WorldWideScience

Sample records for inadequate physical examination

  1. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  2. Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Zhou, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenxi Kevin; Wang, Xiujiang; Yin, Zenong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from seven years and three months to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and EBRBs outside school hours. The response rate was 97%, and the reported rates of overweight and obesity were 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The obesity rates were higher in boys and lower grade children. Most EBRBs varied between boys and girls and with increased grade levels. The amount of time spent on academic-related activities, screen viewing, outdoor activities and sleep was mostly associated with obesity on weekdays and varied by gender. Rate of obesity was alarmingly high in the primary school Chinese children in this cohort, especially in younger children. Excessive time spent on academic-related activities outside school hours, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and higher levels of screen viewing were major contributors to obesity in these Chinese children. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Geun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Gyeong-Yoon; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Mi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Subject The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1-18 years). Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45-55 %) to adolescents (78-86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age. Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.

  5. Hypothesis-driven physical examination curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sharon; Olson, Andrew; Menk, Jeremiah; Nixon, James

    2017-12-01

    Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester. The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded. First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  6. AAPT/NSTA High School Physics Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses development of the American Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association (AAPT/NSTA) high school physics examination. Includes sample examination questions and distribution of topics: mechanics (30 percent), waves/optics/sound (20 percent), heat/kinetic theory (10 percent), electricity/magnetism (25 percent),…

  7. Evaluation of inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases in cytological examination for breast cancer according to histological type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously investigated the current status of breast cytology cancer screening at seven institutes in our area of southern Fukuoka Prefecture, and found some differences in diagnostic accuracy among the institutions. In the present study, we evaluated the cases involved and noted possible reasons for their original cytological classification as inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive according to histological type. Methods We evaluated the histological findings in 5693 individuals who underwent cytological examination for breast cancer (including inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases), to determine the most common histological types and/or features in these settings and the usefulness/limitations of cytological examination for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Results Among 1152 cytologically inadequate cases, histology revealed that 75/173 (43.6%) cases were benign, including mastopathy (fibrocystic disease) in 38.6%, fibroadenoma in 24.0% and papilloma in 5.3%. Ninety-five of 173 (54.9%) cases were histologically malignant, with scirrhous growing type, invasive ductal carcinoma (SIDC) being significantly more frequent (49.5%) than papillotubular growing type (Papi-tub) (P fibroadenoma, 27.8%; papilloma, 26.0%) and 73/139 (52.5%) were malignant, with SIDC being the most frequent malignant tumor (37.0%). Among 52 false-negative cases, SIDC was significantly more frequent (42.3%) than DCIS (P = 0.0049) and Papi-tub (P = 0.001). There were three false-positive cases, with one each of fibroadenoma, epidermal cyst and papilloma. Conclusions The inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases showed similar histological types, notably SIDC for malignant tumors, and mastopathy, fibroadenoma and papilloma for benign cases. We need to pay particular attention to the collection and assessment of aspirates for these histological types of breast disease. In particular, several

  8. Chemical and physical quality examination: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William

    1953-01-01

    In a balanced study of water pollution or water utilization a thorough chemical and physical examination is essential. This provides a basis for evaluation of stream conditions, their effects and remedies. Such information is of value to the general public who are interested in clean water and in recreation, hunting, fishing, and wildlife; to the chemist, engineer, hydrologist, and industrialist who are interested in the domestic and industrial use of water both as raw material and as a vehicle for the removal of waste materials; to the sanitarian who is interested in healthful conditions; and to the biologist who is interested in maintaining a favorable biological balance. For every living plant and animal there are optimum physical and chemical conditions and these characteristics are determining factors in the aquatic life of any body of water.

  9. [The physical examination - a vanishing art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönnesmann, Ernst; Goltz, Diane; Lewalter, Thorsten; Welz, Armin

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the case of a 63-year-old female patient who presented with progressive dyspnea to a specialized internal medicine practice. Prior consultations with her primary care physician and a cardiologist followed by hospitalizations in an acute care hospital and in a specialist clinic for cardiology had not yielded a conclusive diagnosis. During the physical examination, significant bilateral lower extremity edema, as well as pronounced jugular venous distention was noted while in a seated position. This prompted further targeted diagnostic examination and testing and resulted in the final diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis of tuberculous origin.The establishment of the diagnosis is discussed in the context of increasingly technologized medical practice, where clinical skills and the significance of the patient history and physical examination are declining. In addition, we discuss the problem of less common diseases of the myo- and pericardium with primarily diastolic (constrictive or restrictive) dysfunction being overlooked in routine cardiological diagnostic procedures, with a focus on coronary heart disease, valve disorders and the impairment of systolic ventricular function ("ejection fraction"). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Can Physical Examination Create a Stener Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankachandra, Manesha; Eggers, John P; Bogener, James W; Hutchison, Richard L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Stener lesion can be created while testing stability of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb. Testing was performed in a manner that reproduced clinical examination. Six fresh frozen hand and forearm specimens underwent sequential sectioning of the accessory UCL, the proper UCL, and the ulnar sagittal band. Measurements of radial deviation of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint were taken with the thumb in neutral rotation, pronation and supination, both with 0 degrees and with 30 degrees of flexion of the MCP joint. Visual examination was performed to assess the presence of a Stener lesion. No Stener lesion was created in any position as long as the fascial origin of the ulnar sagittal band at the adductor pollicis longus remained intact. After creating a defect in the ulnar sagittal band, a Stener lesion was created in two specimens, but only when the thumb was flexed and supinated. Pronation provided more stability, and supination provided less stability, with one or both components cut, especially when testing at 30° of flexion. Compared to both components cut without flexion or rotation, there was a statistically significant difference in angulation with the 30 degrees of MCP joint flexion in both neutral rotation in supination. Performing a physical examination to assess the amount of instability of an ulnar collateral ligament injury did not create a Stener lesion if the exam was performed in a controlled, gentle manner with the thumb held without rotation. If the thumb is held in neutral rotation during the exam, an iatrogenic Stener lesion should not be created.

  11. Radiologists' responses to inadequate referrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjoern Morten; Espeland, Ansgar

    2010-01-01

    To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)

  12. Interobserver reliability of physical examination of shoulder girdle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomden, Jettie G.; Slagers, Anton J.; Bergman, Geert; Winters, Jan C.; Kropmans, Thomas J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    The object of this study was to assess interobserver reliability in 23 tests concerning physical examination of the shoulder girdle. A physical therapist and a physical therapist/manual therapist independently performed a physical examination of the shoulder girdle in 91 patients with shoulder

  13. PHYSICAL THERAPY DOCUMENTATION: FROM EXAMINATION TO OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Erickson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The book covers fundamentals for documentation within contemporary physical therapy practice. It uses practice exercises and case studies for developing documentation skills needed for current quality standards of patient care. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a comprehensive reference tool for physical therapy students and practitioners to use when documenting in current practice setting. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on comparative description of different disablement models including 1 The International Classification on Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF developed and recently revised by WHO, 2 the Nagi framework and 3 the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR disability classification scheme. Following four chapters sequentially provide rationale, basic rules and guidelines for documenting physical therapy evaluation, treatment planning and functional outcome in medical records.Different documentation formats are presented using multiple examples of clinical cases. Chapters 6 through 9 provide practice for writing different aspects of notes including subjective and objective patient information, assessment, treatment plan, interim and discharge notes. The last three chapters focus on outcome measurement, discussion of regulatory and reimbursement issues which are of utmost importance in terms of documentation. Objectives are provided at the beginning and application exercises are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate reader's full understanding of practical and theoretical information. AUDIENCE This book can be considered as an excellent source for physical therapy students, educators and practitioners. ASSESSMENT This is a valuable reference tool written by subject specialists in relation to a specific aspect of current physical therapy practice. It fully covers essential information and offers plenty of clinical examples assisting the development and improvement of documentation skills for

  14. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  15. Lasers In Physical Evidence Examination: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    A recent application of fluorescence that is perhaps largely unknown outside law enforcement involves the utilization of laser excited fluorescence (LEF) in forensic science. In this overview, the focus is on LEF applicaton to development of latent fingerprints. Other areas of criminalistics, such as document examination and fiber analysis will be dealt with briefly only. To bring the technical reader, who likely has little familiarity with the fingerprint field, up to stream, a historical introduction precedes the description of current procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints which is followed by a brief outline of current areas of research in the fingerprint area and application of lasers to other types of evidence examination. The overview concludes with an assessment of the current state and utilization growth prognosis of lasers in criminalistics.

  16. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  17. Evolution of physics examining 1940-2000 at Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Brown, L. M.

    2001-07-01

    Much controversy exists about the supposed changing examination standards. Emphasis has been placed on the standards of GCSE and A-level examinations. However, many large employers recruit graduates, and so university examination standards also deserve attention. Here, Cambridge University Part II (third year undergraduate) examinations in Physics are studied since 1940. Trends in prescriptiveness, choice of questions, and other variables were found.

  18. Diagnosis of thyroid disease. Anamnesis and physical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anamnesis and physical examination rank first in the diagnostic process of thyroid disease. They provide a basis for subsequent diagnostic procedures and treatment. This article focusses on personal, medical and familial history as well as physical examination of the neck and general clinical examination with respect to signs and symptoms of hypo- or hyperthyreoidism. In addition indications for fine-needle biopsy and biopsy technique are described. (orig.)

  19. Effects of intravenous morphine on physical examination findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study has objectively demonstrated that when compared with placebo judicious administration of I.V morphine provides significant pain reduction without adversely affecting the physical examination findings in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain due to suspected appendicitis.

  20. The role of physical examinations and education in prospective medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.; Mockbee, J.; Snow, C. K.; Compton, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's prospective medicine program, with the principal elements of physical examinations and an educational program for health awareness is described. Participation in the voluntary physical examination program is increasing. In 1976 13,621 employees were given partial or complete examination in NASA Health Units. From the 941 examinations performed at NASA Headquarters in 1976, 522 principal findings were detected. Equipment and techniques in exercise EKG, tonometry, and colonoscopy were partially responsible for this high rate. The health awareness program includes consultations with physicians, training devices and courses, health bulletins, and special screening programs. Epidemiological studies, now underway, will be used to evaluate the health awareness programs.

  1. Physical activity for health: examining similarities and differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of a rising diabetes epidemic, a target population for prevention programme is the children of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study examined physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes and that of their adult children, and characterized the factors associated with physical inactivity among the participants.

  2. [Chronic kidney disease in 5 708 people receiving physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo; Chen, Zhiheng; Zhang, Hao; Gong, Ni; Wang, Yan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in people receiving physical examination. This retrospective study included people over 20 years old who had physical examination in the Health Management Center of Third Xiangya Hospital from Janurary 2008 to June 2011. CKD and its risk factors as well as questionnaire were recorded. The risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. CKD was defined by kidney damage (microalbuminuria≥30 mg/L) and/or hematuria and/or reduced kidney function [evaluate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)physical examination reports were included. The detection rate of albuminuria, reduced renal function and hematuria was 25.0%, 1.7% and 1.1%. The detection rate of CKD was 25.6%, and detection rate of CKD stage 1-5 was 17.8%, 6.7%, 1.1%, 0 and 0, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, male, age, and smoking were the risk factors for CKD. Increasing physical activity was the protective factor against CKD. High prevalence of CKD in people receiving physical examination is found in Changsha, especially stage 1 and 2 CKD. Physical examination is important to screen CKD. Stopping smoking, control of blood glucose, blood pressure, blood lipids and increasing physical activity may help reduce the prevalence of CKD.

  3. An appraisal of the literature on teaching physical examination skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Graham; Stratford-Martin, James; Atherton, Helen

    2012-07-01

    To discover which models for teaching physical examination skills have been proposed, and to appraise the evidence for each. We conducted a narrative review of relevant literature from 1990-2010. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and ERIC (The Education Resource Information Centre) for the terms: 'physical examination' AND 'teaching' as both MESH terms and keyword searches. We excluded web-based or video teaching, non-physical examination skills (e.g. communication skills), and articles about simulated patients or models. We identified five relevant articles. These five studies outlined several approaches to teaching physical examination skills, including Peyton's 4-step model, an adaptation of his model to a 6-step model; the silent run through; and collaborative discovery. There was little evidence to support one method over others. One controlled trial suggested that silent run-through could improve performance of complex motor tasks, and another suggested that collaborative discovery improves students' ability to recognise key findings in cardiac examinations. There are several models for teaching physical examinations, but few are designed specifically for that purpose and there is little evidence to back any one model over another. We propose an approach which adopts several key features of these models. Future research could usefully evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed models, or develop innovative practical models for teaching examination skills.

  4. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  5. The Physical Examination as Ritual: Social Sciences and Embodiment in the Context of the Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Cari; Verghese, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    The privilege of examining a patient is a skill of value beyond its diagnostic utility. A thorough physical examination is an important ritual that benefits patients and physicians. The concept of embodiment helps one understand how illness and pain further define and shape the lived experiences of individuals in the context of their race, gender, sexuality, and socioeconomic status. Understanding ritual in medicine, including the placebo effects of such rituals, reaffirms the centrality of the physical examination to the process of building strong physician-patient relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ACL injury: How do the physical examination tests compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Christiaan H; Harmsen, Annelieke Mk; Lichtenberg, Miranda C; Bloemers, Frank W

    2018-03-01

    Three physical examination tests are most commonly used to evaluate cruciate ligament injury. The best known and most frequently used technique is the anterior drawer test. The other 2 tests, the Lachman test and the pivot shift test, are more difficult to perform and are used less often, especially by physicians untrained in their use. In addition, there is a relatively new diagnostic test: the lever sign test. The aim of our article is to provide a short, clinically relevant overview of the literature and to assess the diagnostic value of physical examination for the primary care physician.

  7. Examining issues of underrepresented minority students in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica Ellen

    In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.

  8. The efficacy of serial physical examination in penetrating abdominal trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haarst, E. P.; van Bezooijen, B. P.; Coene, P. P.; Luitse, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Over a 10-year period we reviewed the records of 370 consecutive patients with potentially penetrating abdominal wounds (48 gunshot and 322 stab wounds). Selective non-operative management for abdominal stab wounds was introduced, guided by serial physical examination. In our study the terms

  9. How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew; Japp, Alan; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-07-27

    Physical examination of the cardiovascular system is central to contemporary teaching and practice in clinical medicine. Evidence about its value focuses on its diagnostic accuracy and varies widely in methodological quality and statistical power. This makes collation, analysis, and understanding of results difficult and limits their application to daily clinical practice. Specific factors affecting interpretation and clinical application include poor standardisation of observers' technique and training, the study of single signs rather than multiple signs or signs in combination with symptoms, and the tendency to compare physical examination directly with technological aids to diagnosis rather than explore diagnostic strategies that combine both. Other potential aspects of the value of physical examination, such as cost effectiveness or patients' perceptions, are poorly studied. This review summarises the evidence for the clinical value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system. The best was judged to relate to the detection and evaluation of valvular heart disease, the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, the jugular venous pulse in the assessment of central venous pressure, and the detection of atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, impaired perfusion, and aortic and carotid disease. Although technological aids to diagnosis are likely to become even more widely available at the point of care, the evidence suggests that further research into the value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system is needed, particularly in low resource settings and as a potential means of limiting inappropriate overuse of technological aids to diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. History and physical examination of the hip: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal David; Palmer, Ian James

    2013-09-01

    The history and physical examination of the hip is the key component for evaluation of patients presenting with hip pain. As our understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the normal hip vs the pathologic hip advances, the physical examination progresses as well. As with the shoulder and knee examinations, there are critical steps that form the basis of the examination of the hip joint. This hip examination contains 21 steps, which compares well with the shoulder 20 step exam and the knee 33 step exam. Consideration should be given for the hip as comprised of 4 layers: the osseous, capsulolabral, musculotendinous, and neurovascular. The hip represents the link between the upper body and lower body, therefore the fifth layer, the kinematic chain, plays an essential role in treatment recommendations. A clinical evaluation of the hip that incorporates this multifactor thought process will lead to an accurate diagnosis in a timely manner. This paper is a description of the 21 core examinations of a standardized clinical evaluation of the hip.

  11. Evaluation of common elbow pathologies: a focus on physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratta, Joseph; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Lombardi, Joseph; Levine, William; Ahmad, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Elbow tendinopathy accounts for the majority of elbow pathology in patients presenting to upper extremity and sports medicine surgeons. With increased participation in overhead sports in an aging population, the incidence of elbow injuries has risen. A comprehensive knowledge of elbow anatomy and biomechanical function of the elbow complex is prerequisite in the assessment of patients with elbow injuries; however, a thorough understanding of alternative and confounding pathologies is essential for accurate diagnosis. Because tendinopathy, tendonitis, and tendon tears have an anatomic basis for their pathology, a targeted history and meticulous physical examination often yields an accurate clinical diagnosis. The importance of physical examination and provocative examination maneuvers must be stressed in a technologically advanced era where clinical diagnosis is too commonly attained solely by advanced imaging modalities. A revived dedication to the physical examination may enhance our ability to correctly diagnose various pathologies about the elbow. Early and accurate clinical diagnosis is the first step in the proper initiation of treatment modalities and improvement in overall patient outcome.

  12. Teaching the physical examination: a longitudinal strategy for tomorrow's physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toshiko; Farnan, Jeanne M; Schwartz, Jennifer E; Heiman, Heather L

    2014-03-01

    The physical examination is an essential clinical skill. The traditional approach to teaching the physical exam has involved a comprehensive "head-to-toe" checklist, which is often used to assess students before they begin their clinical clerkships. This method has been criticized for its lack of clinical context and for promoting rote memorization without critical thinking. In response to these concerns, Gowda and colleagues surveyed a national sample of clinical skills educators in order to develop a consensus "core" physical exam, which they report in this issue. The core physical exam is intended to be performed for every patient admitted by students during their medicine clerkships and to be supplemented by symptom-driven "clusters" of additional history and physical exam maneuvers.In this commentary, the authors review the strengths and limitations of this Core + Clusters technique as well as the head-to-toe approach. They propose that the head-to-toe still has a place in medical education, particularly for beginning students with little knowledge of pathophysiology and for patients with vague or multiple symptoms. The authors suggest that the ideal curriculum would include teaching both the head-to-toe and the Core + Clusters exams in sequence. This iterative approach to physical exam teaching would allow a student to assess a patient in a comprehensive manner while incorporating more clinical reasoning as further medical knowledge is acquired.

  13. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD; medical interview/physical finding/ blood examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Susumu; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is common disease. To diagnose COPD, pulmonary function test is required, however, usual physical examination and medical interview are both crucial. From both of them, we can acquire very important information and also this information will tell us much rather than pulmonary function test or images. In this article, we would like to summarize recent update about these topics. We focused on history taking from patients, examination of physical finding, and some possible biomarkers from blood examination. All of them may represent several important information of each patients, such as severity of disease, risk of future events, and also prognosis. For all physicians, it is necessary to evaluate these things.

  14. Radiologists' responses to inadequate referrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke [Oslo University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Hofmann, Bjoern Morten [University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Gjoevik University College, Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Gjoevik (Norway); Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)

  15. Shoulder Impingement Syndromes: Implications on Physical Therapy Examination and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A painful shoulder presents challenges in examination, diagnosis and intervention for the physical therapist because of the complexity of the structures involved. A common cause of shoulder pain is shoulder impingement syndrome. This was first described as a condition in which the soft tissues of the subacromial space were chronically entrapped and compressed between the humeral head and the subacromial arch. This definition does not account for the myriad potential causes of shoulder impingement conditions, as forms of impingement other than subacromial soft tissue compression may explain different symptomatic shoulder injuries. This paper describes shoulder impingement syndromes that have been hypothesized, identified and analyzed in the literature. Physical Therapy examination and intervention for these syndromes are also discussed. PMID:25792938

  16. History and physical examination of hip injuries in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedan Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most common injury occurring to elderly people and is associated with restrictions of the activities of the patients themselves. The discovery of a hip fracture can be the beginning of a complex journey of care, from initial diagnosis, through operational procedures to rehabilitation. The patient's history and physical examination form the basis of the diagnosis and monitoring of elderly patients with hip problems and dictate the appropriate treatment strategy to be implemented. The aim of this study is to discuss the different diagnoses of hip pain in a case study of an elderly woman who initially complained of pain in her right knee following a fall at home. It shows that musculoskeletal physical examination determined the management of the hip fracture that was found to be present. In addition, the aim of this article is to review diagnostic tests such as radiographs and recommend appropriate management and treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients.

  17. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparing Physical Examination With Sonographic Versions of the Same Examination Techniques for Splenomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessford, Tara; Meneilly, Graydon S; Arishenkoff, Shane; Eddy, Christopher; Chen, Luke Y C; Kim, Daniel J; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-12-08

    To determine whether sonographic versions of physical examination techniques can accurately identify splenomegaly, Castell's method (Ann Intern Med 1967; 67:1265-1267), the sonographic Castell's method, spleen tip palpation, and the sonographic spleen tip technique were compared with reference measurements. Two clinicians trained in bedside sonography patients recruited from an urban hematology clinic. Each patient was examined for splenomegaly using conventional percussion and palpation techniques (Castell's method and spleen tip palpation, respectively), as well as the sonographic versions of these maneuvers (sonographic Castell's method and sonographic spleen tip technique). Results were compared with a reference standard based on professional sonographer measurements. The sonographic Castell's method had greater sensitivity (91.7% [95% confidence interval, 61.5% to 99.8%]) than the traditional Castell's method (83.3% [95% confidence interval, 51.6% to 97.9%]) but took longer to perform [mean ± SD, 28.8 ± 18.6 versus 18.8 ± 8.1 seconds; P = .01). Palpable and positive sonographic spleen tip results were both 100% specific, but the sonographic spleen tip method was more sensitive (58.3% [95% confidence interval, 27.7% to 84.8%] versus 33.3% [95% confidence interval, 9.9% to 65.1%]). Sonographic versions of traditional physical examination maneuvers have greater diagnostic accuracy than the physical examination maneuvers from which they are derived but may take longer to perform. We recommend a combination of traditional physical examination and sonographic techniques when evaluating for splenomegaly at the bedside. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. The physics secondary education certificate examination: A Maltese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.

    This thesis investigates whether examinations are fair and just for all students in Maltese schools within the context of the Physics Secondary Education Certificate. It explores what teachers and students think of the Physics SEC examination, how the teachers' and students' views were reflected in the kind of teaching and learning taking place in the schools and how the examinations impacted on the lives of students and whether there were any differences in gender and class which limited the experiences of students. The data was obtained from observations and interviews carried out with teachers and students in six Maltese schools representing a girls' and boys' Private School, Junior Lyceum and Area Secondary School. Examination results obtained from the MATSEC Support Unit were also statistically analysed. The study uses these multiple sources of data to explore the complex patterns involved. It is reflective and reflexive throughout and tries to intertwine the subjectivity of the researcher with both the data being collected as well as with the research process itself. The evidence from the data suggests that assessment practices in Maltese classrooms are still very much grounded within an examination culture. This leads to teaching to the test and shallow learning. While there are no significant gender differences in achievement, type of school related to the differentiated paper system emerges out of the data as being very influential in determining the performance and future opportunities of students. This indicates that examinations are not fair and just for all students in Maltese schools and points to the need for a new model of educational assessment focusing on positive achievement rather than selection and control. The study suggests how this new model can be implemented within the context of Maltese classrooms taking into consideration the views of the teachers and students involved in assessment.

  20. Outcomes after physical examination-indicated cerclage in twin gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily S; Rajan, Priya V; Grobman, William A

    2014-07-01

    To compare outcomes of physical examination-indicated cerclage in women with twin gestations to those with singleton gestations and to identify whether risk factors for extremely preterm birth (before 28 weeks) differ between these 2 groups. This is a single institution retrospective cohort study of women who underwent a physical examination-indicated cerclage between Jan. 1, 1980, and Aug. 15, 2012. Differences in characteristics and outcomes were compared between women with twin and singleton gestations. A multivariable analysis was performed to examine whether twin gestation was independently associated with delivery before 28 weeks and whether any effect modification was present between risk factors for preterm birth and the presence of a twin gestation. Of the 442 women who underwent a cerclage during the period of study, 104 (23.5%) had twins. Mean gestational age and digital cervical length at placement did not differ by plurality. Although twins were more likely to deliver at a slightly earlier median gestation than singletons (31.9 weeks; interquartile range, 24.9-35.1 vs 32.7 weeks; interquartile range, 24.6-38.3; P = .015), the frequency of delivery before 28 weeks did not differ between these 2 groups (33.7% vs 35.8%, P = .69). Greater cervical dilation and prolapsing membranes were identified as risk factors for birth digital cervical length twin gestations. Women with a twin pregnancy who received a physical examination-indicated cerclage had similar risk factors for extreme preterm birth and may experience similar obstetric outcomes as women with singleton gestations. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A REVIEW ON COMPREHENSIVE EYE EXAMINATION IN PEDIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even early in Eye disease, children have reduced economy of activity of daily living. Early eye examination, diagnosis and management will reduce the consequences of other system originated by eye problems. The current literature is aimed to provide and explore the knowledge of Pediatric Physical Therapist about pediatric eye examination. This will help in early detection of any eye disorder and in good prognosis of visual health, physical growth, social and mental health as well. Methods: The data and contents of current literature have been explored from different webpages, books and by personnel experience in pediatric physical therapy and optometry. Results: In the beginning disclosure and immediate treatment of ocular diseases in children is necessary to prevent lifelong visual deterioration. Checkup of the eyes should be carrying out early in the neonates period and at all well-child visits. Neonates should be checked for ocular structural abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis, which are known to cause in visual problems. Every child who are bring into being have an ocular anomaly or who fail vision examination should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients. Conclusions: Children account for a large and growing percentage of the population of the India. Studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of eye and vision disorders is substantial in this group. Researches also reveal that early detection and intervention are particularly important in children because of the very quick development of the visual system in early childhood and its sensitivity to interference. When disorders such as amblyopia and squint are undetected, the long-term consequences can be serious in terms of quality of life, comfort, appearance, and career opportunities.

  2. An algorithm for the physical examination of early fistula failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beathard, Gerald A

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of a newly created fistula 4-6 weeks after surgery should be considered mandatory. If the fistula is going to become adequate for dialysis, it will be apparent at this time. This evaluation can be accomplished by physical examination. However, it must be performed by someone who is knowledgeable. Using a systematic approach facilitates the evaluation and ensures that a problem is not overlooked. Once it is determined that the fistula is dysfunctional, the case should be immediately referred for management to an interventionalist who is experienced in dealing with early fistula failure. The majority of these cases can be salvaged.

