    Peres, Marco A; Luzzi, Liana; Peres, Karen G; Sabbah, Wael; Antunes, Jose L; Do, Loc G


    To assess changes over time of the absolute and relative household income-related inequalities in inadequate dentition (ID) among Australians, Brazilians and USA adults. This study used nationwide oral health survey data from Australia (n = 1200 in 1999; n = 2729 in 2005), Brazil (n = 13 431 in 2003; n = 9779 in 2010) and USA (n = 2542 in 1999; n = 1596 in 2005). Absolute income inequalities were calculated using Absolute Concentration Index (ACI) and Slope Index of Inequality (SII), while relative inequalities were calculated using Relative Concentration Index (RCI) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Prevalence of ID in the studied period dropped from 8.7% to 3.1% in Australia; from 42.1% to 22.4% in Brazil; and remained stable in USA, nearly 8.0%. Absolute income inequalities were highest in Brazil, followed by the USA and Australia; relative inequalities were lower in Brazil than in Australia and the USA. ID was higher among Brazilian females (2010) and for the poorest group in all countries and periods. A remarkable reduction in absolute inequalities were found in Australia [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and AIC 60%] and in Brazil (SII 25%; ACI 33%) while relative inequalities increased both in Australia (RCI and RII 40%) and in Brazil (RCI 24%; RII 38%). No changes in absolute and relative income inequalities were found in the USA. There were still persistent absolute and relative income inequalities in ID in all examined countries. There has been a reduction in absolute income inequalities in ID but an increase in relative income inequalities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Inadequate dietary intake of children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Caetano, Michelle C; Ortiz, Thaís T; Terreri, Maria Teresa S R L A; Sarni, Roseli O S; Silva, Simone G L; Souza, Fabíola I S; Hilário, Maria Odete E


    To evaluate the dietary intake of children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) using a 24-hour diet recall and relating it to the patients' clinical and anthropometric characteristics and to the drugs used in their treatment. By means of a cross-sectional study, we assessed the 24-hour diet recalls of outpatients. Their nutritional status was classified according to the CDC (2000). The computer program NutWin UNIFESP-EPM was used for food intake calculation. The Recommended Dietary Allowances and the Brazilian food pyramid were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Median age was 12 years for JIA patients and 16.5 years for JSLE patients. Among the JIA patients, 37.5% had active disease, and among the JSLE patients, 68.2% showed Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) > 4. Malnutrition was found in 8.3 and 4.5% of the JIA and JSLE patients, respectively, and obesity was present in 16.7 and 18.2%. For JIA patients, the excessive intake of energy, protein, and lipids was 12.5, 75, and 31.3%, respectively. For JSLE patients, the excessive intake of energy, protein, and lipids was 13.6, 86.4, and 36.4%, respectively. Low intake of iron, zinc, and vitamin A was found in 29.2 and 50, 87.5 and 86.4, and 87.5 and 95.2% of the JIA and JSLE patients, respectively. There was not a significant association between intake, disease activity, and nutritional status. Patients with rheumatic diseases have inadequate dietary intake. There is excessive intake of lipids and proteins and low intake of micronutrients.

  15. Proposed biodiversity conservation areas: gap analysis and spatial prioritization on the inadequately studied Qinghai Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqiang Li


    Full Text Available Global biodiversity priorities are primarily addressed through the establishment or expansion of conservation areas (CAs. Spatial prioritization of these CAs can help minimize biodiversity loss by accounting for the uneven distribution of biodiversity and conservation considerations (e.g., accessibility, cost, and biodiversity threats. Furthermore, optimized spatial priorities can help facilitate the judicious use of limited conservation resources by identifying cost effective CA designs. Here, we demonstrate how key species and ecosystems can be incorporated into systematic conservation planning to propose the expansion and addition of new CAs in the biodiversity-unique and data-poor region of Qinghai Plateau, China. We combined species distribution models with a systematic conservation planning tool, MARXAN to identify CAs for biodiversity on Qinghai Plateau. A set of 57 optimal CAs (273,872 km2, 39.3 % of this Province were required to achieve the defined conservation targets in Qinghai Province. We also identified 29 new CAs (139,216 km2, 20% of Qinghai Province outside the existing nature reserve (NRs that are necessary to fully achieve the proposed conservation targets. The conservation importance of these 29 new CAs was also indicated, with 10 labeled as high priority, 11 as medium priority, and 8 as low priority. High priority areas were more abundant in the eastern and southeastern parts of this region. Our results suggest that many species remain inadequately protected within the Qinghai Plateau, with conservation gaps in eastern and northwestern regions. The proposed more representative and effective CAs can provide useful information for adjusting the existing NRs and developing the first National Park in China.

  16. Comparison of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ho Kim


    Full Text Available BackgroundWe compared the efficacies of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily relative to pioglitazone (15 mg once daily as an add-on treatment to metformin for reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThe present study was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled investigation comparing the effects of vildagliptin and pioglitazone in Korean patients receiving a stable dose of metformin but exhibiting inadequate glycemic control. Each patient underwent a 16-week treatment period with either vildagliptin or pioglitazone as an add-on treatment to metformin.ResultsThe mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline were –0.94% in the vildagliptin group and –0.6% in the pioglitazone group and the difference between the treatments was below the non-inferiority margin of 0.3%. The mean changes in postprandial plasma glucose (PPG levels were –60.2 mg/dL in the vildagliptin group and –38.2 mg/dL in the pioglitazone group and these values significantly differed (P=0.040. There were significant decreases in the levels of total, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol in the vildagliptin group but increases in the pioglitazone group. The mean change in body weight was –0.07 kg in the vildagliptin group and 0.69 kg in the pioglitazone group, which were also significantly different (P=0.002.ConclusionAs an add-on to metformin, the efficacy of vildagliptin for the improvement of glycemic control is not inferior to that of pioglitazone in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, add-on treatment with vildagliptin had beneficial effects on PPG levels, lipid profiles, and body weight compared to pioglitazone.

  17. Inadequately marketing our brand: Medical student awareness of acute care surgery. (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephanie C; Privette, Alicia R; Ferguson, Pamela L; Mirdamadi, Meena; Fakhry, Samir M


    Despite focused national efforts to promote acute care surgery (ACS), little is known about medical student awareness of ACS as a career choice. The impending shortage of general surgeons emphasizes the need to increase interest in this comprehensive surgical specialty. The goal of this study was to determine whether students would be more likely to consider choosing ACS if they were aware of the specialty and its benefits. A survey was distributed electronically to medical students at our institution, a Level I trauma center with an active ACS service. The survey asked questions regarding specialty choice and factors that were used in making that decision. Also included were questions regarding their familiarity and affinity for ACS. The survey was returned by 518 students. Each medical school year was proportionately represented. Twenty-one percent of the students reported surgery as their career choice; however, women were half as likely to choose surgery as men. When asked to define ACS, 23% of all students gave the correct response. Only 8.9% of the students in the preclinical years correctly defined ACS. Even in the clinical years, 54% were unaware of ACS as a specialty. Students reported that the top factors that influenced their choice were controllable lifestyle, predictable schedule, and a positive medical school role model. When asked to identify what would make ACS appealing, a 50-hour work week was deemed most influential. When given the definition of ACS with approximate pay and on-call hours, 41.5% of the students and 75% of those interested in surgery would be likely to choose ACS as a career. This study highlights that awareness of ACS as a specialty is lacking. This may reflect inadequate marketing of our "brand" both locally and nationally. Focused efforts at familiarizing students with ACS and increased role modeling may increase interest in ACS.

  18. Anemia in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients with Markers of Inadequate Bone Marrow Response. (United States)

    Arbel, Yaron; Milwidsky, Assi; Finkelstein, Ariel; Halkin, Amir; Revivo, Miri; Berliner, Shlomo; Ellis, Martin; Herz, Itzhak; Keren, Gad; Banai, Shmuel


    Anemia confers an adverse prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several mechanisms have been implicated in the etiology of anemia in this setting, including inflammation, blood loss, and the presence of comorbidities such as renal failure. To evaluate the adequacy of bone marrow response as potentially reflected by elevation in blood and reticulocyte counts. Consecutive men with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset and who presented to our catheterization laboratory during a 36 month period were included in the study. The cohort was divided into quartiles according to hemoglobin concentration, and differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics between the groups were evaluated. A total of 258 men with STEMI were recruited, 22% of whom suffered from anemia according to the World Health Organization classification (hemoglobin < 13 g/dl). Men in the lowest quartile of hemoglobin concentration presented with significantly lower white blood cell and platelet counts (9.6 ± 2.9 vs. 12.6 ± 3.6 x 103/μl, P < 0.001) and (231 ± 79 vs. 263 ± 8 x 103/μl, P < 0.01), respectively, despite higher inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) compared with patients in the upper hemoglobin concentration quartile. Reticulocyte production index was not significantly higher in anemic patients, with a value of 1.8, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 in the ascending hemoglobin quartiles, respectively (P = 0.292). Anemic men with STEMI have relatively lower leukocyte and platelet counts as well as a reduced reticulocyte count despite higher inflammatory biomarkers. These findings might suggest inadequate bone marrow response.

  19. Cubic zirconia as a high-quality facet coating for semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.K.; Satyanarayan, A.; Zarrabi, J.H.; Vetterling, W.


    In this paper we describe the properties of high-quality, semiconductor laser facet coatings based on yttria-stabilizied cubic zirconia (90-m% ZrO/sub 2//10-m% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/). We have found that cubic zirconia films can be reproducibly deposited by electron-beam evaporation with an index of refraction of 1.98 at 6328 A, almost ideal for use as a single-layer antireflection coating for GaAs/GaAlAs-based lasers. ZrO/sub 2/ has a monoclinic crystal structure at room temperature, but changes to tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic phases upon heating to higher temperatures. However, the addition of the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ stabilizes ZrO/sub 2/ in the cubic form, thus allowing electron-beam deposition of thin films of this material to be more controllable and reproducible without the usual addition of oxygen into the vacuum chamber during deposition. Preliminary aging tests of high-power GaAs/GaAlAs lasers show that cubic zirconia films suppress the photo-enhanced oxidation of laser facets that degrades device performance.

  20. Chemical and biological studies on producing high quality biscuits with irradiated tomato wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.


    The present investigation has been carried out to produce high quality biscuits for treatment of some special diseases. In this study, the total tomato processing wastes were used as new source of protein in which the most predominate elements were found to be phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acid, while lysine was the second limiting amino acid. It was found to contain about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processing wastes remain unutilized and they not only add to the disposal problem, but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato wastes were irradiated in two doses (1.5 and 2.5 KGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% tomato wastes. All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated tomato wastes. The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. Internal organs were also followed. The results obtained showed that 15% tomato wastes biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36, 2.72 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiation on the rats internal organs

  1. Genetic and geochemical signatures to prevent frauds and counterfeit of high-quality asparagus and pistachio. (United States)

    Zannella, Carmela; Carucci, Francesca; Aversano, Riccardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Vingiani, Simona; Carputo, Domenico; Adamo, Paola


    A fingerprinting strategy based on genetic (simple sequence repeat) and geochemical (multielement and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio) analysis was tested to prove the geographical origin of high-quality Italian products "White Asparagus from Bassano del Grappa" and "Green Pistachio from Bronte". Genetic analysis generated many polymorphic alleles and different specific amplified fragments in both agriproducts. In addition, a core set of markers was defined. According to variability within production soils and products, potential candidate elements linking asparagus (Zn, P, Cr, Mg, B, K) and pistachio (Mn, P, Cr, Mg, Ti, B, K, Sc, S) to the production areas were identified. The Sr isotopic signature was an excellent marker when Italian asparagus was compared with literature data for Hungarian and Peruvian asparagus. This work reinforces the use of Sr isotope composition in the soil bioavailable fraction, as assessed by 1mol/L NH 4 NO 3 , to distinguish white asparagus and pistachio originating from different geographical areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical student perspectives of what makes a high-quality teaching practice. (United States)

    Macallan, Jennifer; Pearson, David


    Primary care has seen increasing involvement in undergraduate medical education following recommendation from the GMC in Tomorrow's Doctors. This is also influenced by an increasing number of medical students and changing patterns of health care. The variety of practices involved in delivering undergraduate primary care placements poses a challenge for the quality of these placements. The variety of learners in primary care may also affect this. To reflect this, Cotton et al in 2009 produced a national consensus list of quality criteria for community-based education using a variety of medical education stakeholders. This paper seeks to explore the medical student perspective of what makes a high-quality teaching practice. This study uses focus group interviewing to explore student perspectives of the range of factors that can contribute towards the quality of a primary care placement. Previous research into student perspectives of teaching in primary care has revealed a strong focus on tutor quality. Students in this study again highlighted the important of good GP tutors and organisation of placements. However, one novel finding was the emphasis that students placed on involving patients in teaching and the vital role that they play in this.

  3. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols. (United States)

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta


    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A high quality Arabidopsis transcriptome for accurate transcript-level analysis of alternative splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Runxuan


    Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript and protein isoforms from the same gene and thus is important in gene expression regulation. To date, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is the standard method for quantifying changes in alternative splicing on a genome-wide scale. Understanding the current limitations of RNA-seq is crucial for reliable analysis and the lack of high quality, comprehensive transcriptomes for most species, including model organisms such as Arabidopsis, is a major constraint in accurate quantification of transcript isoforms. To address this, we designed a novel pipeline with stringent filters and assembled a comprehensive Reference Transcript Dataset for Arabidopsis (AtRTD2) containing 82,190 non-redundant transcripts from 34 212 genes. Extensive experimental validation showed that AtRTD2 and its modified version, AtRTD2-QUASI, for use in Quantification of Alternatively Spliced Isoforms, outperform other available transcriptomes in RNA-seq analysis. This strategy can be implemented in other species to build a pipeline for transcript-level expression and alternative splicing analyses.

  5. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae


    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10-3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  6. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra virgin olive oils. (United States)

    Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Popp, Martin; Bongartz, Annette


    Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves - which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds - may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping - but not discriminatory - effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the 'ripe fruity' and 'sweet' axis and opposite to the 'bitter' and 'other attributes' (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. High-quality monolayer superconductor NbSe2grown by chemical vapour deposition. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Huang, Xiangwei; Lin, Junhao; Cui, Jian; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Fucai; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xuewen; He, Haiyong; Tsang, Siu Hon; Gao, Weibo; Suenaga, Kazu; Ma, Fengcai; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li; Yu, Ting; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Liu, Guangtong; Liu, Zheng


    The discovery of monolayer superconductors bears consequences for both fundamental physics and device applications. Currently, the growth of superconducting monolayers can only occur under ultrahigh vacuum and on specific lattice-matched or dangling bond-free substrates, to minimize environment- and substrate-induced disorders/defects. Such severe growth requirements limit the exploration of novel two-dimensional superconductivity and related nanodevices. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of superconductivity in a chemical vapour deposition grown monolayer material-NbSe 2 . Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope imaging reveals the atomic structure of the intrinsic point defects and grain boundaries in monolayer NbSe 2 , and confirms the low defect concentration in our high-quality film, which is the key to two-dimensional superconductivity. By using monolayer chemical vapour deposited graphene as a protective capping layer, thickness-dependent superconducting properties are observed in as-grown NbSe 2 with a transition temperature increasing from 1.0 K in monolayer to 4.56 K in 10-layer.Two-dimensional superconductors will likely have applications not only in devices, but also in the study of fundamental physics. Here, Wang et al. demonstrate the CVD growth of superconducting NbSe2 on a variety of substrates, making these novel materials increasingly accessible.

  8. Comparative study of active plasma lenses in high-quality electron accelerator transport lines (United States)

    van Tilborg, J.; Barber, S. K.; Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Isono, F.; Tsai, H.-E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.


    Electrically discharged active plasma lenses (APLs) are actively pursued in compact high-brightness plasma-based accelerators due to their high-gradient, tunable, and radially symmetric focusing properties. In this manuscript, the APL is experimentally compared with a conventional quadrupole triplet, highlighting the favorable reduction in the energy dependence (chromaticity) in the transport line. Through transport simulations, it is explored how the non-uniform radial discharge current distribution leads to beam-integrated emittance degradation and a charge density reduction at focus. However, positioning an aperture at the APL entrance will significantly reduce emittance degradation without additional loss of charge in the high-quality core of the beam. An analytical model is presented that estimates the emittance degradation from a short beam driving a longitudinally varying wakefield in the APL. Optimizing laser plasma accelerator operation is discussed where emittance degradation from the non-uniform discharge current (favoring small beams inside the APL) and wakefield effects (favoring larger beam sizes) is minimized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause


    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  10. Operation of a high quality-factor gyroscope in electromechanical nonlinearities regime (United States)

    Taheri-Tehrani, P.; Defoort, M.; Horsley, D. A.


    This paper describes the operation of a high quality factor gyroscope in various regimes where electromechanical nonlinearities introduce different forms of amplitude-frequency (A-f) dependence. Experiments are conducted using an epitaxially-encapsulated 2  ×  2 mm2 quad-mass gyroscope (QMG) with a quality factor of 85 000. The device exhibits third-order Duffing nonlinearity at low bias voltages (15 V) due to the mechanical nonlinearity in the flexures and at high bias voltages (35 V) due to third-order electrostatic nonlinearity. At intermediate voltages (~26 V), these third-order nonlinearities cancel and the amplitude-frequency dependence is greatly reduced. A model is developed to demonstrate the connection between the electromechanical nonlinearities and the amplitude-frequency dependence, also known as the backbone curve. Gyroscope operation is demonstrated in each nonlinear operating regime and the key performance measures of the gyroscope’s performance, angle random walk (ARW) and bias instability, are measured as a function of drive-mode vibration amplitude. We find that low ARW can be achieved even though the gyroscope’s drive mode exhibits large amplitude-frequency dependence, and that bias instability is largely independent of the operating regime.

  11. Utility of Low Fidelity Manikins for Learning High Quality Chest Compressions. (United States)

    Girish, Meenakshi; Rawekar, Alka; Jose, Sujo; Chaudhari, Umesh; Nanoti, Girish


    Primarily, to measure the adequacy of chest compression depth after training on low fidelity manikins and secondarily to assess the comparative experience of the learners on high fidelity and low fidelity simulators. An observational cohort study in which seventy-two first year postgraduate students underwent a Basic Life Support (BLS) workshop conducted by AHA accredited BLS trainers and they were then required to perform on a high fidelity manikin to objectively record the quality of their performance. There were 34 (47.22%) male and 38 (52.77%) female participants. CPR skills, as judged by checklist of sequential actions and visual inspection during the BLS training on low fidelity simulators (LFS) were correctly performed by majority (95.89%) participants. However, none of the participants could achieve the recommended depth for high quality chest compressions. The participants' perception of degree of realism and their practical experience on both the types of manikins were similar. Low fidelity manikins are useful for training CPR in sequential manner but fail to impart quality of chest compressions as per AHA recommendations.

  12. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks. (United States)

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim


    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  13. An expedient and versatile protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from plant leaves. (United States)

    Vallejos, C Eduardo


    INTRODUCTIONProtocols for extracting plant genomic DNA have to contend with two major challenges: preventing the oxidation of phenolic substances that can react with nucleic acids and proteins, and eliminating polysaccharides that interfere with downstream enzymatic manipulations of DNA. A protocol has been developed in which the above-mentioned substances are removed from the sample before the DNA is removed from the chromatin structure. This protocol requires only two tubes during extraction and a single precipitation step to yield high-quality DNA. DNA extracted with this method has virtually no protein or phenolic contaminants (A(260)/A(280)>1.8), is RNA-free, contains high-molecular-weight fragments according to CHEF electrophoresis, and is fully digestible by restriction enzymes. This protocol has been successfully tested with leaf samples from common bean and corn; with leaves known to be rich in phenolics (tomato and bell pepper), pectins (sweet orange, grapefruit, and peach), or both substances (Muscadine grape); and with leaves that contain latex in the sap (papaya).

  14. Use of artificial intelligence in the production of high quality minced meat (United States)

    Kapovsky, B. R.; Pchelkina, V. A.; Plyasheshnik, P. I.; Dydykin, A. S.; Lazarev, A. A.


    A design for an automatic line for minced meat production according to new production technology based on an innovative meat milling method is proposed. This method allows the necessary degree of raw material comminution at the stage of raw material preparation to be obtained, which leads to production intensification due to the traditional meat mass comminution equipment being unnecessary. To ensure consistent quality of the product obtained, the use of on-line automatic control of the technological process for minced meat production is envisaged. This system has been developed using artificial intelligence methods and technologies. The system is trainable during the operation process, adapts to changes in processed raw material characteristics and to external impacts that affect the system operation, and manufactures meat shavings with minimal dispersion of the typical particle size. The control system includes equipment for express analysis of the chemical composition of the minced meat and its temperature after comminution. In this case, the minced meat production process can be controlled strictly as a function of time, which excludes subjective factors for assessing the degree of finished product readiness. This will allow finished meat products with consistent, targeted high quality to be produced.

  15. [Evaluating the integrated force induced by high quality magnet and elastics in orthodontic fixed appliance]. (United States)

    Hou, Zhi-ming; Chang, Xin; Dai, Xin; Ai, Hong-jun; Yao, Ge; Wen, Jing-long


    To investigate the stability and effective working distance of integrated forces induced by high quality magnet and elastics in orthodontic fixed appliance. N48 NdFeB magnets resembling brackets in size and volume were combined with 1/8, 3/16, 1/4, and 3/8 inch orthodontic elastics respectively to induce integrated forces that had super-long working distance. Magnetic, elastic, and integrated forces were tested by universal material test system and curves of the forces were draw. The characteristics of integrated forces, complementary effects of magnetic and elastic forces, and the proportion between elastic and magnetic forces in integrated forces at different extension distances were analyzed. Unpaired t test was used to analyze the differences between integrated and elastic forces. With the increase of the extension distance, the magnitude of the magnetic forces decreased significantly and the elastic forces increased in a liner manner, while the integrated forces were stable and changed mildly. Four kinds of integrated forces achieved 86 g, 138 g, 163 g, and 192 g stable forces within super-long distance respectively. Magnetic forces accounted for 34.94%-93.98% of the integrated force at 3 mm distance, 12.60%-37.89% at 6 mm distance, and only 2.69%-5.98% at 12 mm distance. The differences between four integrated forces and elastic forces at 3 mm (Pmagnetic and elastic forces were a new ideal stable orthodontic force with super-long working distance.

  16. Stress and deformation of ceramic rolls to produce high quality zinc coated steel sheet (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromasa; Noda, Nao-Aki; Sano, Yoshikazu; Takase, Yasushi; Zhang, Guowei


    Several ceramic rolls can be used efficiently to produce high quality zinc coated steel sheet used for automobiles. Those ceramics rolls may provide a longer life and reduce the cost for the maintenance because of its large heat resistance and large wear resistance. One example may be seen in sink rolls used in molten zinc bath to manufacture zinc coated steel sheet. Since the rolls are subjected to large thermal stress and mechanical loading, care should be taken for the risk of fracture due to the ceramic brittleness. Moreover, since the sleeve and shafts can be connected only by using small shrink fitting ratio, another failure risk should be considered for the separation of those components [25, 26]. In this paper, therefore, the mechanical and thermal stress and separation condition will be investigated considering the separation of the connected portion. Here, by using the finite volume method the heat transfer coefficient is discussed and by using the finite element method the thermal stress is considered.

  17. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng


    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  18. FlexSAR, a high quality, flexible, cost effective, prototype SAR system (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent


    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible research prototype instrument. Radar researchers and practitioners often desire the ability to prototype new or advanced configurations, yet the ability to enhance or upgrade existing radar systems can be cost prohibitive. FlexSAR answers the need for a flexible radar system that can be extended easily, with minimal cost and time expenditures. The design approach focuses on reducing the resources required for developing and validating new advanced radar modalities. Such an approach fosters innovation and provides risk reduction since actual radar data can be collected in the appropriate mode, processed, and analyzed early in the development process. This allows for an accurate, detailed understanding of the corresponding trade space. This paper is a follow-on to last years paper and discusses the advancements that have been made to the FlexSAR system. The overall system architecture is discussed and presented along with several examples illustrating the system utility.

  19. High quality ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanowires for efficient ultraviolet sensing (United States)

    Shao, Dali; Sun, Hongtao; Xin, Guoqing; Lian, Jie; Sawyer, Shayla


    High quality ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) have been fabricated via a facile two-step method: growth of ZnO nanowires by hydrothermal synthesis and then coating of highly uniform TiO2 shell using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell NWs is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation that reduces the band-to-band recombinations. To the contrary, the absorption of the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell NWs in both UV and visible region is enhanced, which is attributed to the antireflection properties of the TiO2 shell. An UV photodetector fabricated from the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell NWs showed a maximum photoresponsivity as high as 495 A/W at 373 nm under -10 V, which is ∼8 times higher than that of the photodetector fabricated from bare ZnO NWs. In addition, the transient response of the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell NWs is improved by 6 times as compared to that of the bare ZnO NWs. The results presented in this work suggest that ZnO-TiO2 core-shell NWs may be promising for various optoelectronics applications including: UV photodetectors, optical switches, optical fibers and solar cells.

  20. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better. (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco


    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  1. A two-step method for the extraction of high-quality RNA from endoscopic biopsies. (United States)

    Wex, Thomas; Treiber, Gerhard; Lendeckel, Uwe; Malfertheiner, Peter


    The use of molecular techniques such as quantitative RT-PCR depends on the quality of cellular RNA. In particular, RNA extraction from endoscopic biopsies is difficult with respect to yield, and especially integrity. Endoscopic biopsies taken from the gastric antrum, corpus and duodenum were subjected to various RNA extraction protocols, and the RNA was used for quantitative RT-PCR. The subsequent use of two methods, (i) a phenol/chloroform extraction and (ii) a column-based extraction method, resulted in a yield of 4.5 microg total RNA per biopsy with reliable quality in 80% of samples. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that only RNA samples that clearly show both 18S- and 28S-RNA bands in agarose gel electrophoresis were suitable for quantitative RT-PCR as shown by expression of corpus-specific pepsinogen C-mRNA and the duodenum-specific multi-drug resistance protein-1 (mdr-1)-mRNA. In partially degraded RNA, pepsinogen C, mdr-1, or beta-actin mRNAs were still detectable, but the quantitative determination gave inconsistent data. The two-step method described here is a suitable option for extracting high-quality RNA from endoscopic biopsies when other standard protocols fail.

  2. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  3. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos


    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  4. Criteria to Extract High-Quality Protein Data Bank Subsets for Structure Users. (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina


    It is often necessary to build subsets of the Protein Data Bank to extract structural trends and average values. For this purpose it is mandatory that the subsets are non-redundant and of high quality. The first problem can be solved relatively easily at the sequence level or at the structural level. The second, on the contrary, needs special attention. It is not sufficient, in fact, to consider the crystallographic resolution and other feature must be taken into account: the absence of strings of residues from the electron density maps and from the files deposited in the Protein Data Bank; the B-factor values; the appropriate validation of the structural models; the quality of the electron density maps, which is not uniform; and the temperature of the diffraction experiments. More stringent criteria produce smaller subsets, which can be enlarged with more tolerant selection criteria. The incessant growth of the Protein Data Bank and especially of the number of high-resolution structures is allowing the use of more stringent selection criteria, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the subsets of the Protein Data Bank.

  5. High-quality RNA preparation from Rhodosporidium toruloides and cDNA library construction therewith. (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Haidong; Zhou, Yongjin; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang


    Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial lipid producer. Therefore, it is important to develop molecular biology tools to understand the basic mechanism for lipid accumulation and further manipulate the microorganism. High-quality RNA extraction from R. toruloides is particularly challenging due to high level of polysaccharides, lipids, and other secondary metabolites. To obtain an optimal protocol for RNA extraction from R. toruloides, four methods were evaluated. Large difference in RNA yield and quality among these protocols was found. The optimum method was modified RNAiso procedure, where RNA was isolated using liquid nitrogen-RNAiso method with salt precipitation and the addition of β-mercaptoethanol. This method consistently recovered RNA in good quality with high yield. Around 297 μg total RNA per gram of cells was obtained with an average purity measured as A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ of 2.09. A titer of 10⁵ cfu/ml could be harvested to construct a full-length cDNA library with the RNA sample in this quality. Electrophoresis gel analysis indicated the fragments ranged from 200 bp to 4.0 kb, with the average size of 1000 bp. Randomly picked clones showed the recombination efficiency at 80%. These results showed that RNA of R. toruloides was successfully extracted for the first time using the modified RNAiso method, and the cDNA library was appropriate for screening the genes related to lipid accumulation.

  6. High-quality three-dimensional reconstruction and noise reduction of multifocal images from oversized samples (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Procházková, Jana; Ficker, Tomáš


    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is an indispensable tool in areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, material sciences, etc. The sample can be reconstructed using confocal or nonconfocal mode of a microscope. The limitation of the confocal approach is the sample size. Currently used devices work mostly with sample surface area up to 1 cm2. We suggest a three-step method that creates 3-D reconstruction from multifocal images in nonconfocal mode that is qualitatively comparable to the confocal results. Our method, thus, takes advantage of both microscope modes-high-quality results without sample size limitation. The preprocessing step eliminates the additive noise with Linderberg-Lévi theorem. The main focus criterion is based on adjusted Fourier transform. In the final step, we eliminate the defective clusters using the adaptive pixel neighborhood algorithm. We proved the effectiveness of our noise reduction and 3-D reconstruction method by the statistical comparisons; the correlation coefficients average 0.987 for all types of Fourier transforms.

  7. An optimized high quality male DNA extraction from spermatophores in open thelycum shrimp species. (United States)

    Planella, Laia; Heras, Sandra; Vera, Manuel; García-Marín, José-Luis; Roldán, María Inés


    The crucial step of most of the current genetic studies is the extraction of DNA of sufficient quantity and quality. Several genomic DNA isolation methods have been described to successfully obtain male DNA from shrimp species. However, all current protocols require invasive handling methods with males for DNA isolation. Using Aristeus antennatus as a model we tested a reliable non-invasive differential DNA extraction method to male DNA isolation from spermatophores attached to female thelycum. The present protocol provides high quality and quantity DNA for polymerase chain reaction amplification and male genotyping. This new approach could be useful to experimental shrimp culture to select sires with relevant genetic patterns for selective breeding programs. More importantly, it can be applied to identify the mating pairs and male structure in wild populations of species as A. antennatus, where males are often difficult to capture. Our method could be also valuable for biological studies on other spermatophore-using species, such as myriapods, arachnids and insects. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. High quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsili, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, NL-5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gaggero, Alessandro; Leoni, Roberto [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy); Li, Lianhe H; Surrente, Alessandro [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPEQ), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Levy, Francis, E-mail: francesco.marsili@epfl.c [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    A very promising way to increase the detection efficiency of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) consists in integrating them with advanced optical structures such as distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and optical waveguides. This requires transferring the challenging SSPD technology from the usual substrates, i.e. sapphire and MgO, to an optical substrate like GaAs, on which DBRs and waveguides can be easily obtained. Therefore, we optimized the deposition process of few-nm thick superconducting NbN films on GaAs and AlAs/GaAs-based DBRs at low temperatures (substrate temperature T{sub S} = 400 {sup 0}C), in order to prevent As evaporation. NbN films ranging from 150 to 3 nm in thickness were then deposited on single-crystal MgO, GaAs, MgO-buffered GaAs and DBRs by current-controlled DC magnetron sputtering (planar, circular, balanced configuration) of Nb in an Ar+N{sub 2} plasma. 5.5 nm thick NbN films on GaAs exhibit T{sub C} = 10.7 K, {Delta}T{sub C} = 1.1 K and RRR = 0.7. The growth of such high quality thin NbN films on GaAs and DBRs has never been reported before.

  9. High-quality-factor planar optical cavities with laterally stopped, slowed, or reversed light. (United States)

    Byrnes, Steven J; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico


    In a planar optical cavity, the resonance frequencies increase as a function of in-plane wavevector according to a standard textbook formula. This has well-known consequences in many different areas of optics, from the shifts of etalon peaks at non-normal angles, to the properties of transverse modes in laser diodes, to the effective mass of microcavity photons, and so on. However, this standard formula is valid only when the reflection phase of each cavity mirror is approximately independent of angle. There is a certain type of mirror-a subwavelength dielectric grating near a guided mode resonance-with not only a strongly angle-dependent reflection phase, but also very high reflectance and low losses. Simulations show that by using such mirrors, high-quality-factor planar cavities can be designed that break all these textbook rules, leading to resonant modes that are slow, stopped or even backward-propagating in the in-plane direction. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally high-Q planar cavities whose resonance frequency is independent of in-plane wavevector-i.e., the resonant modes have zero in-plane group velocity, for one polarization but both in-plane directions. We discuss potential applications in various fields including lasers, quantum optics, and exciton-polariton condensation.

  10. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network: doing good by making high-quality vaccines affordable for all. (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Leite, Luciana C C; Datla, Mahima; Makhoana, Morena; Gao, Yongzhong; Suhardono, Mahendra; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Homma, Akira


    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) is a unique model of a public and private international alliance. It assembles governmental and private organizations to work toward a common goal of manufacturing and supplying high-quality vaccines at affordable prices to protect people around the world from known and emerging infectious diseases. Together, this group of manufacturers has decades of experience in manufacturing vaccines, with technologies, know-how, and capacity to produce more than 40 vaccines types. These manufacturers have already contributed more than 30 vaccines in various presentations that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization for use by global immunization programmes. Furthermore, more than 45 vaccines are in the pipeline. Recent areas of focus include vaccines to protect against rotavirus, human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis E, poliovirus, influenza, and pertussis, as well as combined pentavalent vaccines for children. The network has a growing number of manufacturers that produce a growing number of products to supply the growing demand for vaccines in developing countries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Optimal asymmetry and other motion parameters that characterise high-quality female dance. (United States)

    McCarty, Kristofor; Darwin, Hannah; Cornelissen, Piers L; Saxton, Tamsin K; Tovée, Martin J; Caplan, Nick; Neave, Nick


    Dance is a universal human behaviour that is observed particularly in courtship contexts, and that provides information that could be useful to potential partners. Here, we use a data-driven approach to pinpoint the movements that discriminate female dance quality. Using 3D motion-capture we recorded women whilst they danced to a basic rhythm. Video clips of 39 resultant avatars were rated for dance quality, and those ratings were compared to quantitative measurements of the movement patterns using multi-level models. Three types of movement contributed independently to high-quality female dance: greater hip swing, more asymmetric movements of the thighs, and intermediate levels of asymmetric movements of the arms. Hip swing is a trait that identifies female movement, and the ability to move limbs asymmetrically (i.e. independently of the other) may attest to well-developed motor control, so long as this limb independence does not verge into uncontrolled pathological movement. We also found that the same level of dance quality could be predicted by different combinations of dance features. Our work opens avenues to exploring the functional significance, informational content, and temporal sequencing of the different types of movement in dance.

  12. Design of high quality doped CeO2 solid electrolytes with nanohetero structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Ou, D.R.; Ye, F.; Drennan, J.


    Doped cerium (CeO 2 ) compounds are fluorite related oxides which show oxide ionic conductivity higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia in oxidizing atmosphere. As a consequence of this, a considerable interest has been shown in application of these materials for low (400-650 o C) temperature operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this paper, our experimental data about the influence of microstructure at the atomic level on electrochemical properties were reviewed in order to develop high quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in fuel cell applications. Using this data in the present paper, our original idea for a design of nanodomain structure in doped CeO 2 electrolytes was suggested. The nanosized powders and dense sintered bodies of M doped CeO 2 (M:Sm,Gd,La,Y,Yb, and Dy) compounds were fabricated. Also nanostructural features in these specimens were introduced for conclusion of relationship between electrolytic properties and domain structure in doped CeO 2 . It is essential that the electrolytic properties in doped CeO 2 solid electrolytes reflect in changes of microstructure even down to the atomic scale. Accordingly, a combined approach of nanostructure fabrication, electrical measurement and structure characterization was required to develop superior quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in the fuel cells. (author)

  13. Fabricating High-Quality 3D-Printed Alloys for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Hong


    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM, especially selective laser melting (SLM, has been receiving particular attention because metallic functional structures with complicated configurations can be effectively fabricated using the technique. However, there still exist some future challenges for the fabrication of high-quality SLM products for dental applications. First, the surface quality of SLM products should be further improved by standardizing the laser process parameters or by appropriately post-treating the surface. Second, it should be guaranteed that dental SLM restorations have good dimensional accuracy and, in particular, a good marginal fit. Third, a definitive standard regarding building and scanning strategies, which affect the anisotropy, should be established to optimize the mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of SLM dental structures. Fourth, the SLM substructure’s bonding and support to veneering ceramic should be further studied to facilitate the use of esthetic dental restorations. Finally, the biocompatibility of SLM dental alloys should be carefully examined and improved to minimize the potential release of toxic metal ions from the alloys. Future research of SLM should focus on solving the above challenges, as well as on fabricating dental structures with “controlled” porosity.

  14. New co-spray way to synthesize high quality ZnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Boukerika, A. [Laser Department, Nuclear Research Centre of Algeria, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Lahreche, A. [Science and Technology Department, University of Bejaia, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)


    In the present study, we report for the first time the synthesis of ZnS films using co-spray method, in which the reactants were mixed in the vapor state contrary to that seen in previous spray configurations. In order to obtain the optimum conditions for growing high quality ZnS thin films related to this approach, a series of samples with different Zn:S atomic ratios were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that both solid state and phase formation were strongly dependent on Zn:S atomic ratio. In the absence of sulfur element, pure ZnO phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation was obtained. When one eighth of sulfur was implicated, the (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZnO was broadened and displaced toward lower angles. Once one quarter of sulfur was involved, no discernible diffraction peaks could be seen. Films deposited using solutions with Zn:S ratio of 1:1/2, 1:1 and 1:2 have pure ZnS phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong preferential orientation. Near stoichiometric ZnS films were achieved with Zn:S atomic ratio close to 1:1. All films have high transmittance of about 80% in the visible region.

  15. Hydrolyzed collagen (gelatin decreases food efficiency and the bioavailability of high-quality protein in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cantelli Daud BORDIN


    Full Text Available Objective Although deficient in all indispensable amino acids, gelatin is used in protein-restricted diets. Food efficiency and protein quality of casein and gelatin mixtures in low protein diets in Wistar rats were investigated. Methods The rats were treated with protein-restricted diets (10.0 and 12.5% containing casein (control diets, casein with gelatin mixtures (4:1 of protein content, and gelatin as sources of protein. The food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, relative and corrected protein efficiency ratio, true protein digestibility, and hepatic parameters were estimated. Results After 28 days of the experiment, food efficiency of 10.0% casein/gelatin diet decreased when compared to that of 10.0% casein diet, and the protein efficiency ratio of the casein/gelatin mixtures (10.0%=2.41 and 12.5%=2.03 were lower than those of the casein (10.0%=2.90 and 12.5%=2.32. After 42 days of the experiment, the weight of the liver of the animals treated with 10.0 and 12.5% casein/gelatin diets, and the liver protein retention of the 12.5% casein/gelatin diet group of animals were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion Gelatin decreases food efficiency and high-quality protein bioavailability in protein-restricted diets.