  3. Clinical history and physical examination skills - A requirement for radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly A.; Lancaster, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Radiographer's roles have evolved with their scope broadening over the last 20 years culminating in the development of advanced and consultant posts. Yet one development has not been embraced, despite being inherent in medicine and a common extension of nurse and other allied health professionals' roles, is that of clinical assessment. This article explores the evolving role of the radiographer and discusses whether this should include skills in clinical history taking and physical examination. Issues for education and development will be addressed together with examples of current and potential roles

  4. Hip Dysplasia: Clinical Signs and Physical Examination Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrcle, Jason

    2017-07-01

    Hip dysplasia is a common developmental disorder of the dog, consisting of varying degrees of hip laxity, progressive remodeling of the structures of the hip, and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. It is a juvenile-onset condition, with clinical signs often first evident at 4 to 12 months of age. A tentative diagnosis of hip dysplasia can be made based on signalment, history, and physical examination findings. The Ortolani test is a valuable tool for identifying juvenile dogs affected with this condition. Further diagnostics can then be prioritized, contributing to prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical examination tests for hip dysfunction and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Michael P; Mather, Richard C; Cook, Chad E

    2015-03-01

    Physical examination tests for hip dysfunction and injury of the strongest diagnostic accuracy were identified in a recent systematic review with meta-analysis in BJSM. These tests are described in this article. A detailed description of the various different tests is given, with photographs for each test procedure. Diagnostic interpretation of each test requires careful consideration, with special attention to specific variables such as test performance and patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Padrões físicos inadequados na performance musical de estudantes de violino Inadequate physical patterns in musical performance of violin students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valverde Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo, uma exposição resumida da dissertação de mestrado (2008, discute a observação e avaliação dos problemas corporais que permeiam a prática de seis estudantes de violino do curso de Graduação da Escola de Música da UFMG. Dados foram colhidos através de observação, filmes e fotos de seis alunos de violino em quatro situações diferentes de performance no contexto do curso, além de avaliações fisioterápicas realizadas no consultório de Fisioterapia da pesquisadora. Estes dados foram apresentados a um painel composto por quatro observadores da área da saúde e da música. A análise destes dados revela que os seis alunos de violino apresentaram padrões físicos inadequados que poderiam prejudicar sua saúde e, consequentemente, sua performance. Além disso, foi conduzida uma pesquisa bibliográfica envolvendo estudos relacionados à Anatomia, Biomecânica e Cinesiologia. Esperamos que este artigo possa chamar a atenção dos violinistas e professores de violino para a importância de uma consciência corporal durante a performance do instrumento, que vise mais simetria e relaxamento das regiões corporais envolvidas no ato de tocar o violino.This article, a summary of the Master thesis (2008, discusses the observation and evaluation of physical problems presented by six Bachelors students of the Music School of UFMG (Brazil, in their violin practice. Data was collected through observation, films and photos of six violin students at four different situations of performance in the context of their program, besides the physiotherapeutic assessments held in the office of the physiotherapist researcher. This data was then submitted to a panel composed of four observers, health and music specialists. The analysis of this data reveals that the six violin students showed inappropriate physical patterns that could jeopardize their performance as well as their health. Also, a bibliographic survey related to the Anatomy

  7. A Mokken scale analysis of the peer physical examination questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Brett; Grace, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a teaching and learning strategy utilised in most health profession education programs. Perceptions of participating in PPE have been described in the literature, focusing on areas of the body students are willing, or unwilling, to examine. A small number of questionnaires exist to evaluate these perceptions, however none have described the measurement properties that may allow them to be used longitudinally. The present study undertook a Mokken scale analysis of the Peer Physical Examination Questionnaire (PPEQ) to evaluate its dimensionality and structure when used with Australian osteopathy students. Students enrolled in Year 1 of the osteopathy programs at Victoria University (Melbourne, Australia) and Southern Cross University (Lismore, Australia) were invited to complete the PPEQ prior to their first practical skills examination class. R, an open-source statistics program, was used to generate the descriptive statistics and perform a Mokken scale analysis. Mokken scale analysis is a non-parametric item response theory approach that is used to cluster items measuring a latent construct. Initial analysis suggested the PPEQ did not form a single scale. Further analysis identified three subscales: 'comfort', 'concern', and 'professionalism and education'. The properties of each subscale suggested they were unidimensional with variable internal structures. The 'comfort' subscale was the strongest of the three identified. All subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability estimation statistics (McDonald's omega > 0.75) supporting the calculation of a sum score for each subscale. The subscales identified are consistent with the literature. The 'comfort' subscale may be useful to longitudinally evaluate student perceptions of PPE. Further research is required to evaluate changes with PPE and the utility of the questionnaire with other health profession education programs.

  8. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  9. Necessity of introducing postencounter note describing history and physical examination at clinical performance examination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghoon

    2014-06-01

    Information gathering ability had been evaluated mainly via checklists in clinical performance examinations (CPX). But, it is not proved yet if students write the information correctly in postencounter note (PN), although they asked questions or performed physical examinations (PE) about the information when they interacted with standardized patients in CPX. This study addressed the necessity of introducing PN to evaluate the ability in CPX. After patient encounters, students were instructed to write the findings of history taking and physical examination that they considered as important information in approaching the patient's problems in PN. PNs were scored using answer keys selected from checklist items, which were considered to be recorded in PN by CPX experts. PNs of six CPX cases from 54 students were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between the key-checklist scores and PN scores of six cases were moderate to high (0.52 to 0.79). However, students frequently neglected some cardinal features of chief complains, pertinent findings of past/social history and PE, and pertinent negative findings of associated symptoms in PNs, which were checked as 'done' in the keys of checklists. It is necessary to introduce PN in CPX to evaluate the students' ability of synthesis and integration of patient information.

  10. Influence of the workplace on learning physical examination skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Robbert; Stalmeijer, Renée; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert

    2014-03-28

    Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting this. Six focus group sessions with 32 students in Internal Medicine rotation (4-9 students per group; sessions 80-90 minutes). Verbatim transcripts were analysed by emerging themes and coded independently by three researchers followed by constant comparison and axial coding. Students report to learn the systematics of the physical examination, gain agility and become able to recognise pathological signs. The learning process combines working alongside others and working independently with increasing responsibility for patient care. Helpful behaviour includes making findings explicit through patient files or during observation, feedback by abnormal findings and taking initiative. Factors affecting the process negatively include lack of supervision, uncertainty about tasks and expectations, and social context such as hierarchy of learners and perceived learning environment. Although individual student experiences vary greatly between different hospitals, it seems that proactivity and participation are central drivers for learning. These results can improve the quality of existing programmes and help design new ways to learn physical examination skills.

  11. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  12. Examining the effects of testwiseness in conceptual physics evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Seth; Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2016-12-01

    Testwiseness is defined as the set of cognitive strategies used by a student that is intended to improve his or her score on a test regardless of the test's subject matter. Questions with elements that may be affected by testwiseness are common in physics assessments, even in those which have been extensively validated and widely used as evaluation tools in physics education research. The potential effect of several elements of testwiseness were analyzed for questions in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey on Electricity and Magnetism that contain distractors that are predicted to be influenced by testwiseness. This analysis was performed using data sets collected between fall 2001 and spring 2014 at one midwestern U.S. university (including over 9500 students) and between Spring 2011 and Spring 2015 at a second eastern U.S. university (including over 2500 students). Student avoidance of "none of the above" or "zero" distractors was statistically significant. The effect of the position of a distractor on its likelihood to be selected was also significant. The effects of several potential positive and negative testwiseness effects on student scores were also examined by developing two modified versions of the FCI designed to include additional elements related to testwiseness; testwiseness produced little effect post-instruction in student performance on the modified instruments.

  13. A multivariate generalizability analysis of history-taking and physical examination scores from the USMLE step 2 clinical skills examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Brian E; Balog, Kevin; Harik, Polina; Mee, Janet; Kahraman, Nilufer

    2009-10-01

    In clinical skills, closely related skills are often combined to form a composite score. For example, history-taking and physical examination scores are typically combined. Interestingly, there is relatively little research to support this practice. Multivariate generalizability theory was employed to examine the relationship between history-taking and physical examination scores from the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills examination. These two proficiencies are currently combined into a data-gathering score. The physical examination score is less generalizable than the score for history taking, and there is only a modest to moderate relationship between these two proficiencies. A decision about combining physical examination and history-taking proficiencies into one composite score, as well as the weighting of these components, should be driven by the intended use of the score. The choice of weights in combining physical examination and history taking makes a substantial difference in the precision of the resulting score.

  14. Evaluation of effect of self-examination and physical examination on breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lotfi Mohammad; Mahmoud, Noori; Miller, Anthony B; Iraj, Harrirchi; Mohsen, Mirzaei; Majid, Jafarizadea; Reza, Sadeghian Mohammad; Mojgan, Minosepehr

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the number one cancer of women in the world. More than 90% of breast cancers can be cured with early diagnosis followed by effective multimodality treatment. The efficacy of screening by breast self-examination (BSE) and breast physical examination (BPx) is best evaluated using randomized screening trials. A total of 12,660 women aged 35-64 years, 6330 in the intervention group and 6330 in the control group, were randomly selected from four areas of Yazd city, I.R. of Iran. The number of detected cancers along with kind of cancer, staging of cancer, the route of detected cancer and the number of deaths during the first 5 years of the study were collected and analyzed. No significance difference between the two groups was seen in respect to socio-demographic and socio-economic variables (P > 0.05). Subjects in the intervention group had a response rate of 83.5% for attending the health center and 80.2% for visiting the assigned surgeon. A total of 31 and 13 new cases of breast cancer were identified in the intervention and control groups, respectively, of which 48.5% of cases in the intervention group were breast cancer in the two groups with a ratio of 2.4 was observed. BSE & BPx have a significant effect in detecting breast cancers at early stages (<3) suggesting they are effective screening tests with high availability and low costs that can be applied at the community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of disease spectrum of corporate executives after physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qing

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To find out the disease spectrum of corporate executives and screen the common chronic diseases.Methods: The physical examination data of corporate executives were collected to carry out cross-sectional study.Results: Among 231 subjects, there were one hundred and ninety four males, which made up 85.3%, and thirty seven females, which made up 14.7%. The detection rate of chronic diseases in corporate executive was high. Specifically, the incidence rate of blood viscosity rise was 87.8%; the incidence rate of blood lipid rise was 79.5%; the incidence rate of obesity and overweight was 76.7%; the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori was 55.7%; the prevalence rate of fatty liver was 52.1%; the prevalence rate of kidney stones was 43.5%; the incidence of abnormal pancreatic echo was 52.3%; the incidence rate of abnormal TCD was 66.2%; the detection rate of coarse gallbladder wall was 35.5%. The prevalence rate of bone mineral density reduction was 39.6%; the detection rate of reduction of diastolic function of left ventricle was 37.5%; the incidence rate of raised serum uric acid was 28.6%; the incidence rate of blood glucose going up was 22%; the incidence rate of liver cyst was 19.5%. The prevalence rate of blood LDL rise was 23.9%; the prevalence rate of abnormal thyroid was 21.3%; the incidence rate of arteriosclerosis was 17.5%; the prevalence rate of hypertension was 17.4%.Conclusion: The corporate executives are high risk group of common metabolic diseases and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, screening should be strengthened for them.

  16. Examination of physical activity in adolescents over the school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Chad, Karen E; Beattie-Flath, Jodie A; Humbert, M Louise; Verrall, Tanya C; Vu, Lan; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2009-11-01

    This study monitored the physical activity behavior of adolescent students over a ten month school year. Physical activity was assessed at two month intervals using self-report and objective (Actical accelerometers) measures. Self-report results (n = 547) indicated a decline in physical activity throughout the school year for all grades and genders. The decline was attributed largely to a decrease in organized activity participation. Objective physical activity results (n = 40) revealed a significant decline in activity in the latter half of the school year (February to June). Declining physical activity was attributed to a decrease in vigorous activity which was consistent across grade and gender. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of promoting consistent opportunities for adolescents to be active throughout the school year.

  17. Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra D. Dionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males completed two implicit association tests (IATs: the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities.

  18. Examining implicit attitudes towards exercisers with a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Cassandra D; Gainforth, Heather L; O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities.

  19. CERN and ESA examine future fundamental physics research in space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    A special workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space and related topics will be held at CERN in Geneva from 5 to 7 April 2000. Remarkable advances in technology and progress made in reliability and cost effectiveness of European space missions in recent years have opened up exciting new directions for such research. The workshop provides a forum for sharing expertise gained in high energy physics research with colleagues working in research in space.

  20. [Inadequate treatment of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsholm, P; Martinsen, E W; Holsten, F; Neckelmann, D; Aarre, T F

    1992-08-30

    Inadequate treatment of mood (affective) disorders is related to the mind/body dualism, desinformation about methods of treatment, the stigma of psychiatry, low funding of psychiatric research, low educational priority, and slow acquisition of new knowledge of psychiatry. The "respectable minority rule" has often been accepted without regard to the international expertise, and the consequences of undertreatment have not been weighed against the benefits of optimal treatment. The risk of chronicity increases with delayed treatment, and inadequately treated affective disorders are a leading cause of suicide. During the past 20 years the increase in suicide mortality in Norway has been the second largest in the world. Severe mood disorders are often misclassified as schizophrenia or other non-affective psychoses. Atypical mood disorders, notably rapid cycling and bipolar mixed states, are often diagnosed as personality, adjustment, conduct, attention deficit, or anxiety disorders, and even mental retardation. Neuroleptic drugs may suppress the most disturbing features of mood disorders, a fact often misinterpreted as supporting the diagnosis of a schizophrenia-like disorder. Treatment with neuroleptics is not sufficient, however, and serious side effects may often occur. The consequences are too often social break-down and post-depression syndrome.

  1. Predicting Success: A Study of Admission Processes and Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaab, Kathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to practice physical therapy, physical therapist assistants (PTAs) must graduate from an accredited academic program and pass the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA-NPTE). The primary objective of academic programs is to prepare students to successfully complete these two milestones to become…

  2. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  3. Examining the Socialization of Physical Education Teachers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last thirty years childhood obesity and inactivity rates in the United States have increased at alarming rates (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014). In response to this, physical education curriculum is shifting to focus more on health promotion rather than competitive team sports and game play. This focus is reflected in the recently…

  4. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  5. Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study in the Asia-Pacific Region (MUSIC OS-AP): Design of a multinational, prospective, observational study examining the impact of gastrointestinal events on osteoporosis management in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Ankita; Ebeling, Peter R; Lee, Mel S; Min, Yong-Ki; Mithal, Ambrish; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sajjan, Shiva

    2015-12-01

    The burden of osteoporosis in the Asia-Pacific region is not well characterized. The Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study in the Asia-Pacific Region (MUSIC OS-AP) was designed to better understand the association of gastrointestinal events with patient-reported outcomes in postmenopausal women of this region. MUSIC OS-AP is a prospective, multinational, observational cohort study of postmenopausal women ≥ 50 years of age diagnosed with osteoporosis. The study was conducted in five Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Korea, and India. MUSIC OS-AP has three components: a physician questionnaire, a retrospective chart review, and a prospective cohort study. The physician questionnaire investigated the role of gastrointestinal events in physicians' pharmacologic management of osteoporosis. The retrospective chart review, also completed by physicians, recorded rate of osteoporosis treatment and the types of osteoporosis medications prescribed to osteoporosis patients. The prospective cohort study investigated the associations between gastrointestinal events and patient-reported outcomes among patients taking oral medications for osteoporosis as well as reasons for non-treatment in patients who remained untreated. The prospective cohort study enrolled two groups of patients: untreated, and treated with oral osteoporosis medications. Untreated patients completed only the baseline surveys, providing information on gastrointestinal event rates, quality of life, health care resource use, and reasons for non-treatment. Treated patients, who were either new to osteoporosis medication or continuing an ongoing medication course, completed surveys at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. The evaluations recorded patient characteristics, gastrointestinal events, health-related and osteoporosis-specific quality of life, health care resource use, medication adherence, and satisfaction with

  6. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physical articular examination in the activity of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature : Systematic review of the literature regarding physical examination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Yimy F; Ruíz-Gaviria, Rafael Eduardo; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Villota, Catalina

    2018-02-20

    To summarize evidence concerning the articular examination needed to determine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity (follow-up or control) via a systematic review. A search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, SciELO, the Web of Science, the National Technical Reports Library, and the reference lists of relevant studies through March 2017 was conducted using a systematic methodology to identify studies of patients with RA older than 18 years in which a detailed description of the physical examination or a description of the components of the articular examination was provided. Of 8322 references, 74 studies were included according to the selection criteria, and 6 references were ultimately included at the end of the review. Most of the included studies (n = 5) were associated with a moderate risk of bias. There was great variability among the studies and the articular examination methods used. Some studies presented the examination with a complete specification of the technique (n = 2), the consensus of rheumatologists (n = 2), or training through audiovisual materials and face-to-face courses (n = 2), but none of the studies explicitly showed the technique by which the physical examination was performed. Despite the importance of the clinical evaluation and physical examination of patients with RA for diagnosis, prognosis, clinimetrics, and follow-up, evidence concerning how to perform the articular examination is scarce.

  8. An Examination of In-Class Physical Activity across Games Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.; Forrest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in-class physical activity opportunities across game classifications. A total of 221 (male, 100; female, 121) Year 9/10 physical education students were used within this study. Each student was engaged in four sport-based units (target, net/wall, striking/fielding, and invasion). Physical activity data…

  9. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general

  10. The Association Between Vestibular Physical Examination, Vertigo Questionnaires, and the Electronystagmography in Patients With Vestibular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofrit, Shany G; Mayler, Yulia; Eliashar, Ron; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Ilan, Ophir; Gross, Menachem

    2017-04-01

    Dizziness makes up a diagnostic and treatment challenge. The diagnostic accuracy of the medical history and vestibular physical examination in cases of vestibular symptoms is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and electronystagmography (ENG) test in patients with vestibular symptoms. This is a prospective study of 135 adults with vestibular symptoms. The subjects underwent targeted physical examination and filled vestibular questionnaires, including the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), before ENG testing. The results of the physical examination and questionnaires were compared with the final ENG findings. Of patients who had normal ENG results, 32.1% (17/52) showed abnormal physical examination, and 48.8% (40/82) of the patient who had normal physical examination showed abnormal ENG results ( P = .46). Among patients with severe disability by DHI, 46.4% (13/28) had an abnormal ENG, and 42.9% (12/28) had a normal ENG ( P = .39). This study did not demonstrate association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and ENG results. Although history (augmented by questionnaires) and physical examination are the initial steps in the evaluation of vertigo, the current study suggests that they should be complemented by objective testing for evaluation of inner ear origin of vertigo.

  11. Design and Application of a Framework for Examining the Beliefs and Practices of Physics Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Benjamin T.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly validated and refined framework, TA-PIVOT (TA Practices In and Views Of Teaching), for examining how physics TAs talk about and how they engage in physics teaching. This work builds upon and extends prior efforts to characterize instructors' beliefs and practices by examining both domains in parallel. We present the…

  12. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  13. The value of the physical examination in clinical practice: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Andrew T; McManus, I Chris; Patrick, Alan; Nair, Kichu; Vaughan, Louella; Dacre, Jane

    2017-12-01

    A structured online survey was used to establish the views of 2,684 practising clinicians of all ages in multiple countries about the value of the physical examination in the contemporary practice of internal medicine. 70% felt that physical examination was 'almost always valuable' in acute general medical referrals. 66% of trainees felt that they were never observed by a consultant when undertaking physical examination and 31% that consultants never demonstrated their use of the physical examination to them. Auscultation for pulmonary wheezes and crackles were the two signs most likely to be rated as frequently used and useful, with the character of the jugular venous waveform most likely to be rated as -infrequently used and not useful. Physicians in contemporary hospital general medical practice continue to value the contribution of the physical examination to assessment of outpatients and inpatients, but, in the opinion of trainees, teaching and demonstration could be improved. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  14. An Examination of the Relationship between Enjoyment, Physical Education, Physical Activity and Health in Irish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…

  15. Longitudinal examination of social and environmental influences on motivation for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Analysis of dogs and cats behavior during the physical examination in veterinary practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glardon, O J; Hartnack, S; Horisberger, L

    2010-02-01

    The behavior of 100 healthy dogs and 100 healthy cats was analysed during their physical examination from "head to tail". A complete physical examination was possible without restraint in 70 % of the dogs and 76 % of the cats. Only a partial examination was possible in 24 % of the dogs and 20 % of the cats. The physical examination could not be correctly performed in 6 % of the dogs and 4 % of the cats. 16 % of the dogs and 13 % of the cats showed aggressive or dangerous behavior. Male dogs were more frequently aggressive than bitches (p = 0.01).

  17. Indications for radiography in patients with acute ankle injuries: role of the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, A G; Conway, W F; Hayes, C W; Guisto, D F; Gervin, A S

    1991-10-01

    A prospective study was performed to test the hypothesis that a thorough physical examination can eliminate the need for a large number of radiographs obtained in patients with acute ankle trauma. Two hundred one patients were seen in the emergency department for acute ankle trauma and referred to the department of radiology for ankle radiographs. Radiology residents performed a brief but thorough physical examination of the ankle in all 201 patients. Solely on the basis of a strict set of physical examination criteria (examination for gross deformity, instability, crepitation, focal bony tenderness, severe soft-tissue tenderness, moderate or severe soft-tissue swelling, and ecchymosis), the radiologists determined whether or not the radiographs were indicated. All patients, irrespective of the physical examination, underwent ankle radiography, and the results were correlated with those of the physical examination. On the basis of the results of the physical examinations, 101 (50%) of the radiologic studies were not indicated. In only one of these patients was a fracture seen on radiographs. The radiograph in this case showed a small avulsion fracture of the dorsal aspect of the talus that was clinically insignificant (no cast or surgery was required). Our results suggest that a brief but thorough physical examination can eliminate the need for a large percentage of radiographs ordered in patients with acute ankle trauma.

  18. Advantages of radial volumetric breath-hold examination (VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast reconstruction (KWIC) over Cartesian VIBE in liver imaging of volunteers simulating inadequate or no breath-holding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kitou, Yoshihiro; Ohya, Ayumi; Adachi, Yasuo; Tamaru, Naomichi; Shiobara, Aya; Ueda, Hitoshi; Nickel, Marcel D; Maruyama, Katsuya; Kadoya, Masumi

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the superiority of radial volumetric breath-hold examination (r-VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast reconstruction (KWIC) over Cartesian VIBE (c-VIBE) for reducing motion artefacts. We acquired r-VIBE-KWIC and c-VIBE images in 10 healthy volunteers. Each acquisition lasted 24 seconds. The volunteers held their breath for decreasing lengths of time during the acquisitions, from 24 to 0 seconds (protocols A-E). Magnetic resonance images at the level of the right portal vein and confluence of hepatic veins were assessed by two readers using a five-point scale with a higher number indicating a better study. The mean scores for the complete r-VIBE-KWIC series (r-VIBEfull) and first r-VIBE-KWIC series (r-VIBE1) were not significantly lower than those for c-VIBE in any protocols. The mean scores for c-VIBE were lower than those for r-VIBEfull and r-VIBE1 in protocols C and D. The mean score for c-VIBE was lower than that for r-VIBEfull in protocol E. The mean score for the eighth r-VIBE-KWIC series (r-VIBE8) was lower than that for c-VIBE only in protocol B. r-VIBE-KWIC minimised artefacts relative to c-VIBE at any slice location. The r-VIBE-KWIC's sub-frame images during the breath-holding period were hardly affected by another failed breath-holding period. • A two-reader study revealed r-VIBE-KWIC's advantages over c-VIBE • The image quality of r-VIBE-KWIC's sub-frame images was maintained during breath holding • Full-frame r-VIBE-KWIC images minimized motion artefacts caused by breathing • A complete breath holding over half the acquisition time is recommended for c-VIBE • c-VIBE was susceptible to respiratory motion especially in the subphrenic region.

  19. An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda; Faulkner, Guy; Giangregorio, Lora; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-09

    To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week). The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49.3% and 31.0% respectively. Modest between-school variability was identified (1.1% for 60 minutes MVPA and 0.8% for CSEP guideline). School-level characteristics significantly associated with the outcome measures included location, school size, quality of facilities, and accessibility of facilities. Significant student-level correlates included sex, grade, weekly income, binge drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index. Most youth in this large study reported inadequate physical activity levels. Students were more likely to achieve 60 minutes of MVPA if they attended a larger school or a school in an urban location, whereas students were less likely to meet the CSEP guideline if they attended a school in a small urban location. However, student-level factors, such as binge drinking and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, were more strongly associated with the outcomes examined.

  20. Time to Add a Fifth Pillar to Bedside Physical Examination: Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation, and Insonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Jagat; Chandrashekhar, Y; Braunwald, Eugene

    2018-02-28

    Inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation have been the 4 pillars of clinical bedside medicine. Although these basic methods of physical examination have served us well, traditional bedside examination, for a number of reasons including diminishing interest and expertise, performs well less than what is required of a modern diagnostic strategy. Improving the performance of physical examination is vital given that it is crucial to guide diagnostic possibilities and further testing. Current efforts at improving physical examination skills during medical training have not been very successful, and incorporating appropriate technology at the bedside might improve its performance. Selective use of bedside ultrasound (or insonation) can be one such strategy that could be incorporated as the fifth component of the physical examination. Seeing pathology through imaging might improve interest in physical examination among trainees, and permit appropriate downstream testing and possibly superior decision making. Current ultrasound technology makes this feasible, and further miniaturization of ultrasound devices and reduced cost will allow for routine use at the bedside. It is time to have a wider debate and a possible consensus about updates required to enhance current paradigms of physical examination.

  1. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Physical Examination for the Academic Psychiatrist: Primer and Common Clinical Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya; Brown, Jennifer R; Aquino, Patrick R

    2016-04-01

    As clinical psychiatry has evolved to mirror the patient care model followed in other medical specialties, psychiatrists are called upon increasingly to utilize general medical skills in routine practice. Psychiatrists who practice in academic settings are often required to generate broad differential diagnoses that include medical and neurologic conditions and, as a result, benefit from incorporating physical examination into their psychiatric assessments. Physical examination allows psychiatrists to follow and to teach patient-informed clinical practices and comprehensive treatment approaches. In this commentary, the authors encourage routine use of a targeted physical examination and outline common scenarios in which physical examination would be useful for the academic psychiatrist: delirium, toxidromes, and unexplained medical conditions (e.g., somatic symptom disorders).

  3. The role of physical examinations in studies of musculoskeletal disorders of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Ann Isabel; Lassen, C. F.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    and upper extremities, were invited to a standardised physical examination. Two independent physical examinations were performed-one blinded and one not blinded to the medical history. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained by a baseline questionnaire and a similar questionnaire...... and the associations were strongest with pain intensity scores given just before the examination. Physical signs were commonly found in subjects with no pain complaints. No further impact was achieved if the physical examination was not blinded to the medical history. Furthermore, the authors propose that pain......, clinical signs and disability are studied as separate outcomes, and that the diagnoses of lateral epicondylitis should be used only for cases with classical signs of inflammation reflected by severe pain, which for example conveys some disability...

  4. Inadequate Information in Laboratory Test Requisition in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Laboratory investigations are important aspect of patient management and inadequate information or errors arising from the process of filling out laboratory Request Forms can impact significantly on the quality of laboratory result and ultimately on patient care. Objectives: This study examined the pattern of deficiencies ...

  5. Examination on sports consciousness and conditions influencing sports activity and physical fitness in adolescent male students

    OpenAIRE

    中, 比呂志; 出村, 慎一

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of factors such as sports consciousness, sports conditions and physical fitness to sports activity, and to examine the influence of sports consciousness and sports conditions on the improvement of physical fitness in adolescent male students. The Diagnostic Inventory for Sport Counseling (DISC) and physical fitness tests designed by the Ministry of Education in Japan were administered to 687 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. Si...

  6. Aspects of emotional and physical discomfort in gynecologic examination: a study of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugut, Nilufer; Golbasi, Zehra

    2014-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine physical and emotional discomforts experienced before and after a gynecologic examination by women who presented to the outpatient clinic of the gynecology and obstetrics department at a university hospital. The sample of study was composed of 248 women. Data were collected with a survey form developed by researchers. T-test and variance analysis were used in statistical analysis. Emotional discomfort before the examination was felt by 80.2% of the women, while 80.6% stated they felt emotional discomfort after the examination. Physical discomfort before the examination was experienced by 67.3% of the women, while 76.6% stated that they felt physical discomfort after the examination. The emotional discomfort mean score was 5.02 ± 3.24 before examination and 4.62 ± 3.23 after examination (P > 0.05). The physical discomfort mean score was 3.38 ± 3.12 before examination and 3.94 ± 3.02 after examination and the difference between mean scores was statistically significant (P examination than they anticipated beforehand. The emotional discomfort in women who preferred a female physician was significantly higher than in those who preferred a male physician or who had no preference on the sex of their physician. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. The Examination of the Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Physical Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Özkan; Hergüner, Gülten; Dönmez, Ahmet; Berisha, Milaim; Üçan, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes of primary education students towards physical education courses according to certain variables. 640 students from elementary schools in the city center and several counties of Sakarya participated in the study. In the designating of the students' attitudes towards the physical education courses,…

  8. Examination of Loneliness and Peer Relations of Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencay, Selçuk

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of the physical education teacher in the classroom or in the gym also affects the students' achievement and personality development. It is important to examine different aspects of loneliness and peer relations, which are thought to be one of the indicators of the level of sociability, in the profession of physical education teacher.…

  9. A prospective analysis of physical examination findings in the diagnosis of facial fractures: Determining predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashpolsky, Alisa; Dagum, Alexander B; Sayeed, Syed M; Romeiser, Jamie L; Rosenfeld, Elisheva A; Conkling, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There are >150,000 patient visits per year to emergency rooms for facial trauma. The reliability of a computed tomography (CT) scan has made it the primary modality for diagnosing facial skeletal injury, with the physical examination playing more a cursory role. Knowing the predictive value of physical findings in facial skeletal injuries may enable more appropriate use of imaging and health care resources. A blinded prospective study was undertaken to assess the predictive value of physical examination findings in detecting maxillofacial fracture in trauma patients, and in determining whether a patient will require surgical intervention. Over a four-month period, the authors' team examined patients admitted with facial trauma to the emergency department of their hospital. The evaluating physician completed a standardized physical examination evaluation form indicating the physical findings. Corresponding CT scans and surgical records were then reviewed, and the results recorded by a plastic surgeon who was blinded to the results of the physical examination. A total of 57 patients met the inclusion criteria; there were 44 male and 13 female patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of grouped physical examination findings were determined in major areas. In further analysis, specific examination findings with n≥9 (15%) were also reported. The data demonstrated a high negative predictive value of at least 90% for orbital floor, zygomatic, mandibular and nasal bone fractures compared with CT scan. Furthermore, none of the patients who did not have a physical examination finding for a particular facial fracture required surgery for that fracture. Thus, the instrument performed well at ruling out fractures in these areas when there were none. Ultimately, these results may help reduce unnecessary radiation and costly imaging in patients with facial trauma without facial fractures.

  10. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discordance between data acquired by history and findings of physical examination: a phenomenal paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-06-01

    History and physical examination are the basis of any diagnosis. The findings of the physical examination usually corroborate the thoughts generated by the medical history. However, it is not uncommon for the physician to note discrepancies between the history and the physical examination. Two physicians provided a list of diseases they have encountered in which there is occasionally discordance between the data retrieved from the patient's medical history and the findings of the physical examination. To verify the data from knowledge and experience, we resorted to two main medical textbooks and relevant articles from PubMed. We identified 25 diseases where a discordance between history and physical examination may frequently be observed. These diseases cover a wide spectrum of systems (i.e., neurological, cardiological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal). A variety of diseases are associated with a discordance between the findings one might expect based on the medical history and the actual findings of the physical examination. Physicians need to be aware of this paradox, as misdiagnosis can be detrimental in some of these diseases. We acknowledge that this is just a sample, and not an exhaustive list, of all diseases with such a discordance.

  12. FAMULATUR PLUS – A successful model for improving students' physical examination skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerg, Achim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Project description: Several studies have revealed insufficient physical examination skills among medical students, both with regard to the completeness of the physical examination and the accuracy of the techniques used. FAMULATUR PLUS was developed in response to these findings. As part of this practice-oriented instructional intervention, physical examination skills should be taught through examination seminars and problem-oriented learning approaches. In order to ensure practical relevance, all courses are integrated into a 30-day clinical traineeship in the surgery or internal medicine department of a hospital (FAMULATUR PLUS.Research question: Does participation in the FAMULATUR PLUS project lead to a more optimistic self-assessment of examination skills and/or improved performance of the physical examination?Methodology: A total of 49 medical students participated in the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: enrollment in the clinical studies element of their degree program at the University of Ulm and completion of the university course in internal medicine examinations. Based on their personal preferences, students were assigned to either the intervention (surgery/internal medicine; n=24 or the control group (internal medicine; n=25. All students completed a self-assessment of their physical examination skills in the form of a questionnaire. However, practical examination skills were only assessed in the students in the intervention group. These students were asked to carry out a general physical examination of the simulation patient, which was recorded and evaluated in a standardized manner. In both instances, data collection was carried out prior to and after the intervention. Results: The scores arising from the student self-assessment in the intervention (IG and control groups (CG improves significantly in the pre-post comparison, with average scores increasing from 3.83 (±0.72; IG and 3.54 (±0.37; CG to 1

  13. Exploration of the value of using a formula sheet for physics examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether and how allowing students to prepare their own formula sheet (FS) for use in examinations helps them engage in meaningful learning and improve their academic performance. An action research is adopted to conduct the study. Three years (2009–11) of evaluation of the FS policy in introductory physics courses was undertaken. The data collection consists of the students' FS, examination results, and self-reported surveys. The results show that the students who were allowed to bring an FS to the examination outperformed those who were not. It is also found that the quality of individual students' FS was significantly correlated to their examination score (p < 0.001). The reported benefits of using an FS consists of facilitating conceptual understanding, highlighting cognitive demands in learning physics, and alleviating stress in examinations. The FS strategy appears to have the potential for strengthening students' understanding of physics concepts. (paper)

  14. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder tears: an examination of clinical usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Calvert E, Chambers GK, Regan W, Hawkins RH, Leith JM. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder injuries are clinically limited and invalid: a diagnostic systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(5):558-563. The systematic review focused on diagnostic accuracy studies to determine if evidence was sufficient to support the use of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) physical examination tests as valid and reliable. The primary question was whether there was sufficient evidence in the published literature to support the use of SLAP physical examination tests as valid and reliable diagnostic test procedures. Studies published in English were identified through database searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database (1970-2004) using the search term SLAP lesions. The medical subject headings of arthroscopy, shoulder joint, and athletic injuries were combined with test or testing, physical examination, and sensitivity and specificity to locate additional sources. Other sources were identified by rereviewing the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) focused on the physical examination of SLAP lesions, and (3) presented original data. A study was excluded if the article was limited to a clinical description of 1 or more special tests without any research focus to provide clinical accuracy data or if it did not focus on the topic. The abstracts that were located through the search strategies were reviewed, and potentially relevant abstracts were selected. Strict epidemiologic methods were used to obtain and collate all relevant studies; the authors developed a study questionnaire to record study name, year of publication, study design, sample size, and statistics. Validity of the diagnostic test study was determined by applying the 5 criteria proposed by Calvert et al. If the study met the inclusion and validity

  15. The physical examination in telecardiology and televascular consultations: a study using conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Yannis; Seale, Clive

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes communication in the physical examination phases of telemedicine consultations. Using the method of conversation analysis, we draw on 10 telemedicine consultations (five telecardiology and five televascular) between primary and tertiary care in the UK. Physical examination is absent in telecardiology consultations. In televascular consultations the professionals try to compensate for the lack of physical proximity by getting involved in a form of collaboration that constitutes a novel environment for all. Separated from the patient by physical space, the specialist orchestrates the positioning of the patient, the camera and the primary care nurse's activity via the use of a video-link. Telemedicine offers primary care nurses a unique opportunity to engage in active collaboration with hospital specialists. The nurses' examination skills are recruited because physical examination is conducted from distance and the specialist cannot touch the patient or see parts of the body with ease. We speculate that difficulties with the physical examination may have contributed to the relatively slow adoption of telemedicine. The analysis reveals some new communication practices that participants in telemedicine are called to adopt. This can be used to inform training interventions that focus both on patient and professional. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A proposed medical physics curriculum: preparing for the 2013 ABR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachiappan, Arun C; Wynne, David M; Katz, David P; Willis, Marc H; Bushong, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming ABR examination format for radiology residents is undergoing significant changes in 2013. This requires adaptation of the didactic curriculum for radiology residents entering in July 2010 to meet these changes. Physics will now be incorporated into the core (qualifying) examination during the third year of residency, instead of being tested as a separate examination that was often taken earlier in residency training in past years. In this article, the authors discuss the past, present, and future of medical physics instruction and outline a revised medical physics curriculum for radiology residents that has been internally approved for implementation at the authors' institution and has not been advocated by any society or by the ABR. Starting with this article, the authors hope to encourage a discussion of physics curriculum revision with other institutions. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical educators' perspectives of teaching physical examinations using ultrasonography at the undergraduate level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is increasingly used for teaching physical examination in medical schools. This study seeks the opinions of educators as to which physical examinations would be most enhanced by the addition of ultrasonography. We also asked when ultrasound-aided physical examination teaching could have deleterious effects if used outside its intended scope. Methods: All of the educators from the University of Calgary Master Teacher Program were invited to complete a 22-item paper-based survey. Survey items were generated independently by two investigators, with input from an expert panel (N = 5. Results: Of the 36 educators, 27 (75% completed the survey. Examinations identified to be potentially most useful included: measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, identifying the presence/absence of ascites, identifying the presence/absence of pleural effusions, and measuring the size of the bladder. Examinations thought to be potentially most harmful included: identifying the presence/absence of intrauterine pregnancy, measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, and identifying the presence/absence of pericardial effusion. Conclusions: Examinations that are potentially the most useful may also be potentially the most harmful. When initiating an ultrasound curriculum for physical examinations, educators should weigh the risks and benefits of examinations chosen.

  18. Examining the Physical Self in Adolescent Girls Over Time: Further Evidence against the Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kent C.; Crocker, Peter R. E.; Kowalski, Nanette P.; Chad, Karen E.; Humbert, M. Louise

    2003-01-01

    Examined the direction of causal flow between global and specific dimensions of self-concept. Adolescent girls completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile and a global self-esteem scale in 9th and 10th grade. Results showed little support for top-down or bottom-up effects over the year. When self-concept was examined over time, there was…

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of the Link between Youth Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A.; Castrechini, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has been linked with other persistent health problems, but research is just beginning to examine its relationship with academic performance. This article tracks students longitudinally to examine the ways student physical fitness and changes in fitness align with school performance. Methods: Using matched…

  20. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Inadequate sleep and muscle strength: Implications for resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-02

    Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could

  3. Rationale for promoting physical activity among cancer survivors: literature review and epidemiologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo

    2014-03-01

    To review the extant literature on the link between physical activity and health outcomes among cancer survivors; identify evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among this population; and conduct an epidemiologic study based on gaps from the literature review, examining the association between physical activity and various biologic markers. The authors used PubMed and Google Scholar up to July 2013, as well as data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the empirical study. Studies were examined through a systematic review process. In the epidemiologic study, 227 adult cancer survivors wore an accelerometer for four days or longer, with biologic markers (e.g., cholesterol) assessed from a blood sample. The review study demonstrated that cancer survivors are relatively inactive, but physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and cancer-related mortality, increase cancer treatment rates, reduce pain and other side effects associated with cancer treatment, and improve physical and mental health. The epidemiologic study showed that physical activity was associated with several understudied biomarkers (e.g., neutrophils, white blood cells) that are linked with cancer recurrence, cancer-related mortality, and other chronic diseases. Nurses are encouraged to promote physical activity in cancer survivors.

  4. Interactive spaced-education to teach the physical examination: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, B Price; Armstrong, Elizabeth G; O'Sullivan, Patricia N

    2008-07-01

    Several studies have documented that physical examination knowledge and skills are limited among medical trainees. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacy and acceptability of a novel online educational methodology termed 'interactive spaced-education' (ISE) as a method to teach the physical examination. The design of the study is randomized controlled trial. All 170 second-year students in the physical examination course at Harvard Medical School were eligible to enroll. Spaced-education items (questions and explanations) were developed on core physical examination topics and were content-validated by two experts. Based on pilot-test data, 36 items were selected for inclusion. Students were randomized to start the 18-week program in November 2006 or 12 weeks later. Students were sent 6 spaced-education e-mails each week for 6 weeks (cycle 1) which were then repeated in two subsequent 6-week cycles (cycles 2 and 3). Students submitted answers to the questions online and received immediate feedback. An online end-of-program survey was administered. One-hundred twenty students enrolled in the trial. Cycles 1, 2, and 3 were completed by 88%, 76%, and 71% of students, respectively. Under an intent-to-treat analysis, cycle 3 scores for cohort A students [mean 74.0 (SD 13.5)] were significantly higher than cycle 1 scores for cohort B students [controls; mean 59.0 (SD 10.5); P physical examination and is very well-accepted by students.

  5. Ultrasound Findings on Hands and Wrists of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Relationship with Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Carolina Freitas; Lima de Sá Ribeiro, Daniel; Dourado Santos, Willer Gonçalves; Rosa, Genevievi; Machicado, Viviane; Pedreira, Ana Luisa; Pimenta da Fonseca, Emanuela; Mota Duque Sousa, Anna Paula; Rodrigues Silva, Carla Baleeiro; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto

    2017-09-01

    Diagnosis of synovitis/tenosynovitis by physical examination can be difficult. Ultrasound (US) can be an effective tool for the evaluation of joint involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study will describe musculoskeletal findings by US in SLE patients and the evaluation of their correlation with physical examination. SLE patients underwent clinical/sonographic evaluation of hand/wrists. In total, 896 joints were evaluated: at least 1 change on physical examination was found in 136 joints and at least 1 US abnormality was found in 65 of 896 joints. Out of the 65 joints with US changes, only 13 had findings on physical examination. Conversely, 111 joints had tenderness on physical examination with no sonographic abnormalities. Tenosynovitis was statistically significant more frequently with joint edema (41%) (p = 0.0003). US can detect musculoskeletal changes in only a minority of symptomatic SLE patients. Clinical findings may be related to some reasons that cannot be explained using US. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical examination tests for the diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament rupture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopkow, Christian; Freiberg, Alice; Kirschner, Stephan; Seidler, Andreas; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-11-01

    Systematic literature review. To summarize and evaluate research on the accuracy of physical examination tests for diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear. Rupture of the PCL is a severe knee injury that can lead to delayed rehabilitation, instability, or chronic knee pathologies. To our knowledge, there is currently no systematic review of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests to evaluate the integrity of the PCL. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE from 1946, Embase from 1974, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database from 1985 until April 30, 2012. Studies were considered eligible if they compared the results of physical examination tests performed in the context of a PCL physical examination to those of a reference standard (arthroscopy, arthrotomy, magnetic resonance imaging). Methodological quality assessment was performed by 2 independent reviewers using the revised version of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. The search strategy revealed 1307 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria for this review. In these studies, 11 different physical examination tests were identified. Due to differences in study types, different patient populations, and methodological quality, meta-analysis was not indicated. Presently, most physical examination tests have not been evaluated sufficiently enough to be confident in their ability to either confirm or rule out a PCL tear. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests to assess the integrity of the PCL is largely unknown. There is a strong need for further research in this area. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 3a.

  7. Exploration of the value of using a formula sheet for physics examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether and how allowing students to prepare their own formula sheet (FS) for use in examinations helps them engage in meaningful learning and improve their academic performance. An action research is adopted to conduct the study. Three years (2009-11) of evaluation of the FS policy in introductory physics courses was undertaken. The data collection consists of the students' FS, examination results, and self-reported surveys. The results show that the students who were allowed to bring an FS to the examination outperformed those who were not. It is also found that the quality of individual students' FS was significantly correlated to their examination score (p stress in examinations. The FS strategy appears to have the potential for strengthening students' understanding of physics concepts.

  8. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, Mage = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood. PMID:23139438

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of scapular physical examination tests for shoulder disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexis A; Wassinger, Craig A; Frank, Mason; Michener, Lori A; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review and critique the evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for the scapula in patients with shoulder disorders. A systematic, computerised literature search of PubMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases (from database inception through January 2012) using keywords related to diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the scapula. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used to critique the quality of each paper. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria; three were considered to be of high quality. Of the three high-quality studies, two were in reference to a 'diagnosis' of shoulder pain. Only one high-quality article referenced specific shoulder pathology of acromioclavicular dislocation with reported sensitivity of 71% and 41% for the scapular dyskinesis and SICK scapula test, respectively. Overall, no physical examination test of the scapula was found to be useful in differentially diagnosing pathologies of the shoulder.

  10. Examining the Knowledge and Capacity of Elementary Teachers to Implement Classroom Physical Activity Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae M. DINKEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n=346 teachers took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square analyses were used to identify differences between districts. Almost all teachers utilized classroom physical activity to some extent. A third of teachers who stated they implemented classroom physical activity, experienced barriers to implementation. A majority of teachers were interested in learning more about classroom physical activity. There were significant differences between districts on the number of days per week classroom physical activity was integrated, the frequency of collaboration that occurred between teachers, the percentage of teachers who experienced barriers, and preferred delivery method of professional development. These findings support the importance of identifying teachers’ zone of proximal development to increase the use of classroom physical activity breaks. Understanding teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks can allow educational professionals to shift the implementation of classroom physical activity beyond sporadic use by isolated teachers and schools to a more systematic and consistent delivery across classrooms and throughout districts.

  11. Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests to Diagnose Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Frémont, Pierre; Pelletier, Bruno; Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude patellofemoral pain (PFP). Prospective diagnostic study. Orthopedic outpatient clinics, family medicine clinics, and community-dwelling. Consecutive patients (N=279) consulting one of the participating orthopedic surgeons (n=3) or sport medicine physicians (n=2) for any knee complaint. Not applicable. History elements and physical examination tests were obtained by a trained physiotherapist blinded to the reference standard: a composite diagnosis including both physical examination tests and imaging results interpretation performed by an expert physician. Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of PFP, and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Two hundred seventy-nine participants were evaluated, and 75 had a diagnosis of PFP (26.9%). Different combinations of history elements and physical examination tests including the age of participants, knee pain location, difficulty descending stairs, patellar facet palpation, and passive knee extension range of motion were associated with a diagnosis of PFP and used in clusters to accurately discriminate between individuals with PFP and individuals without PFP. Two diagnostic clusters developed to confirm the presence of PFP yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7 (95% CI, 5.2-14.6) and 3 clusters to exclude PFP yielded a negative likelihood ratio of .12 (95% CI, .06-.27). Diagnostic clusters combining common history elements and physical examination tests that can accurately diagnose or exclude PFP compared to various knee

  12. The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerg, Achim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The FAMULATUR PLUS is an innovative approach to teaching physical examination skills. The concept is aimed at medical students during the clinical part of their studies and includes a clinical traineeship (English for “Famulatur” extended to include various courses (“PLUS”. The courses are divided into clinical examination courses and problembased-learning (PBL seminars. The concept’s special feature is the full integration of these courses into a 30-day hospital traineeship. The aim is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the courses into daily practice. Each week of the FAMULATUR PLUS is structured in line with the courses and focuses on a particular part of the body (e.g., abdomen. A physical examination course under the supervision of a physician is offered at the beginning of the week. Here, medical students learn the relevant examination techniques by practicing on each other (partner exercises. Subsequently, the techniques taught are applied independently during everyday work on the ward, corrected by the supervisor, if necessary, and thereby reinforced. The final POL seminar takes place towards the end of the week. Possible differential diagnoses are developed based on a clinical case study. The goal is to check these by taking a fictitious medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as to make a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, during the PBL seminar, medical students will be shown how physical examination techniques can be efficiently applied in the diagnosis of common cardinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain. The initial implementation of the FAMULATUR PLUS proved the practical feasibility of the concept. In addition, the accompanying evaluation showed that the participants of the pilot project improved with regard to their practical physical examination skills.

  13. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  14. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  15. Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...

  16. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  17. To observe or not to observe peers when learning physical examination skills; That is the question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Martineau (Bernard); S. Mamede (Silvia); C. St-Onge (Christina); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Learning physical examination skills is an essential element of medical education. Teaching strategies include practicing the skills either alone or in-group. It is unclear whether students benefit more from training these skills individually or in a group, as the latter

  18. Is physical examination required before prescribing hormones to patients with gender dysphoria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardi, Y.; Wylie, K.R.; Moser, C; Assalian, P.; Dean, J.; Asscheman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. A genital examination can have psychologic effects on a patient, particularly when the source of their sexual medicine complaint is a body part. How necessary is a physical exam before prescribing hormones in cases of gender dsyphoria? Methods. Five people with expertise and/or

  19. Examine of Mobbing via Humour Styles of Lecturers at Schools of Physical Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Recep; Sunay, Hakan; Yasar, Onur Mutlu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the mobbing via humour of the lecturers at Schools of Physical Education and Sport. The sample of the study consisted of 470 lecturers dutied at those schools. In order to analyze the lecturers' perception levels about mobbing via humour behaviours, the "Scale of Humour Behaviours" was used. T-test and…

  20. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  1. Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvivier, R.J.; Geel, K. van; Dalen, J. Van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Lack of published studies on students' practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from

  2. An Examination of Current Adapted Physical Activity Provision in Primary and Special Schools in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Disability in Sport Taskforce report examining adapted physical activity (APA) in the Irish context (Department of Education and Science, 1999) found that teachers involved in primary mainstream and specialist settings expressed a grave lack of self-confidence, due to lack of training, in the delivery of APA programmes to children with special…

  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using

  4. Examining South Korea's Elementary Physical Education Performance Assessment Using Assessment Literacy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongnam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the issues pertaining to South Korea's elementary physical education (PE) performance assessment, using an assessment literacy (Hay & Penney, 2013) perspective to propose future directions. Eight elementary teachers currently teaching PE were selected as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth…

  5. Physical examination skills training: Faculty staff vs. patient instructor feedback-A controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krautter

    Full Text Available Standardized patients are widely used in training of medical students, both in teaching and assessment. They also frequently lead complete training sessions delivering physical examination skills without the aid of faculty teaching staff-acting as "patient instructors" (PIs. An important part of this training is their ability to provide detailed structured feedback to students which has a strong impact on their learning success. Yet, to date no study has assessed the quality of physical examination related feedback by PIs. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled study comparing feedback of PIs and faculty staff following a physical examination assessed by students and video assessors.14 PIs and 14 different faculty staff physicians both delivered feedback to 40 medical students that had performed a physical examination on the respective PI while the physicians observed the performance. The physical examination was rated by two independent video assessors to provide an objective performance standard (gold standard. Feedback of PI and physicians was content analyzed by two different independent video assessors based on a provided checklist and compared to the performance standard. Feedback of PIs and physicians was also rated by medical students and video assessors using a questionnaire consisting of 12 items.There was no statistical significant difference concerning overall matching of physician or PI feedback with gold standard ratings by video assessment (p = .219. There was also no statistical difference when focusing only on items that were classified as major key steps (p = .802, mistakes or parts that were left out during physical examination (p = .219 or mistakes in communication items (p = .517. The feedback of physicians was significantly better rated than PI feedback both by students (p = .043 as well as by video assessors (p = .034.In summary, our study demonstrates that trained PIs are able to provide feedback of equal

  6. Development and validation of a musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Julie Y; Awan, Hisham M; Rowley, David M; Nagel, Rollin W

    2013-01-01

    Despite a renewed emphasis among educators, musculoskeletal education is still lacking in medical school and residency training programs. We created a musculoskeletal multiple-choice physical examination decision-making test to assess competency and physical examination knowledge of our trainees. We developed a 20-question test in musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test with content that most medical students and orthopedic residents should know. All questions were reviewed by ratings of US orthopedic chairmen. It was administered to postgraduate year 2 to 5 orthopedic residents and 2 groups of medical students: 1 group immediately after their 3-week musculoskeletal course and the other 1 year after the musculoskeletal course completion. We hypothesized that residents would score highest, medical students 1 year post-musculoskeletal training lowest, and students immediately post-musculoskeletal training midrange. We administered an established cognitive knowledge test to compare student knowledge base as we expected the scores to correlate. Academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Orthopedic residents, chairmen, and medical students. Fifty-four orthopedic chairmen (54 of 110 or 49%) responded to our survey, rating a mean overall question importance of 7.12 (0 = Not Important; 5 = Important; 10 = Very Important). Mean physical examination decision-making scores were 89% for residents, 77% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained medical students, and 59% 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained medical students (F = 42.07, pphysical examination decision-making test was found to be internally consistent (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 = 0.69). The musculoskeletal cognitive knowledge test was 78% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained students and 71% for the 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained students. The student physical examination and cognitive knowledge scores were correlated (r = 0.54, pphysical examination decision-making test

  7. Continuous physical examination during subcortical resection in awake craniotomy patients: Its usefulness and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Krishnapundha; Sangtongjaraskul, Sunisa; Lerdsirisopon, Surunchana; Tuchinda, Lawan

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the value of physical examination as a monitoring tool during subcortical resection in awake craniotomy patients and surgical outcomes. Authors reviewed medical records of patients underwent awake craniotomy with continuous physical examination for pathology adjacent to the eloquent area. Between January 2006 and August 2015, there were 37 patients underwent awake craniotomy with continuous physical examination. Pathology was located in the left cerebral hemisphere in 28 patients (75.7%). Thirty patients (81.1%) had neuroepithelial tumors. Degree of resections were defined as total, subtotal, and partial in 16 (43.2%), 11 (29.7%) and 10 (27.0%) patients, respectively. Median follow up duration was 14 months. The reasons for termination of subcortical resection were divided into 3 groups as follows: 1) by anatomical landmark with the aid of neuronavigation in 20 patients (54%), 2) by reaching subcortical stimulation threshold in 8 patients (21.6%), and 3) by abnormal physical examination in 9 patients (24.3%). Among these 3 groups, there were statistically significant differences in the intraoperative (p=0.002) and early postoperative neurological deficit (p=0.005) with the lowest deficit in neuronavigation group. However, there were no differences in neurological outcome at later follow up (3-months p=0.103; 6-months p=0.285). There were no differences in the degree of resection among the groups. Continuous physical examination has shown to be of value as an additional layer of monitoring of subcortical white matter during resection and combining several methods may help increase the efficacy of mapping and monitoring of subcortical functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of physical examination performance of medical students trained by musculoskeletal versus non-musculoskeletal specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luciano; Schrieber, Leslie; Eyles, Jillian; Deveza, Leticia A; Meneses, Sarah R F; Hunter, David J

    2017-04-01

    To compare the musculoskeletal (MSK) physical examination skills, knowledge acquisition and performance of first-year medical students trained by MSK specialist tutors to students trained by non-MSK specialist tutors, after a 6-week MSK physical examination tutorial program. Twenty-first year medical students took part in the study. They were recruited into two groups, according to their exposure to either an MSK specialist or a non-MSK specialist tutor during their 6-week MSK training block. Knowledge acquisition was measured via a pre- and post-training objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). We assessed students' self-belief and confidence levels regarding their newly acquired skills via a questionnaire. Independent t tests were used to examine mean group differences of OSCE scores and perceived level of confidence. Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement (3.9 and 3.8 points, respectively, on an eight-point scale for shoulder assessment, P specialist tutors did not demonstrate increased skill levels or knowledge in the area of MSK physical examination compared to those receiving the same training under the supervision of non-MSK specialist tutors. Both student groups demonstrated improvement. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Alternative Physics Examination Questions: Identification and Explanation of Different Discriminating Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Patricia A.

    2005-12-01

    The issue of unfairness arises in high-stakes public examinations when students choose questions from alternatives that are offered and marks on the alternatives turn out to be discrepant. This paper addresses and defines unfairness and discrepancy in the context of alternative questions in Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations (TEE) in Western Australia. As well, I present an analysis of question characteristics that explain observed marks-differences. The characteristics mainly relate to the construction of the text of questions, the detail on diagrams, and requirements for calculation. The list of characteristics could inform the setting of compulsory as well as alternative examination questions. The paper includes a brief exploration of results by gender on the alternative Physics TEE questions.