  16. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation (United States)

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Schmehl, Andreas


    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidized half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. As the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds.

  17. High quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with char-supported metallic catalysts. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan


    This study aimed to obtain the maximum possible gas yield and the high quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with rice husk char and rice husk char-supported metallic (Ni, Fe and Cu) catalysts. The rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts had developed pore structure and catalytic activity for gas productions and tar conversion. The temperature-rising characteristic, product yields, properties of gas products and tar conversion mechanisms were investigated. It was found that three rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts improved the microwave absorption capability and increased heating rate and final temperature. Rice husk char-supported Ni catalyst presented most effective effects on gas production, e.g. the gas yield is 53.9%, and the volume concentration of desired syngas is 69.96%. Rice husk char-supported Ni and Fe catalysts played pivotal roles in tar conversion that less heavy compounds can be detected along with the reduction of organic compound number. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Engineering and biotechnological aspects for the manufacturing of high quality fried potato products. (United States)

    Reimerdes, Ernst H; Franke, Knut


    Fried potato products have become very popular foods over the last decades. High quality standards have been established for these products by the food industry including uniform brown color and crispness. During frying, Maillard reactions takes place which contribute to color and taste development in these products. However, safety aspects are also influenced by these reactions, e.g., acrylamide formation. Maintaining high safety standards as well as the expected quality requires systematic research based on an integrated approach including all relevant variables, e.g., raw material properties, processing conditions and equipment concepts. Selected results of these investigations are presented and discussed, regarding influence of composition, e.g., precursor levels for Maillard reactions, treatment of raw materials and addition of reactants to frying fat. It has been demonstrated that a combined treatment of the potato sticks by coating of product surfaces and partial pre-drying can be successfully applied to produce well-browned French fries with lower acrylamide contents. Reductions up to 75% could be reached compared to samples without treatment. Furthermore, addition of a water/oil emulsion containing glutamine in the aqueous phase has been shown to influence Maillard reactions at the product surface, resulting in lower acrylamide contents at the same state of browning.

  19. Is it possible to carry out high-quality epidemiological research in psychiatry with limited resources? (United States)

    Murthy, R Srinivasa; Lakshminarayana, Rashmi


    This review covers the epidemiological research from developing countries to identify the scope of research in the various aspects of epidemiology and the strengths of research. The period covered is June 2004 to June 2005. The literature survey used searches of Medline, key psychiatric journals and personal correspondence with leading psychiatric researchers from developing countries. There is a new interest in epidemiological studies in developing countries. These studies have been driven by three factors, namely international collaboration; specific situations like disasters, terrorism and severe acute respiratory syndrome; and international attention to specific topics like maternal depression. There is limited long-term research on specific conditions. There are a number of leads suggesting local social-cultural factors contribute to the distribution of psychiatric problems. Child psychiatry continues to be low in priority. There is also lack of research in areas such as personality disorders and organic psychiatric disorders. It is possible to carry out high quality epidemiological research in developing countries. Such research has provided new insights into the distribution, causation, course and outcome of mental disorders. There is need for greater attention to the development of epidemiological assessment tools to suit local conditions. Specific centers/institutions developing long-term research interests on specific subjects would be valuable for future efforts. There is also need to widen the conditions to be studied.

  20. Large-area synthesis of high-quality monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes (United States)

    Naylor, Carl H.; Parkin, William M.; Gao, Zhaoli; Kang, Hojin; Noyan, Mehmet; Wexler, Robert B.; Tan, Liang Z.; Kim, Youngkuk; Kehayias, Christopher E.; Streller, Frank; Zhou, Yu Ren; Carpick, Robert; Luo, Zhengtang; Park, Yung Woo; Rappe, Andrew M.; Drndić, Marija; Kikkawa, James M.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie


    Large-area growth of monolayer films of the transition metal dichalcogenides is of the utmost importance in this rapidly advancing research area. The mechanical exfoliation method offers high quality monolayer material but it is a problematic approach when applied to materials that are not air stable. One important example is 1T’-WTe2, which in multilayer form is reported to possess a large non saturating magnetoresistance, pressure induced superconductivity, and a weak antilocalization effect, but electrical data for the monolayer is yet to be reported due to its rapid degradation in air. Here we report a reliable and reproducible large-area growth process for obtaining many monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes. We confirmed the composition and structure of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. We studied the time dependent degradation of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 under ambient conditions, and we used first-principles calculations to identify reaction with oxygen as the degradation mechanism. Finally we investigated the electrical properties of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 and found metallic conduction at low temperature along with a weak antilocalization effect that is evidence for strong spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Theoretical-Experimental study on the electroslag remelting technology of high quality steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles P, E.F.


    This is a theoretical-experimental laboratory study on the Electroslag Remelting Technology (ESRT) of high quality steels. The objective of this study was to analyze the problems that this technology entails and thus facilitate its industrial application in Mexico. The study was carried out using a 1 Kg. capacity furnace, the behavior of different fluxes on the remelting of 1018 AISI carbon steel was established and a slag 70F/15/15 was selected for the remelting of H-13 AISI hot work tool steel. From the experimental results it was possible to establish a flux manufacture route, the electrode conditioning necessary for the experiments, and the critical points of the process. It was demonstrated that the crucible and electrode advance system are the more critical points in the furnace manufacture, that the start up is fundamental for the remelting continuity and that the CaF 2 base slags are more recommendable for special steels refining. It has been proven that it is possible to experiment with little laboratory electroslag furnaces. (Author)

  2. Extraction of High Quality RNA from Cannabis sativa Bast Fibres: A Vademecum for Molecular Biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero


    Full Text Available In plants there is no universal protocol for RNA extraction, since optimizations are required depending on the species, tissues and developmental stages. Some plants/tissues are rich in secondary metabolites or synthesize thick cell walls, which hinder an efficient RNA extraction. One such example is bast fibres, long extraxylary cells characterized by a thick cellulosic cell wall. Given the economic importance of bast fibres, which are used in the textile sector, as well as in biocomposites as green substitutes of glass fibres, it is desirable to better understand their development from a molecular point of view. This knowledge favours the development of biotechnological strategies aimed at improving specific properties of bast fibres. To be able to perform high-throughput analyses, such as, for instance, transcriptomics of bast fibres, RNA extraction is a crucial and limiting step. We here detail a protocol enabling the rapid extraction of high quality RNA from the bast fibres of textile hemp, Cannabis sativa L., a multi-purpose fibre crop standing in the spotlight of research.

  3. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  4. Proton therapy (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  5. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to inadequate consumption of fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre (United States)

    Nagle, Christina M; Wilson, Louise F; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Miura, Kyoko; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M


    Objectives To estimate the number and proportion of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to consumption deficits in fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with inadequate intake of fruit and non-starchy vegetables (oral cavity, pharynx, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach, larynx); inadequate intake of fruit (lung); and insufficient intake of fibre (colorectum). We used standard formulae incorporating prevalence of exposure (1995 National Nutrition Survey) and relative risks from independent studies. Results Overall, 1,555 (1.4% of all) and 311 (0.3% of all) cancers were attributable to inadequate intakes of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. A further 2,609 colorectal cancers (18% of colorectal) were attributable to insufficient fibre intake. If Australians increased their fibre intake by eating the recommended daily intakes of fruit and vegetables, an estimated 1,293 (8.8%) colorectal cancers could be prevented. Conclusions One in six colorectal cancer cases was attributable to inadequate intake of dietary fibre and about 1,800 cancers at other sites were attributable to insufficient fruit and non-starchy vegetable consumption. Implications Increasing the proportion of Australians who consume the recommended intake of fruit, vegetables and fibre could prevent up to 4% of all cancers. PMID:26437726

  6. 20 CFR 411.321 - Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321 Under...

  7. Loss of integrity of thyroid morphology and function in children born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, Marlies J. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; van Rijn, Rick R.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Smit, Bert J.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas


    Context: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH-C) in neonates born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease usually needs T-4 supplementation. The thyroid and its regulatory system have not yet been extensively studied after T-4 withdrawal, until we observed disintegrated thyroid glands

  8. Dialysis Hypotension : A Role for Inadequate Increase in Arginine Vasopressin Levels? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Zittema, Debbie; Kuipers, Johanna; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vart, Priya; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.


    Background: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). Some studies have suggested that inadequate arginine vasopressin (AVP) increase could play a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension. However, AVP levels during HD and its relation to hypotension has

  9. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hoog, Anna H.; Marston, Barbara J.; Ayisi, John G.; Agaya, Janet A.; Muhenje, Odylia; Odeny, Lazarus O.; Hongo, John; Laserson, Kayla F.; Borgdorff, Martien W.


    The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a

  10. Factors explaining inadequate prenatal care utilization by first and second generation non-western women in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.


    Background: In many industrialized western countries non-western women constitute a substantial part of the prenatal care client population. In The Netherlands, these women have also been shown to be more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Explanatory factors for this include, among

  11. Confidence versus Performance as an Indicator of the Presence of Alternative Conceptions and Inadequate Problem-Solving Skills in Mechanics (United States)

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie


    This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory. (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N


    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  13. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T


    vitamin D intakes in adult renal-transplant patients are in many cases inadequate.

  14. The inadequate liability and compensation regime for damage caused by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jon M. Van


    The specific obligation to provide restitution and compensation when nuclear activities cause injuries has been recognized repeatedly and is now certainly part of customary international law. But problems remain regarding how to measure damages, how to implement the duty to repair the injuries, and what specific obligations exist to protect neighboring states from transboundary pollution. Although some treaties exist governing liability for harm resulting from nuclear accidents, they are not adequate to protect victims and have not been widely ratified. The failure to require nuclear operators to prepare for damage that may result from accidents constitutes a subsidy to the nuclear industry and makes it difficult to compare the real costs of nuclear energy with the costs of other energy sources. This survey of settled norms and unresolved issues demonstrates that further work is needed to develop a comprehensive and authoritative regime to govern harm from nuclear activities. Although it is clear that both the operators of nuclear facilities and the states that have jurisdiction over them would be responsible to provide restitution and compensation for such harm under a strict liability regime, the types of injuries that must be compensated and the range of damages that must be covered remain subjects of controversy. Although the underlying customary international law principles (the no-harm principle and the polluter-pays principle) are clear, the actual treaties that have been drafted are inadequate and they have not been widely ratified. Victims of damage from nuclear activities would have difficulty finding a neutral tribunal in which to bring their claims and would face procedural obstacles including caps on liabilities and inappropriately short statutes of limitations as well as difficulties regarding proof of damages. The failure to develop a proper regime that would ensure full restitution and compensation for harm resulting from nuclear facilities

  15. Comparison of three different kits for extraction of high-quality RNA from frozen blood. (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung


    Extraction of high-quality RNA is a crucial step in gene expression profiling. To achieve optimal RNA extraction from frozen blood, the performance of three RNA extraction kits- TRI reagent, PAXgene blood RNA system (PAXgene) and NucleoSpin RNA blood kit (NucleoSpin)- was evaluated. Fifteen blood specimens collected in tubes containing potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and stored at -80°C for approximately 5 years were randomly selected. The yield and purity of RNA, RIN (RNA integrity number) values and cycle threshold (Ct) values were assessed. Mean RNA yields with TRI reagent, PAXgene and NucleoSpin were 15.6 ± 8.7 μg/ml, 3.1 ± 1.7 μg/ml and 9.0 ± 5.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mean A260/280 ratios of RNA for the three kits were 1.7 ± 0.1, 2.0 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.0, and mean RIN values recorded as 3.2 ± 0.8, 6.0 ± 1.1, and 6.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The Ct values of housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, β-actin, RPLP0 and HPRT1, were as follows: TRI reagent (19.2 ± 1.6, 30.6 ± 1.8, 29.9 ± 1.4 and 36.3 ± 1.3), PAXgene 16.6 ± 1.4, 26.4 ± 1.3, 28.2 ± 1.8 and 33.8 ± 1.1), and NucleoSpin (16.3 ± 1.5, 27.2 ± 1.3, 27.0 ± 1.6 and 32.9 ± 1.6). RNA yield using TRI reagent was 1.7 times higher than that with NucleoSpin and 5 times higher than that with PAXgene. However, the purity and integrity of TRI-extracted RNA was lower than that extracted with PAXgene and NucleoSpin. Moreover, the Ct values of housekeeping genes after extraction with TRI reagent were approximately 1.7-3.8 times higher than those obtained with PAXgene and NucleoSpin. The PAXgene and NucleoSpin kits produced similar results in terms of RNA purity and integrity and subsequent gene amplification. However, RNA yields from NucleoSpin were 2.9-fold higher, compared to PAXgene. Based on these findings, we conclude that NucleoSpin is the most effective kit for extraction of abundant and high-quality

  16. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyani Astuti


    (73.11%, and K (70.69% on BETN. The conclusion was that the addition of HQFS of first lactation dairy cow would increase nutrient consumption and crude protein and nitrogen-free extract digestibility. (Key words: High quality feed supplement, Dairy cow, Consumption, Digestibility

  17. Climate trends in a non-traditional high quality wine producing region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto


    Full Text Available The global warming may put pressure over some world's highest quality wine producing regions. This fact indicates the need to evaluate the presence of climate change in non-traditional wine producing regions of the Globe. Therefore, the goals of this study were to detect trends in rainfall and air temperature series obtained from three locations of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (a non-traditional high quality wine producing region and to evaluate the effect of the detected climate trends on agrometeorological indices frequently used to indicate suitable areas for wine production. The trend analyses were applied to maximum and minimum air temperature series, rainfall series and to the following agrometeorological parameters: heliothermal index, cool night index and growing degree-days. These three indices were selected due to their previous use in studies that address the effect of regional climate conditions on the general wine style. The analyses took into account the grape phenological aspects for both summer and winter growing seasons. The results found in this study support the hypothesis of the presence of climate trends in the wine producing regions of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo-Brazil. These trends are mostly linked to changes in the minimum air temperature. The results also reveal a shortening in the duration of grapevines phenological phases and a change to warmer conditions during the ripening Months. These changes are consistent with the climate changes observed in other wine producing regions of the world and may negatively affect the wine production of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo.

  18. Reducing the cycle time of cementing processes for high quality doublets (United States)

    Wilde, C.; Hahne, F.; Langehanenberg, P.; Heinisch, J.


    For the manufacturing of high performance optical systems, centered alignment of the optical surfaces within the assembly is becoming increasingly important. In this contribution, we will present a system for the automated alignment of optical surfaces for the high-throughput manufacturing of cemented doublets (and triplets) with optimized imaging performance. First of all, different concepts for the alignment of doublets etc. are discussed. Standard methods for cementing evaluate mechanical features, such as the outer barrel of one element as reference axis. Using this procedure the optical performance of the assembly that can be achieved is limited by imperfections in the collinearity of the element's barrel axis and its optical axis. Instead, using the optical axis of the bottom element as target axis opens up perspectives for the production of multiplets with perfect symmetric imaging performance. For this concept, all three center of curvature positions of the optical surfaces are measured. Then, the top surface is aligned to the bottom element's optical axis using high-precision actuators. In order to increase the throughput of this procedure, the system is equipped with a novel measurement head that acquires autocollimation images of all three surfaces of a doublet at the same time. Thus, the positions of all surfaces are measured simultaneously during just a single rotation, avoiding both additional rotations and focus movements. Using this approach, cycle times can significantly be reduced from an average of 1 min to less than 10 seconds (w/o curing time). The system is reconfigurable in order to support a wide range of sample designs and enables cementing of high quality optics with centering errors below 2 μm.

  19. Two efficient methods for isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from entomopathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Serna-Domínguez, María G; Andrade-Michel, Gilda Y; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Gallou, Adrien


    Conventional and commercial methods for isolation of nucleic acids are available for fungal samples including entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). However, there is not a unique optimal method for all organisms. The cell wall structure and the wide range of secondary metabolites of EPF can broadly interfere with the efficiency of the DNA extraction protocol. This study compares three commercial protocols: DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen), Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega), and Axygen™ Multisource Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Axygen) and three conventional methods based on different buffers: SDS, CTAB/PVPP, and CTAB/β-mercaptoethanol versus three cell lysis procedures: liquid nitrogen homogenization and two bead-beating materials (i.e., tungsten-carbide and stainless-steel) for four representative species of EPF (i.e., Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella citriformis, Isaria javanica, and Metarhizium anisopliae). Liquid nitrogen homogenization combined with DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (i.e., QN) or SDS buffer (i.e., SN) significantly improved the yield with a good purity (~1.8) and high integrity (>20,000 bp) of genomic DNA in contrast with other methods, also, these results were better when compared with the two bead-beating materials. The purified DNA was evaluated by PCR-based techniques: amplification of translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) and two highly sensitive molecular markers (i.e., ISSR and AFLP) with reliable and reproducible results. Despite a variation in yield, purity, and integrity of extracted DNA across the four species of EPF with the different DNA extraction methods, the SN and QN protocols maintained a high-quality of DNA which is required for downstream molecular applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Madani


    Full Text Available Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users’ orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software’s. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  1. Preparation of high quality ferrovanadium nitride by carbothermal reduction nitridation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y.D.


    Full Text Available High quality ferrovanadium nitride was prepared successfully by carbothermal reduction nitridation process by using V2O5 and Fe as the raw materials. The effects of reaction temperature and C/O molar ratio (content of O is defined as the oxygen in V2O5 on the quality of ferrovanadium nitride were investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that C/O molar ratio had a great influence on the residue carbon, as well as the nitrogen content in the final products. It was found that the nitrogen content of the final product achieved 11.52% when the C/O molar ratio was 90% of the stoichiometric value. However, the nitrogen contents of the final products decreased with the further increase of C/O molar ratio. For the temperature higher than 1773 K, Fe became liquid phase and surrounded the solid V(C, N, O particles tightly. The formation of liquid Fe was beneficial for the further removal of oxygen atoms left in the V(C, N, O lattice, since it provided a liquid tunnel for carbon diffusion which greatly enhanced the reaction kinetics. From the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermodynamic calculations, phase evolution sequence of V2O5 can be obtained as: V2O5→VO2→V2O3→V(C, N, O. Moreover, the kinetic process from V2O3 to VN was studied and the results shown that the reaction rate can be described by Jander diffusion model with the extracted activation energy of 188.173 kJ/mol.

  2. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts (United States)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.


    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  3. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara


    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  4. A high quality diet is associated with reduced systemic inflammation in middle-aged individuals. (United States)

    Dias, Joana Alves; Wirfält, Elisabet; Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Schiopu, Alexandru; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Björkbacka, Harry


    To examine if overall diet quality is associated with cellular and soluble biomarkers of systemic inflammation in middle-aged individuals. A group of 667 individuals, aged 63-68 years, selected from the cardiovascular arm of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, participated in this study. Baseline examinations consisted of an extensive socio-demographic questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and detailed dietary data. Mononuclear leukocytes frozen at baseline were thawed and analysed with flow cytometry to quantify monocyte subsets based on CD14 and CD16 expression. Plasma cytokines were measured using multiplexed immune assays. A diet quality index consisting of six components (saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose) was constructed to measure adherence to the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations/Dietary Guidelines. General linear models were used to investigate associations between index scores and several biomarkers of inflammation. A higher percentage of women reported adherence to the nutritional recommendations and had better overall diet quality than men. Participants with higher diet quality were more likely to have a healthier lifestyle. The levels of high-sensitive CRP, S100A8/A9, TNF-α, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and CD14(+)CD16(++) were lower in participants with higher index scores. The associations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. In this cross-sectional study, we found that a high diet quality is associated with lower systemic inflammation. As the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer is directly correlated with the levels of inflammation, our findings might indicate a protective role of high-quality diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishing High-Quality Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Phantom Simulator Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Nikhil G.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Swanson, David A.; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Mahmood, Usama; Pugh, Thomas J.; Boehling, Nicholas S.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Prestidge, Bradley R.; Crook, Juanita M.; Cox, Brett W.; Potters, Louis; Moran, Brian J.; Keyes, Mira; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.