  10. Australian medical students have fewer opportunities to do physical examination of peers of the opposite gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Silas; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), by which junior medical students learn physical examination skills before practicing on patients, is a widely implemented and accepted part of medical curricula. However, the ethical implications of PPE have been debated, since issues including student gender impact on its acceptability. Research has previously demonstrated the phenomenon of 'attitude-behavior inconsistency' showing that students' predictions about their participation in PPE differ from what they actually do in practice. This study asks whether gender and student self-ratings of outlook affect engagement in PPE. This study gathered data from students who had completed PPE with the objective of determining what factors have the greatest impact on the actual practice of PPE by students. Data were used to derive the number of opportunities students had to examine a peer, for various body parts. Respondent gender and self-ratings of outlook were recorded. Responses from 130 students were analysed: 74 female (57%) and 56 male (43%). Students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender; this is statistically significant for all body parts when male students examine female peers. Gender is the factor of overriding importance on whether these peer interactions actually occur, such that students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender, particularly male students examining female peers. Student outlook has little impact. We speculate that the more acceptable PPE is to participants, paradoxically, the more complicated these interactions become, possibly with implications for future practice.

  11. Novel Use of Ultrasound to Teach Reproductive System Physical Examination Skills and Pelvic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tejal; Czuzak, Maria; Bui, Naomi; Wildner, Corinna; Koch, Bryna; Leko, Elizabeth; Rappaport, William; Adhikari, Srikar; Gordon, Paul; Gura, Mike; Ellis, Susan

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether integration of ultrasound (US) into a reproductive system examination clinical skills lab can increase confidence in palpating key reproductive structures during testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations, reduce anxiety about conducting testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations, and improve performance on multiple-choice questions based on structure identification using US images. Second-year medical students enrolled in the Life Cycle preclinical course participated in this cross-sectional study. A single learning activity was developed to pair the teaching of the reproductive system physical examination with the use of US in the clinical skills lab. The evaluation of the teaching session consisted of a pre-post analysis of student self-reported knowledge, confidence, and anxiety. The response rate for the pre survey was 82% (n = 96), and the rate for the post survey was 79% (n = 93). Students' confidence in their ability to identify reproductive system structures on US images increased from pre to post survey. Their confidence in their ability to palpate the epididymis, uterus, and ovary during a physical examination improved, and their anxiety about conducting testicular and bimanual pelvic examinations decreased. Student satisfaction with the session was high. Students' performance on multiple-choice questions based on structure identification using US images was at 96% or higher. Our study findings support the integration of US into a reproductive system examination clinical skills lab. Medical students acquire competency and confidence in reproductive system physical examination skills with US integration. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Relationship of physical examination test of shoulder instability to arthroscopic findings in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Chad M; Neely, Marlon R; Vanvechten, Brian J

    2007-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic validity of commonly used physical examination maneuvers for shoulder instability. Retrospective study. Dogs (n=24) referred for shoulder arthroscopy. Results of physical maneuvers and arthroscopic findings were recorded and sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios (LR+), and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were calculated for each of 4 physical examination test findings for arthroscopic changes in the medial, lateral, cranial, or caudal compartments of the shoulder joint viewed in dorsal recumbency by lateral and craniomedial portals. Distribution of compartment changes was: medial (17 dogs), caudal (15), cranial (12), and lateral (5). The biceps test had a moderate effect (LR+=9) on post-test probability of cranial compartment changes and a small effect on post-test probability of lateral and caudal compartment changes (LR+=3 and 2.4, respectively). Hyperabduction had a minimal effect and mediolateral instability test had a small effect (LR+=1.64 and 2.68, respectively) on post-test probability of medial compartment changes. Craniocaudal instability test had little to no effect on post-test probability of changes in any compartment. Physical examination tests evaluated were limited in their ability to predict the type of arthroscopic pathology in this study population. Clinicians should understand that a diagnostic test performs inconsistently based on prevalence of a condition in a given patient population. The use of likelihood ratios can assist clinicians in determining the probability of intraarticular changes from a group with a differing prevalence than the patient population presented.

  13. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  14. Assessment of ultrasound imaging and physical examination findings in greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bakılan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius tendinopathy using ultrasound in patients with greater trochanteric pain and assess the value of the pain on resisted hip abduction and pain on resisted hip internal rotation in predicting the presence of gluteus medius tendinopathy. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of 75 patients with greater trochanteric pain. The physical examination records were identified as pain on resisted hip abduction and hip internal rotation. After observing physical examination records, presence of greater trochanteric bursitis or gluteus medius tendinopathy were assessed in documented ultrasound findings. Results: Of the 75 patients with greater trochanteric pain, trochanteric bursitis was found in 41.4% of patients, gluteus medius tendinopathy was found in 20% of patients. A significant difference was found in both presence of pain on resisted hip abduction and internal rotation between patients with gluteus medius tendinopathy and patients with other abnormalities in favor of gluteus medius tendinopathy. Conclusion: In order to determine the etiology of greater trochanteric pain, physical examination and ultrasound imaging is important, especially examination of pain on resisted hip abduction and hip internal rotation is essential to detect gluteus medius tendinopathy.

  15. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Correlates of physical function among stroke survivors: an examination of the 2015 BRFSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, D; Seals, S R; Raghavan, P

    2018-02-01

    To identify the characteristics of stroke survivors with poor physical function. Cross-sectional. Secondary data analyses were performed with the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data set. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions were employed to determine the correlates of poor physical function in stroke survivors. Self-reported difficulty with walking and stairs was used as a proxy for physical function. Characteristics such as age, race, sex, difficulty doing errands alone, difficult dressing or bathing alone, health care coverage, time since last routine checkup, and reported financial difficulty with regard to health care access were examined as contributing factors to physical function. Approximately half of all stroke survivors reported having difficulty with walking and stairs (50.3%). As expected, the odds of reporting difficulty with walking and stairs were higher among stroke survivors aged 40 years and above (p physical function was preserved (p physical function. Specifically, blacks/ African Americans had a 5.6% increase in the odds of reporting difficulty with walking and stairs than whites. Moreover, Hispanics reported significantly fewer problems than whites. Overall, similar sociocultural patterns in non-stroke and stroke populations were observed in this study. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Content analysis of physical examination templates in electronic health records using SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Chen, Rong; Højen, Anne Randorff; Elberg, Pia

    2014-10-01

    Most electronic health record (EHR) systems are built on proprietary information models and terminology, which makes achieving semantic interoperability a challenge. Solving interoperability problems requires well-defined standards. In contrast, the need to support clinical work practice requires a local customization of EHR systems. Consequently, contrasting goals may be evident in EHR template design because customization means that local EHR organizations can define their own templates, whereas standardization implies consensus at some level. To explore the complexity of balancing these two goals, this study analyzes the differences and similarities between templates in use today. A similarity analysis was developed on the basis of SNOMED CT. The analysis was performed on four physical examination templates from Denmark and Sweden. The semantic relationships in SNOMED CT were used to quantify similarities and differences. Moreover, the analysis used these identified similarities to investigate the common content of a physical examination template. The analysis showed that there were both similarities and differences in physical examination templates, and the size of the templates varied from 18 to 49 fields. In the SNOMED CT analysis, exact matches and terminology similarities were represented in all template pairs. The number of exact matches ranged from 7 to 24. Moreover, the number of unrelated fields differed a lot from 1/18 to 22/35. Cross-country comparisons tended to have more unrelated content than within-country comparisons. On the basis of identified similarities, it was possible to define the common content of a physical examination. Nevertheless, a complete view on the physical examination required the inclusion of both exact matches and terminology similarities. This study revealed that a core set of items representing the physical examination templates can be generated when the analysis takes into account not only exact matches but also terminology

  18. Evidence Report: Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.

  19. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A survey of physical examination skills taught in undergraduate nursing programs: are we teaching too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Eddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Because content saturation is a growing concern, as reflected in the nursing literature, the content taught in undergraduate nursing curricula should be critically examined. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional research was to determine and analyze the physical assessment content currently taught in undergraduate nursing programs. A total of 198 individuals teaching in undergraduate nursing programs completed a Web-based survey. Of the 122 skills included on the survey, 81% were reportedly being taught in most of the nursing programs. Total scores for 18 systems-based assessment categories were significantly different among associate and baccalaureate nursing programs in all but three categories: assessment of integument, breast, and female genitals. Previous research has shown that nurses use less than 25% of these same skills regularly in clinical practice, regardless of their educational preparation. Findings from this research raise questions about the breadth to which physical examination content should be taught in undergraduate nursing education.

  1. Who Becomes a Physics Major? A Long-term Longitudinal Study Examining the Roles of Pre-college Beliefs about Physics and Learning Physics, Interest, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Gratny, Mindy

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the correlation between students' beliefs upon entering college and their likelihood of continuing on to become a physics major. Since 2004, we have collected CLASS survey and self-reported level-of-interest responses from students in the first-term, introductory calculus-based physics course (N>2500). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis of students' incoming CLASS scores and level of interest, comparing those students who go on to become physics majors with those who do not. We find the incoming CLASS scores and reported interest of these future physics majors to be substantially higher than the class average, indicating that these students enter their first college course already having quite expert-like beliefs. The comparative differences are much smaller for grades, SAT score, and university predicted-GPA.

  2. Physical examination tests for the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Carrillo, Aitana; Medina-Porqueres, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Numerous clinical tests have been proposed to diagnose FAI, but little is known about their diagnostic accuracy. To summarize and evaluate research on the accuracy of physical examination tests for diagnosis of FAI. A search of the PubMed, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases was performed. Studies were considered eligible if they compared the results of physical examination tests to those of a reference standard. Methodological quality and internal validity assessment was performed by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. The systematic search strategy revealed 298 potential articles, five of which articles met the inclusion criteria. After assessment using the QUADAS score, four of the five articles were of high quality. Clinical tests included were Impingement sign, IROP test (Internal Rotation Over Pressure), FABER test (Flexion-Abduction-External Rotation), Stinchfield/RSRL (Resisted Straight Leg Raise) test, Scour test, Maximal squat test, and the Anterior Impingement test. IROP test, impingement sign, and FABER test showed the most sensitive values to identify FAI. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests to assess FAI is limited due to its heterogenecity. There is a strong need for sound research of high methodological quality in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical Significance of Urinary Microalbumin to Creatinine Ratio in Physical Examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Luo, Wei; Yin, Dai-shu; Jia, Cheng-yao

    2016-01-01

    To-determine the association between urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio (mALB/Cr) and metabolic indicators in people undergoing physical examinations. A total of 4 184 people who took physical examinations in West China Hospital, Sichuan University from November 2013 to October 2014 participated in this study. We measured their body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waistline, hipline, Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), urinary mALB/Cr, serum glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr) , uric acid (UA), cystatin C (Cys-C), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and homocysteine (Hcy). (1) The participants had a median (interquartile range) mALB/Cr of 5.7 (3.1-11.8) mg/g: 5.4 (3.0-11.3) mg/g for males and 6.3 (3.6-13.2) mg/g for females (P 300 mg/g). (5) Logistic regression demonstrated that age, SBP, WHR, GLU, TG and eGFR were significant predictors of albuminuria. A high level of abnormal/positive mALB/Cr was found in people undergoing physical examinations. Increased age, SBP, WHR, GLU, TG and decreased eGFR are major risk factors of abnormal mALB/Cr. mALB/Cr should be monitored, especially in the elderly and those with high-metabolic-syndrome.

  4. Physical examination-indicated cerclage in singleton and twin pregnancies: maternal-fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Andrea; Goya, Maria; Martra, Miquel; Suy, Anna; Pratcorona, Laia; Merced, Carme; Llurba, Elisa; Casellas, Manel; Carreras, Elena; Cabero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    To study maternal and perinatal outcomes after physical examination-indicated cerclage in both singleton and twin pregnancies and evaluate the possible risk factors associated. Retrospective review of all women undergoing physical examination-indicated cerclage at the Hospital Vall d'Hebro, Barcelona from January 2009 to December 2012 after being diagnosed with cervical incompetence and risk of premature birth. During the study period, 60 cases of women diagnosed with cervical incompetence who were carrying live and morphologically-normal fetuses (53 singleton and 7 twin pregnancies), and who had an imminent risk of premature birth were evaluated. Mean gestational age until birth was 35 weeks in singleton and 32 weeks in twin pregnancies. Four cases (7.5%) of immature births and one case (2.0%) of neonatal death were recorded in singleton pregnancies. No cases of immature births or neonatal deaths were recorded in twin pregnancies. Diagnostic amniocentesis was performed IN all cases to rule out possible chorioamnionitis. Physical examination-indicated cerclage for cervical incompetence in women at risk for immature or preterm birth demonstrates good perinatal prognosis without increasing maternal morbidity in either singleton or twin pregnancies. The increase in gestation time in our study may also have been due to the fact that patients with subclinical chorioamnionitis were excluded by diagnostic amniocentesis.

  5. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, M; Bakker, E W P; Moen, M H; Barten, C C; Teeuwen, R; Weir, A

    2017-02-08

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using history and physical examination. We also investigated if clinicians were able to reliably identify concurrent lower leg injuries. A clinical reliability study was performed at multiple sports medicine sites in The Netherlands. Athletes with non-traumatic lower leg pain were assessed for having MTSS by two clinicians, who were blinded to each others' diagnoses. We calculated the prevalence, percentage of agreement, observed percentage of positive agreement (Ppos), observed percentage of negative agreement (Pneg) and Kappa-statistic with 95%CI. Forty-nine athletes participated in this study, of whom 46 completed both assessments. The prevalence of MTSS was 74%. The percentage of agreement was 96%, with Ppos and Pneg of 97% and 92%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was almost perfect; k=0.89 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), phistory and physical examination, in clinical practice and research settings. We also found that concurrent lower leg injuries are common in athletes with MTSS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Using cluster analysis to examine the combinations of motivation regulations of physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne

    2009-06-01

    According to self-determination theory, motivation is multidimensional, with motivation regulations lying along a continuum of self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2007). Accounting for the different types of motivation in physical activity research presents a challenge. This study used cluster analysis to identify motivation regulation profiles and examined their utility by testing profile differences in relative levels of self-determination (i.e., self-determination index), and theoretical antecedents (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) and consequences (i.e., enjoyment, worry, effort, value, physical activity) of physical education motivation. Students (N= 386) in 6th- through 8th-grade physical education classes completed questionnaires of the variables listed above. Five profiles emerged, including average (n = 81), motivated (n = 82), self-determined (n = 91), low motivation (n = 73), and external (n = 59). Group difference analyses showed that students with greater levels of self-determined forms of motivation, regardless of non-self-determined motivation levels, reported the most adaptive physical education experiences.

  7. Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauret Keith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent trainees. Methods Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. Results During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31. The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified (27%, strains (11%, sprains (10%, contusions (9%, and abrasions/lacerations (9%. Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%, physical fitness training (26%, physical fitness testing (6%, and firearms training (6%. Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. Conclusion This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk.

  8. Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Spiess, Anita; Swedler, David; Grier, Tyson; Hauret, Keith; Yoder, James; Jones, Bruce H

    2011-10-09

    A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent trainees. Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT) was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31). The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified) (27%), strains (11%), sprains (10%), contusions (9%), and abrasions/lacerations (9%). Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%), physical fitness training (26%), physical fitness testing (6%), and firearms training (6%). Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk.

  9. The association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of

  10. Clinical Assessment of Physical Examination Maneuvers for Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Lyndsay E; Willits, Kevin; Johnson, Andrew M; Litchfield, Robert; LeBel, Marie-Eve; Moro, Jaydeep; Bryant, Dianne

    2017-10-01

    Purpose  Shoulder pain and disability pose a diagnostic challenge owing to the numerous etiologies and the potential for multiple disorders to exist simultaneously. The evidence to support the use of clinical tests for superior labral anterior to posterior complex (SLAP) is weak or absent. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic validity of physical examination maneuvers for SLAP lesions by performing a methodologically rigorous, clinically applicable study. Methods  We recruited consecutive new shoulder patients reporting pain and/or disability. The physician took a history and indicated their certainty about each possible diagnosis ("certain the diagnosis is absent/present," or "uncertain requires further testing"). The clinician performed the physical tests for diagnoses where uncertainty remained. Magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram and arthroscopic examination were the gold standards. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) and investigated whether combinations of the top tests provided stronger predictions. Results  Ninety-three patients underwent physical examination for SLAP lesions. When using the presence of a SLAP lesion (Types I-V) as disease positive, none of the tests was sensitive (10.3-33.3) although they were moderately specific (61.3-92.6). When disease positive was defined as repaired SLAP lesion (including biceps tenodesis or tenotomy), the sensitivity (10.5-38.7) and specificity (70.6-93.8) of tests improved although not by a substantial amount. None of the tests was found to be clinically useful for predicting repairable SLAP lesions with all LRs close to one. The compression rotation test had the best LR for both definitions of disease (SLAP tear present = 1.8 and SLAP repaired = 1.67). There was no optimal combination of tests for diagnosing repairable SLAP lesions, with at least two tests positive providing the best combination of measurement properties (sensitivity 46.1% and

  11. Enhancing elderly health examination effectiveness by adding physical function evaluations and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ming; Chang, Ching-I; Yu, Wen-Ruey; Yang, Winnie; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu

    This study aimed to assess the benefit of adding physical function evaluations and interventions to routine elderly health examination. This is a Quasi-experimental controlled trial. 404 elderly adults (aged 70 and over) scoring 3-6 on the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale Chinese In-Person Interview Version (CSHA-CFS) in a 2012 annual elderly health examination were enrolled. Both the control and experimental groups received the routine annual health examination with the latter further provided with functional evaluations, exercise instruction, and nutrition education. 112 (84.8%) persons in the experiment group and 267 (98.2%) in the control group completed the study. CSHA-CFS performance of the experimental group was more likely to improve (odds ratio=9.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.62-19.56) and less likely to deteriorate (OR=0.04, 95% CI=0.01-0.31) one year after intervention. Within the experimental group, Fried Frailty Index improvement percentage surpassed the deterioration percentage (29.5% vs. 0.9%, pPhysical Performance Battery increased from 10.0±1.6 to 11.6±0.9 (pexercise and nutrition interventions to the annual elderly health examination appeared to benefit the health of adults aged 70 years and older. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents' reports of physical violence by peers in residential care settings: an ecological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2014-03-01

    Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.

  13. [Clinical forensic examination findings and legal outcome in cases of suspected physical child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Meyer, Yvonne; Schroeder, Günter; Günther, Detlef; Debertin, Anette Solveig

    2011-01-01

    Clinical forensic examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School between 1999 and 2008 in cases of suspected physical abuse of children were analyzed retrospectively with special emphasis on the legal consequences. Altogether, 192 children (85 girls, 107 boys) with a median age of 4.4 years were examined. In 47 cases (24.5 %), the clinical forensic examination findings were interpreted as accidental injuries, birth traumas or unspecific findings. 29 victims (20.0 %) had suffered a shaken baby syndrome. Only part of the presented cases ended with conviction, which was more likely if the victims were aged between 7 and 11 years. Prison terms of 2 years and more were imposed only if the child suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries or if additional anogenital lesions were diagnosed indicating sexual child abuse.

  14. Accuracy of physical and ultrasonographic examinations by emergency physicians for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage in blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuncu, S; Cete, Y; Bozan, H; Kartal, M; Akyol, A J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of physical examination and ultrasonographic evaluation performed by emergency physicians in cases of blunt abdominal trauma for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage. In this clinical prospective study, trauma patients were evaluated with four-quadrant ultrasonography by emergency physicians after initial stabilisation and physical examination. Diagnoses based on demographic data, physical examination and emergency physician's ultrasonography were compared with the subsequent clinical course. A total of 442 patients participated in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of emergency physician's ultrasonographic examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 86 and 99%, respectively. Pre-test sensitivity and specificity of physical examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 39 and 90%, respectively. Physical examination was not a reliable method to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage in cases of blunt abdominal trauma. In contrast, abdominal ultrasonography performed by emergency physicians was a reliable diagnostic tool. Emergency physicians should be familiar with abdominal ultrasonographic examination, which should be routine in cases of blunt abdominal trauma.

  15. Examining student performance in an introductory Physics for engineering course: A quantitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Diego; Savkar, Amit; Mokaya, Fridah; Wells, James

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been analyzed and studied in various ways with regards to students' understanding of basic physics concepts. We present normalized learning gains and effect size calculations of FCI scores, taken in the context of large-scale classes in a 4-year public university and course instruction that incorporates elements of Just-In-Time teaching and active learning components. In addition, we will present here a novel way of using FCI pre- and post-test as a predictor of students' performance on midterm and final exams. Utilizing a taxonomy table of physics concepts, we will look at student performance broken down by topic, while also examining possible correlations between FCI post-test scores and other course assessments. College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS), UConn.

  16. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Qin, Jin-Qiu; Wei, Ai-Qiu; Huang, Ping; Lai, Zhan-Feng; Lin, Fa-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Studies on homocysteine (Hcy) have mainly focused on the correlation between the homocysteine concentration and disease development. Few epidemiological investigations have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and the correlation of serum Hcy with gender, age, serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood glucose (GLU) to provide evidence for preventing and treating HHcy. Data of 8043 patients who underwent physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from 2015 to 2016 were collected. These data included gender, age, and the serum Hcy, UA, GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations. The overall prevalence of HHcy was 50.8% (52.3% in males, 48.1% in females). Age, UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in patients with than without HHcy, regardless of gender (all Pphysical examination in Guangxi Province, China. HHcy was related to gender, age, high concentrations of UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low concentrations of HDL-C. Strengthening early intervention of HHcy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Gilbert, Gregory E; Sithole, Fortune; Koster, Liza S

    2017-09-27

    Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog's Ear, Volume 1 . Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS) Depression, Fatigue-Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  18. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Artemiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog’s Ear, Volume 1. Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS Depression, Fatigue–Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  19. The pre-participation examination for leisure time physical activity: general medical and cardiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löllgen, Herbert; Leyk, Dieter; Hansel, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    There is current debate on the appropriate type and extent of medical testing for amateur and hobby athletes before they engage in sports. In particular, views diverge on the value of an ECG at rest. We selectively searched the Medline and Embase databases for relevant publications that appeared from 1990 to 2008. The most pertinent ones are discussed here along with current reviews and guidelines that give recommendations on pre-participation testing for amateur athletes. History-taking and physical examination are standard around the world. The American guidelines on pre-participation examination do not recommend an ECG at rest, yet the guidelines for most European countries explicitly recommend it. No prospective cohort studies have been performed to date that might provide high-grade evidence (class and level) to support this practice. We discuss the pros and cons of an ECG at rest and also present the guideline recommendations on exercise-ECG testing for amateur athletes over age 40. In accordance with the current European recommendations, and in consideration of the risks of athletic activity, we recommend that all persons participating in sports should undergo a pre-participation examination that includes an ECG at rest. Although primary-prevention campaigns advise physically inactive persons to get regular exercise, prospective studies are still lacking as a basis for recommendations in this group.

  20. Manual physical therapy examination and intervention of a patient with radial wrist pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Clinical case report. To describe a manual physical therapy examination and intervention approach for a patient with radial-sided wrist pain. A 55-year-old woman with a 2-year history of chronic right wrist and forearm pain was referred to physical therapy with a diagnosis of de Quervain's disease. Her current symptoms were present for 6 weeks despite primary care management with wrist splinting and medications. Previous episodes were partially resolved following occupational therapy treatments. Examination of the patient's wrist and hand revealed isolated radiocarpal, intercarpal, and carpometacarpal joint dysfunctions. Evaluation of the cervical spine, shoulder, and elbow were negative. Impairment-based treatment was provided during 8 visits over a 4-week period. These treatments consisted of manual physical therapy techniques and self-mobilizations applied to the radiocarpal, intercarpal, and carpometacarpal joints. The initial treatment session decreased the patient's numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) from 7/10 to 4/10 and improved her functional rating on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) from an average of 4/10 to 8.2/10. At treatment completion, she achieved a pain-free state (NPRS, 0/10) and nearly full function (PSFS, 9.8/10). These results were maintained at a long-term follow-up performed 10 months after treatment. Several diagnoses have the potential for causing or referring pain into the radial wrist and forearm region, often times mimicking de Quervain's disease. An impairment-based manual physical therapy model may be an effective approach in identifying joint dysfunctions and managing patients with radial wrist pain.

  1. Physical Examination-Indicated Cerclage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipoor, Robert M; Seligman, Neil S; Saccone, Gabriele; Szymanski, Linda M; Wissinger, Christina; Werner, Erika F; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of physical examination-indicated cerclage in the setting of second-trimester cervical dilatation by systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between 1966 and 2014 that evaluated cervical cerclage for the treatment of cervical insufficiency. The search yielded 6,314 citations. We included cohort studies and randomized controlled trials comparing cerclage placement with expectant management of women with cervical dilatation between 14 and 27 weeks of gestation. Two investigators independently reviewed each citation for inclusion or exclusion and discordant decisions were arbitrated by a third reviewer. Summary estimates were reported as the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables or relative risk and with 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis was used, depending on heterogeneity. Ten studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. One was a randomized controlled trial, two were prospective cohort studies, and the remaining seven were retrospective cohort studies. Of the 757 women, 485 (64%) underwent physical examination-indicated cerclage placement and 272 (36%) were expectantly managed. Cerclage was associated with increased neonatal survival (71% compared with 43%; relative risk 1.65, 95% CI 1.19-2.28) and prolongation of pregnancy (mean difference 33.98 days, 95% CI 17.88-50.08). Physical examination-indicated cerclage is associated with a significant increase in neonatal survival and prolongation of pregnancy of approximately 1 month when compared with no such cerclage. The strength of this conclusion is limited by the potential for bias in the included studies.

  2. Suitability assessment of physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-gang JIAO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate and evaluate whether the present physical examination standards for selection of pilot trainees meet the requirements for the medical selection of pilot trainees. Methods The experimental procedure was divided into three steps to evaluate the physical examination standards for the selection of pilot trainees. The first step was to compile a manual of investigation, which was composed of suitability assessments and the result of its use. The second step was to screen for specialists. A social science survey was adopted, and 119 specialists were selected composing 98 specialists in recruitment of pilots and 21 aviation medical clinicians. A total of 359 standard items were evaluated for suitability approval, and then the reliability of evaluation results was analyzed. The final step was the formation of criteria for final judgment. The worthiness of the items was based on the specialists' opinions. When a certain item was deemed suitable by more than 80% of the specialists, it was considered as appropriate, and when a certain item was deemed suitable by less than 60% of the specialists, it was not appropriate. Results A total of 134 survey brochures were sent out, and 128 out of 134 were retrieved. The positive index of specialist participation was 0.95, and the authority index was 0.86. 271 (75.5% of the 359 items were generally accepted by specialists as appropriate, and 27 (7.5% items were not accepted. Most of these rejected items involved function evaluation, the concept and essence of which could not be easily grasped. Conclusions Although the majority of the items in the physical examination standards were deemed appropriate by the specialists, there were a few items not accepted. These standards should be revised after being applied in the future.

  3. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Leak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems

  4. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2017-12-01

    Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students

  5. Youth physical activity and the neighbourhood environment: examining correlates and the role of neighbourhood definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Josh; Frank, Lawrence D; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine relationships between neighbourhood built and social environment characteristics and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of children aged 8-11 in Vancouver, British Columbia and the surrounding lower mainland region (n = 366). A secondary objective was to assess how neighbourhood definition influences these relationships, by using measures calculated at multiple buffer sizes: 200, 400, 800 and 1600 m (1 mile). Geographic information systems -software was used to create a broad set of measures of neighbourhood environments. Physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. Relationships between MVPA and neighborhood characteristics were assessed using generalized estimating equations to account for the clustering of children within schools. Sex specific relationships were assessed through sex stratified models. When controlling for child age, sex and ethnicity, MVPA was positively associated with commercial density, residential density, number of parks and intersection density; and negatively associated with distance to school and recreation sites. When entered as a composite index, these measures accounted for 4.4% in the variation in MVPA for the full sample (boys and girls). Sex stratified models better explained the relationships between neighbourhood environment and physical activity. For boys, built and social environment characteristics of neighbourhoods accounted for 8.7% of the variation in MVPA, and for girls, neighborhood factors explained 7.2% of the variation. Sex stratified models also point towards distinct differences in factors associated with physical activity, with MVPA of boys associated with wider ranging neighborhood characteristics than MVPA of girls. For girls, two safety-related neighbourhood features were found to be significantly associated with MVPA: cul-de-sac density and proportion of low speed limit streets. In all models, larger buffer sizes

  6. Examining relationship among self-esteem with obesity, physical fitness level and participation to sport

    OpenAIRE

    ERASLAN, Meric; ATAY, Emrah; YUKSEL, Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    This study' purpose was to examine relationship among self-esteem with obesity, physical fitness level and participation situation to sport. 115 male and 124 female participated to study. Participants' mean age is 12.98±1.04 year, mean height 157.38±9.21 cm, mean BMI value 19.37±3.63 kg/m2. Only %28 of participants participates to sport. Besides, their %73.6 participates to sporting activities out of lesson. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as data collection material at s...