    Purpose: To design and implement a unique training program that uses a phantom-based simulator to teach the process of prostate brachytherapy (PB) quality assurance and improve the quality of education. Methods and Materials: Trainees in our simulator program were practicing radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents, and fellows of the American Brachytherapy Society. The program emphasized 6 core areas of quality assurance: patient selection, simulation, treatment planning, implant technique, treatment evaluation, and outcome assessment. Using the Iodine 125 ( 125 I) preoperative treatment planning technique, trainees implanted their ultrasound phantoms with dummy seeds (ie, seeds with no activity). Pre- and postimplant dosimetric parameters were compared and correlated using regression analysis. Results: Thirty-one trainees successfully completed the simulator program during the period under study. The mean phantom prostate size, number of seeds used, and total activity were generally consistent between trainees. All trainees met the V100 >95% objective both before and after implantation. Regardless of the initial volume of the prostate phantom, trainees' ability to cover the target volume with at least 100% of the dose (V100) was not compromised (R=0.99 pre- and postimplant). However, the V150 had lower concordance (R=0.37) and may better reflect heterogeneity control of the implant process. Conclusions: Analysis of implants from this phantom-based simulator shows a high degree of consistency between trainees and uniformly high-quality implants with respect to parameters used in clinical practice. This training program provides a valuable educational opportunity that improves the quality of PB training and likely accelerates the learning curve inherent in PB. Prostate phantom implantation can be a valuable first step in the acquisition of the required skills to safely perform PB

  6. Comparative Genomics in Switchgrass Using 61,585 High-Quality Expressed Sequence Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Tobias


    Full Text Available The development of genomic resources for switchgrass ( L., a perennial NAD-malic enzyme type C grass, is required to enable molecular breeding and biotechnological approaches for improving its value as a forage and bioenergy crop. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing is one method that can quickly sample gene inventories and produce data suitable for marker development or analysis of tissue-specific patterns of expression. Toward this goal, three cDNA libraries from callus, crown, and seedling tissues of ‘Kanlow’ switchgrass were end-sequenced to generate a total of 61,585 high-quality ESTs from 36,565 separate clones. Seventy-three percent of the assembled consensus sequences could be aligned with the sorghum [ (L. Moench] genome at a -value of <1 × 10, indicating a high degree of similarity. Sixty-five percent of the ESTs matched with gene ontology molecular terms, and 3.3% of the sequences were matched with genes that play potential roles in cell-wall biogenesis. The representation in the three libraries of gene families known to be associated with C photosynthesis, cellulose and β-glucan synthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and peroxidase activity indicated likely roles for individual family members. Pairwise comparisons of synonymous codon substitutions were used to assess genome sequence diversity and indicated an overall similarity between the two genome copies present in the tetraploid. Identification of EST–simple sequence repeat markers and amplification on two individual parents of a mapping population yielded an average of 2.18 amplicons per individual, and 35% of the markers produced fragment length polymorphisms.

  7. Predictors of Inadequate Prenatal Care in Methamphetamine-Using Mothers in New Zealand and the United States (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M.


    This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socio-economic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care. PMID:22588827

  8. Metabolic disturbances following the use of inadequate solutions for hemofiltration in acute renal failure. (United States)

    Soysal, Demet Demirkol; Karaböcüoğlu, Metin; Citak, Agop; Uçsel, Raif; Uzel, Nedret; Nayir, Ahmet


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become an important supportive therapy for critically ill children with acute renal failure. In Turkey, commercially available diafiltration and replacement fluids cannot be found on the market. Instead, peritoneal dialysis fluids for dialysis and normal saline as replacement fluid are used. The first objective of this study was to examine metabolic complications due to CRRT treatments. The second objective was to determine demographic characteristics and outcomes of patients who receive CRRT. We did a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients treated with CRRT between February and December 2004. Thirteen patients received CRRT; seven survived (53.8%). All patients were treated with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Median patient age was 71.8 +/- 78.8 (1.5-180) months. Hyperglycemia occurred in 76.9% (n=10), and metabolic acidosis occurred in 53.8% (n=7) of patients. Median age was younger (48.8 vs.106.2 months), median urea level (106.2 vs. 71 mg/dl) and percent fluid overload (FO) (17.2% vs. 7.6%, respectively) were higher, and CRRT initiation time was longer (8.6 vs 5.6 days) in nonsurvivors vs. survivors for all patients, although these were not statistically significant. CRRT was stopped in all survivors, and four nonsurvivors (67%) were on renal replacement therapy at the time of death. Hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis were frequently seen in CRRT patients when commercially available diafiltration fluids were not available. Using peritoneal dialysis fluid as dialysate is not a preferable solution. Early initiation of CRRT offered survival benefits to critically ill pediatric patients. Mortality was associated with the primary disease diagnosis.

  9. 75 FR 24892 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the... (United States)


    ... respect to whether striking the language ``suitable for high quality print graphics'' from the description... scope language and in ``(b)'' of the second paragraph) and have corrected the scope language to read..., Indonesia, the Philippines, Ukraine, Thailand, and Peru are all at an economic level of development equally...

  10. A Method for Extracting High-Quality RNA from Diverse Plants for Next-Generation Sequencing and Gene Expression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Yockteng


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: To study gene expression in plants, high-quality RNA must be extracted in quantities sufficient for subsequent cDNA library construction. Field-based collections are often limited in quantity and quality of tissue and are typically preserved in RNAlater. Obtaining sufficient and high-quality yield from variously preserved samples is essential to studies of comparative biology. We present a protocol for the extraction of high-quality RNA from even the most recalcitrant plant tissues. Methods and Results: Tissues from mosses, cycads, and angiosperm floral organs and leaves were preserved in RNAlater or frozen fresh at −80°C. Extractions were performed and quality was measured for yield and purity. Conclusions: This protocol results in the extraction of high-quality RNA from a variety of plant tissues representing vascular and nonvascular plants. RNA was used for cDNA synthesis to generate libraries for next-generation sequencing and for expression studies using quantitative PCR (qPCR and semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR.

  11. Teacher Salaries and the Shortage of High-Quality Teachers in China's Rural Primary and Secondary Schools (United States)

    Xuehui, An


    Teacher salary level and structure are not only important factors affecting the supply of primary and secondary school teachers, but they are also crucial to attracting, training, and retaining high-quality teachers, thereby impacting the overall quality of education and teaching in schools. The reform of China's basic education management system…

  12. Raising the Barre & Stretching the Canvas: Implementing High-Quality Arts Programming in a National Youth Serving Organization (United States)

    McClanahan, Wendy; Hartmann, Tracey A.


    As part of an ongoing, multi-million dollar Wallace Foundation initiative to improve and expand arts learning opportunities for young people, the Wallace Foundation, in partnership with the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), developed the Youth Arts Initiative (YAI) to deliver otherwise inaccessible high-quality arts programs to low-income…

  13. The Effects of Using the Essential Skills Inventory on Teacher Perception of High-Quality Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Sornson, Bob


    This study explores the efficacy of using the Essential Skill Inventories (ESI) to increase high-quality instruction in the early learning years. Kindergarten and first- and second-grade teachers, who were identified as using the ESI with fidelity, assessed their own teaching skills and behaviors, reflecting on these before and after use of the…

  14. High-quality patents for emerging science and technology through external actors: Community scientific experts and knowledge societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico; Rodriguez, V.F.; Bonaccorsi, A.; Borras, S.


    This article explores one type of administrative mechanism to achieve high-quality patents: Article 115 of the European Patent Convention, which permits the inclusion of third parties to provide input to the prior art search and to communicate relevant information to the examiner in charge. Our

  15. High Quality Differentiated Instruction--A Checklist for Teacher Professional Development on Handling Differences in the General Education Classroom (United States)

    Smets, Wouter


    This paper presents a checklist that scaffolds teachers' professional decision-making with regard to differentiated instruction. It discusses the way the concept of differentiated instruction may be applied in an evidence-informed way by presenting a checklist for high-quality differentiated instruction (DI). We tried to tackle the question of how…

  16. 75 FR 39220 - Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION... notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 for the Charter Schools Program Grants for...

  17. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.


    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  18. Diversity in diabetes care programmes and views on high quality diabetes care: are we in need of a standardized framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth A.D. Borgermans


    Full Text Available Methods: A review of systematic reviews was performed. Four databases (MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine, COCHRANE database of Systematic Reviews, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Database-CINAHL and Pre-Cinahl were searched for English review articles published between November 1989 and December 2006. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed. A standardized extraction form was used to assess features of diabetes care programmes and diabetes quality indicators with special reference to those aspects that hinder the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care. Based on these findings the relationship between diversity in diabetes care programmes and the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care was further explored. Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria representing a total of 185 diabetes care programmes. Six elements were identified to produce a picture of diversity in diabetes care programmes and hinder their standardization: 1 the variety and relative absence of conceptual backgrounds in diabetes care programmes, 2 confusion over what is considered a constituent of a diabetes care program and components of the implementation strategy, 3 large variety in type of diabetes care programmes, settings and related goals, 4 a large number and variety in interventions and quality indicators used, 5 no conclusive evidence on effectiveness, 6 no systematic results on costs. Conclusions: There is large diversity in diabetes care programmes and related quality indicators. From this review and our analysis on the mutual relationship between diversity in diabetes care programmes and the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care, we conclude that no single conceptual framework used to date provides a comprehensive overview of attributes of high quality diabetes care linked to quality indicators at the structure, process and outcome level. There is a need for a

  19. Controlling the Color of Lead-Free Red Overglaze Enamels and a Process for Preparing High-Quality Red Paints. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Inada, Hirofumi; Okazaki, Yuki; Takaishi, Taigo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Takada, Jun


    Akae porcelain, an artistic Japanese traditional overglaze ceramic typically known for Kakiemon-style ware, has fascinated porcelain lovers around the world for over 400 years because of the graceful red color displayed by akae that matches so well with white porcelain bodies. In this work, we clarified the factors that control the color of akae and those that are conventionally controlled by artisans based on empirical experience. Inspired by a recent particle-design method, we also developed a practical facile process to prepare red paints that yields high-quality akae. Various akae samples were prepared from a combination of lead-free alkali borosilicate glass frits with different particle sizes and hematite powders with differing dispersibilities. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that considering only the dispersibility of hematite powders is not sufficient, but the frit-particle size must be controlled to obtain high-quality akae with a high reflectance value for ≥580 nm visible light. In addition, we developed a process for preparing high-quality red paints that uses a large-particle frit powder and a strongly aggregated-hematite powder, both of which are easily obtainable. The red paint composed of frit, hematite, and the solvent is mixed until the paint is drying. By adding more solvent and repeating this process three times, we obtained high-quality akae with a higher reflectance value than for the akae prepared from a frit with submicron-sized particles and weakly aggregated-hematite powder. On the basis of transmission electron microscopic observations, we consider the red paint to consist of a core/shell-like composite structure of frit and hematite, forming a three-dimensional network in the akae glass layer. The good dispersibility of these particles leads to high-quality akae.

  20. High Quality Zinc Oxide Thin films and Nanostructures Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductors have been utilized by many researchers, due to its unique properties beneficial for functional devices. In particular, gadolinium (Gd)–doped ZnO exhibits high ferromagnetic and electrical properties, which is attributed to defect/impurity bands mediated by Gd dopants. In this dissertation, I study the effects of Gd concentration, oxygen pressure using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and thermal annealing on the optical and structural properties of undoped and Gd-doped ZnO films and nanostructures. Moreover, as the growth of practical ZnO nanostructures-based devices without catalyst, while presently challenging, is highly important for many applications. Thus, for the first time, a novel method is developed for growing well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) by optimizing PLD conditions using Gd-doped ZnO target without any catalyst in a single step. This study shows that, both the lattice orientation of the substrate and the Gd characteristics are significant in enhancing the NR growth. Our findings reveal that precise control of the NR density can be achieved by changing the oxygen partial pressure. Furthermore, due to the Gd incorporation, these NRs possess favorable electrical properties with a significant mobility of 177 cm2 (V.s)-1 compared to that reported in literature. Nonetheless significant challenges need to be overcome to achieve reproducible and stable p-type ZnO for commercial applications. Hence, several attempts based on n-type ZnO grown on foreign p-type substrates were made to achieve high-performance devices and overcome the issues arising when p-type doped ZnO is employed. Moreover, Growth of ZnO nanostructures on a foreign p-type substrates does not require a lattice-matched p-type substrate. Thus, for the first time, PLD conditions are improved to grow high quality ZnO nanotubes (NTs) with high optical, structural and electrical properties on a p-type Si (100) substrate without catalyst for high-performance devices. A

  1. The Global Seismographic Network (GSN): Challenges and Methods for Maintaining High Quality Network Performance (United States)

    Hafner, Katrin; Davis, Peter; Wilson, David; Sumy, Danielle; Woodward, Bob


    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a 152 station, globally-distributed, permanent network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors. The GSN has been operating for over 20 years via an ongoing successful partnership between IRIS, the USGS, the University of California at San Diego, NSF and numerous host institutions worldwide. The central design goal of the GSN may be summarized as "to record with full fidelity and bandwidth all seismic signals above the Earth noise, accompanied by some efforts to reduce Earth noise by deployment strategies". While many of the technical design goals have been met, we continue to strive for higher data quality with a combination of new sensors and improved installation techniques designed to achieve the lowest noise possible under existing site conditions. Data from the GSN are used not only for research, but on a daily basis as part of the operational missions of the USGS NEIC, NOAA tsunami warning centers, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization as well as other organizations. In the recent period of very tight funding budgets, the primary challenges for the GSN include maintaining these operational capabilities while simultaneously developing and replacing the primary sensors, maintaining high quality data and repairing station infrastructure. Aging of GSN equipment and station infrastructure has resulted in renewed emphasis on developing, evaluating and implementing quality control tools such as MUSTANG and DQA to maintain the high data quality from the GSN stations. These tools allow the network operators to routinely monitor and analyze waveform data to detect and track problems and develop action plans as issues are found. We will present summary data quality metrics for the GSN as obtained via these quality assurance tools. In recent years, the GSN has standardized dataloggers to the Quanterra Q330HR data acquisition system at all but three stations resulting in significantly improved

  2. High quality RNA isolation from Aedes aegypti midguts using laser microdissection microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Geoffrey N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti. Results Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 106 μm2 in the LMM procedure. Conclusions Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while

  3. Task-based statistical image reconstruction for high-quality cone-beam CT (United States)

    Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Xu, Jennifer; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Sisniega, Alejandro; Mow, Michael; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.


    promising regularization method in MBIR by explicitly incorporating task-based imaging performance as the objective. The results demonstrate improved ICH conspicuity and support the development of high-quality CBCT systems.

  4. High-Quality Exome Sequencing of Whole-Genome Amplified Neonatal Dried Blood Spot DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Buchhave Poulsen

    Full Text Available Stored neonatal dried blood spot (DBS samples from neonatal screening programmes are a valuable diagnostic and research resource. Combined with information from national health registries they can be used in population-based studies of genetic diseases. DNA extracted from neonatal DBSs can be amplified to obtain micrograms of an otherwise limited resource, referred to as whole-genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA. Here we investigate the robustness of exome sequencing of wgaDNA of neonatal DBS samples. We conducted three pilot studies of seven, eight and seven subjects, respectively. For each subject we analysed a neonatal DBS sample and corresponding adult whole-blood (WB reference sample. Different DNA sample types were prepared for each of the subjects. Pilot 1: wgaDNA of 2x3.2mm neonatal DBSs (DBS_2x3.2 and raw DNA extract of the WB reference sample (WB_ref. Pilot 2: DBS_2x3.2, WB_ref and a WB_ref replica sharing DNA extract with the WB_ref sample. Pilot 3: DBS_2x3.2, WB_ref, wgaDNA of 2x1.6 mm neonatal DBSs and wgaDNA of the WB reference sample. Following sequencing and data analysis, we compared pairwise variant calls to obtain a measure of similarity--the concordance rate. Concordance rates were slightly lower when comparing DBS vs WB sample types than for any two WB sample types of the same subject before filtering of the variant calls. The overall concordance rates were dependent on the variant type, with SNPs performing best. Post-filtering, the comparisons of DBS vs WB and WB vs WB sample types yielded similar concordance rates, with values close to 100%. WgaDNA of neonatal DBS samples performs with great accuracy and efficiency in exome sequencing. The wgaDNA performed similarly to matched high-quality reference--whole-blood DNA--based on concordance rates calculated from variant calls. No differences were observed substituting 2x3.2 with 2x1.6 mm discs, allowing for additional reduction of sample material in future projects.

  5. Cytotoxic Drugs Departments as a precondition for high-quality product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Głuszek


    a pharmacy becomes the producer and distributor of oncologic drugs. This is related with high requirements concerning the production of drugs (high quality, safety of the engaged staff, as well as participation in a rational management of medicines. According to the FIP, a pharmacy is a public health care facility where work is performed by authorised persons: Masters of Pharmacy and pharmacy technicians. At present the task of a clinical pharmacist also includes the supervision of activities in the area of clinical pharmacy. This is a new task for pharmacists, who are obliged to constantly expand their knowledge and actively participate in the activities of the medical team.

  6. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David


    The Copernicus data publication journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD) represents an important and unique (and by no means final!) step forward in the larger world of data publication. Working with authors, reviewers, editors and data centres, ESSD has successfully produced many high-quality data publications across a wide variety of scientific disciplines, for individual data sets, multiple data sets as the product of scientific consortia and in special issues coordinated with other science journals. The ESSD success also exposes issues and challenges for present and future data publication, particularly around the topic and implementation of persistent identifiers. • As ESSD encourages redundant data sets across multiple data centres for access and archive purposes, how will DOIs be employed to accurately point to those distributed or replicated data? How can authenticity and integrity be verified? • How can or should object identifiers be employed in pointing from raw to quality-controlled and finally derived data processing levels; how can we designate or distinguish among these, particularly as those terms vary substantially among, for example, geophysical and ecological communities? Likewise, how to distinguish an auto-generated data product (e.g a species identification from GBIF) from a high-effort expertly reviewed data product (e.g. an ESSD publication)? • For a growing number of ESSD data publications with expected annual or periodic revisions and updates, how should data journals' and the repositories' use of persistent identifiers best record the subsequent versions, extensions or corrections? • As published data sets become a valued part of high profile science, with attendant deadlines, announcements and publicity, do the various DOI policies and minting practices among cooperating publishers, data centres and journals represent a help or a hindrance? These questions evolve directly from increasing interest in and activity by ESSD and, as

  7. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation. (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh


    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  8. Inadequate knowledge of immunization guidelines: a missed opportunity for preventing infection in immunocompromised IBD patients. (United States)

    Yeung, James H; Goodman, Karen J; Fedorak, Richard N


    Immunosuppressive agents, used commonly to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with an increased risk of infections, including those preventable by immunization. This study aimed to describe physician and patient values and knowledge regarding immunization and immunization histories. In all, 167 IBD patients and 43 gastroenterologists completed mail-out questionnaires. Patients were asked 15 questions about their immunization histories and attitudes towards immunization. Gastroenterologists were asked nine questions about immunization for the immunocompromised host. The questionnaire return rate was 45.7% (43/94) for gastroenterologists and 25.2% (167/661) for patients. Only 14.3% (6/42) of gastroenterologists reported taking an immunization history from most or all of their patients. Only 5.4% (9/167) of patients recalled being asked by their gastroenterologist whether their immunizations were up to date, and just 0.6% (1/164) recalled being asked for a detailed immunization history. Overall, 21.7% (35/161) of patients had refused to be immunized in the past; 18.6% (8/43) of gastroenterologists did not know if up-to-date immunizations were important prior to starting immunosuppressive therapy. Of note, 23.1% (9/39) of gastroenterologists and 46.7% (35/161) of patients did not know whether live vaccines should be avoided by those in the immunosuppressed state, and 42.9% (18/43) of gastroenterologists acknowledged they did not know which specific immunizations should be avoided for immunosuppressed patients. Gastroenterologists have limited knowledge of their IBD patients' immunization status and rarely take an adequate immunization history. Substantial proportions of IBD patients and gastroenterologists lack adequate knowledge of established immunization guidelines prior to initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  9. High Quality, Low Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Grown by the Electrochemical Solution Growth Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seacrist, Michael [SunEdison Inc., St. Peters, MO (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) method conceived / patented at Sandia National Laboratory into a commercially viable bulk gallium nitride (GaN) growth process that can be scaled to low cost, high quality, and large area GaN wafer substrate manufacturing. The goal was to advance the ESG growth technology by demonstrating rotating seed growth at the lab scale and then transitioning process to prototype commercial system, while validating the GaN material and electronic / optical device quality. The desired outcome of the project is a prototype commercial process for US-based manufacturing of high quality, large area, and lower cost GaN substrates that can drive widespread deployment of energy efficient GaN-based power electronic and optical devices. In year 1 of the project (Sept 2012 – Dec 2013) the overall objective was to demonstrate crystalline GaN growth > 100um on a GaN seed crystal. The development plan included tasks to demonstrate and implement a method for purifying reagent grade salts, develop the reactor 1 process for rotating seed Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) of GaN, grow and characterize ESG GaN films, develop a fluid flow and reaction chemistry model for GaN film growth, and design / build an improved growth reactor capable of scaling to 50mm seed diameter. The first year’s project objectives were met in some task areas including salt purification, film characterization, modeling, and reactor 2 design / fabrication. However, the key project objective of the growth of a crystalline GaN film on the seed template was not achieved. Amorphous film growth on the order of a few tenths of a micron has been detected with a film composition including Ga and N, plus several other impurities originating from the process solution and hardware. The presence of these impurities, particularly the oxygen, has inhibited the demonstration of crystalline GaN film growth on the seed template. However, the

  10. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz; Marino, Regina Luisa de Freitas; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues


    Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6-16 years) and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18). Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder.

  11. Brazilians' experiences with iron fortification: evidence of effectiveness for reducing inadequate iron intakes with fortified flour policy. (United States)

    Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Steluti, Josiane; Verly, Eliseu; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara


    To assess Fe intake, calculate the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake and identify food contributors to Fe intake during 2003 and 2008 in a population-based study, reflecting before and after the mandatory fortification of flour with Fe. Two cross-sectional population-based studies conducted in 2003 and 2008. Dietary intake was evaluated by 24 h recall and the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) was used to estimate within-person variance and prevalence of inadequate Fe intake. The statistical analysis was conducted considering the complex survey design. São Paulo, Brazil. Adolescents, adults and elderly adults of both sexes, interviewed in 2003 (n 2386) and 2008 (n 1661). The Fe intake mean increased in all populations in the post-fortification period. A reduction of over 90 % was observed in the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake among men for all age groups analysed. When evaluating women, despite the substantial reduction (over 63 %), prevalence of inadequate Fe intake remained high (34 %) in those aged 19-50 years. Major food contributors to Fe intake before fortification were beans, beef, vegetables and dairy. There was an alteration in the contributors in the post-fortification period, with bread, beef, beans and biscuits as main contributors. The mandatory fortification with Fe significantly furthered the reduction in the prevalence of inadequacy, except among women of reproductive age, and changed the main contributors to this nutrient in the studied population. Therefore, monitoring of Fe addition in flour is essential to assess compliance to the fortified flour policy and to guarantee a safe Fe intake for all the population.

  12. An implant-supported removable partial denture on milled bars to compromise the inadequate treatment plan: a clinical report


    Kim, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Hoon


    Presurgical prosthetic treatment planning is critical for the success of the implant prosthesis. Inadequate treatment plan, due to insufficient discussion between prosthodontist, and surgeon, may result in poor prognosis. A 26-year-old male patient was referred for prosthodontic treatment after implant was placed in the area of teeth #17, 16, 22, 25 and 27, without adequate discussion nor the treatment planning between oral surgeon and prosthodontist. It was found that the patient had two hop...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of inadequate cervical dilation following laminaria insertion in second-trimester abortion--case control study. (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ido; Stern, Sharon; Vaknin, Zvi; Smorgick, Noam; Schneider, David; Halperin, Reuvit


    The objective was to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for inadequate cervical dilation following insertion of a single set of laminaria in women scheduled for dilation & evacuation (D&E) at 14-24 weeks' gestation. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of women who underwent pregnancy termination by D&E at 14-24 weeks' gestation between January 2003 and December 2013. All cases in which the surgical procedure was cancelled due to failure to achieve adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria inadequate cervical dilation were included. The control group was women who underwent D&E following adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria, and were matched according to gestational week in a ratio of 1:3. The overall dilation failure rate was 3.2%, with 4.0% among the induced-abortion patients and 1.5% among the patients with fetal demise (p=.002). Patients who had inadequate cervical dilation had lower rates of gravidity (p=.002) and previous spontaneous vaginal delivery (plaminaria insertion, namely, previous cesarean section (p=.002) and previous cervical procedure (plaminaria. Women who are scheduled for D&E, and in whom one of these risk factors exists, might benefit from additional interventions to achieve better cervical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inadequate vertical bone dimension managed by bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE): a literature review and case report. (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Shilpa; Cabanilla, Leyvee; Bhola, Monish


    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief literature review of the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE) procedure and to present a case utilizing this technique. Implant placement in the posterior maxillary region is often compromised due to anatomic limitations. In clinical situations where there is inadequate vertical bone dimension, the BAOSFE technique can be employed to increase bone height and allow placement of implants with an appropriate length dimension. A case of a 60-year-old female with inadequate vertical bone dimension in the area of an extracted #13 is presented. The BAOSFE technique was performed which facilitated the placement of a 3.75 X 13 mm implant. Anatomic limitations such as inadequate vertical bone dimension in the posterior maxillary region may result in placement of shorter implants. Sinus floor elevation (SFE) procedures using a crestal approach such as the BAOSFE, in certain selected cases, can effectively and predictably increase bone height. The BAOSFE technique is an excellent procedure that can overcome limitations associated with the posterior maxillary region.

  15. Inadequate housing among families under investigation for child abuse and neglect: prevalence from a national probability sample. (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Landsverk, John; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J


    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate housing that threaten out-of-home placement among families under investigation by child welfare. Data came from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of child welfare-involved families. Child protective services caseworkers as well as caregivers provided information on families whose child remained in the home after initial investigation (N = 3,867). Multilevel latent class analyses tested the presence of inadequately housed subgroups using 4 housing problem indicators at baseline. Logistic regressions assessed convergent and predictive validity. A two class latent solution best fit the data. Findings indicated that inadequate housing contributed to risk for out-of-home placement in approximately 16 % of intact families under investigation by child protective services. These families were 4 times more likely to need housing services 12 months later. Federal legislation emphasizes integration of social services as necessary to end homelessness. This study demonstrates overlap across public agencies. Enhanced coordination of child welfare and housing services facilitates interventions to prevent and mitigate homelessness.

  16. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.


    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  17. Treatment Compliance with Fixed-Dose Combination of Vildagliptin/Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy: A 24-Week Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Rombopoulos


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the differences in treatment compliance with vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose versus free-dose combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Greece. Design. Adult patients with T2DM, inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy, (850 mg bid, participated in this 24-week, multicenter, observational study. Patients were enrolled in two cohorts: vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose combination (group A and vildagliptin metformin free-dose combination (group B. Results. 659 patients were enrolled, 360 were male, with mean BMI 30.1, mean T2DM duration 59.6 months, and mean HbA1c at baseline 8%; 366 patients were assigned to group A and 293 to group B; data for 3 patients was missing. In group A, 98.9% of patients were compliant with their treatment compared to 84.6% of group B. The odds ratio for compliance in group A versus B was (OR 18.9 (95% CI: 6.2, 57.7; P<0.001. In group A mean HbA1c decreased from 8.1% at baseline to 6.9% (P<0.001 at the study end and from 7.9% to 6.8% (P<0.001 in group B. Conclusions. Patients in group A were more compliant than patients in group B. These results are in accordance with international literature suggesting that fixed-dose combination therapies lead to increased compliance to treatment.

  18. Emergency Department Visits for Homelessness or Inadequate Housing in New York City before and after Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Doran, Kelly M; McCormack, Ryan P; Johns, Eileen L; Carr, Brendan G; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Lee, David C


    Hurricane Sandy struck New York City on October 29, 2012, causing not only a large amount of physical damage, but also straining people's health and disrupting health care services throughout the city. In prior research, we determined that emergency department (ED) visits from the most vulnerable hurricane evacuation flood zones in New York City increased after Hurricane Sandy for several medical diagnoses, but also for the diagnosis of homelessness. In the current study, we aimed to further explore this increase in ED visits for homelessness after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. We performed an observational before-and-after study using an all-payer claims database of ED visits in New York City to compare the demographic characteristics, insurance status, geographic distribution, and health conditions of ED patients with a primary or secondary ICD-9 diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall versus the baseline weekly average in 2012 prior to Hurricane Sandy. We found statistically significant increases in ED visits for diagnosis codes of homelessness or inadequate housing in the week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. Those accessing the ED for homelessness or inadequate housing were more often elderly and insured by Medicare after versus before the hurricane. Secondary diagnoses among those with a primary ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing also differed after versus before Hurricane Sandy. These observed differences in the demographic, insurance, and co-existing diagnosis profiles of those with an ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing before and after Hurricane Sandy suggest that a new population cohort-potentially including those who had lost their homes as a result of storm damage-was accessing the ED for homelessness or other housing issues after the hurricane. Emergency departments may serve important public health and disaster response roles after a hurricane, particularly for

  19. Controlled synthesis of high-quality crystals of monolayer MoS2 for nanoelectronic device application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaonian; Li, Qiang; Hu, Guofeng


    . Monolayer MoS2 so far can be obtained by mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, controllable synthesis of large area monolayer MoS2 with high quality needs to be improved and their growth mechanism requires more studies. Here we report a systematical study on controlled...... synthesis of high-quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals using low pressure CVD. Large-size monolayer MoS2 triangles with an edge length up to 405 mu m were successfully synthesized. The Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies indicate high homogenous optical characteristic of the synthesized......) V-1 s(-1), indicating excellent electronic property comparing with previously reported CVD grown MoS2 monolayer. The MoS2 FETs also show a high photoresponsivity of 7 A W-1, as well as a fast photo-response time of 20 ms. The improved synthesis method recommended here, which makes material...

  20. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong


    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  1. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)


    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  2. Counter-crossing injection for stable high-quality electron beam generation via laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Hayashi, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Z; Fukuda, Y; Homma, T; Pirozhkov, A; Koga, J K; Nakajima, K; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail:


    Counter-crossing injection, which is a realistic setup for applications, by two sub-relativistic laser pulses colliding at an angle of 45 degrees is demonstrated. The collision of the two laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility. The generated monoenergetic electron beam has a peak energy of 14.4 MeV, an energy spread of 10.6%, a charge of 21.8 pC, a normalized emittance of 1.6 {pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility of 50%. The electron beam generation is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulses in plasma are self-focused to higher intensity when the laser power is above the threshold for relativistic self-focusing. The collision of the self-focused laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility.

  3. Soft X-ray generation via inverse compton scattering between high quality electron beam and high power laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa


    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)

  4. Symptomatic Profiles of Patients With Polycythemia Vera: Implications of Inadequately Controlled Disease. (United States)

    Geyer, Holly; Scherber, Robyn; Kosiorek, Heidi; Dueck, Amylou C; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Xiao, Zhijian; Slot, Stefanie; Zweegman, Sonja; Sackmann, Federico; Fuentes, Ana Kerguelen; Hernández-Maraver, Dolores; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N; Radia, Deepti; Muxi, Pablo; Besses, Carlos; Cervantes, Francisco; Johansson, Peter L; Andreasson, Bjorn; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Barbui, Tiziano; Bonatz, Karin; Reiter, Andreas; Boyer, Francoise; Etienne, Gabriel; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Ranta, Dana; Roy, Lydia; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Maldonado, Norman; Barosi, Giovanni; Ferrari, Maria L; Gale, Robert Peter; Birgegard, Gunnar; Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Xiujuan; Xu, Junqing; Zhang, Peihong; te Boekhorst, Peter A W; Commandeur, Suzan; Schouten, Harry; Pahl, Heike L; Griesshammer, Martin; Stegelmann, Frank; Lehmann, Thomas; Senyak, Zhenya; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Passamonti, Francesco; Samuelsson, Jan; Mesa, Ruben A


    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated with disabling symptoms and a heightened risk of life-threatening complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of JAK inhibitor therapy in patients with PV patients who have a history of prior hydroxyurea (HU) use (including resistance or intolerance), phlebotomy requirements, and palpable splenomegaly. We aimed to determine how these features contribute alone and in aggregate to the PV symptom burden. Through prospective evaluation of 1,334 patients with PV who had characterized symptom burden, we assessed patient demographics, laboratory data, and the presence of splenomegaly by disease feature (ie, known HU use, known phlebotomy requirements, splenomegaly). The presence of each feature in itself is associated with a moderately high symptom burden (MPN symptom assessment form [SAF] total symptom score [TSS] range, 27.7 to 29.2) that persists independent of PV risk category. In addition, symptoms incrementally increase in severity with the addition of other features. Patients with PV who had all three features (PV-HUPS) faced the highest total score (MPN-SAF TSS, 32.5) but had similar individual symptom scores to patients with known HU use (PV-HU), known phlebotomy (PV-P), and splenomegaly (PV-S). The results of this study suggest that patients with PV who have any one of the features in question (known HU use, known phlebotomy, or splenomegaly) have significant PV-associated symptoms. Furthermore, it demonstrates that many PV symptoms remain severe independent of the number of features present. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. [Postprandial glycemic control using insulin aspart with NPH in inadequately controlled diabetics]. (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Zou, Da-Jin; Xu, Zhang-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Min; Guo, Xiao-Hui


    To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin aspart (IAsp) and human insulin (HI) when applied as meal-time insulin with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH) at bedtime in diabetics. A total of 220 Chinese subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from 5 different hospitals were randomized by a ratio of 1:1 into two groups accepting IAsp or HI combined with NPH respectively. The main endpoints were assessed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 hour postprandial plasma glucose (2 h PPG), HbAlc and hypoglycemia. A greater reduction in mean 2 h PPG was achieved in the IAsp group [(14.6 +/- 5.3) mmol/L] as compared with the HI group [(8.4 +/- 4.1) mmol/L] (P IAsp-treated subjects reached the 2 h PPG target (50.0% vs 25.5%, P IAsp/NPH group [(9.3 +/- 1.4)% vs (7.7 +/- 1.3)%] than in HI/NPH group [(9.2 +/- 1.2)% vs (7.7 +/- 1.2)%]. HbA1c target was reached by 24.5% (IAsp) vs 14.5% (HI) of subjects (P IAsp group. Lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (IAsp/NPH: 3% vs HI/NPH: 4%) was reported in the IAsp group. Average daily insulin doses were 0.60/0.23 (IAsp/NPH) and 0.65/0.24 (HI/NPH) IU/kg respectively. Treatment of IAsp in basal-bolus therapy in combination with NPH provides a superior postprandial glucose control and allows more subjects to reach the glycemic target without elevating the nocturnal hypoglycemic risk or adverse events.

  6. Predictors of treatment response for depression and inadequate social support--the ENRICHD randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Cowan, Marie J; Freedland, Kenneth E; Burg, Matthew M; Saab, Patrice G; Youngblood, Marston E; Cornell, Carol E; Powell, Lynda H; Czajkowski, Susan M


    To determine whether the 'dose' of treatment exposure, delivery of specific components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), patient adherence and/or use of antidepressants predict favorable depression and social support outcomes after 6 months of cognitive behavioral treatment. Secondary analyses of the intervention arm of the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial involving persons with acute myocardial infarction (MI): n = 641 for the depression outcomes and n = 523 for the social support outcomes. The outcome measures were, for depression: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); for social support: the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Better depression outcomes (measured by the BDI) were receiving a high number of depression-specific intervention components, p depression outcomes (measured by the HAM-D) were receiving a high number of the social communication and assertiveness components of the intervention, p social support outcomes (measured by the ESSI and PSSS) were predicted by membership in a racial or ethnic minority group, p social communication and assertiveness components of the intervention was an independent predictor of a worse social support outcome, p depression are useful in treating comorbid depression in post-MI patients. Working on communication skills may help to improve depression but not necessarily social support outcomes in this patient population, while adherence to cognitive-behavioral homework assignments is important for both outcomes. Other components of the ENRICHD intervention that were designed to improve social support had no discernible effects on outcomes. Intervention refinements may be needed in order to achieve better results in future post-MI clinical trials. A greater emphasis on CBT homework adherence could improve both depression and social support outcomes. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Is the Internet Bad News? The Online News Era and the Market for High-Quality News


    Frijters, Paul; Velamuri, Malathi


    We review and model the impact of the internet on the production and uptake of high- quality news. Our review of trends in the market for news suggests 3 stylized facts: i) particular quality news markets are dominated by merely a few providers, ii) demand for quality news appears stable, but provision of news has become specialized; mainstream news is decoupled from quality news, and iii) the dominant business model of internet news mirrors that of radio, television, and newsp...

  8. Near-equilibrium chemical vapor deposition of high-quality single-crystal graphene directly on various dielectric substrates. (United States)

    Chen, Jianyi; Guo, Yunlong; Jiang, Lili; Xu, Zhiping; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Geng, Dechao; Wu, Bin; Hu, Wenping; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi


    By using near-equilibrium chemical vapor deposition, it is demonstrated that high-quality single-crystal graphene can be grown on dielectric substrates. The maximum size is about 11 μm. The carrier mobility can reach about 5650 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , which is comparable to those of some metal-catalyzed graphene crystals, reflecting the good quality of the graphene lattice. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Protocol: A simple phenol-based method for 96-well extraction of high quality RNA from Arabidopsis

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    Coustham Vincent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many experiments in modern plant molecular biology require the processing of large numbers of samples for a variety of applications from mutant screens to the analysis of natural variants. A severe bottleneck to many such analyses is the acquisition of good yields of high quality RNA suitable for use in sensitive downstream applications such as real time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR. Although several commercial kits are available for high-throughput RNA extraction in 96-well format, only one non-kit method has been described in the literature using the commercial reagent TRIZOL. Results We describe an unusual phenomenon when using TRIZOL reagent with young Arabidopsis seedlings. This prompted us to develop a high-throughput RNA extraction protocol (HTP96 adapted from a well established phenol:chloroform-LiCl method (P:C-L that is cheap, reliable and requires no specialist equipment. With this protocol 192 high quality RNA samples can be prepared in 96-well format in three hours (less than 1 minute per sample with less than 1% loss of samples. We demonstrate that the RNA derived from this protocol is of high quality and suitable for use in real time qRT-PCR assays. Conclusion The development of the HTP96 protocol has vastly increased our sample throughput, allowing us to fully exploit the large sample capacity of modern real time qRT-PCR thermocyclers, now commonplace in many labs, and develop an effective high-throughput gene expression platform. We propose that the HTP96 protocol will significantly benefit any plant scientist with the task of obtaining hundreds of high quality RNA extractions.