  7. Clinical examination and physical assessment of hip joint-related pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Evidence-based clinical examination and assessment of the athlete with hip joint related pain is complex. It requires a systematic approach to properly differentially diagnose competing potential causes of athletic pain generation. An approach with an initial broad focus (and hence use...... of highly sensitive tests/measures) that then is followed by utilizing more specific tests/measures to pare down this imprecise differential diagnosis list is suggested. Physical assessment measures are then suggested to discern impairments, activity and participation restrictions for athletes with hip...

  8. The "Near-Peer" Approach to Teaching Musculoskeletal Physical Examination Skills Benefits Residents and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Nanos, Katherine N; Newcomer, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    The musculoskeletal physical examination (MSK PE) is an essential part of medical student training, and it is best taught in a hands-on, longitudinal fashion. A barrier to this approach is faculty instructor availability. "Near-peer" teaching refers to physicians-in-training teaching their junior colleagues. It is unknown whether near-peer teaching is effective in teaching this important physical examination skill. To investigate attitudes of medical students and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents regarding near-peer teaching in an MSK PE curriculum. Qualitative, anonymous paper and online surveys. Tertiary academic center with a medical school and PM&R training program. Ninety-nine second- and third-year medical students and 13 PM&R residents in their third or fourth postgraduate year. Attitudes of second- and third-year medical students were measured immediately after their MSK PE course. Resident attitudes were measured in a single cross-sectional sample. Student attitudes were assessed via a questionnaire with 5-point Likert scales and a free-text comment section. The resident questionnaire included a combination of multiple-choice questions, rankings, free-text responses, and Likert scales. All 99 students completed the questionnaire. The majority of students (n = 79 [80%]) reported that resident involvement as hands-on instructors of examination skills was "very useful," and 87 (88%) indicated that resident-led small discussion groups were "very helpful" or "somewhat helpful." Fifty-seven of 99 students (58%) reported that the resident-facilitated course was "much better" than courses without resident involvement. Twelve of 13 eligible residents completed the survey, and of those, 8 found teaching "very helpful" to their MSK knowledge, and 11 became "somewhat" or "much more confident" in clinical examination skills. Our study supports educational benefits to medical students and resident instructors in our MSK PE program. We recommend

  9. Physical examination of the reproductive organs of range beef bulls in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A; Mackinnon, D; Mandlhate, F

    1986-03-01

    Physical examinations were performed on 3991 bulls reared in subtropical (75%) and tropical (25%) Mozambique. A culling rate of 16.3% (651 sires) was found. The range of culling rate between farms varied from 3 to 44%. The main culling reasons were a) epididymitis, b) atrophy and/or hypoplasia, and c) testicular fibrosis (contributing to 30.4, 20.9, and 15.2%, respectively, of the culled bulls). Epididymitis-vaginitis (epivag) syndrome was considered the main reason for the high incidence of epididymitis and testicular fibrosis. A highly significant difference (PSimmental (37.7%) and Brahman (13.1%) bulls was found. A more comprehensive investigation of culling rate of different breeds used in the country is needed, as well as a program for controlling epivag in the more affected areas. Examining the reproductive organs of the beef bulls in Mozambique before the breeding season is very important to improve fertility in the beef herds.

  10. Can we screen for pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination in epidemiologic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew D; Neubauer, Nikki L; Klein-Olarte, Victoria

    2006-10-01

    Large population-based epidemiologic studies of pelvic organ prolapse are rare. One barrier is the need for physical examination in order to confirm disease status. The objectives of this study were to develop a simple screening question for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to evaluate its test characteristics in high and low prevalence populations. Data from 100 women enrolled in the validation study of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) were used to identify the question or questions that most accurately identified women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. After identifying an accurate and reliable screening question from this original group, its test characteristics were evaluated prospectively in 2 additional distinct populations: a group of 120 women presenting to a tertiary care urogynecology clinic (High prior probability of POP) and 448 women presenting to a nurse practitioner for annual gynecologic examination (Low prior probability of POP). Subjects in these 2 groups each completed the screening question and underwent a POPQ examination by a blinded examiner. A single question was identified from the original study population that most accurately and reliably identified those women with POP "Do you usually have a bulge or something falling out that you can see or feel in your vaginal area?" An affirmative answer to this question was 96% sensitive (95%CI 92-100) and 79% specific (95%CI 77-92) for prolapse beyond the hymen. The 1-week test-retest reliability was good (kappa .84). The prevalence of POP in this group was 29%. No other single question or group of questions had better test characteristics. When prospectively evaluated in the second High probability population (prevalence 39%), similar test characteristics were noted: sensitivity 85% (95%CI 71-93), specificity 86% (95%CI 75-92). However, when evaluated in the Low prior probability group (POP prevalence 3.8%) the specificity improved to 99% (95%CI 98-99), while the sensitivity decreased

  11. Built Environment Influences of Children’s Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child’s neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9–14 years in London (ON, Canada. As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child’s neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m around each child’s home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children’s MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys’ MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls’ MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child’s physical activity may differ according to sex.

  12. Examining implicit cognitions in the evaluation of a community-wide physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lira; Berry, Tanya R

    2018-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate measures of attentional bias and implicit attitudes in the evaluation of a community-wide physical activity program, UWALK, by examining the relationships among proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes of the program as outlined in the hierarchy of effects model. UWALK incorporated various communication and marketing strategies via mass media, on- and off-line platforms. Participants (N = 127) reported unprompted then prompted awareness of UWALK followed by measures of attentional bias and implicit attitudes, watched a 30-second UWALK video, then completed a thought listing task and questionnaires measuring instrumental and affective attitudes, leisure time physical activity, and demographics. Results showed that participants with unprompted awareness of UWALK demonstrated attentional bias toward UWALK images, positive implicit attitudes, and greater physical activity participation compared to unaware counterparts. Attentional bias, awareness, and implicit attitudes significantly predicted behavior, accounting for 15.2% of the variance. This study emphasizes the importance of including measures of automatic cognitions during evaluation can further inform the effects of a program. The results also showed that it is problematic to assume that visiting a website indicates a program will be remembered and related cognitions will be affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The value of routine physical examination in the follow up of women with a history of early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, W.; de Bock, G.H.; Schaapveld, M.; Baas, P.C.; Wiggers, T.; Jansen, L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Routine physical examination is recommended in follow up guidelines for women with a history of breast cancer. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of routine physical examination in addition to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer recurrences. PATIENTS

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preparticipation Physical Examinations and Disqualifying Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kevin M.; Bolin, Delmas J.; Carek, Peter J.; Konin, Jeff G.; Neal, Timothy L.; Violette, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present athletic trainers with recommendations for the content and administration of the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) as well as considerations for determining safe participation in sports and identifying disqualifying conditions. Background Preparticipation physical examinations have been used routinely for nearly 40 years. However, considerable debate exists as to their efficacy due to the lack of standardization in the process and the lack of conformity in the information that is gathered. With the continuing rise in sports participation at all levels and the growing number of reported cases of sudden death in organized athletics, the sports medicine community should consider adopting a standardized process for conducting the PPE to protect all parties. Recommendations Recommendations are provided to equip the sports medicine community with the tools necessary to conduct the PPE as effectively and efficiently as possible using available scientific evidence and best practices. In addition, the recommendations will help clinicians identify those conditions that may threaten the health and safety of participants in organized sports, may require further evaluation and intervention, or may result in potential disqualification. PMID:24499039

  15. [Development of Web-based multimedia content for a physical examination and health assessment course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Kim, Il-Ok; Shin, Sung-Rae; Jung, Hoe-Kyung

    2004-10-01

    This study was to develop Web-based multimedia content for Physical Examination and Health Assessment. The multimedia content was developed based on Jung's teaching and learning structure plan model, using the following 5 processes : 1) Analysis Stage, 2) Planning Stage, 3) Storyboard Framing and Production Stage, 4) Program Operation Stage, and 5) Final Evaluation Stage. The web based multimedia content consisted of an intro movie, main page and sub pages. On the main page, there were 6 menu bars that consisted of Announcement center, Information of professors, Lecture guide, Cyber lecture, Q&A, and Data centers, and a site map which introduced 15 week lectures. In the operation of web based multimedia content, HTML, JavaScript, Flash, and multimedia technology (Audio and Video) were utilized and the content consisted of text content, interactive content, animation, and audio & video. Consultation with the experts in context, computer engineering, and educational technology was utilized in the development of these processes. Web-based multimedia content is expected to offer individualized and tailored learning opportunities to maximize and facilitate the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. Therefore, multimedia content should be utilized concurrently with the lecture in the Physical Examination and Health Assessment classes as a vital teaching aid to make up for the weakness of the face-to- face teaching-learning method.

  16. Association between Patient History and Physical Examination and Osteoarthritis after Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2017-09-01

    Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The viper fangs: clinical anatomy, principles of physical examination and therapy (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Oliveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fangs is a fundamental part of clinical examination of viperid snakes. The long curved venom fang is carried by short, highly mobile maxilla. Short anaesthesia is advised for safe physical examination and radiography of the mouth cavity. The fangs are gently forced outside the fang pocket by passing the bar or forceps on the palato-maxillary arch, and rotating them rostrally shifting the mucosal fold. Functional fangs are periodically shed and several generations of replacement teeth lie behind and beneath each fang. In case of fang fracture, therapy should be limited to flushing with a solution of chlorhexidine or povidone iodine, and topical application of pro-coagulant and antibacterial cream. Therapy of chronic fang inflammation is based on removal of necrotized fang and repeated abundant irrigation of the fang pocket. Treatment of chronic stomatitis consists of flushing with chlorhexidine or povidone iodine, physical removal of the plaques, administration of analgesics and antibiotics (marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin or ceftazidime. Extra-oral surgical approach is the best method for odontogenic abscess removal. A vigorous flushing with sterile saline solution, chlorhexidine and povidone iodine and topical application of antibiotics (antibiotic embedded surgical sponge is advised. Force feeding of the anorectic patient suffering from fang inflammation is a mandatory part of the standard treatment protocol.

  18. Evaluation of the first seizure patient: Key points in the history and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Tomasz A; Jirsch, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    This review will present the history and physical examination as the launching point of the first seizure evaluation, from the initial characterization of the event, to the exclusion of alternative diagnoses, and then to the determination of specific acute or remote causes. Clinical features that may distinguish seizures from alternative diagnoses are discussed in detail, followed by a discussion of acute and remote first seizure etiologies. This review article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. The first seizure is a dramatic event with often profound implications for patients and family members. The initial clinical evaluation focuses on an accurate description of the spell to confirm the diagnosis, along with careful scrutiny for previously unrecognized seizures that would change the diagnosis more definitively to one of epilepsy. The first seizure evaluation rests primarily on the clinical history, and to a lesser extent, the physical examination. Even in the era of digital EEG recording and neuroimaging, the initial clinical evaluation remains essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of the first seizure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Is there an agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Kim, Yong-Wook; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Tae-Young; Weon, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    To determine the agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists' job descriptions. The main tasks of physical therapists were classified, and university courses related to the main tasks were also classified. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of credits for the classified courses out of the total credits of major subjects, exam items related to the classified courses out of the total number of exam items, and universities that offer courses related to the Korean physical therapist licensing examination among the surveyed universities. The proportions of credits for clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis-related courses out of the total number credits for major subjects at universities were relatively low (2.06% and 2.58%, respectively). Although the main tasks of physical therapists are related to diagnosis and evaluation, the proportion of physiotherapy intervention-related items (35%) was higher than that of examination and evaluation-related items (25%) on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination. The percentages of universities that offer physical therapy diagnosis and clinical decision making-related courses were 58.62% and 68.97%, respectively. Both the proportion of physiotherapy diagnosis and evaluation-related items on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, and the number of subjects related to clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis in the physical therapy curriculum, should be increased to ensure that the examination items and physical therapy curriculum reflect the practical tasks of physical therapists.

  20. Is there an agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists’ job descriptions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hyeok Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the agreement among the items of the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, learning objectives of class subjects, and physical therapists’ job descriptions. Methods: The main tasks of physical therapists were classified, and university courses related to the main tasks were also classified. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of credits for the classified courses out of the total credits of major subjects, exam items related to the classified courses out of the total number of exam items, and universities that offer courses related to the Korean physical therapist licensing examination among the surveyed universities. Results: The proportions of credits for clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis-related courses out of the total number credits for major subjects at universities were relatively low (2.06% and 2.58%, respectively. Although the main tasks of physical therapists are related to diagnosis and evaluation, the proportion of physiotherapy intervention-related items (35% was higher than that of examination and evaluation-related items (25% on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination. The percentages of universities that offer physical therapy diagnosis and clinical decision making-related courses were 58.62% and 68.97%, respectively. Conclusion: Both the proportion of physiotherapy diagnosis and evaluation-related items on the Korean physical therapist licensing examination, and the number of subjects related to clinical decision making and physical therapy diagnosis in the physical therapy curriculum, should be increased to ensure that the examination items and physical therapy curriculum reflect the practical tasks of physical therapists.

  1. Physical examination in undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Graf, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Hertkorn, Rebekka

    2017-11-25

    Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician's daily activity. Teaching of PE has been integrated into medical school by many clinical disciplines with respective specific examination procedures. For instance, PE teaching in general practice may include a full-body examination approach. Studies show that PE-skills of medical students often need enhancement. The aim of this article was to scope the literature regarding the teaching and research of PE within general practice during undergraduate medical education. We evaluated a wide breadth of literature relating to the content, study design, country of research institution and year of publication. Literature search in Medline along the PRISMA-P protocol was performed by search syntax ("physical examination" AND "medical education" AND "undergraduate" AND general practice) considering Medline MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)-Terms and Medline search term tree structure. Independent title, abstract and full-text screening with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed. Full texts were analyzed by publication year, country of origin, study design and content (by categorizing articles along their main topic according to qualitative content analysis of Mayring). One-hundred seven articles were included. The annual number of publications ranged from 4 to 14 and had a slightly rising trend since 2000. Nearly half of the publications originated from the United States (n = 54), 33 from Canada and the United Kingdom. Overall, intervention studies represented the largest group (n = 60, including uncontrolled and controlled studies, randomized and non-randomized), followed by cross-sectional studies (n = 29). The 117 studies could be assigned to five categories "teaching methods (n = 53)", "teaching quality (n = 33)", "performance evaluation and examination formats (n=19)", "students' views (n = 8)" and "patients' and standardized patients' views

  2. The usefulness of physical examination and laboratory data in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramori, Katsumi; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Zaizen, Yoshio; Tsuno, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of clinical and laboratory data in pediatric patients with abdominal blunt trauma, the case records of 43 pediatric cases with blunt trauma who were admitted to our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Among these patients, 23 were determined to have intraabdominal injury. Abdominal physical examination was not statistically identified to be a predictor of intraabdominal injury, however, the hematocrit and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were significantly aberrant in these cases. Furthermore, the mean AST and ALT values in the non-hepatic injury cases were also apt to be higher than those in the no-injury group. These findings suggested that the serum AST and ALT may be possible predictors of intraabdominal injury, not only that restricted to the liver. Additionally, in our cases, abdominal CT examination was more diagnostic than ultrasound examination. Accordingly, in cases of pediatric abdominal blunt trauma with aberrant serum values of the liver transaminases, CT san should be performed electively. (author)

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of 3 Physical Examination Tests in the Assessment of Hip Microinstability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Daniel J; Truntzer, Jeremy N; Shapiro, Lauren M; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Safran, Marc R

    2017-11-01

    Hip microinstability is a diagnosis gaining increasing interest. Physical examination tests to identify microinstability have not been objectively investigated using intraoperative confirmation of instability as a reference standard. To determine the test characteristics and diagnostic accuracy of 3 physical examination maneuvers in the detection of hip microinstability. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. A review was conducted of 194 consecutive hip arthroscopic procedures performed by a sports medicine surgeon at a tertiary-care academic center. Physical examination findings of interest, including the abduction-hyperextension-external rotation (AB-HEER) test, the prone instability test, and the hyperextension-external rotation (HEER) test, were obtained from prospectively collected data. The reference standard was intraoperative identification of instability based on previously published objective criteria. Test characteristics, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy, were calculated for each test as well as for combinations of tests. A total of 109 patients were included in the analysis. The AB-HEER test was most accurate, with a sensitivity of 80.6% (95% CI, 70.8%-90.5%) and a specificity of 89.4% (95% CI, 80.5%-98.2%). The prone instability test had a low sensitivity (33.9%) but a very high specificity (97.9%). The HEER test performed second in both sensitivity (71.0%) and specificity (85.1%). The combination of multiple tests with positive findings did not yield significantly greater accuracy. All tests had high positive predictive values (range, 86.3%-95.5%) and moderate negative predictive values (range, 52.9%-77.8%). When all 3 tests had positive findings, there was a 95.0% (95% CI, 90.1%-99.9%) chance that the patient had microinstability. The AB-HEER test most accurately predicted hip instability, followed by the HEER test and the prone instability test. However, the high specificity of the

  4. Examining of relation between emotional intelligence levels and professional burnout levels of Physical Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze ADİLOĞULLARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it is aimed to examining the relation between emotional intelligence levels and professional burnout levels of physical education teachers. Material and Methods: Population of the study consists of staff of the Ministry of Education who works at the central district in Mugla and its sample consists of 269 volunteer physical education teachers. The original of this scale is the scale consisting of 12 items which was developed from the 33 item work of Schutte et al., (2006. Answers were graded in terms of 5 point likert. Reliability (Cronbach Alpha=0.82-0.86 of this scale was found high in the research of Chan. Aslan and Ozata (2008 have applied the same scale on health employees and it was found that the questionnaire which was set up in total of 4 dimensions in Chan’s (2004-2006 work was perceived under four dimensions and 12 items as it was in its original as an outcome of the factor analysis. 22 item Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI, which was developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981, shall be used to evaluate the burnout levels of the participants. Turkish adaptation of MBI was prepared by Ergin (1992 and the validity and reliability work of the scale in teacher sample was first made by Girgin (1995 and Sucuoglu and Kuloglu (1996 separately. Answers were graded in terms of 5 point likert. The statistical applications of the work were carried out in SPSS.15.00 program and percent frequency and t-test for groups of two and One-Way Anova test, correlation (r statistics to compare the groups of more than two were applied. Results: According to analysis results, it is observed that the emotional intelligence levels and profession burnout levels of physical education teachers not significantly vary depending on age, gender, marital status and years of professional experience variable. A negative relation was discovered between emotional intelligence levels and burnout levels of physical education teachers (p<0.01, r=-0

  5. EXAMINING OCCUPATIONAL ANXIETY LEVELS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHER DEPARTMENT STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Feray Özbal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the occupational anxiety levels of physical education and sports teacher department students in terms of age, gender, university, grade level, mother’s and father’s educational levels and family income. A total of 511 students (208 female, 303 male from 6 different universities participated in the study. Independent samples t-test for gender and age variables; One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used for grade level, university, mother’s and father’s education levels and family income. Significant differences were found in Interaction With Students, Occupational Exam subscales in terms of gender; Interaction With Students and Individual Self-Development subscales in terms of age (p.05. As a result, It can be concluded that the significant difference between gender groups is derived from social values, and the difference in age groups is due to lack of occupational qualification.

  6. Polyposis deserves a perfect physical examination for final diagnosis: Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızarcıoğlu-Gülşen, Hayriye; Kılıç, Esra; Dominguez-Garrido, Elena; Aydemir, Yusuf; Utine, Gülen Eda; Saltık-Temizel, İnci Nur

    2017-01-01

    Hızarcıoğlu-Gülşen H, Kılıç E, Dominguez-Garrido E, Aydemir Y, Utine GE, Saltık-Temizel İN. Polyposis deserves a perfect physical examination for final diagnosis: Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 80-83. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited polyposis syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, lipomatosis, hemangiomatosis, intestinal polyposis and pigmented macules on penis. The mutation of the PTEN gene that is responsible for controlling cellular proliferation, migration and apoptosis clarifies the reason of tissue overgrowth in BRRS. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is seen 35-45% of the patients. Histologic features of polyps in BRRS resemble juvenile polyps. In this report, we describe a boy presenting with hematochezia and aggressive polyposis and finally was diagnosed as BRRS due to extra intestinal findings.

  7. Accuracy of Medical Students in Detecting Pleural Effusion Using Lung Ultrasound as an Adjunct to the Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Peter; Oleskevich, Sharon; Dyachenko, Alina; McCusker, Jane; Lewis, John

    2018-03-25

    This study compared the accuracy of medical students in identifying pleural effusion in hospitalized patients using the physical examination versus lung ultrasound (US). Fourth-year medical students (n = 14) received 20 hours of general practical US training (including 2 hours of specialized lung US training) plus theoretical and video documentation. The students used the physical examination alone versus the physical examination plus lung US to document the presence or absence of pleural effusion in the right and left hemithoraces of hospitalized patients (n = 11 patients; 22 hemithoraces examined 544 times in total). The reference standard for identification of pleural effusion was a lung US examination by 2 expert point-of-care sonographers. The odds of correctly identifying the presence versus absence of pleural effusion was 5 times greater with lung US as an adjunct to the physical examination compared to the physical examination alone (odds ratio [OR], 5.1 from multivariate logistic regression; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-8.0). The addition of lung US to the physical examination resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 48% to 90%, in specificity from 73% to 86%, and in accuracy from 60% to 88%. The benefits of using US were greater when pleural effusion was present versus absent (OR, 10.8 versus 2.4) and when examining older versus younger patients (OR, 10.2 versus 2.8). These results demonstrate that medical students' ability to detect the presence or absence of pleural effusion is superior when using lung US as an adjunct to the physical examination than when using the physical examination alone. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. The Influence of Peer Feedback on the Acquisition of Physical-Examination Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Martineau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that having students observe peers while acquiring physical-examination (PE skills fosters the acquisition of the psychomotor skills required to conduct a PE. One difficulty, however, has been to disentangle the effect of peer observation from peer feedback, both of which occur when students learn in groups. This study investigated the influence of peer feedback on learning the neurolocomotor physical exam for low-back pain. 120 second-year medical students were randomly assigned to a peer-feedback group (n=61 or a no-peer-feedback group (n=53, during a regular learning activity with a standardized-patient instructor. Students first practised the NLE in groups of three, with or without peer feedback, depending on the group to which they were assigned. Subsequently, the members of both groups performed the NLE individually. The final NLE was videotaped and assessed later. Peer feedback had a positive effect on the acquisition of PE skills (87.9% vs. 90.8%, p=0.023, despite the fact that students had an initial preference for instructor feedback compared with peer feedback. These results support the use of group activities that give students the opportunity to provide feedback to their peers while learning PE skills.

  9. Physical activity in adolescents: examining influence of the best friend dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dyadic friendship relationships on adolescent physical activity (PA) behavior. Unique to this study was examination of the "best friend" dyad. Participants were 268 adolescents (13-18 years of age) of both sexes (boys n = 140, girls n = 128), constituting 134 best friendship dyads; 84 were reciprocal best friends and 50 were not. PA was evaluated with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was tested using a hierarchical linear model. First, a null model was run to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient for each type of PA. Next, sex, age, and reciprocity in friendship were included in the model as PA predictors. The null models revealed significant intraclass correlation coefficient values for vigorous PA (VPA) (.32) moderate PA (MPA) (.31), and sitting behavior (.21), but not for walking. Age was the only predictor for VPA, whereas for MPA the predictors were sex and age of the partner. Reciprocity in friendship (best friend) was not a significant predictor for PA. These results indicate a high degree of similarity between best friend dyad in PA, except for walking. The age and sex of the best friend (partner) were important predictors of MPA. The reciprocity in friendship (being reciprocal best friends) was not a relevant variable. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical activity and better medication compliance improve mini-mental state examination scores in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Fabiana Costa; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Bonoto, Robson Teixeira; Oliveira, Wederson Candido de; Moura, Tiago Augusto da Silva; Assis, Cláudia Loures de; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In addition to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle plays a pivotal role in cerebro- and cardiovascular disease and progressive cognitive decline, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated whether controlling the key risks and participating in physical activity have a beneficial impact on these disorders. Elderly volunteers were enrolled in a 3-month program that consisted of structured exercise three times per week. The daily routine, medical treatment, and vital parameters were evaluated and correlated with the subjects' neuropsychiatric status. High blood pressure was found in 40% of the participants, with no significant differences between the sexes. A higher proportion of females (55%) than males (18%) forgot to take their medication during the observation period. Significant negative correlations were found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and age, lack of a caregiver, and increased pulse rate before or after exercise. These results suggest that the presence of home assistance and subsequent improvement in medication compliance, vital parameter optimization, and regular physical activity may yield better MMSE results and a lower risk for cerebro- and cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  12. The physical examination in cosmetic surgery: communication strategies to promote the desirability of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirivel, Julien C

    2008-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is a controversial medical practice that is rapidly expanding in the United States. In 2004 alone, 9.2 million procedures were performed. From breast augmentation to tummy tuck, Americans are taking surgical/medical/health risks to alter their bodily appearance. Although many scholars have criticized the practice, few have looked closely at how plastic surgeons interact with prospective surgical candidates. This essay explores videotaped data of naturally occurring interactions between plastic surgeons and patients seeking to transform their physical appearance. Drawing on action-implicative discourse analysis (Tracy, 2005), the article describes plastic surgeons' embodied and discursive activities during a typical physical examination. The core analysis shows how the patient's body and its aesthetic features can be used by plastic surgeons as interpretive resources to promote the desirability of surgery. By touching excess tissue, pinching it, moving it, or applying tools and artifacts (e.g., tape measurer) on and around the body, plastic surgeons literally bring to life patients' bodily "flaws." Through their multimodal performance, I argue, plastic surgeons mark the desirability of surgical transformation. As medicine meets consumerism, medical activities turn persuasive, incrementally constructing the patient's body as a territory of surgical need.

  13. 9 CFR 417.6 - Inadequate HACCP Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadequate HACCP Systems. 417.6... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.6 Inadequate HACCP Systems. A HACCP system may be found to be inadequate if: (a) The HACCP plan in operation does not meet the requirements set forth in...