  10. [Shortcut Nitrosation-Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Based on High-quality Carbon Source in Combined Process of CAMBR]. (United States)

    Cheng, Ji-hui; Wu, Peng; Cheng, Chao-yang; Shen, Yao-liang


    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are high-quality carbon source which can be utilized in the process of denitrifying phosphorus removal. Therefore, a combined process of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with microbial phase separation and membrane bioreactor (MBR), i. e. CAMBR, with high-quality effluent was investigated in this experiment for highly efficient denitrifying phosphorus removal through providing high-quality carbon source by optimizing operational conditions such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the ABR. The results indicated that sufficient high-quality carbon source VFA could be acquired when the HRT of ABR was 4.8 h. The consumption of VFA was 56. 1 mg · L⁻¹ while the release of phosphorus was 10.43 mg · L⁻¹ showing that 5.38 mg of VFA was required to release 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P. Meanwhile, the uptake of phosphorus was 12. 35 mg · L⁻¹, while the uptake of phosphorus of MBR tank was 1.33 mg · L⁻¹. In the process of shortcut nitrification, 0.62 mg NOx⁻-N was needed when 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P was taken up, and 1.67 to 2.04 mg NO₂⁻-N was required when 1 mg PO₄³⁻-P was taken up, and the combined system achieved stable effluent quality. The average removal rates of COD, TN and soluble PO₄³⁻-P were 91%, 84% and 93%, respectively, correspondingly the average effluent concentrations were 30, 7.15 and 0.55 mg · L⁻¹, respectively. The results stated that the CAMBR achieved stable and highly efficient denitrifying phosphorus removal in domestic sewage treatment.

  11. Effect of High-quality Nursing on Improvement of Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Acute Stroke in MRI Examination. (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Zhang, Li


    We aimed to evaluate the effect of high-quality nursing on improvement of anxiety and depression of patients with acute stroke in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. A total of 120 patients diagnosed as acute stroke for the first time were enrolled in Liaocheng People's Hospital from 2016-2017 and randomly divided into control group (n=60) and observation group (n=60). All patients received cerebral MRI examination at 6h and 24h after admission and before discharge. The control group was treated with routine nursing, while the observation group was treated with high-quality nursing, and the specific nursing measures included the establishment of high-quality nursing group, full evaluation of the severity of disease, timely solving of difficulties in MRI examination, understanding of the patient's anxiety and depression, establishment of personal information files before discharge, etc. The completion rate and average duration of examination, the improvement of anxiety and depression and the nursing satisfaction were compared between the two groups. In observation group, the completion rate of MRI examination was significantly increased ( P =0.035), the average duration was shortened ( P =0.011), the anxiety and depression scores (self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS)) were improved obviously ( P =0.006 and 0.009), and the nursing satisfaction score and rate was increased ( P =0.000 and 0.027); the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05). High-quality nursing can significantly improve the anxiety and depression of patients with acute stroke in MRI examination, which has a better application value in increasing the completion rate of examination, shortening the duration of examination and improving the nursing satisfaction.

  12. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos


    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  13. Gain-guided soliton fiber laser with high-quality rectangle spectrum for ultrafast time-stretch microscopy. (United States)

    Hu, Song; Yao, Jian; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng


    The ultrafast time-stretch microscopy has been proposed to enhance the temporal resolution of a microscopy system. The optical source is a key component for ultrafast time-stretch microscopy system. Herein, we reported on the gain-guided soliton fiber laser with high-quality rectangle spectrum for ultrafast time-stretch microscopy. By virtue of the excellent characteristics of the gain-guided soliton, the output power and the 3-dB bandwidth of the stable mode-locked soliton could be up to 3 mW and 33.7 nm with a high-quality rectangle shape, respectively. With the proposed robust optical source, the ultrafast time-stretch microscopy with the 49.6 μm resolution and a scan rate of 11 MHz was achieved without the external optical amplification. The obtained results demonstrated that the gain-guided soliton fiber laser could be used as an alternative high-quality optical source for ultrafast time-stretch microscopy and will introduce some applications in fields such as biology, chemical, and optical sensing.

  14. High-Performance Flexible Photodetectors based on High-Quality Perovskite Thin Films by a Vapor-Solution Method. (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Huang, Wei; Yang, Shuzhen; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Zhenyu; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Yang, Junliang; Kim, Dong Ha; Pan, Anlian


    Organometal halide perovskites are new light-harvesting materials for lightweight and flexible optoelectronic devices due to their excellent optoelectronic properties and low-temperature process capability. However, the preparation of high-quality perovskite films on flexible substrates has still been a great challenge to date. Here, a novel vapor-solution method is developed to achieve uniform and pinhole-free organometal halide perovskite films on flexible indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates. Based on the as-prepared high-quality perovskite thin films, high-performance flexible photodetectors (PDs) are constructed, which display a nR value of 81 A W -1 at a low working voltage of 1 V, three orders higher than that of previously reported flexible perovskite thin-film PDs. In addition, these flexible PDs exhibit excellent flexural stability and durability under various bending situations with their optoelectronic performance well retained. This breakthrough on the growth of high-quality perovskite thin films opens up a new avenue to develop high-performance flexible optoelectronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Inadequate Awareness among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Regarding Food and Drinks Containing Artificially Added Phosphate (United States)

    Shutto, Yoshiko; Shimada, Michiko; Kitajima, Maiko; Yamabe, Hideaki; Saitoh, Yoko; Saitoh, Hisao; Razzaque, Mohammed S.


    Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years) who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid) in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed “fast food” once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females). Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine) excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001). Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients. PMID:24236030

  16. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females. Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001. Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  17. Facilitators of high-quality teaching in medical school: findings from a nation-wide survey among clinical teachers. (United States)

    Schiekirka-Schwake, S; Anders, S; von Steinbüchel, N; Becker, J C; Raupach, T


    Clinical teachers in medical schools are faced with the challenging task of delivering high-quality patient care, producing high-impact research and contributing to undergraduate medical education all at the same time. Little is known on the gap between an 'ideal' environment supporting clinical teachers to provide high quality teaching for their students and the reality of clinical teaching during worktime in the clinical environment. Most quantitative research published so far was done in a wide range of medical educators and did not consider individual academic qualifications. In this study, we wanted to survey clinical teachers in particular and assess the potential impact of individual academic qualification on their perceptions. Based on qualitative data of focus group discussions, we developed a questionnaire which was piloted among 189 clinical teachers. The final web-based questionnaire was completed by clinical teachers at nine German medical schools. A total of 833 clinical teachers (569 junior physicians, 264 assistant professors) participated in the online survey. According to participants, the most important indicator of high quality teaching was "sustained student learning outcome" followed by "stimulation of interest in the subject matter". Lack of time was the main factor impeding effective teaching (78%). Among the factors facilitating high-quality teaching, protected preparation time during working hours (48%) and more recognition of high-quality teaching within medical schools (21%) were perceived as most helpful. Three out of four teachers (76%) were interested in faculty development programmes directed at teaching skills, but 60% stated they had no time to engage in such activities. With regard to evaluation, teachers preferred individual feedback (75%) over global ratings (21%). Differences between assistant professors and junior physicians were found in that the latter group perceived their teaching conditions as more difficult. Lack of time

  18. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  19. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giovanni Vitale


    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment.

  20. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin (United States)

    Rossetti, Paola; Corrado, Francesco; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Buscema, Massimo


    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment. PMID:27651794

  1. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

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    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  2. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M


    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  3. Inadequate prescription of chronic consumption of proton pump inhibitors in a hospital in Mexico: Cross-sectional study

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    Jaime Alberto Sánchez-Cuén


    Full Text Available Introduction: PPIs have been an enormous therapeutic advance in acid-related diseases. However, it has been detected an abuse in its consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of inadequate prescription of chronic use of PPIs in outpatients in a speciality hospital. Material and methods: we performed a cross-sectional descriptive study review. The study population were patients, chronic users of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, attending outpatient consult in a hospital of government workers. We defined as chronic user of PPIs that patient that takes medication daily for over a year and inappropriate prescription, that one that has not been approved by the clinical guidelines. A simple random sampling was utilized. The following parameters were investigated: diagnosis and prescription of PPIs, time of use, at which level of care PPIs were prescribed (primary care or specialist, self-medication, with or without endoscopy. For the statistical analysis, we used Student's t-test and Chi-square, 95% confidence intervals and significance 0.05 %. Results: we reviewed 153 patients, 40 (26.1 % men and 113 (73.9 % women, mean age 58 ± 11.4 years. The prescription of chronic treatment with PPIs was adequate in 64.7 % of patients and inadequate in 35.3 %. The most common appropriate prescription (31.3 % of chronic use of PPIs was due to gastroesophageal reflux disease. The most common inadequate prescription was absence of diagnosis (22.2 %, polypharmacy without nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (16.6 % and chronic gastritis (16.6 %. History of endoscopy were not statistically significant. Conclusions: the frequency of inappropriate prescriptions of chronic use of PPIs was high, around 35.3 %, similar to those reported in hospitals in developed countries.

  4. Inadequate Riboflavin Intake and Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population: Five-Year Follow Up of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Wittert, Gary A.; Yuan, Baojun; Zuo, Hui; Taylor, Anne W.


    Objectives Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been shown in animal studies to affect the absorption and metabolism of iron. Cross-sectional population studies show a relationship between riboflavin intake and anemia but prospective population studies are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between riboflavin intake and the risk of anemia in a Chinese cohort. Method The study used data from 1253 Chinese men and women who participated in two waves of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN), five years apart, in 2002 and 2007. Riboflavin intake and hemoglobin (Hb) were quantitatively assessed together with dietary patterns, lifestyle, socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results At baseline, 97.2% of participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the estimate average requirement). Riboflavin intake was positively associated with anemia at baseline, but low riboflavin intake was associated with an increased risk of anemia at follow-up among those anemic at baseline. In the multivariate model, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for anemia at follow-up, across quartiles of riboflavin intake were: 1, 0.82(0.54–1.23), 0.56(0.34–0.93), 0.52(0.28–0.98) (p for trend 0.021). There was a significant interaction between riboflavin and iron intake; when riboflavin intake was low, a high iron intake was associated with a lower probability of anemia at follow-up. This association disappeared when riboflavin intake was high. Conclusion Inadequate riboflavin intake is common and increases the risk of anemia in Chinese adults. Given the interaction with iron intake correcting inadequate riboflavin intake may be a priority in the prevention of anemia, and population based measurement and intervention trials are required. PMID:24533156

  5. Inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish as a barrier to cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinas in New York City. (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann


    The objective of this study was to examine the association between inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish among low-income Latinas aged 40 and older and cervical cancer screening knowledge and behavior. Spanish-speaking Latinas aged 40-78 of various nationalities (n = 205) participated in a study that included a survey on cervical cancer knowledge and behavior administered in Spanish and the Spanish version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Compared to those with adequate and marginal health literacy, women with inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish were significantly less likely to have ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.37) or in the last three years (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.68) and were significantly more likely to have had their last Pap test at a local public hospital (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-4.97). Even when controlling for other factors, women with inadequate health literacy were 16.7 times less likely (adjusted odds ratio, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.55) to have ever had a Pap test. Almost half of the population we studied will have difficulty interpreting written medical materials, even in Spanish. When developing efforts to reach women who have not been screened, programs and service providers need to be aware that the women most in need of information about screening may be more likely to be unable to read any written materials provided to them, regardless of the language or level of simplicity of the materials. Programs and strategies need to be implemented to increase screening prevalence and to minimize the identified gaps in regular screening for Latinas who have low health literacy.

  6. Depression, obesity, and smoking were independently associated with inadequate glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Thunander, Maria; Svensson, Ralph; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Thulesius, Hans O


    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between inadequate glycemic control of diabetes and psychological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetes patients. Cross-sectional study. In this study, 292 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 1859 years, participated. psychological data were assessed by self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Anthropometrics, blood analyses, data from medical records, and data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry were collected. Self-reported depression (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.8), obesity (AOR 4.3), and smoking (AOR 3.0) were independently associated with inadequate glycemic control of diabetes (HbA1c>8.6%). Gender-stratified analyses showed that self-reported depression (AOR 19.8) and obesity (AOR 7.0) in women and smoking in men (AOR 4.2) were associated with HbA1c>8.6%. Alexithymia, antidepressant medication, and physical inactivity were associated with HbA1c>8.6% only in bivariate analyses. Alexithymia, self-rated anxiety, physical inactivity, and absence of abdominal obesity were associated with self-reported depression. Depression was the only psychological factor independently associated with HbA1c>8.6%. The association was of comparable importance as obesity and smoking, well-known risk factors for inadequate glycemic control and diabetes complications. The association between depression and HbA1c>8.6% was particularly strong for women. Alexithymia, which is a relatively stable personality trait, was associated with depression. In the future care of patients with diabetes, psychological aspects should be considered alongside anthropometrics and lifestyle factors in order to achieve the goals for HbA1c.

  7. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper. (United States)

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  8. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.


    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  9. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.


    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments

  10. Efficacy and safety of linagliptin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by metformin: A multinational 24-week, randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing; Yang, Jinkui; Yang, Gangyi; Gong, Yan; Patel, Sanjay; Zhang, Candice; Izumoto, Toshiyasu; Ning, Guang


    Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asia, clinical trials for glucose-lowering therapies are often dominated by Caucasian and/or Western populations. The present Phase III randomized placebo-controlled double-blind, 24-week study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin added to metformin in Asian T2DM patients. In all, 306 patients (n = 265 Chinese; n = 24 Malaysian; n = 17 Filipino), aged 18-80 years with HbA1c between ≥7.0 and ≤10.0% and on metformin therapy were randomized (2:1) to either linagliptin 5 mg daily or placebo added to metformin. Antidiabetes drugs other than metformin were washed out prior to randomization. The primary endpoint was change in mean HbA1c from baseline after 24 weeks. Baseline characteristics were well-matched between the groups (overall mean [±SD] HbA1c 8.0 ± 0.8%). Adjusted mean (±SE) HbA1c decreased in the linagliptin and placebo groups by -0.66 ± 0.05 and -0.14 ± 0.07%, respectively (placebo-corrected difference -0.52 ± 0.09%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.70, -0.34; P < 0.0001). In patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5%, the placebo-corrected decrease in HbA1c was -0.89 ± 0.17% (P < 0.0001). Adverse events occurred in similar proportions in the linagliptin and placebo patients (27.3% and 28.0%, respectively) and few were considered drug-related (2.4% and 0.0%, respectively). Hypoglycemia occurred in 1.0% of patients in both groups. Linagliptin therapy was weight neutral. Linagliptin 5 mg was efficacious and well tolerated over 24 weeks in Asian patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by metformin. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample. (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun


    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  12. Schoolchildren have similar predicted prevalences of inadequate intakes as toddlers in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. (United States)

    Murphy, S P; Calloway, D H; Beaton, G H


    To examine the probability of inadequacy of schoolchild nutrient intakes; to compare the predicted adequacy of schoolchild diets to previously published data for toddler diets and to examine the relative adequacy of the diets of sibling pairs. Food consumption data were measured 2 days per month across approximately one year. Mean nutrient intakes were calculated and compared to international standards using a probability approach. Villages in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. 285 school-age children (7-9 years of age) and 255 toddlers (18-30 months of age) including 94 sibling pairs. Within a country, there was a striking similarity between the nutrients predicted to be inadequate in schoolchild and toddler diets across all nutrients except vitamin B12, which was more likely to be inadequate among schoolchildren. Nutrients of concern for both ages in one or more countries included iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamins B12, D, E, and A. For 94 toddler-schoolchild pairs, siblings at high risk of nutrient inadequacy could be identified from an indicator child with a sensitivity of 43-100% and a specificity of 59-100%. Nutrient adequacy tends to be a household characteristic for these two ages of children. Nutritional interventions that target the household have a high probability of benefitting multiple age groups of children.

  13. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lise Brantsæter


    Full Text Available Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47, adolescents (n = 46, adults (n = 71, the elderly (n = 23, pregnant women (n = 45, ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25, and vegans (n = 19. In all participants combined, the median (95% CI UIC was 101 (90, 110 µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175 µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150 µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82% and vegans the lowest (14% probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  14. Pregabalin for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder with inadequate treatment response to antidepressants and severe depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Olivares, José M; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, José L; Pérez Páramo, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa


    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin in patients with resistant generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and severe depressive symptoms, we carried out a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, prospective, and observational 6-month study. We included patients who were at least 18 years old, fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for GAD, showed inadequate responses to previous courses of antidepressant treatment, had Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale scores of at least 35, had not received pregabalin previously, and were prescribed pregabalin upon entry into this study. We included 1815 patients fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for GAD, and 133 (7.3%) fulfilled the selection criteria for these analyses. Ninety-seven percent of the patients received pregabalin (mean dose: 222 mg/day) in combination with other psychotropics. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale total score was reduced by a mean of 20.3 points (95% confidence interval, 22.1-18.4) (57.2% reduction) at month 6. Pregabalin also ameliorated comorbid depressive symptoms, with a reduction in the mean score of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale of 22.3 points (95% confidence interval, 24.2-20.4) (56.6% reduction). Our results suggest that pregabalin, as part of a combination regimen with antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines, might be effective for the treatment of patients with GAD who have shown inadequate response to previous antidepressants and have severe depressive symptoms.

  15. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation. (United States)

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham


    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

  16. Optimized Method of Extracting Rice Chloroplast DNA for High-Quality Plastome Resequencing and de Novo Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takamatsu


    Full Text Available Chloroplasts, which perform photosynthesis, are one of the most important organelles in green plants and algae. Chloroplasts maintain an independent genome that includes important genes encoding their photosynthetic machinery and various housekeeping functions. Owing to its non-recombinant nature, low mutation rates, and uniparental inheritance, the chloroplast genome (plastome can give insights into plant evolution and ecology and in the development of biotechnological and breeding applications. However, efficient methods to obtain high-quality chloroplast DNA (cpDNA are currently not available, impeding powerful sequencing and further functional genomics research. To investigate effects on rice chloroplast genome quality, we compared cpDNA extraction by three extraction protocols: liquid nitrogen coupled with sucrose density gradient centrifugation, high-salt buffer, and Percoll gradient centrifugation. The liquid nitrogen–sucrose gradient method gave a high yield of high-quality cpDNA with reliable purity. The cpDNA isolated by this technique was evaluated, resequenced, and assembled de novo to build a robust framework for genomic and genetic studies. Comparison of this high-purity cpDNA with total DNAs revealed the read coverage of the sequenced regions; next-generation sequencing data showed that the high-quality cpDNA eliminated noise derived from contamination by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which frequently occurs in total DNA. The assembly process produced highly accurate, long contigs. We summarize the extent to which this improved method of isolating cpDNA from rice can provide practical progress in overcoming challenges related to chloroplast genomes and in further exploring the development of new sequencing technologies.