  14. The value of routine physical examination in the follow up of women with a history of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenli; de Bock, Geertruida H; Schaapveld, Michael; Baas, Peter C; Wiggers, Theo; Jansen, Liesbeth

    2011-03-01

    Routine physical examination is recommended in follow up guidelines for women with a history of breast cancer. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of routine physical examination in addition to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer recurrences. The medical follow-up documents of 669 patients were reviewed. 127 contra-lateral breast cancers (CBCs) and 58 loco-regional recurrences (LRRs) in 163 patients were included. The additional contribution of routine physical examination over mammography was evaluated with the proportions of CBCs or LRRs detected by physical examination alone. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference of contribution of physical examination among subgroups. Seven (6%) out of 127 CBCs and 13 (22%) out of 58 LRRs were detected by routine physical examination alone. Six LRRs (17%; 6/35) were in patients after breast conserving surgery and seven LRRs (30%; 7/23) in patients after mastectomy. There was a trend that the contribution of physical examination is higher in women under 60 years of age in the detection of CBCs (9%; 5/57) and LRRs (28%, 8/29) than in women over 60 years of age (CBCs:3%; 2/70 and LRRs:17%, 5/29; χ(2)=3.090, P=0.079). Twenty-two percent of loco regional breast cancer recurrences would have been detected later without physical examination. Routine physical examination may be most valuable for women with a history of breast cancer younger than 60 years at follow-up visit. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Analysis of carotid atherosclerosis and related risk factors in a university physical examination population in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X F; Liu, G M; Wang, X L; Xu, Q

    2017-09-05

    Objective: To explore the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in staffs of Tsinghua university according to the different age groups, the possible risk factors and conduct a follow-up survey. Methods: Detailed information about physical examination and carotid ultrasound from 832 staffs of Tsinghua University between 2014 to 2016 were reviewed to observe the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis according to different age groups; the correlation between conventional risk factors and carotid arteriosclerosis was studied by multivariate Logistic regression analysis.The process of different degrees of arteriosclerosis in the population was observed one year later. Results: In the past three years, there were 2 024 cases of carotid examination. Among them, there were 832 staffs who had been followed up for more than 6 months. There were 517 cases of carotid atherosclerosis, with 289 males (55.9%) and 228 females (44.1%), and the incidence of atherosclerosis in male was higher than that in female ( P 0.05). Conclusions: This research suggests that the incidence of atherosclerosis in male is higher than that in female, and hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia are important influencing factors of arteriosclerosis for staffs of Tsinghua University. Early screening, identification of high-risk patients and comprehensive treatment should be done to delay the process of atherosclerosis.In addition, long-term follow-up is necessary in the context of no significant changes within the short-term.

  16. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  17. Inadequate Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In oncology practice, nutrition and also metabolic activity are essential to support the nutritional status and prevent malignant cachexia. It is important to evaluate the patients and plan the maneuvers at the start of the therapy. The primary objective of the study is to define the nutritional status of hospitalized patients and the factors affecting it in order to define the most susceptible patients and maneuvers for better nutritional support. Methods: Patients hospitalized in oncology clinic for therapy were evaluated for food intake and nutritional status through structured interviews. The clinical properties, medical therapies, elements of nutritional support were noted and predictors of inadequate nutritional status (INS were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty three patients, between 16-82 years old (median: 52 were evaluated. Nearly half of the patients (185, 43% reported a better appetite at home than in hospital and declared that hospitalization is an important cause of loss of appetite (140/185, 75.6%. Presence of nausea/vomiting (N/V, depression, age less than 65 and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were associated with increased risk of INS in hospitalized cancer patients. On the contrary, steroid medication showed a positive impact on nutritional status of cancer patients. Conclusion: N/V, younger age, presence of depression and NSAIDs medication were associated with INS in hospitalized cancer patients. Clinicians should pay more attention to this group of patients. In addition, unnecessary hospitalizations and medications that may disturb oral intake must be avoided. Corticosteroids are important tools for managing anorexia and INS.

  18. Various Cinematic Forms of Educational Videos About the Physical Examination - Are There Differences in the Evaluation by Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Marianne; Stiller, Gerald; Dudzinska, Agnieszka; Schneidewind, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    To improve medical students' competences in physical examination videos clips were created, with and without an explaining commentary. The uncommented videos show the communication and interaction between physician and patient during a physical examination, the commented videos show the single steps of the physical examination supplemented with an off-screen commentary emphasizing important facts. To investigate whether uncommented and more authentic videos are more helpful to practice a physical examination than commented videos we interviewed 133 students via online surveys. 72% of the students used the uncommented videos for practicing with others, compared to 55% using the commented videos. 37% of the students think that practical skills can be learned better with the uncommented videos. In general, 97% state that the videos helped them to improve their skills. Our findings indicate that the cinematic form of an educational video has an effect on learning behavior, learning success and didactic quality.

  19. A qualitative examination of the impact of microgrants to promote physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Katherine A; Faulkner, Guy; Witcher, Chad S G; Spence, John C

    2014-11-22

    Microgrants are a mechanism for providing funding to community organizations or groups to support health initiatives. Little research to date has examined the use of microgrants in promoting physical activity (PA), and no studies have explored how microgrants may support PA promotion among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of microgrants in enhancing PA opportunities for Canadian adolescents. Employing a case study approach, nine community organizations from across Canada were selected as cases providing sports and physical activities with the support of microgrant funding. Researchers visited each organization and conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 program participants (12-25 years of age, M = 16.3, SD = 2.6) and 17 adult organizers/instructors (23-57 years of age, M = 37.4, SD = 10.0). Interview transcripts were inductively and deductively coded to identify concepts and create a hierarchy of themes. Analysis produced themes regarding participants' perceptions of the Funding, Running Programs and Events, the Impact of Program (for the Organization, Teen Participants, and the Community). Opportunities for PA programming would not have been possible without the microgrant funding. Microgrant funding was valuable in promoting PA for adolescents, and they afforded opportunities for adolescents to engage in new and/or nontraditional activities. In addition to promoting PA, the microgrants had benefits for participants and the community organizations including improved organizational capacity. Microgrants appear to be an effective mechanism for enhancing community capacity to provide PA opportunities for Canadian adolescents by helping to reduce financial barriers and empowering adolescents to take an active role in identifying and hosting new and creative PA events within their communities.

  20. Examination of motor skill competency in students: evidence-based physical education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. Methods Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568–857; girls = 526–695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students’ motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests. Results The students in the intervention year 1 and year 2 cohorts performed at the Competent Level or higher in the four skill assessments. The prevalence of the students’ demonstration of skill competency across the four skills was high in the two intervention years. The intervention year 2 cohort scored significantly higher than the intervention year 1 cohort in the four skill assessments. The boys significantly outperformed than the girls in the two manipulative skills in the intervention year 1 and in the two manipulative skills and the weight transferring skill in the intervention year 2. No gender differences in the running skill in either year were found. Conclusions The evidence-based CATCH PE play a critical role in developing and building K-1 students’ ability to demonstrate motor skill competency in four fundamental skills. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".

  1. Disparities in the Medical Examination of Children in the Home of a Child with Suspected Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristine A.; Squires, Janet; Cook, Lawrence J.; Berger, Rachel P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors predicting the medical examination of children living in a home with a child referred to child protection services (CPS) for suspected physical abuse. Methods: Medical providers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh referred 189 children for suspected physical abuse to CPS between November 1, 2004 and May 1, 2006…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  3. Examining the Intersection of Bullying and Physical Relationship Violence Among New York City High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Zachary J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to explore the intersection of bullying and relationship violence. The relationship between these forms of youth aggression has yet to be examined in diverse urban centers, including New York City (NYC). This study seeks to identify intersections of joint victimization from bullying and electronic bullying (e-bullying) with physical relationship violence (pRV). This study examines data from the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sample of NYC public high school students, to assess the concurrent victimization from bullying at school and e-bullying with pRV, operationalized as physical violence by a dating partner in the past 12 months. Students who reported being bullied at school and e-bullied had increased odds (bullied: OR = 2.5, 95% CI [2.1, 2.9]; e-bullied: OR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.6, 3.5]) of also being victimized by pRV compared with those who did not report being bullied or e-bullied. In logistic regression models, being bullied at school and being e-bullied remained significant predictors of students' odds of reporting pRV (bullied: AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [2.2, 3.1]; e-bullied: AOR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.5, 3.6]) while controlling for race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. This research is the first to assess the intersection of victimization from bullying and e-bullying with pRV in a large, diverse, random sample of urban high school students. In this sample, students who report being bullied or e-bullied are more likely also to report pRV than students who have not been bullied or e-bullied. This research has potential implications for educators, adolescent health and social service providers, and policy makers to tailor programs and enact policies that jointly address bullying and pRV. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess both victimization from and perpetration of bullying and pRV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Predictors of Inadequate Inpatient Colonoscopy Preparation and Its Association with Hospital Length of Stay and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Johnston, Elyse R; Gregory, Dyanna L; Ciolino, Jody D; Cooper, Andrew; Keswani, Rajesh N

    2015-11-01

    Adequate bowel preparation is essential to safe and effective inpatient colonoscopy. Predictors of poor inpatient colonoscopy preparation and the economic impacts of inadequate inpatient preparations are not defined. The aims of this study were to (1) determine risk factors for inadequate inpatient bowel preparations, and (2) examine the association between inadequate inpatient bowel preparation and hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing inpatient colonoscopy preparation over 12 months (1/1/2013-12/31/2013). Of 524 identified patients, 22.3% had an inadequate preparation. A multiple logistic regression model identified the following potential predictors of inadequate bowel preparation: lower income (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04, 1.22), opiate or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use (OR 1.55; 0.98, 2.46), and afternoon colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 1.07, 2.59); as well as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (OR 1.15; 1.05, 1.25) and symptoms of nausea/vomiting (OR 1.14; 1.04, 1.25) when a fair preparation was considered inadequate. Inadequate bowel preparation was associated with significantly increased hospital LOS (model relative mean estimate 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.51) and hospital costs (estimate 1.31; 1.03, 1.67) when compared to adequate preparations. The rate of inadequate inpatient bowel preparations is high and associated with a significant increase in hospital LOS and costs. We identified five potential predictors of inadequate inpatient preparation: lower socioeconomic class, opiate/TCA use, afternoon colonoscopies, ASA class ≥3, and pre-preparation nausea/vomiting; these data should guide future initiatives to improve the quality of inpatient bowel preparations.

  5. Correlation between physical examination and intraoperative findings in shoulder disease treated by arthroscopy. Statistical analysis of 150 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Parra, P; Anaya Rojas, M; Jiménez Bravo, B; González Oria, M O; Lisbona Muñoz, M; Gil Álvarez, J J; Cano Luis, P

    2016-01-01

    Only a few clinical exploratory manoeuvres are truly discriminatory and useful in shoulder disease. The aim of this study is to correlate the physical examination results of the shoulder with the true diagnosis found by arthroscopy. A retrospective case series of 150 patients with the most common surgical conditions of the shoulder. Data were collected on the suspicion of each pathology, the physical examination of the patient, and the actual discovery of the disease during arthroscopic surgery. The Bankart examination manoeuvres of the lesion show the best results, with a 92.1% positive prediction value (PPV), a 99.1% negative predictive value (NPV), followed by the impingement syndrome, with a PPV of 94.4%, and total cuff rupture with a PPV of 92.3%.Exploration of the superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion had an NPV of 99.1%. Physical examination is sufficient to diagnose or rule out Bankart. A positive physical examination provides the complete rupture of the rotator cuff, and requires further studies. The patients suspected of subacromial syndrome only need an NMR if the physical tests are negative. The conclusions drawn from this work can have a significant impact on both cost savings (by reducing forward tests), and saving time in certain cases in which, after appropriate physical examination, surgery may be indicated without losing time in intermediate steps. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Concordance between inflammation at physical examination and on MRI in patients with early arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabben, A; Stomp, W; Huizinga, T W J; van der Heijde, D; Bloem, J L; Reijnierse, M; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M

    2015-03-01

    MRI is increasingly used to measure inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research, but the correlation to clinical assessment is unexplored. This study determined the association and concordance between inflammation of small joints measured with MRI and physical examination. 179 patients with early arthritis underwent a 68 tender joint count and 66 swollen joint count and 1.5T MRI of MCP (2-5), wrist and MTP (1-5) joints at the most painful side. Two readers scored synovitis and bone marrow oedema (BME) according to the OMERACT RA MRI scoring method and assessed tenosynovitis. The MRI data were first analysed continuously and then dichotomised to analyse the concordance with inflammation at joint examination. 1790 joints of 179 patients were studied. Synovitis and tenosynovitis on MRI were independently associated with clinical swelling, in contrast to BME. In 86% of the swollen MCP joints and in 92% of the swollen wrist joints any inflammation on MRI was present. In 27% of the non-swollen MCP joints and in 66% of the non-swollen wrist joints any MRI inflammation was present. Vice versa, of all MCP, wrist and MTP joints with inflammation on MRI 64%, 61% and 77%, respectively, were not swollen. BME, also in case of severe lesions, occurred frequently in clinically non-swollen joints. Similar results were observed for joint tenderness. Inflammation on MRI is not only present in clinically swollen but also in non-swollen joints. In particular BME occurred in clinically non-inflamed joints. The relevance of subclinical inflammation for the disease course is a subject for further studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination for diagnosing glenoid labral tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Matthew K; Doukas, William C; Murphy, Kevin P; Mielcarek, Billie J; Michener, Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Glenoid labral tears provide a diagnostic challenge. Combinations of items in the patient history and physical examination will provide stronger diagnostic accuracy to suggest the presence or absence of glenoid labral tear than will individual items. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 1. History and examination findings in patients with shoulder pain (N = 55) were compared with arthroscopic findings to determine diagnostic accuracy and intertester reliability. The intertester reliability of the crank, anterior slide, and active compression tests was 0.20 to 0.24. A combined history of popping or catching and positive crank or anterior slide results yielded specificities of 0.91 and 1.00 and positive likelihood ratios of 3.0 and infinity, respectively. A positive anterior slide result combined with either a positive active compression or crank result yielded specificities of 0.91 and positive likelihood ratio of 2.75 and 3.75, respectively. Requiring only a single positive finding in the combination of popping or catching and the anterior slide or crank yielded sensitivities of 0.82 and 0.89 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of individual tests in previous studies is quite variable, which may be explained in part by the modest reliability of these tests. The combination of popping or catching with a positive crank or anterior slide result or a positive anterior slide result with a positive active compression or crank test result suggests the presence of a labral tear. The combined absence of popping or catching and a negative anterior slide or crank result suggests the absence of a labral tear.

  8. A concise evidence-based physical examination for diagnosis of acromioclavicular joint pathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Rosas, Samuel; Kwon, KiHyun; Dakkak, Andrew; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank

    2018-02-01

    The clinical examination of the shoulder joint is an undervalued diagnostic tool for evaluating acromioclavicular (AC) joint pathology. Applying evidence-based clinical tests enables providers to make an accurate diagnosis and minimize costly imaging procedures and potential delays in care. The purpose of this study was to create a decision tree analysis enabling simple and accurate diagnosis of AC joint pathology. A systematic review of the Medline, Ovid and Cochrane Review databases was performed to identify level one and two diagnostic studies evaluating clinical tests for AC joint pathology. Individual test characteristics were combined in series and in parallel to improve sensitivities and specificities. A secondary analysis utilized subjective pre-test probabilities to create a clinical decision tree algorithm with post-test probabilities. The optimal special test combination to screen and confirm AC joint pathology combined Paxinos sign and O'Brien's Test, with a specificity of 95.8% when performed in series; whereas, Paxinos sign and Hawkins-Kennedy Test demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.7% when performed in parallel. Paxinos sign and O'Brien's Test demonstrated the greatest positive likelihood ratio (2.71); whereas, Paxinos sign and Hawkins-Kennedy Test reported the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.35). No combination of special tests performed in series or in parallel creates more than a small impact on post-test probabilities to screen or confirm AC joint pathology. Paxinos sign and O'Brien's Test is the only special test combination that has a small and sometimes important impact when used both in series and in parallel. Physical examination testing is not beneficial for diagnosis of AC joint pathology when pretest probability is unequivocal. In these instances, it is of benefit to proceed with procedural tests to evaluate AC joint pathology. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections are diagnostic and therapeutic. An ultrasound-guided AC joint

  9. Athletes' view of the preparticipation physical examination. Attitudes toward certain health screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, P J; Futrell, M

    1999-01-01

    To determine the value student-athletes place on the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) in ensuring safe participation and to determine whether these athletes would accept a station-based PPE that emphasizes health-related issues. Survey. Athletic departments of 2 small southeastern colleges. Population of student-athletes enrolled in these colleges. Athletes' views on the necessity of the PPE to ensure safe participation in athletics, willingness to pay a fee for the currently free examination, appropriateness of the PPE as a setting for counseling by physicians regarding age-specific health screening issues, and PPE as the only routine health maintenance contact with a physician during the year. A majority of athletes (66%) believed they could safely participate in athletics and avoid severe injuries or death and minor injuries without undergoing a PPE. Most athletes believed the PPE prevents or helps to prevent both major (89%) and minor (76%) injuries. Male and female respondents would not be uncomfortable with a physician or other health care provider asking questions regarding health-related issues. However, many athletes (especially women) believed that the PPE is not a place for specific questions (questions related to sexual activity and health, eating disorders, smoking, and personal and family use of alcohol). Most student-athletes do not see a value of the PPE in regard to safe athletic participation; most athletes believe that the PPE prevents or helps to prevent injuries when there is no clear evidence to support this assumption; and athletes are receptive to most preventive health screening, but do not feel comfortable with certain issues being raised (i.e., gynecologic health, eating disorders, and alcohol and nicotine use). With specific modifications aimed toward the needs and comfort level of the student-athlete, the PPE may provide an opportunity to present health-related education and counseling by means of unique and innovative

  10. Target Volume Delineation in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Impact of PET, MRI, and Physical Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Caria, Nicola; Schöder, Heiko; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Wolden, Suzanne; Wong, Richard J.; Sherman, Eric; Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sole utilization of computed tomography (CT) scans in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation for head-and-neck cancers is subject to inaccuracies. This study aims to evaluate contributions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and physical examination (PE) to GTV delineation in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: Forty-one patients with OPC were studied. All underwent contrast-enhanced CT simulation scans (CECTs) that were registered with pretreatment PETs and MRIs. For each patient, three sets of primary and nodal GTV were contoured. First, reference GTVs (GTVref) were contoured by the treating radiation oncologist (RO) using CT, MRI, PET, and PE findings. Additional GTVs were created using fused CT/PET scans (GTVctpet) and CT/MRI scans (GTVctmr) by two other ROs blinded to GTVref. To compare GTVs, concordance indices (CI) were calculated by dividing the respective overlap volumes by overall volumes. To evaluate the contribution of PE, composite GTVs derived from CT, MRI, and PET (GTVctpetmr) were compared with GTVref. Results: For primary tumors, GTVref was significantly larger than GTVctpet and GTVctmr (p 0.75), indicating that although the modalities were complementary, the added benefit was small in the context of CECTs. In addition, PE did not aid greatly in nodal GTV delineation. Conclusion: PET and MRI are complementary and combined use is ideal. However, the low CI (ctpetmr vs. ref) particularly for primary tumors underscores the limitations of defining GTVs using imaging alone. PE is invaluable and must be incorporated.

  11. Ultrasound for internal medicine physicians: the future of the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Ethics in the minutiae: examining the role of the physical laboratory environment in ethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Responsibility within life science research is a highly scrutinised field. Increasingly, scientists are presented with a range of duties and expectations regarding their conduct within the research setting. In many cases, these duties are presented deontologically, forgoing extensive discussion on how these are practically implemented into the minutiae of daily research practices. This de-contextualized duty has proven problematic when it comes to practical issues of compliance, however it is not often considered as a fundamental aspect of building ethics discourse. This paper examines this issue in detail, particularly focusing on how differences in the contrasts between the ideal and real physical research environments cause conceptual problems for scientists and retard ethical engagement. Such issues are particularly pertinent in low- and middle-income countries. This paper combines theoretical and empirical analyses using the concept of "dual-use" as a focalizing topic. The data show that the research environment acts as an intimate component in the interpretation and implementation of ethical actions.

  13. A model-based examination of multivariate physical modes in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, A. J.; Ladd, C.; Cheng, W.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use multivariate output from a hydrodynamic model of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) to explore the covariance among its physical state and air/sea fluxes. We attempt to summarize this coupled variability using a limited set of patterns, and examine their correlation to three large-scale climate indices relevant to the Northeast Pacific. This analysis is focused on perturbations from monthly climatology of the following attributes of the GOA: sea surface temperature, sea surface height, mixed layer depth, sea surface salinity, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, shortwave irradiance, net long wave irradiance, currents at 40 m depth, and wind stress. We identified two multivariate modes, both substantially correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Multivariate El Nino (MEI) indices on interannual timescales, which together account for 30% of the total normalized variance of the perturbation time series. These two modes indicate the following covarying events during periods of positive PDO/MEI: (1) anomalously warm, wet and windy conditions (typically in winter), with elevated coastal SSH, followed 2-5 months later by (2) reduced cloud cover, with emerging shelf-break eddies. Similar modes are found when the analysis is performed separately on the eastern and western GOA; in general, modal amplitudes appear stronger in the western GOA.

  14. Internet addiction: reappraisal of an increasingly inadequate concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-02-01

    This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.

  15. Inadequate control of world's radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of

  16. The pattern and technique in the clinical evaluation of the adult hip: the common physical examination tests of hip specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal D; Kelly, Bryan T; Leunig, Michael; Philippon, Marc J; Clohisy, John C; Martin, RobRoy L; Sekiya, Jon K; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Sampson, Thomas G; Safran, Marc R

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the technique and tests used in the physical examination of the adult hip performed by multiple clinicians who regularly treat patients with hip problems and identify common physical examination patterns. The subjects included 5 men and 6 women with a mean age (+/-SD) of 29.8 +/- 9.4 years. They underwent physical examination of the hip by 6 hip specialists with a strong interest in hip-related problems. All examiners were blind to patient radiographs and diagnoses. Patient examinations were video recorded and reviewed. It was determined that 18 tests were most frequently performed (>or=40%) by the examiners, 3 standing, 11 supine, 3 lateral, and 1 prone. Of the most frequently performed tests, 10 were performed more than 50% of the time. The tests performed in the supine position were as follows: flexion range of motion (ROM) (percentage of use, 98%), flexion internal rotation ROM (98%), flexion external rotation ROM (86%), passive supine rotation test (76%), flexion/adduction/internal rotation test (70%), straight leg raise against resistance test (61%), and flexion/abduction/external rotation test (52%). The tests performed in the standing position were the gait test (86%) and the single-leg stance phase test (77%). The 1 test in the prone position was the femoral anteversion test (58%). There are variations in the testing that hip specialists perform to examine and evaluate their patients, but there is enough commonality to form the basis to recommend a battery of physical examination maneuvers that should be considered for use in evaluating the hip. Patients presenting with groin, abdominal, back, and/or hip pain need to have a basic examination to ensure that the hip is not overlooked. A comprehensive physical examination of the hip will benefit the patient and the physician and serve as the foundation for future multicenter clinical studies. (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  17. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI. © 2014.

  18. How to classify plantar plate injuries: parameters from history and physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Nery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To find the best clinical parameters for defining and classifying the degree of plantar plate injuries. METHOD: Sixty-eight patients (100 metatarsophalangeal joints were classified in accordance with the Arthroscopic Anatomical Classification for plantar plate injuries and were divided into five groups (0 to IV. Their medical files were reviewed and the incidence of each parameter for the respective group was correlated. These parameters were: use of high heels, sports, acute pain, local edema, Mulder's sign, widening of the interdigital space, pain in the head of the corresponding metatarsal, touching the ground, "drawer test", toe grip and toe deformities (in the sagittal, coronal and transversal planes. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant associations between the degree of injury and use of high-heel shoes, sports trauma, pain at the head of the metatarsal, Mulder's sign, deformity in pronation or displacement in the transversal and sagittal planes (although their combination, i.e. "cross toe", showed a statistically significant correlation. Positive correlations with the severity of the injuries were found in relation to initial acute pain, progressive widening of the interdigital space, loss of "touching the ground", positive results from the "drawer test" on the metatarsophalangeal joint, diminished grip strength and toe deformity in supination. CONCLUSIONS: The "drawer test" was seen to be the more reliable and precise tool for classifying the degree of plantar plate injury, followed by "touching the ground" and rotational deformities. It is possible to improve the precision of the diagnosis and the predictions of the anatomical classification for plantar plate injuries through combining the clinical history and data from the physical examination.

  19. Physical examination education in graduate medical education--a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Somnath; Pheatt, Lara; Ranji, Sumant R; Chou, Calvin L

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread recognition that physical examination (PE) should be taught in Graduate Medical Education (GME), but little is known regarding how to best teach PE to residents. Deliberate practice fosters expertise in other fields, but its utility in teaching PE is unknown. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness of methods to teach PE in GME, with attention to usage of deliberate practice. We searched PubMed, ERIC, and EMBASE for English language studies regarding PE education in GME published between January 1951 and December 2012. Seven eligibility criteria were applied to studies of PE education: (1) English language; (2) subjects in GME; (3) description of study population; (4) description of intervention; (5) assessment of efficacy; (6) inclusion of control group; and (7) report of data analysis. We extracted data regarding study quality, type of PE, study population, curricular features, use of deliberate practice, outcomes and assessment methods. Tabulated summaries of studies were reviewed for narrative synthesis. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. The mean Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) score was 9.0 out of 18. Most studies (n = 8) included internal medicine residents. Half of the studies used resident interaction with a human examinee as the primary means of teaching PE. Three studies "definitely" and four studies "possibly" used deliberate practice; all but one of these studies demonstrated improved educational outcomes. We used a non-validated deliberate practice assessment. Given the heterogeneity of assessment modalities, we did not perform a meta-analysis. No single strategy for teaching PE in GME is clearly superior to another. Following the principles of deliberate practice and interaction with human examinees may be beneficial in teaching PE; controlled studies including these educational features should be performed to investigate these exploratory findings.

  20. "Shades of beauty": examining the relationship of skin color to perceptions of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  1. An analysis of the alignment of the grade 12 physical sciences examination and the core curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeem Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on an analysis of the alignment between the South African Grade 12 Physical Sciences core curriculum content and the exemplar papers of 2008, and the final examination papers of 2008 and 2009. A two-dimensional table was used for both the curriculum and the examination in order to calculate the Porter alignment index, which indicates the degree of match between the two. Alignment indices of 0.8 and 0.6 for Physics and Chemistry, respectively, were computed and remained constant for Physics, but fluctuated initially for Chemistry before levelling off. Using the revised Bloom's taxonomy, discrepancies were found in terms of cognitive levels as well as content areas in both Physics and Chemistry. The cognitive level Remember is under-represented in the Chemistry and Physics examinations, whereas the cognitive levels Understand and Apply were over-represented in Chemistry. It is argued that the shift to higher cognitive levels is in line with the reported increase in cognitive complexity of the Physical Sciences curriculum. The significance of the study for Physical Science teachers is highlighted, and the potential for further research is also indicated.

  2. Examining Problem Solving in Physics-Intensive Ph.D. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2017-01-01

    Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically…

  3. An Examination of Physical Education Data Sources and Collection Procedures during a Federally Funded Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Lambdin, Dolly

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to conduct an in-depth investigation into physical education data sources and collection procedures in a district that was awarded a Physical Education Program (PEP) grant. Method: A qualitative, multi-site case study was conducted in which a single school district was the overarching case and eight schools served as…

  4. Constructive Readings of Interactive Episodes: Examining Ethics in Physical Education from a Social Constructionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Dean M.; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Puhse, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate how ways of thinking about ethics are tied up with sport and physical education practice and introduce an alternative approach that can help to develop ethical pedagogies. We begin by locating socio-moral education in physical education within historical and contemporary pedagogical scholarship. Our argument is that the…

  5. Aging Ergonomics: A Field with Inadequate Notice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghaneh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available World population aging is a phenomenon we are confronting with, more than past. This fact has different implications for today’s societies. One of these aspects is workforce (1. Some factors have resulted in more tendencies of workers to remain in their works including: Economic, societal, cultural factors, and social trends and laws such as increasing age of retirement in the middle twentieth century, which recently increased more (2.      Productive workforce is one of major assets of each country. So, in one hand we have older adults in our workplaces and in other hand, we are following to retain employee’s productivity at first, and then, improve it. Ergonomics as a multidisciplinary science, attempts to make balance between human capabilities and its limitations by fitting the task to the person or fitting the person to the task. In this way, workers’ fatigue and errors are minimized and productivity and well-being optimized (3.     In more developed countries like United States, approximately 66.3 percent of adults aged 55-64 years are in the workforce (4. In our country, Iran, 7.3% of populations were more than 60 yrs. in 2006 (5 which indicate our population is aging, though accurate number of those people in work is lacking. Older adults have physical and mental changes as a common result of aging. Physical changes show itself as decline in physical capabilities, and mental changes involved in sensation and perception, cognition, and motor control (6. So, it is essential to acknowledge these changes and adopt suitable strategies and accommodations for job circumstances and living environments when considering older adults.     In general, a few ergonomics studies explored the effect of aging on environmental modifications and job adaptation. To best of my knowledge, also in Iran there are few studies that presented in conferences or published in journals. Therefore, as a closing remark, it is widely needed to pay more

  6. Perceived neighborhood walkability and physical exercise: An examination of casual communication in a social process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim

    2018-03-05

    Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examination of physical properties of fuels and mixtures with alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Anne Lauren

    ABSTRACT. EXAMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND MIXTURES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS. By. Anne Lauren Lown. The diversity of alternative fuels is increasing due to new second generation biofuels. By modeling alternative fuels and fuel mixtures, types of fuels can be selected based on their properties, without producing and testing large batches. A number of potential alternative fuels have been tested and modeled to determine their impact when blended with traditional diesel and jet fuels. The properties evaluated include cloud point and pour point temperature, cetane number, distillation curve, and speed of sound. This work represents a novel approach to evaluating the properties of alternative fuels and their mixtures with petroleum fuels. Low temperature properties were evaluated for twelve potential biofuel compounds in mixtures with three diesel fuels and one jet fuel. Functional groups tested included diesters, esters, ketones, and ethers, and alkanes were used for comparison. Alkanes, ethers, esters, and ketones with a low melting point temperature were found to decrease the fuel cloud point temperature. Diesters added to fuels display an upper critical solution temperature, and multiple methods were used to confirm the presence of liquid-liquid immiscibility. These behaviors are independent of chain length and branching, as long as the melting point temperature of the additive is not significantly higher than the cloud point temperature of the fuel. Physical properties were estimated for several potential fuel additive molecules using group contribution methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for ideal gas heat capacities. Fuel surrogates for three petroleum based fuels and six alternative fuels were developed. The cloud point temperature, distillation curve, cetane number, and average molecular weight for different fuel surrogates were simultaneously represented. The proposed surrogates use the experimental mass fractions of paraffins, and

  8. How well do second-year students learn physical diagnosis? Observational study of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Claus; Volkan, Kevin; Fishman, Mary B; Silvestri, Ronald C; Simon, Steven R; Fletcher, Suzanne W

    2002-01-01

    Background Little is known about using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in physical diagnosis courses. The purpose of this study was to describe student performance on an OSCE in a physical diagnosis course. Methods Cross-sectional study at Harvard Medical School, 1997–1999, for 489 second-year students. Results Average total OSCE score was 57% (range 39–75%). Among clinical skills, students scored highest on patient interaction (72%), followed by examination technique (65%), abnormality identification (62%), history-taking (60%), patient presentation (60%), physical examination knowledge (47%), and differential diagnosis (40%) (p OSCE stations, scores ranged from 70% for arthritis to 29% for calf pain (p < .0001). Teaching sites accounted for larger adjusted differences in station scores, up to 28%, than in skill scores (9%) (p < .0001). Conclusions Students scored higher on interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretive or integrative skills. Station scores identified specific content that needs improved teaching. PMID:11888484

  9. How well do second-year students learn physical diagnosis? Observational study of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steven R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE in physical diagnosis courses. The purpose of this study was to describe student performance on an OSCE in a physical diagnosis course. Methods Cross-sectional study at Harvard Medical School, 1997–1999, for 489 second-year students. Results Average total OSCE score was 57% (range 39–75%. Among clinical skills, students scored highest on patient interaction (72%, followed by examination technique (65%, abnormality identification (62%, history-taking (60%, patient presentation (60%, physical examination knowledge (47%, and differential diagnosis (40% (p Conclusions Students scored higher on interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretive or integrative skills. Station scores identified specific content that needs improved teaching.

  10. Examining the Physical Drivers of Photosynthetic Temperature Sensitivity Within a Sub-alpine Mixed Conifer Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Minor, R.; Heard, M.

    2013-12-01

    Current projections of climate change in the southwestern U.S. suggest increasing temperatures and reduced summer precipitation. High temperature and water deficits have major influence on ecosystem functioning by restricting plant growth and productivity. However, there are limited data on what influences plant sensitivity to temperature, and these dynamics are not often captured in ecosystem models. Understanding the sensitivities, linkages, and feedbacks among biotic processes and abiotic forces is especially important within Critical Zone Sciences, which seeks to integrate among disciplines. Here, we analyzed several potential drivers of photosynthetic temperature sensitivity, including differences in soil parent material, aspect, and seasonality within a suite of species. Each of these variables captures a different physical driver: (i) soil parent material influences water holding capacity of the soil; (ii) aspect influences how incoming energy drives evaporative loss of soil water, creating warmer and drier environments on south/east faces; and (iii) seasonality captures temporal patterns of soil moisture recharge. Our research was conducted within two V shaped zero-order catchment basins of the Santa Catalina Critical Zone Observatory in southern Arizona, one with schist bedrock and the other with granite. We used leaf-level gas exchange measurements on 24 trees across a range of temperatures to quantify this plant temperature sensitivity during the dry pre-monsoon and wet monsoon seasons. Preliminary results show that maximum photosynthetic rate was 51% higher during the monsoon than pre-monsoon season. Optimal photosynthetic temperature decreased 25% while the span of functional temperatures (Ω50) was 21% higher following the onset of monsoon rains. During the rainy season, soil parent material became an important factor. The greater water holding capacity of schist soils yielded greater maximum photosynthesis and reduced tree sensitivity to higher

  11. Examining the Needs and Dispositions of Sumter School District High School Students with Regards to Studying Physics, Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Yiing

    Out of a total student population of 4740 in the Sumter School District (SSD) in Sumter, SC, only 167 were enrolled in a physics course in Spring 2015. That was 3.52% of the total student population in the district. As advised by Lori Smith, Coordinator of Science and Fine Arts of SSD, enrollment in physics courses was insufficient. Since physics is the basis of all sciences and a prerequisite for engineering courses, not having enrolled and succeeded in a physics course during high school could impede a student's success in such majors during college. This project aimed to examine the needs and dispositions of high school students in SSD with regards to studying physics by exploring the reasons behind their decisions to enroll or not enroll in a physics course during their high school careers. The project also found out how they believe their physics classes could be improved. This was achieved by conducting an electronic survey among voluntary participants from the seniors. A quantitative analysis of the results is presented. These results are intended to help to improve the physics program in SSD as well as shape The University of South Carolina-- Sumter's outreach efforts in the local high schools to encourage students to enroll in college physics courses.

  12. Examining the Needs and Dispositions of Sumter School District High School Students with Regards to Studying Physics, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jessica

    Out of a total student population of 4740 in the Sumter School District (SSD) in Sumter, SC, only 167 were enrolled in a physics course in Spring 2015. That was 3.52% of the total student population in the district. As advised by Lori Smith, Coordinator of Science and Fine Arts of SSD, enrollment in physics courses was insufficient. Since physics is the basis of all sciences and a prerequisite for engineering courses, not having enrolled and succeeded in a physics course during high school could impede a student's success in such majors during college. This project aimed to examine the needs and dispositions of high school students in SSD with regards to studying physics by exploring the reasons behind their decisions to enroll or not enroll in a physics course during their high school careers. The project also found out how they believe their physics classes could be improved. This was achieved by conducting an electronic survey among voluntary participants from the seniors. A quantitative analysis of the results is presented. These results are intended to help to improve the physics program in SSD as well as shape The University of South Carolina-- Sumter's outreach efforts in the local high schools to encourage students to enroll in college physics courses.

  13. Examining the Needs and Dispositions of Sumter School District High School Students with Regards to Studying Physics, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jordan

    Out of a total student population of 4740 in the Sumter School District (SSD) in Sumter, SC, only 167 were enrolled in a physics course in Spring 2015. That was 3.52% of the total student population in the district. As advised by Lori Smith, Coordinator of Science and Fine Arts of SSD, enrollment in physics courses was insufficient. Since physics is the basis of all sciences and a prerequisite for engineering courses, not having enrolled and succeeded in a physics course during high school could impede a student's success in such majors during college. This project aimed to examine the needs and dispositions of high school students in SSD with regards to studying physics by exploring the reasons behind their decisions to enroll or not enroll in a physics course during their high school careers. The project also found out how they believe their physics classes could be improved. This was achieved by conducting an electronic survey among voluntary participants from the seniors. A quantitative analysis of the results is presented. These results are intended to help to improve the physics program in SSD as well as shape The University of South Carolina-- Sumter's outreach efforts in the local high schools to encourage students to enroll in college physics courses.

  14. The Stress-Metabolic Syndrome Relationship in Adolescents: An Examination of the Moderating Potential of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Pivarnik, Jim; Pfeiffer, Karin; Maier, Kimberly S; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ewing, Martha

    2016-10-01

    The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status. Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = -.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04). Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.

  15. The role of serial physical examinations in the management of angioedema involving the head and neck: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Linkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the progression of angioedema of the head and neck with routine management and to assess the utility of serial physical exams and fiberoptic laryngoscopy in its management. Methods: This study was a prospective observational research. From 2013 to 2014, a prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Forty patient were approached, 7 refused, 33 (18–90 years old were enrolled. Patients presented with angioedema involving the head and neck over a 12 month period were asked to participate in the study. Physical examination and fiberoptic laryngoscopy were performed at presentation and then repeated at least 1 h later. Results: Thirty-three patients with head and neck angioedema from any cause were enrolled (mean age 58, range 23–89 years. The upper lip was the most commonly involved site (58%. On reevaluation, 82% of patients reported subjective improvement in symptoms. The association between subjective improvement and the physical exam, including fiberoptic laryngoscopy findings, was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In stable patients with angioedema of any head and neck subsite, self-reported symptoms are associated with clinical stability or improvement as assessed by physical signs and fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Patients' symptoms may be an appropriate surrogate to monitor clinical status without the need for routine serial physical examinations or fiberoptic laryngoscopy, though further study is needed. Keywords: Angioedema, Physical examination, Fiberoptic laryngoscopy

  16. Do physical examination and CT-scan measures of femoral neck anteversion and tibial torsion relate to each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Mahy, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Informed clinical decision making for femoral and/or tibial de-rotation osteotomies requires accurate measurement of patient function through gait analysis and anatomy through physical examination of bony torsions. Validity of gait analysis has been extensively studied; however, controversy remains regarding the accuracy of physical examination measurements of femoral and tibial torsion. Comparison between CT-scans and physical examination measurements of femoral neck anteversion (FNA) and external tibial torsion (ETT) were retrospectively obtained for 98 (FNA) and 64 (ETT) patients who attended a tertiary hospital for instrumented gait analysis between 2007 and 2010. The physical examination methods studied for femoral neck anteversion were the trochanteric prominence angle test (TPAT) and the maximum hip rotation arc midpoint (Arc midpoint) and for external tibial torsion the transmalleolar axis (TMA). Results showed that all physical examination measurements statistically differed to the CT-scans (bias(standard deviation): -2(14) for TPAT, -10(12) for Arc midpoint and -16(9) for TMA). Bland and Altman plots showed that method disagreements increased with increasing bony torsions in all cases but notably for TPAT. Regression analysis showed that only TMA and CT-scan measurement of external tibial torsion demonstrated good (R(2)=57%) correlation. Correlations for both TPAT (R(2)=14%) and Arc midpoint (R(2)=39%) with CT-scan measurements of FNA were limited. We conclude that physical examination should be considered as screening techniques rather than definitive measurement methods for FNA and ETT. Further research is required to develop more accurate measurement methods to accompany instrumented gait analysis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Finding the Little 'c' in Physics: A Multiple Case Study Examining the Development of Creative Activities in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Christopher

    This study focused on how physics teachers develop and implement activities that promote creative thinking strategies in the standards based physics classroom. A particular focus was placed on every day or little "c", creativity, which can be taught in the high school classroom. The study utilized a multiple case study design, which allows for in-depth study in a variety of settings. Four participants from various high schools were identified utilizing administrator recommendations. Data were then collected via interviews, observations, and documents. The data were coded and analyzed for emerging themes. The themes were then merged to determine findings to the stated research questions. The research demonstrated the importance of modifying activities for student interest and understanding through effective use of scientific inquiry. The past experiences and professional development of the participants served as a vital piece to the development of their educational pedagogy especially concerning inquiry and questioning strategies. It was also established that an unstructured, positive classroom environment is a vital aspect of teaching while supporting creative thinking skills.

  18. International consensus on the most useful physical examination tests used by physiotherapists for patients with headache: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, K; Boissonnault, W; Caspersen, N; Castien, R; Chaibi, A; Falla, D; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Hall, T; Hirsvang, J R; Horre, T; Hurley, D; Jull, G; Krøll, L S; Madsen, B K; Mallwitz, J; Miller, C; Schäfer, B; Schöttker-Königer, T; Starke, W; von Piekartz, H; Watson, D; Westerhuis, P; May, A

    2016-06-01

    A wide range of physical tests have been published for use in the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. Which tests are used depends on a physiotherapist's clinical and scientific background as there is little guidance on the most clinically useful tests. To identify which physical examination tests international experts in physiotherapy consider the most clinically useful for the assessment of patients with headache. Delphi survey with pre-specified procedures based on a systematic search of the literature for physical examination tests proposed for the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. Seventeen experts completed all three rounds of the survey. Fifteen tests were included in round one with eleven additional tests suggested by the experts. Finally eleven physical examination tests were considered clinically useful: manual joint palpation, the cranio-cervical flexion test, the cervical flexion-rotation test, active range of cervical movement, head forward position, trigger point palpation, muscle tests of the shoulder girdle, passive physiological intervertebral movements, reproduction and resolution of headache symptoms, screening of the thoracic spine, and combined movement tests. Eleven tests are suggested as a minimum standard for the physical examination of musculoskeletal dysfunctions in patients with headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  20. Examining Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics via the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.

  1. Methods for Examining Small Literatures: Explication, Physical Analysis, and Citation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes literature on information overload research in library studies using explication, physical analysis, and citation patterns. Makes cross-discipline comparisons with consumer science and psychology/psychiatry. Contains 93 references. (PEN)

  2. The relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nathan J; Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. To investigate the relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy. Electrodiagnostic testing is routinely used to evaluate patients with sciatica. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of radiculopathy identified with electrodiagnostic testing may predict better functional outcomes in these patients. While some patient history and physical examination findings have been shown to predict the presence of disc herniation or neurological insult, little is known about their relationship to the results of electrodiagnostic testing. Electrodiagnostic testing was performed on 38 patients with sciatica who participated in a randomized trial that compared different physical therapy interventions. The diagnostic gold standard was the presence or absence of radiculopathy, based on the results of the needle electromyographic examination. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values were calculated, along with corresponding likelihood ratios, for select patient history and physical examination variables. No significant relationship was found between select patient history and physical examination findings, analyzed individually or in combination, and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing. Diagnostic sensitivity values ranged from 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00, 0.24) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99), and specificity values ranged from 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99). Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 0.15 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.87) to a high of 2.33 (95% CI: 0.71, 7.70), and negative likelihood ratios ranged from 2.00 (95% CI: 0.35, 11.48) to a low of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.03, 8.10). In this investigation, the relationship between patient history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing among patients with sciatica was not found to be

  3. [The bicentenary of Josef Skoda's birth (1805-1881). An innovator in the field of the physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedivy, Roland

    2006-03-01

    The bicentenary of Josef Skoda's birth (December 10(th) 2005) was seen as an excellent opportunity to review his accomplishments for internal medicine. He extended the physical examination, namely percussion and auscultation, and established the scientific basis for these techniques. While Skoda's predecessors interpreted sounds and murmurs by natural philosophy and phenomenologically, Skoda established diagnoses based on empirical and experimental investigations. He compared diagnostic findings with post mortem results at Rokitansky's morgue. Thus, Skoda's work led to the modern capabilities of the physical examination.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preventive Care: An Analysis of Routine Physical Examination Among Adolescents, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitardy, Charlotte M; Duke, Naomi N; Pettingell, Sandra L; Borowsky, Iris W

    2016-12-01

    Routine health care plays a central role in health promotion and disease prevention for children and in reducing health disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of routine physical examination among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents at 5 different time points. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey. Measures include frequency of physical examination by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. The analytic sample included 351 510 adolescents (1998, n = 67 239; 2001, n = 69 177; 2004, n = 71 084; 2007, n = 72 312; and 2010, n = 71 698). There were significant differences by racial/ethnic group at each time point. For example, in 2010, never having a physical examination was reported by 9.2% American Indian, 8.7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 7.0% Hispanic/Latino, 4.3% Black/African American, 3.7% mixed race, and 2.6% of White respondents ( P physical examination was stratified by poverty and family structure.

  5. Examining physical training versus physical and mental training programmes in Swimrun semi-professional athletes: A randomised, controlled, trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chirico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of two psychological interventions, named ‘Mental imagery’ and ‘Motivational self-talk’ training used in combination, on perceived excertion and flow state in a sample of Swimrun semi-professional athletes. Methods: Thirty male semi-professional athletes, enrolled for a Swimrun competition, were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The modified Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the Flow State Scale (FSS were the dependent variables. Before a Swimrun competition, the EXP Group performed both physical and mental training programs, while the CON group only performed a physical training program. Immediately after the race, we measured the dependent variables in both groups. Results: The results of unpaired-t test showed that levels of perceived exertion were less in EXP group than CON group, (t(28 = 12.87, P < .001, while levels of flow state were higher in EXP group than CON group (t(28 = 5.96, P < .001, immediately after the end of the endurance competition. The use of both mental imagery and self-talk training in order to reduce perceived exertion and improve flow state was supported (P < .001. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study support the psychobiological model of endurance performance. Our research is the first to demonstrate that mental imagery used in combination with motivational self-talk can reduce the perceived exertion and improve the flow state in Swimrun athletes during their endurance performance.

  6. Examining Attitudes of Physical Education Teacher Education Program Students Toward the Teaching Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Yildizer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes of pre-service teachers toward the teaching profession with respect to their gender, grade level, whether participants regularly participate in physical activities, and whether pre-service students have a teacher-parent in their family. Research was conducted on 469 pre-service physical education teachers (Mage=21.35, SDage= 2.49, 188 female (Mage=20.89, SDage= 2.30 and 281 male (Mage=21.66, SDage= 2.57 students from five different universities in Turkey. In this study the “Attitude Scale for the Profession of Physical Education Teaching” was used. It has two factors: “concern for profession” (CP and “affection for profession” (AP. Independent sample t-test results indicated that there were no significant differences with respect to gender or having a teacher-parent in both factors and total attitude points (p> 0.05. Pre-service physical education teachers who participate in physical activity had significantly higher points in AP and the total scale in comparison to those who do not participate in physical activity (p< 0.05. ANOVA results indicated that based on grade level there were significant differences in CP and total attitude (p< 0.05. Students’ concern about employment may be associated with differences in attitude scores between grade levels. The positive effect of physical activity participation and their professional teaching education on stress resilience might also be an important factor for increasing positive attitudes toward the teaching profession.

  7. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  8. Social Comparison in Physical Education: An Examination of the Relationship between Two Frames of Reference and Engagement, Disaffection, and Physical Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jemima S.; Spray, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from theory and research into social comparison processes, the present study sought to determine children's motives for comparison in addition to the coexistence of class and individual comparisons in school physical education. The main and interactive effects of these types of comparisons were examined in relation to pupils'…

  9. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Algrain, Hala A; AlKhelaif, Rana A; AlEshaiwi, Sarah M

    2013-11-13

    A number of studies have evaluated the educational contents of videos on YouTube. However, little analysis has been done on videos about physical examination. This study aimed to analyze YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. It was hypothesized that the educational standards of videos on YouTube would vary significantly. During the period from November 2, 2011 to December 2, 2011, YouTube was searched by three assessors for videos covering the clinical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. For each video, the following information was collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority, and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos. A total of 1920 videos were screened. Only relevant videos covering the examination of adults in the English language were identified (n=56). Of these, 20 were found to be relevant to cardiovascular examinations and 36 to respiratory examinations. Further analysis revealed that 9 provided useful information on cardiovascular examinations and 7 on respiratory examinations: scoring mean 14.9 (SD 0.33) and mean 15.0 (SD 0.00), respectively. The other videos, 11 covering cardiovascular and 29 on respiratory examinations, were not useful educationally, scoring mean 11.1 (SD 1.08) and mean 11.2 (SD 1.29), respectively. The differences between these two categories were significant (P.86. A small number of videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were identified as educationally useful; these videos can be used by medical students for independent learning and by clinical teachers as learning resources. The scoring system utilized by this study is simple, easy to apply, and could be used by other researchers on similar topics.

  10. A Data Mining Approach for Examining Predictors of Physical Activity Among Urban Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    The current study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (i.e., active transport and screen time) in a sample of urban, primarily Hispanic, older adults (N=2,514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision=0.67, recall=0.69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision=0.60, recall=0.63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to access health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Freiberg, Alice; Dröge, Patrik; Lützner, Jörg; Schmitt, Jochen; Kopkow, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Systematic literature review. Despite their frequent application in routine care, a systematic review on the reliability of clinical examination tests to evaluate the integrity of the ACL is missing. To summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research on physical examination tests used for the diagnosis of ACL tears. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED until May 30th 2013. Studies were included if they assessed the intra- and/or interrater reliability of physical examination tests for the integrity of the ACL. Methodological quality was evaluated with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by two independent reviewers. 110 hits were achieved of which seven articles finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the reliability of four physical examination tests. Intrarater reliability was assessed in three studies and ranged from fair to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.22-1.00). Interrater reliability was assessed in all included studies and ranged from slight to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.02-0.81). The Lachman test is the physical tests with the highest intrarater reliability (Cohen's k = 1.00), the Lachman test performed in prone position the test with the highest interrater reliability (Cohen's k = 0.81). Included studies were partly of low methodological quality. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity in study populations, reliability measures and methodological quality of included studies. Systematic investigations on the reliability of physical examination tests to assess the integrity of the ACL are scarce and of varying methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A prospective analysis of free flap monitoring techniques: physical examination, external Doppler, implantable Doppler, and tissue oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Robert F; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kundu, Neilendu; Djohan, Risal

    2013-01-01

    No universally accepted method of flap monitoring exists, and several techniques are in use. Repeated physical examination is most popular and is often supplemented with a handheld, external Doppler, and/or implantable Doppler probes; near-infrared spectroscopy is less commonly used. We investigated the nursing and resident house staff's experience and confidence with physical exam for flap monitoring. Also, a consecutive series of 38 patients with free flaps were monitored using physical examination, external Doppler, implantable arterial and venous Doppler probes, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Five patients developed signs of microvascular complications within 3 days of surgery; all were explored and salvaged. Neither the residents nor the nursing staff were universally trained or experienced in flap monitoring by physical exam. In all patients, changes in the appearance of the flap suggestive of a microvascular complication lagged 30 to 60 minutes after the adjunctive monitoring methods indicated that a problem had occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy was the first warning sign in four of the five patients. Two patients were explored before thrombosis of the anastomoses occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy may identify early microvascular complications more reliably than physical examination, external Doppler, or implantable Doppler. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Effects of ultrasound implementation on physical examination learning and teaching during the first year of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Frederick, Jon; Bartos, Rebekah; Shankel, Tamara M; Werner, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Increasing emphasis has been placed on point-of-care ultrasound in medical school. The overall effects of ultrasound curriculum implementation on the traditional physical examination skills of medical students are still unknown. We studied the effects on the Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of year 1 medical students before and after ultrasound curriculum implementation. An ultrasound curriculum was incorporated into the physical diagnosis course for year 1 medical students in the 2012-2013 academic year. We performed a prospective observational study comparing traditional OSCE scores of year 1 medical students exposed to the ultrasound curriculum (post-ultrasound) versus historic year 1 medical student controls (pre-ultrasound) with no ultrasound exposure. Questionnaire data were also obtained from year 1 medical students and physical diagnosis faculty to assess attitudes toward ultrasound implementation. The final overall OSCE scores were graded with a 5-point Likert-type scale from unsatisfactory to outstanding. There was a significant increase in outstanding scores in the post-ultrasound compared to the pre-ultrasound group (27.0% versus 10.9%; Pphysical diagnosis faculty questionnaire data showed an overall positive response, with most agreeing or strongly agreeing that ultrasound should be included in the future year 1 medical student curriculum. Ultrasound implementation into a physical diagnosis curriculum for year 1 medical students is feasible and may improve their overall traditional physical examination skills. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for common knee disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Desmeules, François

    2017-01-01

    More evidence on diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders is needed to lower frequently used and costly imaging tests. To conduct a systematic review of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) evaluating the diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in five databases until January 2016. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR. Seventeen reviews were included with mean AMSTAR score of 5.5 ± 2.3. Based on six SR, only the Lachman test for ACL injuries is diagnostically valid when individually performed (Likelihood ratio (LR+):10.2, LR-:0.2). Based on two SR, the Ottawa Knee Rule is a valid screening tool for knee fractures (LR-:0.05). Based on one SR, the EULAR criteria had a post-test probability of 99% for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Based on two SR, a complete physical examination performed by a trained health provider was found to be diagnostically valid for ACL, PCL and meniscal injuries as well as for cartilage lesions. When individually performed, common physical tests are rarely able to rule in or rule out a specific knee disorder, except the Lachman for ACL injuries. There is low-quality evidence concerning the validity of combining history elements and physical tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, H.P.; Luijsterburg, P.A.; Boks, S.S.; Heintjes, E.M.; Berger, M.Y.; Verhaar, J.A.; Koes, B.W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wagemakers HP, Luijsterburg PA, Boks SS, Heintjes EM, Berger MY, Verhaar JA, Koes BK, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1452-9. Objective: To

  16. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  17. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  18. Reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Matthijs, Omer; Jain, Nitin B; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Shoulder pain in the general population is common and to identify the aetiology of shoulder pain, history, motion and muscle testing, and physical examination tests are usually performed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and evaluate intrarater and inter-rater reliability of physical examination tests in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) through 20 March 2015. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by 2 independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 18 finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 62 test and test variations used for the specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 7 positive criteria of the 11 items of the QAREL tool. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating inter-rater as well as intrarater reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. PROSPERO CRD42014009018. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Examining psychosocial and physical hazards in the Ghanaian mining industry and their implications for employees' safety experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah-Tawiah, Kwesi; Jain, Aditya; Leka, Stavroula; Hollis, David; Cox, Tom

    2013-06-01

    In addition to hazardous conditions that are prevalent in mines, there are various physical and psychosocial risk factors that can affect mine workers' safety and health. Without due diligence to mine safety, these risk factors can affect workers' safety experience, in terms of near misses, disabling injuries and accidents experienced or witnessed by workers. This study sets out to examine the effects of physical and psychosocial risk factors on workers' safety experience in a sample of Ghanaian miners. 307 participants from five mining companies responded to a cross sectional survey examining physical and psychosocial hazards and their implications for employees' safety experience. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that mining conditions, equipment, ambient conditions, support and security, and work demands and control are significant predictors of near misses, disabling injuries, and accidents experienced or witnessed by workers. The type of mine had important implications for workers' safety experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Autistic Children "Behaviorists?" An Examination of Their Mental-Physical and Appearance-Reality Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon

    1989-01-01

    Three predictions are supported by experiments with 17 autistic children, aged 9-19: autistic children will fail to distinguish mental and physical entities, they will be unaware of the mental function of the brain, and they will be unable to contemplate their own mental states. Results suggest that these deficiencies are autism-specific.…

  1. Clinical examination and physical assessment of hip joint-related pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    of highly sensitive tests/measures) that then is followed by utilizing more specific tests/measures to pare down this imprecise differential diagnosis list is suggested. Physical assessment measures are then suggested to discern impairments, activity and participation restrictions for athletes with hip...