  17. Forming a national multicentre collaboration to conduct clinical trials: increasing high-quality research in the drug and alcohol field. (United States)

    Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Brand, Matthew; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Haber, Paul; Day, Carolyn; Conigrave, Katherine; Mattick, Richard; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Teesson, Maree


    There is a shortage of high-quality intervention-based evidence in the drug and alcohol misuse field. That is, evidence based on replicated effects using rigorous methodology, to establish a causal knowledge base around ethical, cost-effective methods relevant to clinical practice. The knowledge base in this field is limited participant recruitment challenges; difficulty generalizing results from single-centre studies; lack of research culture; issues in managing research teams; incentives for descriptive research; and limited expertise in research design and working in multidisciplinary teams. An Australian national multicentre collaboration is proposed to overcome these barriers, and reduce the burden of drug and alcohol misuse by increasing the number of high-quality clinical trials in this field. It would involve: selecting a representative sample of centres nation-wide with expertise in specific drug and alcohol issues; creating an expert multidisciplinary team to facilitate clinical trials; simultaneous recruitment and implementation of clinical trials across centres; establishing a virtual infrastructure; forming an independent data-integrity and methodology review panel; and attracting and allocating funding for clinical trials. The ability to allocate funding, the involvement of multidisciplinary experts in drug and alcohol research, and the establishment of infrastructure and procedures are likely to result in the national multicentre group's capacity to prescribe the type of research conducted under its auspices. The proposed initiative is likely to increase the volume of high-quality clinical trials in the Australian drug and alcohol field, a key step towards reducing the burden of drug and alcohol misuse.

  18. Does accelerometer feedback on high-quality chest compression improve survival rate? An in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation. (United States)

    Jung, Min Hee; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chang, Wen Joen


    We investigated whether visual feedback from an accelerometer device facilitated high-quality chest compressions during an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation using a manikin. Thirty health care providers participated in an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation with 1 minute of continuous chest compressions. Chest compressions were performed on a manikin lying on a bed according to visual feedback from an accelerometer feedback device. The manikin and accelerometer recorded chest compression data simultaneously. The simulated patient was deemed to have survived when the chest compression data satisfied all of the preset high-quality chest compression criteria (depth ≥51 mm, rate >100 per minute, and ≥95% full recoil). Survival rates were calculated from the feedback device and manikin data. The survival rate according to the feedback device data was 80%; however, the manikin data indicated a significantly lower survival rate (46.7%; P = .015). The difference between the accelerometer and manikin survival rates was not significant for participants with a body mass index greater than or equal to 20 kg/m(2) (93.3 vs 73.3%, respectively; P = .330); however, the difference in survival rate was significant in participants with body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2) (66.7 vs 20.0%, respectively; P = .025). The use of accelerometer feedback devices to facilitate high-quality chest compression may not be appropriate for lightweight rescuers because of the potential for compression depth overestimation. Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001449). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob


    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material...... for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...... and photovoltaic performance under visible light irradiation....

  20. Synthesis of High-Quality Large-Area Homogenous 1T' MoTe2 from Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Zubair, Ahmad; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xu; Ouyang, Fangping; Xu, Kai; Fang, Wenjing; Ueno, Keiji; Li, Ju; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    High-quality large-area few-layer 1T' MoTe 2 films with high homogeneity are synthesized by the controlled tellurization of MoO 3 film. The Mo precursor plays a key role in determining the quality and morphology of the 1T' MoTe 2 . Furthermore, the amount of Te strongly influences the phase of the MoTe 2 . The growth method paves the way toward the scalable production of 1T' MoTe 2 -based applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang


    Full Text Available We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our investigation finds that the same filter performs well for different metals where the elastic SV waves propagated.

  2. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yaolu; Yan, Wensheng; Hu, Ning


    We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our investigation finds that the same filter performs well for different metals where the elastic SV waves propagated.

  3. Fabrication of high quality, ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings: up to 2 million periods in phase. (United States)

    Gagné, Mathieu; Loranger, Sébastien; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman


    The fabrication and characterization of high quality ultra-long (up to 1m) fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is reported. A moving phase mask and an electro-optic phase-modulation (EOPM) based interferometer are used with a high precision 1-meter long translation stage and compared. A novel interferometer position feedback scheme to simplify the fabrication process is proposed and analyzed. The ultra-long uniform FBGs show near perfect characteristics of a few picometers bandwidth, symmetrical, near theory-matching group-delay and transmission spectra. Grating characterization using optical backscattering reflectometry and chirped FBGs are also demonstrated. Limitations of the schemes are discussed.

  4. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.


    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules

  5. On the development of high quality NiTi shape memory and pseudoelastic parts by additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberland, Christoph; Elahinia, Mohammad; Walker, Jason M; Meier, Horst; Frenzel, Jan


    Additive manufacturing provides an attractive processing method for nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory and pseudoelastic parts. In this paper, we show how the additive manufacturing process affects structural and functional properties of additively manufactured NiTi and how the process parameter set-up can be optimized to produce high quality NiTi parts and components. Comparisons of shape recovery due to shape memory and pseudoelasticity in additively manufactured and commercial NiTi exhibit promising potential for this innovative processing method. (paper)

  6. Terahertz gas sensing based on a simple one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity with high-quality factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, T.; Han, Z. H.; Liu, J. J.


    We report in this paper terahertz gas sensing using a simple 1D photonic crystal cavity. The resonant frequencies of the cavity depend linearly on the refractive index of the ambient gas, which can then be measured by monitoring the resonance shift. Although quite easy to manufacture, this cavity...... exhibits high-quality factors, facilitating the realization of high sensitivity in the gas refractive index sensing. In our experiment, 6% of the change of hydrogen concentration in air, which corresponds to a refractive index change of 1.4 x 10(-5), can be steadily detected, and different gas samples can...

  7. Cost-utility evaluation of vortioxetine in patients with Major Depressive Disorder experiencing inadequate response to alternative antidepressants in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Young, A H; Evitt, L; Brignone, M; Diamand, F; Atsou, K; Campbell, R; Cure, S; Danchenko, N


    Patients frequently require several lines of therapy for treatment of major depressive episodes. This economic analysis details the management of patients who responded inadequately due to lack of efficacy or intolerability to two previous antidepressants in the UK. The model included a decision tree and a Markov component. Health states considered in the decision tree were remission, response, no response, withdrawal due to adverse events, relapse, recovery, and recurrence. The time horizon was 24 months. Patients were on third-line treatment for up to a 3-month acute phase and a 6-month maintenance phase. As third-line efficacy data were not available, inputs were calculated by adjusting original second-line data to third-line based on proportionate reductions observed in STAR*D. Equivalent efficacy was assumed for all comparators. Healthcare resource use and utilities were based on UK estimates. Vortioxetine was a cost-effective treatment option at a threshold of £20,000/QALY vs. escitalopram, citalopram, sertraline, and was associated with more health benefits, less costs (was dominant) versus relevant third-line comparators venlafaxine and duloxetine. Agomelatine was found not to be a cost-effective option. The 22-month maintenance phase treatment scenario results were similar to the 6-month base case. Third-line efficacy data were not available. This highlights the need for studies in patients receiving third-line treatment. This model provides an overview for the management of patients receiving third-line treatment where limited evidence currently exists. Vortioxetine, with its novel mechanism of action, is expected to be a dominant treatment option versus relevant comparators in the UK. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Intra-articular therapies for osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Yu, Shirley P; Hunter, David J


    Conventional medical therapies for osteoarthritis are mainly palliative in nature, aiming to control pain and symptoms. Traditional intra-articular therapies are not recommended in guidelines as first line therapy, but are potential alternatives, when conventional therapies have failed. Current and future intra-articular drug therapies for osteoarthritis are highlighted, including corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and more controversial treatments marketed commercially, namely platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal cell therapy. Intraarticular disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs are the future of osteoarthritis treatments, aiming at structural modification and altering the disease progression. Interleukin-1β inhibitor, bone morphogenic protein-7, fibroblast growth factor 18, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, human serum albumin, and gene therapy are discussed in this review. The evolution of drug development in osteoarthritis is limited by the ability to demonstrate effect. High quality trials are required to justify the use of existing intra-articular therapies and to advocate for newer, promising therapies. Challenges in osteoarthritis therapy research are fundamentally related to the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of osteoarthritis. Novel drugs offer hope in a disease with limited medical therapy options. Whether these future intra-articular therapies will provide clinically meaningful benefits, remains unknown.

  9. Simple synthesis of ultra-high quality In2S3 thin films on InAs substrates (United States)

    Sim, Yumin; Kim, Jinbae; Seong, Maeng-Je

    We report a simple and reliable technique to synthesize high-quality In2S3 films on device-ready substrate, such as InAs substrates for useful device applications, by using thermal sulfurization in a hot-wall tube furnace. The crystal structure and composition were studied by using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray, and the results confirmed that the synthesized In2S3 films were cubic β-In2S or tetragonal β-In2S3, depending on growth conditions. Morphology, vibrational modes, and optical properties were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and the results indicated that the In2S3 films are remarkable crystal quality with substantial efficiency in photoluminescence. Especially, by optimizing the growth conditions, we have grown an extremely high-quality tetragonal β-In2S3 thin film firmly remained on the InAs substrate, for the first time. National Research Foundation of Korea.

  10. High quality ion acceleration through the interaction of two matched counterpropagating transversely polarized Gaussian lasers with a flat foil target (United States)

    Zhou, Weijun; Hong, Xueren; Xie, Baisong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li; Tian, Jianmin; Tang, Rongan; Duan, Wenshan


    In order to generate high quality ion beams through a relatively uniform radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of a common flat foil, a new scheme is proposed to overcome the curve of the target while being radiated by a single transversely Gaussian laser. In this scheme, two matched counterpropagating transversely Gaussian laser pulses, a main pulse and an auxiliary pulse, impinge on the foil target at the meantime. It is found that in the two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation, by the restraint of the auxiliary laser, the curve of the foil can be effectively suppressed. As a result, a high quality monoenergetic ion beam is generated through an efficient RPA of the foil target. For example, two counterpropagating transversely circularly polarized Gaussian lasers with normalized amplitudes a1=120 and a2=30 , respectively, impinge on the foil target at the meantime, a 1.3 GeV monoenergetic proton beam with high collimation is obtained finally. Furthermore, the effects on the ions acceleration with different parameters of the auxiliary laser are also investigated.

  11. Economic production and processing of agricultural fibre plants for high quality applications in automotive, building and furniture industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecenka, R.; Furll, C.; Gusovius, H.J. [Leibniz Inst. for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)


    The demand for high-quality fibres and shives from hemp and flax as an alternative raw material for the automotive and building industry is increasing. Fibres are used primarily for composite reinforcement instead of synthetic fibres. Shives are used for animal bedding, but processing trials in wood industry for the production of low weight particle boards from shives are also very promising. Fibre producers require experience in cultivation and harvesting as well as modern processing technologies in order to supply flax fibres or shives at competitive prices under the changing conditions of international raw material markets. A complete processing line has been developed, installed and tested at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB) to study all the processing stages of fibre production. The new ATB line can produce high quality fibres and shives from retted and unretted hemp, flax and oilseed flax straw without technical changes of the machine line. The ATB pilot plant has been operated by a cooperation of farmers since 2008. Experience from industrial operation has been used to develop a modern fibre processing line with a throughput of up to 5 t per h hemp straw in only one short line.

  12. Better Patient Care At High-Quality Hospitals May Save Medicare Money And Bolster Episode-Based Payment Models. (United States)

    Tsai, Thomas C; Greaves, Felix; Zheng, Jie; Orav, E John; Zinner, Michael J; Jha, Ashish K


    US policy makers are making efforts to simultaneously improve the quality of and reduce spending on health care through alternative payment models such as bundled payment. Bundled payment models are predicated on the theory that aligning financial incentives for all providers across an episode of care will lower health care spending while improving quality. Whether this is true remains unknown. Using national Medicare fee-for-service claims for the period 2011-12 and data on hospital quality, we evaluated how thirty- and ninety-day episode-based spending were related to two validated measures of surgical quality-patient satisfaction and surgical mortality. We found that patients who had major surgery at high-quality hospitals cost Medicare less than those who had surgery at low-quality institutions, for both thirty- and ninety-day periods. The difference in Medicare spending between low- and high-quality hospitals was driven primarily by postacute care, which accounted for 59.5 percent of the difference in thirty-day episode spending, and readmissions, which accounted for 19.9 percent. These findings suggest that efforts to achieve value through bundled payment should focus on improving care at low-quality hospitals and reducing unnecessary use of postacute care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth. (United States)

    Hu, Junxiong; Xu, Jianbao; Zhao, Yanfei; Shi, Lin; Li, Qi; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Liu, Liwei


    The high-quality graphene film can be grown on single-crystal Cu substrate by seamlessly stitching the aligned graphene domains. The roles of O 2 and H 2 have been intensively studied in the graphene growth kinetics, including lowering the nucleation sites and tailoring the domain structures. However, how the O 2 and H 2 influence Cu orientations during recrystallization prior to growing graphene, still remains unclear. Here we report that the oxidation of Cu surface tends to stabilize the Cu(001) orientation while impedes the evolution of Cu(111) single domain during annealing process. The crystal orientation-controlled synthesis of aligned graphene seeds is further realized on the long-range ordered Cu(111) substrate. With decreasing the thickness of oxide layer on Cu surface by introducing H 2 , the Cu(001) orientation changes into Cu(111) orientation. Meanwhile, the average domain size of Cu foils is increased from 50 μm to larger than 1000 μm. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the oxygen increases the energy barrier for Cu(111) surface and makes O/Cu(001) more stable than O/Cu(111) structure. Our work can be helpful for revealing the roles of O 2 and H 2 in controlling the formation of Cu single-crystal substrate as well as in growing high-quality graphene films.

  14. Soliton compression to few-cycle pulses with a high quality factor by engineering cascaded quadratic nonlinearities. (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten


    We propose an efficient approach to improve few-cycle soliton compression with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities by using an engineered multi-section structure of the nonlinear crystal. By exploiting engineering of the cascaded quadratic nonlinearities, in each section soliton compression with a low effective order is realized, and high-quality few-cycle pulses with large compression factors are feasible. Each subsequent section is designed so that the compressed pulse exiting the previous section experiences an overall effective self-defocusing cubic nonlinearity corresponding to a modest soliton order, which is kept larger than unity to ensure further compression. This is done by increasing the cascaded quadratic nonlinearity in the new section with an engineered reduced residual phase mismatch. The low soliton orders in each section ensure excellent pulse quality and high efficiency. Numerical results show that compressed pulses with less than three-cycle duration can be achieved even when the compression factor is very large, and in contrast to standard soliton compression, these compressed pulses have minimal pedestal and high quality factor.

  15. An Improved Estimation of Regional Fractional Woody/Herbaceous Cover Using Combined Satellite Data and High-Quality Training Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu


    Full Text Available Mapping vegetation cover is critical for understanding and monitoring ecosystem functions in semi-arid biomes. As existing estimates tend to underestimate the woody cover in areas with dry deciduous shrubland and woodland, we present an approach to improve the regional estimation of woody and herbaceous fractional cover in the East Asia steppe. This developed approach uses Random Forest models by combining multiple remote sensing data—training samples derived from high-resolution image in a tailored spatial sampling and model inputs composed of specific metrics from MODIS sensor and ancillary variables including topographic, bioclimatic, and land surface information. We emphasize that effective spatial sampling, high-quality classification, and adequate geospatial information are important prerequisites of establishing appropriate model inputs and achieving high-quality training samples. This study suggests that the optimal models improve estimation accuracy (NMSE 0.47 for woody and 0.64 for herbaceous plants and show a consistent agreement with field observations. Compared with existing woody estimate product, the proposed woody cover estimation can delineate regions with subshrubs and shrubs, showing an improved capability of capturing spatialized detail of vegetation signals. This approach can be applicable over sizable semi-arid areas such as temperate steppes, savannas, and prairies.

  16. Performance comparison of audio codecs for high-quality color ring-back-tone services over CDMA (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Kim, Hong Kook; Yu, Jaehwang; Park, SeongSoo; Lee, Dong-Hahk; Woo, Daesic


    In this paper, we investigate the use of existing audio codecs for the purpose of a high quality color ring-back- tone service. First of all, we exploit the limitations of the enhanced variable rate codec (EVRC) in a view of music quality because EVRC is a standard speech coder employed in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system. In order to figure it out which current existing audio codec is suitable to deliver music over CDMA or wideband CDMA (W-CDMA), several audio codecs such as two different versions of MPEG AAC and the Enhanced AAC+ codec are reviewed. Next, the music quality of the audio codecs is compared with that of EVRC, where the bit-rates of the audio codecs are set to be around 10 kbit/s because the color ring-back-tone service using one of the audio codecs should be realized by replacing EVRC with it. The quality comparison is performed by an informal listening test as well as an objective quality test. It is shown from the experiments that the audio codecs provide better music quality than EVRC and among them, the Enhance AAC+ codec operated at a bit-rate of 10 kbit/s with a sampling rate of 32 kHz can be considered as a new candidate for the high quality color ring-back-tone service.

  17. A systematic review of high quality randomized controlled trials investigating motor skill programmes for children with developmental coordination disorder. (United States)

    Preston, Nick; Magallón, Sara; Hill, Liam Jb; Andrews, Elizabeth; Ahern, Sara M; Mon-Williams, Mark


    To identify effective motor training interventions for children with developmental coordination disorder from research graded as high quality (using objective criteria) for the purpose of informing evidence-based clinical practice. We followed the guidance for conducting systematic reviews issued by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Six OvidSP electronic databases (AMED, All EBM reviews (including Cochrane), Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychARTICLES Full Text, PsycINFO) were searched systematically. We aimed to retain only randomized control trials and systematic reviews of randomized control trials, defined as the highest level of evidence by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We searched reference lists of retained articles to identify further appropriate articles. Two reviewers critically appraised and categorized articles by effect size (including confidence intervals), inclusion of power calculations and quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Only studies scoring seven or more on the PEDro scale (classed by the PEDro as high reliability) were retained. No systematic reviews met our criteria for inclusion from 846 articles yielded by the systematic search. Nine randomized control trials investigating 15 interventions to improve motor skills met our inclusion criteria for 'high quality'. Nevertheless, not all included studies were adequately powered for determining an effect. Large effect sizes associated with 95 % confidence intervals suggest that 'Neuromotor Task Training', 'Task-oriented Motor Training' and 'Motor Imagery + Task Practice Training' are the most effective reported interventions for improving motor skills in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  18. Isolation of high-quality DNA in 16 aromatic and medicinal Colombian species using silica-based extraction columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Vela Nelson Enrique


    Full Text Available

    Aromatic and medicinal plant species are a valuable resource for research and development of pharmaceutical, cosmetic, crop protection and nutritional agents, due to the high amount of bioactive phytochemicals that they contain. However, these compounds are a major obstacle in the isolation of high-quality DNA suitable for genetic analyses. In this paper, we report a protocol that optimizes the use of the cationic detergent CTAB and the reductant β-mercaptoethanol in cell lysis. The elimination of plant secondary metabolites such as polysaccharides and polyphenols, that typically co-isolate with DNA, was achieved using the chemical denaturing properties of the guanidinium cation, which together with the adsorbent chemical specificity of the silica, resulted in the purification of high-quality DNA suitable for digestion with restriction enzymes and optimal for PCR amplification of AFLP-type molecular markers. This protocol was evaluated on 16 Colombian aromatic and medicinal plant species promising for their essential oils. The results allow suggesting that this procedure might be appropriate for other species, tissues and sample types recalcitrant to DNA extraction.

  19. Growth and Photovoltaic Properties of High-Quality GaAs Nanowires Prepared by the Two-Source CVD Method (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Zaixing; Wu, Xiaofeng; Han, Ning; Liu, Hanyu; Wang, Shuobo; Li, Jun; Tse, WaiMan; Yip, SenPo; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C.


    Growing high-quality and low-cost GaAs nanowires (NWs) as well as fabricating high-performance NW solar cells by facile means is an important development towards the cost-effective next-generation photovoltaics. In this work, highly crystalline, dense, and long GaAs NWs are successfully synthesized using a two-source method on non-crystalline SiO2 substrates by a simple solid-source chemical vapor deposition method. The high V/III ratio and precursor concentration enabled by this two-source configuration can significantly benefit the NW growth and suppress the crystal defect formation as compared with the conventional one-source system. Since less NW crystal defects would contribute fewer electrons being trapped by the surface oxides, the p-type conductivity is then greatly enhanced as revealed by the electrical characterization of fabricated NW devices. Furthermore, the individual single NW and high-density NW parallel arrays achieved by contact printing can be effectively fabricated into Schottky barrier solar cells simply by employing asymmetric Ni-Al contacts, along with an open circuit voltage of ~0.3 V. All these results indicate the technological promise of these high-quality two-source grown GaAs NWs, especially for the realization of facile Schottky solar cells utilizing the asymmetric Ni-Al contact.

  20. Growth and Photovoltaic Properties of High-Quality GaAs Nanowires Prepared by the Two-Source CVD Method. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Zaixing; Wu, Xiaofeng; Han, Ning; Liu, Hanyu; Wang, Shuobo; Li, Jun; Tse, WaiMan; Yip, SenPo; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C


    Growing high-quality and low-cost GaAs nanowires (NWs) as well as fabricating high-performance NW solar cells by facile means is an important development towards the cost-effective next-generation photovoltaics. In this work, highly crystalline, dense, and long GaAs NWs are successfully synthesized using a two-source method on non-crystalline SiO2 substrates by a simple solid-source chemical vapor deposition method. The high V/III ratio and precursor concentration enabled by this two-source configuration can significantly benefit the NW growth and suppress the crystal defect formation as compared with the conventional one-source system. Since less NW crystal defects would contribute fewer electrons being trapped by the surface oxides, the p-type conductivity is then greatly enhanced as revealed by the electrical characterization of fabricated NW devices. Furthermore, the individual single NW and high-density NW parallel arrays achieved by contact printing can be effectively fabricated into Schottky barrier solar cells simply by employing asymmetric Ni-Al contacts, along with an open circuit voltage of ~0.3 V. All these results indicate the technological promise of these high-quality two-source grown GaAs NWs, especially for the realization of facile Schottky solar cells utilizing the asymmetric Ni-Al contact.

  1. High-quality fuel from food waste - investigation of a stepwise process from the perspective of technology development. (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Li, Ling; Giannis, Apostolos; Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Ng, Bernard J H; Wang, Jing-Yuan


    A stepwise process (SP) was developed for sustainable energy production from food waste (FW). The process comprised of hydrothermal treatment followed by oil upgrading. Synthetic food waste was primarily used as feedstock in the hydrothermal reactor under subcritical water conditions. The produced hydrochars were analyzed for calorific value (17.0-33.7 MJ/kg) and elemental composition indicating high-quality fuel comparable to coal. Hydrothermal carbonization (e.g. 180°C) would be efficient for oil recovery (>90%) from FW, as compared to hydrothermal liquefaction (320°C) whereby lipid degradation may take place. The recovered oil was upgraded to biodiesel in a catalytic refinery process. Selected biodiesels, that is, B3 and B4 were characterized for density (872.7 and 895.5 kg/m 3 ), kinematic viscosity (3.115 and 8.243 cSt), flash and pour point (30°C and >126°C), micro carbon (0.03% and 0.04%), sulfur (both <0.0016%), and calorific value (38,917 and 39,584 J/g), suggesting similar quality to commercial biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ethers content was further analyzed to assess the influence of hydrothermal treatment in biodiesel quality, indicating the limited impacts. Overall, the SP provides a promising alternative for sustainable energy recovery through high-quality biofuel and hydrochar production.

  2. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of High-Quality Cu7 S4 Nanocrystals for Efficient Light-Induced Water Evaporation. (United States)

    Zhang, Changbo; Yan, Cong; Xue, Zhenjie; Yu, Wei; Xie, Yinde; Wang, Tie


    Copper sulfides (Cu 2-x S), are a novel kind of photothermal material exhibiting significant photothermal conversion efficiency, making them very attractive in various energy conversion related devices. Preparing high quality uniform Cu 2-x S nanocrystals (NCs) is a top priority for further energy-and sustainability relevant nanodevices. Here, a shape-controlled high quality Cu 7 S 4 NCs synthesis strategy is reported using sulfur in 1-octadecene as precursor by varying the heating temperature, as well as its forming mechanism. The performance of the Cu 7 S 4 NCs is further explored for light-driven water evaporation without the need of heating the bulk liquid to the boiling point, and the results suggest that as-synthesized highly monodisperse NCs perform higher evaporation rate than polydisperse NCs under the identical morphology. Furthermore, disk-like NCs exhibit higher water evaporation rate than spherical NCs. The water evaporation rate can be further enhanced by assembling the organic phase Cu 7 S 4 NCs into a dense film on the aqueous solution surface. The maximum photothermal conversion efficiency is as high as 77.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison of dapagliflozin with existing anti-diabetes treatments for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by sulfonylurea monotherapy (United States)


    Background To compare the first-in-class sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment options available within the European Union (EU) for add-on therapy to sulfonylureas (SUs). Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in T2DM patients inadequately controlled by SU monotherapy. Direct meta-analysis, Bucher indirect comparisons and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted on studies meeting predefined inclusion criteria. Sufficient data were available to assess three clinical endpoints at 24 (+/- 6) weeks follow-up: mean change in HbA1c from baseline, mean change in weight from baseline, and the proportion of patients experiencing at least one episode of hypoglycaemia. The effect of confounding baseline factors was explored through covariate analyses. Results The search identified 1,901 unique citations, with 1,870 excluded based on title/abstract. From reviewing full-texts of the remaining 31 articles, 5 studies were considered eligible for analysis. All studies were comparable in terms of baseline characteristics, including: HbA1c, age and body mass index (BMI). In addition to dapagliflozin, sufficient data for meta-analysis was available for three dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and one glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue. Based on fixed-effect NMA, all treatment classes resulted in statistically significant decreases in HbA1c at follow-up compared to placebo. Dapagliflozin treatment resulted in significantly decreased weight at follow-up compared to placebo (-1.54 kg; 95% CrI -2.16, -0.92), in contrast to treatment with GLP-1 analogues (-0.65 kg; 95% CrI -1.37, 0.07) and DPP-4 inhibitors (0.57 kg; 95% CrI 0.09, 1.06). The odds of hypoglycaemia were similar to placebo for dapagliflozin and DPP-4 inhibitor add-on treatment, but significantly greater than placebo for GLP-1 analogue add-on treatment (10.89; 95% Cr

  4. A survey of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among young schoolchildren in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    McIntyre, L


    The prevalence of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among schoolchildren in Nova Scotia was determined by surveying 2,500 children in Grades 1 to 3 in 25 randomly selected schools. Breakfast-skipping was measured on two occasions using a validated survey instrument administered by videotaped child entertainers. 4.8% of children came to school without eating or drinking anything on the morning of testing. Breakfast omission was significantly related to grade with 6.1% of Grade 1 children skipping breakfast compared with 3.2% in Grade 3. Boys were significantly more likely to skip breakfast than girls but the absolute differences were small. 86% of children consumed a breakfast including two food groups; 56% three food groups. Adequacy of consumption was poorer in lower grades but did not vary by other sociodemographic variables. Breakfast omission in Nova Scotia children attending Grades 1, 2 or 3 does not warrant a provincial public health response.

  5. Distinguishing the impacts of inadequate prey and vessel traffic on an endangered killer whale (Orcinus orca population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Ayres

    Full Text Available Managing endangered species often involves evaluating the relative impacts of multiple anthropogenic and ecological pressures. This challenge is particularly formidable for cetaceans, which spend the majority of their time underwater. Noninvasive physiological approaches can be especially informative in this regard. We used a combination of fecal thyroid (T3 and glucocorticoid (GC hormone measures to assess two threats influencing the endangered southern resident killer whales (SRKW; Orcinus orca that frequent the inland waters of British Columbia, Canada and Washington, U.S.A. Glucocorticoids increase in response to nutritional and psychological stress, whereas thyroid hormone declines in response to nutritional stress but is unaffected by psychological stress. The inadequate prey hypothesis argues that the killer whales have become prey limited due to reductions of their dominant prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The vessel impact hypothesis argues that high numbers of vessels in close proximity to the whales cause disturbance via psychological stress and/or impaired foraging ability. The GC and T3 measures supported the inadequate prey hypothesis. In particular, GC concentrations were negatively correlated with short-term changes in prey availability. Whereas, T3 concentrations varied by date and year in a manner that corresponded with more long-term prey availability. Physiological correlations with prey overshadowed any impacts of vessels since GCs were lowest during the peak in vessel abundance, which also coincided with the peak in salmon availability. Our results suggest that identification and recovery of strategic salmon populations in the SRKW diet are important to effectively promote SRKW recovery.

  6. Capillary Blood Ketone Levels as an Indicator of Inadequate Breast Milk Intake in the Early Neonatal Period. (United States)

    Futatani, Takeshi; Shimao, Ayako; Ina, Shihomi; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shuhei; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Noboru; Hatasaki, Kiyoshi


    To determine the utility of capillary blood ketone levels as an indicator of inadequate intake of breast milk in the early postnatal period. Levels of capillary blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), the main ketone body in the blood, were measured with a bedside ketone meter in 585 full-term neonates aged 48-95 hours who were breastfed exclusively. Relationships between weight-loss percentage, blood sodium, glucose, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, base-deficit levels, and βOHB levels were investigated. The diagnostic accuracy of βOHB for predicting excessive weight loss (weight loss ≥10% of birth weight) and hypernatremic dehydration (blood sodium level ≥150 mEq/L) was determined. βOHB levels were correlated positively with weight-loss percentage and blood sodium levels and were correlated negatively with blood glucose levels. The diagnostic accuracy of βOHB was 0.846 (optimal cut off, 1.55 mmol/L; sensitivity, 80.9%, specificity, 74.0%) for predicting excessive weight loss and 0.868 (optimal cut off, 1.85 mmol/L; sensitivity, 94.3%; specificity, 69.9%) for predicting hypernatremic dehydration according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that βOHB and weight loss percentage were the only independent predictors of hypernatremic dehydration. Increases in βOHB levels also were associated with worsening metabolic acidosis and hypocapnia. High βOHB levels were associated with inadequate intake of breast milk in the early postnatal period. The use of bedside capillary blood ketone levels may be clinically useful as an indicator of dehydration, energy depletion, and acid-base imbalance in breastfeeding infants in the early postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene. (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe


    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  8. Sex Therapy (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  9. Recommendations for the use of immunoglobulin therapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In primary immunodeficiencies, therapy reconstitutes humoral immunity at replacement doses (0.4 - 0.6g/ kg/month), decreasing infections, and is usually lifelong. However, high doses, usually 2g/kg total dose over five days, are required for immunomodulation in autoimmune and inflammatory indications. A high-quality ...

  10. A Framework to Assist Health Professionals in Recommending High-Quality Apps for Supporting Chronic Disease Self-Management: Illustrative Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Apps. (United States)

    Hale, Kelli; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judith


    This paper presents an approach to assist health professionals in recommending high quality apps for supporting chronic disease self-management. Most app reviews focus on popularity, aesthetics, functionality, usability, and information quality. There is no doubt these factors are important in selecting trustworthy apps which are appealing to users, but behavioral theory may be also be useful in matching the apps to user needs. The framework developed aims to be methodologically sound, capable of selecting popular apps which include content covered by evidence-based programs, consistent with behavioral theory, as well as a patient-centered approach for matching apps to patients' individual needs. A single disease-type 2 diabetes-was selected to illustrate how the framework can be applied as this was deemed to represent the types of strategies used in many chronic diseases. A systematic approach based on behavioral theory and recommendations from best practice guidelines was developed for matching apps to patients' needs. In March 2014, a series of search strategies was used to identify top-rated iPhone and Android health apps, representing 29 topics from five categories of type 2 diabetes self-management strategies. The topics were chosen from published international guidelines for the management of diabetes. The senior author (KH) assessed the most popular apps found that addressed these topics using the Behavioral Theory Content Survey (BTS), which is based on traditional behavioral theory. A tool to assist decision making when using apps was developed and trialed with health professionals for ease of use and understanding. A total of 14 apps were assessed representing all five topic categories of self-management. Total theoretical scores (BTS scores) were less than 50 on a 100-point scale for all apps. Each app scored less than 50% of the total possible BTS score for all four behavioral theories and for most of the 20 behavioral strategies; however, apps scored

  11. High-quality phase-shifted Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one laser pulse in a polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Pereira, L.


    We present the first phase-shifted polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensor inscribed with only one KrF laser pulse. The phase shift defect was created directly during the grating inscription process by placing a very narrow blocking aperture, in the center of the UV beam. One laser pulse...... with a duration of 15 ns and energy 6.3 mJ is adequate to introduce a refractive index change of 0.69×10−4 in the fiber core. The high-quality produced Bragg grating structure rejects 16.3 dB transmitted power, thus providing 97.6% reflectivity, which is well suited for photonic applications. The transmission...

  12. Synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene at reduced temperature on hydrogen-enriched evaporated copper (111) films. (United States)

    Tao, Li; Lee, Jongho; Chou, Harry; Holt, Milo; Ruoff, Rodney S; Akinwande, Deji


    We report new findings on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of monolayer graphene with negligible defects (≥95% negligible defect-peak over 200 μm × 200 μm areas) on evaporated copper films. Compared to copper foils used in the CVD of graphene, several new unexpected results have been observed including high-quality monolayer synthesis at temperatures copper grains. These thermal, chemical, and physical growth characteristics of graphene on copper films can be attributed to the distinct differences in the dominant crystal orientation of copper films (111) versus foils (100), and consequent dissimilar interplay with the precursor gas. This study suggests that reduced temperature, hydrogen-free synthesis of defect-negligible monolayer graphene is feasible, with the potential to shape and scale graphene grains by controlling the size and crystal orientation of the underlying copper grains. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. The effects of H sub 2 addition on the enhanced deposition rate and high quality Cu films by MOCVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J H; Park, S J; Choi, S Y


    High-quality Cu thin films were deposited on the TiN/Si substrate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate Copper thrmethylvinylsilane [Cu (hfac) (tmvs)] source using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The optimum deposition condition is with a substrate temperature of 200 .deg. C and the hydrogen flow rate of 80 sccm. The deposition rate, electrical resistivity, surface morphology, grain size, and optical properties of the deposited Cu films were investigated by the AES, four-point probe, SEM, XRD, and the visible spectrophotometer as a function of hydrogen gas flow rate, The results indicated that additional hydrogen gas affects the CVD hydrogen reduction reaction improving the purity, deposition rate, and electrical resistivity of Cu thin films. A prospective idea will be discussed for the preparation of Cu thin films showing a more enhanced electromigration resistance applicable to the next-generation interconnection.

  14. A facile and green preparation of high-quality CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Jilin Province Research Center for Engineering and Technology of Spectral Analytical Instruments, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Shen Qihui; Shi Weiguang; Li Jixue; Liu Xiaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yu Dongdong [1st Hopstail affiliated to Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhou Jianguang [Research Center for Analytical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    One chemical reagent, hydrazine hydrate, was discovered to accelerate the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals (cadmium telluride) instead of additional energy, which was applied to the synthesis of high-quality CdTe nanocrystals at room temperature and ambient conditions within several hours. Under this mild condition the mercapto stabilizers were not destroyed, and they guaranteed CdTe nanocrystal particle sizes with narrow and uniform distribution over the largest possible range. The CdTe nanocrystals (photoluminescence emission range of 530-660 nm) synthesized in this way had very good spectral properties; for instance, they showed high photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 60%. Furthermore, we have succeeded in detecting the living Borrelia burgdorferi of Lyme disease by its photoluminescence image using CdTe nanocrystals.

  15. High-quality single crystalline NiO with twin phases grown on sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Uchida


    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline twin phase NiO grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is reported. X-ray rocking curve analysis of NiO films grown at different temperatures indicates a minimum full width at half maximum of the cubic (111 diffraction peak of 0.107° for NiO film grown at as low as 550 °C. Detailed microstructural analysis by Φ scan X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NiO film consists of large single crystalline domains with two different crystallographic orientations which are rotated relative to each other along the [111] axis by 60°. These single crystal domains are divided by the twin phase boundaries.

  16. Coherent control of injection currents in high-quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, D. A.; Vargas-Velez, K.; Babakiray, S.; Johnson, T. A.; Borisov, P.; Stanescu, T. D.; Lederman, D.; Bristow, A. D., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)


    Films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The films are shown to be high-quality by X-ray reflectivity and diffraction and atomic-force microscopy. Quantum interference control of photocurrents is observed by excitation with harmonically related pulses and detected by terahertz radiation. The injection current obeys the expected excitation irradiance dependence, showing linear dependence on the fundamental pulse irradiance and square-root irradiance dependence of the frequency-doubled optical pulses. The injection current also follows a sinusoidal relative-phase dependence between the two excitation pulses. These results confirm the third-order nonlinear optical origins of the coherently controlled injection current. Experiments are compared to a tight-binding band structure to illustrate the possible optical transitions that occur in creating the injection current.

  17. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.


    , e.g., the large scale fabrication of quantum light sources. As a result, large efforts focus on the growth and the device integration of site-controlled QDs. We present the growth of low density arrays of site-controlled In(Ga)As QDs where shallow etched nanoholes act as nucleation sites....... The nanoholes are located relative to cross markers which allows for a precise spatial alignment of the site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) and the photonic modes of high quality microcavites with an accuracy better than 50 nm. We also address the optical quality of the SCQDs in terms of the single SCQD emission mode...... layer we determine a quantum efficiency of the SCQD close to 50% and an oscillator strength of about 10. Finally, single photon emission with associated with g(2)(0) = 0.12 of a weakly coupled SCQD-micropillar system will be presented....

  18. Growth of high-quality CuInSe sub 2 polycrystalline films by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Da Tao; Wang Li; Zhu Feng; Quan Sheng Wen; Meng Tie Jun; Zhang Bao Cheng; Chen J


    High-quality CuInSe sub 2 thin films have been prepared using a two stages process. Cu and In were co-deposited onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering method to produce a predominant Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9 phase. The alloy films were selenised and annealed in vacuum at different temperature in the range of 200-500 degree C using elemental selenium in a closed graphite box. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the films. It is found that the polycrystalline and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 films were uniform and densely packed with a grain size of about 3.0 mu m

  19. Isolation of high quality lignin as a by-product from ammonia percolation pretreatment of poplar wood. (United States)

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C


    A two-step process combining percolation-mode ammonia pretreatment of poplar sawdust with mild organosolv purification of the extracted lignin produced high quality, high purity lignin in up to 31% yield and 50% recovery. The uncondensed fraction of the isolated lignin was up to 34%, close to that the native lignin (40%). Less lignin was recovered after pretreatment in batch mode, apparently due to condensation during the longer residence time of the solubilised lignin at elevated temperature. The lignin recovery was directly correlated with its molecular weight and its nitrogen content. Low nitrogen incorporation, observed at high ammonia concentration, may be explained by limited homolytic cleavage of β-O-4 bonds. Ammonia concentrations from 15% to 25% (w/w) gave similar results in terms of lignin structure, yield and recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-Time Acquisition of High Quality Face Sequences from an Active Pan-Tilt-Zoom Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad A.; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    expressions. Moreover, the imaging conditions like illumination, occlusion, and noise may change. These all aggregate the quality of most of the detected face images in terms of measures like resolution, pose, brightness, and sharpness. To deal with these problems this paper presents an active camera......Traditional still camera-based facial image acquisition systems in surveillance applications produce low quality face images. This is mainly due to the distance between the camera and subjects of interest. Furthermore, people in such videos usually move around, change their head poses, and facial......-based real-time high-quality face image acquisition system, which utilizes pan-tilt-zoom parameters of a camera to focus on a human face in a scene and employs a face quality assessment method to log the best quality faces from the captured frames. The system consists of four modules: face detection, camera...