  2. The use of quizStar application for online examination in basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustijono, R.; Budiningarti, H.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to produce an online Basic Physics exam system using the QuizStar application. This is a research and development with ADDIE model. The steps are: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) development; 4) implementation; 5) evaluation. System feasibility is reviewed for its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The subjects of research are 60 Physics Department students of Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The data analysis used is a descriptive statistic. The validity, practicality, and effectiveness scores are measured using a Likert scale. Criteria feasible if the total score of all aspects obtained is ≥ 61%. The results obtained from the online test system by using QuizStar developed are 1) conceptually feasible to use; 2) the system can be implemented in the Basic Physics assessment process, and the existing constraints can be overcome; 3) student's response to system usage is in a good category. The results conclude that QuizStar application is eligible to be used for online Basic Physics exam system.

  3. An Examination of Physical Education Teacher Motivation from a Self-Determination Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…

  4. An Examination of Attitudes towards Cheating in Exams by Physical Education and Sports High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayisoglu, Numan Bahadir; Temel, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the attitudes of students from the Hasan Dogan School of Physical Education and Sports towards cheating in exams and to investigate changes in these attitudes in terms of several variables. The survey method was used in the study. The study was conducted during the 2014-2015 Academic year at the Karabük…

  5. An Examination of Physical and Mental Health Problems of the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Andrea; Mowbray, Carol

    Homelessness is a significant social problem in the United States and it has been estimated that there may be as many as 2.5 million homeless people in this country today. For these people, poverty, substance abuse, and harsh living conditions may further contribute to the development of physical and mental health problems. A study was conducted…

  6. Youths with Migration Backgrounds and Their Experiences of Physical Education: An Examination of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Gerber, M.; Gerlach, E.; Sattler, S.; Pühse, U.

    2014-01-01

    While understanding young people has never been easy, migration trends make it increasingly difficult. Many classrooms have become culturally heterogeneous and teachers are often faced with pupils with diverse linguistic and cultural heritages. Current scholarship suggests that as a discipline, physical education has not adapted to this diversity.…

  7. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  9. Yazd Breast Cancer Project Profile; A Community Based Trial for the Evaluation of Self-Examination and Physical Examination of the Breast Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that a benefit might be derived from a program that incorporated both annual physical examination of the breast (BPx and the teaching of breast self-examination (BSE. Current investigation presents the profile of a multicenter community based intervention for evaluating the effect of BSE+BPx on the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer amongst women residing in urban areas of Yazd (Iran from 2008 to 2018. There were three distinctive phases in this trial with 10 years duration: pilot phase with the duration of 1 year, active intervention phase with 4 rounds of annual screening of BPx+BSE and follow up phase with 5 years duration. Tools of enquiry included a pre-tested questionnaire, repeated annual physical examination of the breast and more importantly mammography, sonography, and fine needle aspiration (FNA. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percent, mean (SD, tests of chi-square and student t-test with 95% confidence level. Comparison of socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as age, age at marriage, family size, number of live births, occupation, education level, total family income and marital status showed that no significant difference was seen between the groups (P>0.05. A response rate of 84.5% was seen by participants of the experiment group visiting the health centers for the first BPx. Our results showed that except for the education and marital status, the difference in other main demographic and socio-economic factors between the groups were not significant, and the response rate of individuals in the experiment group was at an acceptable level.

  10. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  11. Simulation training for breast and pelvic physical examination: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilaveri, C A; Szostek, J H; Wang, A T; Cook, D A

    2013-09-01

    Breast and pelvic examinations are challenging intimate examinations. Technology-based simulation may help to overcome these challenges. To synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of technology-based simulation training for breast and pelvic examination. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was January 2012. Original research studies evaluating technology-enhanced simulation of breast and pelvic examination to teach learners, compared with no intervention or with other educational activities. The reviewers evaluated study eligibility and abstracted data on methodological quality, learners, instructional design, and outcomes, and used random-effects models to pool weighted effect sizes. In total, 11 272 articles were identified for screening, and 22 studies were eligible, enrolling 2036 trainees. In eight studies comparing simulation for breast examination training with no intervention, simulation was associated with a significant improvement in skill, with a pooled effect size of 0.86 (95% CI 0.52-1.19; P < 0.001). Four studies comparing simulation training for pelvic examination with no intervention had a large and significant benefit, with a pooled effect size of 1.18 (95% CI 0.40-1.96; P = 0.003). Among breast examination simulation studies, dynamic models providing feedback were associated with improved outcomes. In pelvic examination simulation studies, the addition of a standardised patient to the simulation model and the use of an electronic model with enhanced feedback improved outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, breast and pelvic examination simulation training is associated with moderate to large effects for skills outcomes. Enhanced feedback appears to improve learning. © 2013 RCOG.

  12. Physical activity and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a panel model examining the role of self-efficacy and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Siobhan M; McAuley, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is associated with reductions in fatigue in breast cancer survivors. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally test a model examining the role of self-efficacy and depression as potential mediators of the relationship between physical activity and fatigue in a sample of breast cancer survivors using both self-report and objective measures of physical activity. All participants (N = 1,527) completed self-report measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, depression, and fatigue at baseline and 6 months. A subsample was randomly selected to wear an accelerometer at both time points. It was hypothesized that physical activity indirectly influences fatigue via self-efficacy and depression. Relationships among model constructs were examined over the 6-month period using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. The hypothesized model provided a good model-data fit (χ(2) = 599.66, df = 105, P ≤ 0.001; CFI = 0.96; SRMR = 0.02) in the full sample when controlling for covariates. At baseline, physical activity indirectly influenced fatigue via self-efficacy and depression. These relationships were also supported across time. In addition, the majority of the hypothesized relationships were supported in the subsample with accelerometer data (χ(2) = 387.48, df = 147, P ≤ 0.001, CFI = 0.94, SRMR = 0.04). This study provides evidence to suggest the relationship between physical activity and fatigue in breast cancer survivors may be mediated by more proximal, modifiable outcomes of physical activity participation. Recommendations are made relative to future applications and research concerning these relationships.

  13. Importance of physical examination in the absence of a mammographic abnormality for the detection of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diratzouian, Hasmik; Freedman, Gary M; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Eisenberg, Debra F; Anderson, Penny R

    2005-10-01

    A recent trial called into question the efficacy of breast self-examination. We studied the characteristics and outcome of women in whom physical examination (PE) was their sole method of breast cancer detection. From 1970 to 1998, 1752 women with stage I/II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery and radiation. Two hundred sixty patients (15%) had abnormal PE finding as their sole method of cancer detection at the time of diagnosis, 723 (41%) had only mammographic findings, and 762 (43%) had both. Detection by PE was associated with younger age, larger tumor size, positive axillary nodes, and use of chemotherapy. For women Physical examination remains an important method of detection of breast cancer, particularly for younger women for whom mammography is less sensitive and not performed as frequently.

  14. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. Part I: anatomy and physical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Vezeridis, Peter S.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Han, Roger; Blazar, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Ulnar-sided wrist pain is a common complaint, and it presents a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists. The complex anatomy of this region, combined with the small size of structures and subtle imaging findings, compound this problem. A thorough understanding of ulnar-sided wrist anatomy and a systematic clinical examination of this region are essential in arriving at an accurate diagnosis. In part I of this review, ulnar-sided wrist anatomy and clinical examination are discu...

  15. An Examination of the Relationship between Family and U.S. Latinos’ Physical Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Bostean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Latinos, especially immigrant Latinos, have lower mortality rates and some better health outcomes than U.S.-born Latinos and whites, a situation called the Latino Paradox. One explanation for the advantage is that Latinos’ family orientation protects health. However, because few large-scale studies examine Latinos’ family relationships by nativity, the extent to which family factors contribute to Latinos’ health outcomes is unclear. Additionally, while a large literature focuses on family cohesion, fewer studies address both cohesion and conflict, which may be particularly important among immigrants, whose migration and adaptation experiences can strain family relations. This study examines the relationship between family context and U.S. Latinos’ physical health outcomes. Using nationally representative data on Latinos, it explores the relationship between chronic conditions and activity limitation and nativity, ethnicity, and family factors—both subjective, such as cohesion and conflict, and objective, such as household size, marital status, and language spoken with family. Results reveal that family conflict in particular is related to poorer health. Furthermore, objective measures of family context, such as marital status and household size, do not capture the effects of family relationships (cohesion, conflict, social support. These findings emphasize the importance of family relationships and the need for makers of both immigration and health policy to take into account the complex effects of these relationships on society from a public health perspective.Les Latinos, et en particulier les immigrants latinos, affichent des taux de mortalité plus faibles et un meilleur état de santé que les Blancs et les Latinos nés aux Etats-Unis. Cette situation est connue sous le nom de Paradoxe latino. L’une des explications à ce paradoxe est que la cohésion familiale des Latinos aurait un effet bénéfique sur la santé. Toutefois,

  16. A qualitative examination of perceptions of physical activity guidelines and preferences for format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Witcher, Chad; Holt, Nicholas L; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2010-11-01

    A descriptive exploratory study was conducted to gain an understanding of public perceptions of physical activity guidelines and to discover what formats appeal to participants. Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG) was used as an example of such guidelines. Data were collected from 22 participants in five focus groups (composed of female undergraduate students, female office workers, male office workers, participants in a Type II diabetes rehabilitation program, and participants in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program). Cross-case qualitative analyses were conducted. Six themes emerged under the general categories of familiarity and preferences for PA promotional materials. In terms of familiarity, participants lacked awareness of CPAG and criticized its format. In terms of preferences, participants encouraged the use of stylistically similar messaging to those used by commercial advertisers, wanted personal stories, Internet-based media, and the use of celebrities' success stories. There was little awareness of CPAG and the current format was unappealing.

  17. Leveraging geotagged Twitter data to examine neighborhood happiness, diet, and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Kath, Suraj; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Li, Dapeng; Smith, Ken Robert; VanDerslice, James A.; Wen, Ming; Li, Feifei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using publicly available, geotagged Twitter data, we created neighborhood indicators for happiness, food and physical activity for three large counties: Salt Lake, San Francisco and New York. Methods We utilize 2.8 million tweets collected between February-August 2015 in our analysis. Geo-coordinates of where tweets were sent allow us to spatially join them to 2010 census tract locations. We implemented quality control checks and tested associations between Twitter-derived variables and sociodemographic characteristics. Results For a random subset of tweets, manually labeled tweets and algorithm labeled tweets had excellent levels of agreement: 73% for happiness; 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity. Happy tweets, healthy food references, and physical activity references were less frequent in census tracts with greater economic disadvantage and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and youths. Conclusions Social media can be leveraged to provide greater understanding of the well-being and health behaviors of communities—information that has been previously difficult and expensive to obtain consistently across geographies. More open access neighborhood data can enable better design of programs and policies addressing social determinants of health. PMID:28533568

  18. Performance on Piagetian Horizontality and Verticality Tasks: Sex-Related Differences in Knowledge of Relevant Physical Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Golbeck, Susan L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines reasons for sex-related differences among adults on horizontality and verticality concepts. Studies the effects on task performance of inadequate knowlege of relevant physical phenomena and pictorial examples. (Author/AS)

  19. Physical examination of dizziness in athletes after a concussion: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneker, Jennifer C; Cheruvu, Vinay K; Yang, Jingzhen; James, Mark A; Cook, Chad E

    2018-04-01

    Dizziness is commonly reported after concussion. With the forces experienced at the time of the injury, several anatomical locations may have been altered, causing dizziness. Describe an objective examination and the types of impairment/dysfunction implicated by the results of clinical examination tests in subjects with dizziness after a concussion. Cross-Sectional. Athletes between ages 10-23 were enrolled with a diagnosis of concussion. An examination was completed to identify areas potentially contributing to dizziness, including tests of oculomotor control, the vestibular system, neuromotor control, and musculoskeletal components of the cervical spine. Descriptive analyses were completed to define the anatomical areas/types of dysfunction identified by positive findings of the examination tests. All (n = 41; 100%) subjects had examination findings consistent with central dysfunction. Of these, 36 (97.8%) had oculomotor control deficits; 29 (70.7%) demonstrated motion sensitivity; and 6 (15%) had central vestibular deficits. Nineteen (46.3%) had peripheral dysfunction, including 18 (43.9%) with unilateral hypofunction, and 2 (4.9%) with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. Thirty-four (82.9%) had cervical dysfunction, with 11 (26.8%) presenting with cervicogenic dizziness, and 31 (75.6%) with altered neuromotor control. Functional injury to centrally-mediated pathways, specifically oculomotor control, and afferent and efferent pathways in the cervical spine are commonly identified through clinical examination tests in individuals with a complaint of dizziness post-concussion. According to results presented here, a high majority (90%) of the participants demonstrated dizziness that appeared to be multifactorial in nature and was not attributable to one main type of dysfunction. The common pathways between the systems make it difficult to isolate only one anatomical area as a contributor to dizziness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical examination tests for assessing a torn meniscus in the knee: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Cook, Chad; Hasselblad, Victor; Goode, Adam; McCrory, Douglas C

    2007-09-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. To identify, analyze, and synthesize the literature to determine which physical examination tests, if any, accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus. Knee pain has a lifetime prevalence of up to 45%, and as many as 31% of individuals with knee pain will consult a general practitioner. Roughly 5% of these individuals will undergo a tibial meniscectomy and many more will undergo partial meniscectomy or meniscus repair. Determining which of these individuals is appropriate for surgical consult depends on clinical examination findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus from1966 to August 2006 and extracted all English- and German-language studies that reported the diagnostic accuracy of individual physical examination tests for a torn meniscus. We retrieved data regarding true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives to create 2-by-2 tables for each article and test. Like tests were then subjected to meta-analysis and subanalysis. Cochran Q test and the 12 statistic were used to examine for the presence of heterogeneity and the extent of the effect of heterogeneity, respectively. A qualitative analysis was also performed using the QUADAS tool. Eighteen studies qualified for the final analyses. Three physical examination tests (McMurray's, Apley's, and joint line tenderness) were examined in more than 7 studies and had enough data to consider meta-analysis. However, study results were heterogeneous. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 71% for McMurray's, 60% and 70% for Apley's, and 63% and 77% for joint line tenderness. Large between-study differences could not be explained by prevalence, study quality, or how well an index test was described. No single physical examination test appears to accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus and the value of history plus physical examination is unknown. Differences between studies in diagnostic performance remain unexplained, presumably due to

  1. Examining the links between employed mothers' work characteristics, physical activity, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan C; Allen, Tammy D

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a process model through which the strain-based (job control and role ambiguity) and time-based (work hours) job demands of employed mothers relate to child health via child modeling of mother's physical activity. Support was found for a model of these relationships using dyadic mother-child data (N = 359) from a large, multi-wave nationwide data set and job demands data from the Occupational Information Network (O*Net). Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are also discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: examinations by family social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...

  3. Does Ultrasound-Enhanced Instruction of Musculoskeletal Anatomy Improve Physical Examination Skills of First-Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrod, Bryant J; Schroeder, Allison; Conroy, Mark J; Boucher, Laura C; Bockbrader, Marcia; Way, David P; McCamey, Kendra L; Hartz, Clinton A; Jonesco, Michael A; Bahner, David P

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to teach basic anatomy to medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether learning musculoskeletal anatomy with ultrasound improved performance on medical students' musculoskeletal physical examination skills. Twenty-seven first-year medical students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 instructional groups: either shoulder or knee. Both groups received a lecture followed by hands-on ultrasound scanning on live human models of the assigned joint. After instruction, students were assessed on their ability to accurately palpate 4 anatomic landmarks: the acromioclavicular joint, the proximal long-head biceps tendon, and the medial and lateral joint lines of the knee. Performance scores were based on both accuracy and time. A total physical examination performance score was derived for each joint. Scores for instructional groups were compared by a 2-way analysis of variance with 1 repeated measure. Significant findings were further analyzed with post hoc tests. All students performed significantly better on the knee examination, irrespective of instructional group (F = 14.9; df = 1.25; P = .001). Moreover, the shoulder instruction group performed significantly better than the knee group on the overall assessment (t = -3.0; df = 25; P physical examination of soft tissue landmarks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Factors associated with inadequate work ability among women in the clothing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini

    2015-01-01

    Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.

  5. Diagnostic Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests for Traumatic and Degenerative Symptomatic Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Frémont, Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie E; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2017-10-27

    The current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMTs) proposes combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared with other knee disorders. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients were recruited from 2 orthopedic clinics, 2 family medicine clinics, and from a university community. A total of 279 consecutive patients who underwent consultation for a new knee complaint. Each patient was assessed independently by 2 evaluators. History elements and standardized physical examination tests performed by a physiotherapist were compared with the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including a clinical examination and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Participating expert physicians were orthopedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of SMT and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty patients had a diagnosis of SMT (28.7%), including 35 traumatic tears and 45 degenerative tears. The combination a history of trauma during a pivot, medial knee pain location, and a positive medial joint line tenderness test was able to diagnose (LR+ = 8.9; 95% CI 6.1-13.1) or exclude (LR- = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) a traumatic SMT. Combining a history of

  6. Physical forensic signs of sexual torture in children. A guideline for non specialized medical examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpellier, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    Proper forensic documentation of sexual torture in children is crucial. Informed consent for examination and documentation must be sought from the child/accompanying person and the examination conducted in a sensitive and respectful manner. Time should be given to the child to relate the history of torture and the examiner should start with open ended questions. The history of torture should be recorded verbatim as much as possible. The words used to describe the anatomy and the forensic findings have to be precisely defined. The child should be examined from head to toe and should be left partially clothed. Penile, digital or object penetration of the vagina does not always lead to injuries even if the child is seen very soon after the abuse. Genital injuries heal rapidly and can leave no scars. Penile, digital or object penetration of the anus does not always lead to injuries even if the child is seen very soon after the abuse. Sexual torture cannot be disproved by the absence of injuries or scars.

  7. Is it possible to teach history taking and physical examination by training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopp, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the criticism concerning traditional teaching methods, problem-based courses were introduced in the medical education of the University of Munich to foster the acquistion of action knowledge. One of these courses is the so-called MuSkel-course (course of musculosceletal diseases and injury. This course ends with a Triple Jump examination, the first step of which is an examination with a standardized patient in an OSCE-format (Objective Strutured Clinical Examination. In order to prepare the students for this exam, an OSCE-training was introduced with the fourth MuSkel-course. This study aimed at answering the question, to what extent this training exhibited a better knowledge. For that, the performance of students without training (control group was compared with that of students having received two training sessions (experimental group. The results demonstrated that the experimental group performed better than the control group in only a few but important tests (identification of important points in medical history taking and clinical examination, the attitude towards the patient, the call for further diagnostic tests.

  8. Violence in Music Videos: Examining the Prevalence and Context of Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacy L.; Boyson, Aaron R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines violence in music video programming. Reveals that 15% of music videos feature violence, and most of that aggression is sanitized, not chastised, and presented in realistic contexts. Discusses the findings in terms of the risk that exposure to violence in each channel and genre may be posing to viewers' learning of aggression, fear, and…

  9. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  10. An Examination of Philosophical Profiles in Physical Education. A Comparison between Romania and Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Sandor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical Education is a discipline in which there are often few possibilities for teachers to develop critical thinking and reflexivity. This is due to prevalence, in the curricula of PE teachers, of technified teaching and learning models that don’t help them develop as critical reflective practitioners. Within this consideration, and in order to stress the importance of philosophy as a means capable of developing critical thinking in physical education, we have administered to two groups of Romanian and Italian PE teachers a validated questionnaire aimed to detect their philosophical profiles on the basis of five paradigms. The result of our study has shown that, between the two groups of teachers, there exist differences relating to so-called Idealist and Positivist profile. In conclusion, the results and assumptions to explain them and emerging from the study need to be better explored, verified and analyzed by future researches based on a wider sample and focus group of scholars, teachers and respondent informants.

  11. Examining the postural awareness and flexibility changes in physical therapy students who took clinical Pilates class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Esra; Tarakci, Devrim; Mutluay, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate postural awareness and changes in posture and flexibility of students who took Clinical Pilates class as an elective course at the undergraduate level. The study conducted from 2013-2016 included 98 students who took Clinical Pilates class at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. The flexibility levels of the study participants were measured before and after the Clinical Pilates education using finger-to-floor test and modified Schober's test. Observational posture analysis and postural awareness were recorded using the scale prepared by the researchers. The post-education evaluations showed that postural distortions were fixed, and a significant increase in the postural awareness of the students was observed compared with the pre-education period. The results of both modified Schober's test and finger-to-floor test, which were used to measure the flexibility levels, showed a statistically significant increase in post-education scores compared with those of the pre-education period. This study showed that the Clinical Pilates course increased postural awareness and flexibility of physical therapy students and fixed postural distortions. Thus, the inclusion of Clinical Pilates class in the undergraduate education is considered to be important.

  12. Examining the physical meaning of the bank erosion coefficient used in meander migration modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Candice R.; Dunne, Thomas; Hanson, Gregory J.

    2009-05-01

    Widely used models of meander evolution relate migration rate to vertically averaged near-bank velocity through the use of a coefficient of bank erosion ( E). In applications to floodplain management problems, E is typically determined through calibration to historical planform changes, and thus its physical meaning remains unclear. This study attempts to clarify the extent to which E depends on measurable physical characteristics of the channel boundary materials using data from the Sacramento River, California, USA. Bend-average values of E were calculated from measured long-term migration rates and computed near-bank velocities. In the field, unvegetated bank material resistance to fluvial shear ( k) was measured for four cohesive and noncohesive bank types using a jet-test device. At a small set of bends for which both E and k were obtained, we discovered that variability in k explains much of the variability in E. The form of this relationship suggests that when modeling long-term meander migration of large rivers, E depends largely on bank material properties. This finding opens up the possibility that E may be estimated directly from field data, enabling prediction of meander migration rates for systems where historical data are unavailable or controlling conditions have changed. Another implication is that vegetation plays a limited role in affecting long-term meander migration rates of large rivers like the Sacramento River. These hypotheses require further testing with data sets from other large rivers.

  13. The association of xerostomia and inadequate intake in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, N L; Brown, J

    1990-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that nearly one in five older adults has xerostomia (dry mouth). Salivary gland dysfunction and/or inadequate saliva increases the difficulty of these older adults in obtaining proper nutrition. Problems in lubricating, masticating, tolerating, tasting, and swallowing food contribute notably to the complex physiological and psychological manifestations of aging. To our knowledge, the literature has not demonstrated an association between xerostomia and malnutrition in the elderly. We randomly selected 67 older adults from institutionalized and free-living geriatric populations. Nutritional intake analysis was performed on both groups of study subjects, who were found to have xerostomia by use of sialometry, and on control subjects matched for age, sex, and physical status. Intake of total energy, protein, dietary fiber, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, calcium, iron, and zinc was compared with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Subjects' intakes were also compared with that of a control group. Medical systemic information and number and types of medications were compared among the groups. Statistical analysis of the data indicated significant (p less than .001) inadequacies in the nutritional intake patterns of institutionalized and free-living older adults with xerostomia. Subjects with xerostomia (more than 75% of the free-living and institutionalized seniors) had significant deficiencies of fiber, potassium, vitamin B-6, iron, calcium, and zinc. Taste and food perception were significantly reduced in the elders with xerostomia. Our study indicates the potential contribution of xerostomia to the high prevalence of geriatric malnutrition in the United States.

  14. Personality disorders and physical health: A longitudinal examination of physical functioning, healthcare utilization, and health-related behaviors in middle-aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) have significant, long-term effects in many areas, including physical health outcomes such as increased risk for chronic disease and mortality. Although research has documented this detrimental impact in relation to long-term physical health, no one has explored the more immediate influence of disordered personality on aspects of physical functioning, such as pain level, or health-related behaviors, such as medication use. The present study examined the unique effects of PD features on physical functioning, medical resource utilization, and prescription medication use to determine potential risk associated with PDs. We studied an epidemiologically-based sample (N=608) of Saint Louis residents (ages 55–64) over two time points (6 months apart). We found that disordered personality was significantly predictive of worse physical functioning, role limitations, fatigue, and pain at both time points, even when current health problems, the presence of depression, and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, exercise) were controlled. PD features were also predictive of increased healthcare utilization and medication use at follow-up. These results suggest that the presence of disordered personality may be an important risk factor for worse functioning, regardless of actual health status. PMID:22867504

  15. A pilot examination of social context and everyday physical activity among adults receiving Community Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B P; Frey, G C; Lee, C-T; Gajic, T; Stamatovic-Gajic, B; Maksimovic, M

    2009-03-01

    Community mental health center (CMHC) clients include a variety of people with moderate to severe mental illnesses who also report a number of physical health problems. Physical activity (PA) has been identified as one intervention to improve health among this population; however, little is known about the role of social context in PA. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of social context in everyday PA among CMHC clients. Data were collected from CMHC clients in two cultures using accelerometery and experience sampling methods. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Independence in housing nor culture was significantly associated with levels of PA. Being alone was significantly negatively related to PA level. Social isolation appears to be negatively related to PA at the level of everyday life. Physical activity interventions with this population should consider including social components as a part of PA.

  16. Pendulum Test: A Highly Accurate and Simple Physical Examination Maneuver to Identify Hip Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Oshima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with hip pathology often complain of various symptoms, e.g. pain or discomfort of low back, lower extremity, hip, groin, thigh, buttock or knee. Physicians may be distracted by these complaints, and misdiagnose and mistreat hip pathology. To avoid this, the pendulum test, which is performed with a patient seated on the examination table and hips and knees are flexed at 90 degrees, while the examiner passively swings the patient's lower extremity in and out as a pendulum, has been employed for all patients with the complaint of low back, hip and knee. Objective: The efficacy and the accuracy of the pendulum test were evaluated. Patients and methods: Consecutive 40 patients, who had complained pain or discomfort of low back, lower extremity, hip, groin, thigh, buttock and knee were examined by the pendulum test. Results: Eighteen patients were positive for the pendulum test, and all of them correlated to the hip pathology. Conclusions: The pendulum test was confirmed to be easily performed and reliable in detecting the hip pathology. Therefore, this test is highly recommended for the differentiation of patients with low back, hip and knee complaints.

  17. Development of age-specific Japanese physical phantoms for dose evaluation in infant CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C.; Fujii, K.; Imai, K.; Ikeda, M.; Akahane, K.; Obara, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Narai, K.; Katsu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary to the previous development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms, the authors designed Japanese torso phantoms for dose assessment in infant computed tomography (CT) examinations and completed a Japanese 3-y-old head-torso phantom. For design of age-specific torso phantoms (0, 0.5, 1 and 3 y old), anatomical structures were measured from CT images of Japanese infant patients. From the CT morphometry, it was found that rib cages of Japanese infants were smaller than those in Europeans and Americans. Radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters were used for dose measurement of a 3-y-old head-torso phantom. To examine the validity of the developed phantom, organ and effective doses by the in-phantom dosimetry system were compared with simulation values in a web-based CT dose calculation system (WAZA-ARI). The differences in doses between the two systems were <20 % at the doses of organs within scan regions and effective doses in head, chest and abdomino-pelvic CT examinations. (authors)

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AGE-SPECIFIC JAPANESE PHYSICAL PHANTOMS FOR DOSE EVALUATION IN INFANT CT EXAMINATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Obara, S; Narai, K; Katsu, T; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2016-12-01

    Secondary to the previous development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms, the authors designed Japanese torso phantoms for dose assessment in infant computed tomography (CT) examinations and completed a Japanese 3-y-old head-torso phantom. For design of age-specific torso phantoms (0, 0.5, 1 and 3 y old), anatomical structures were measured from CT images of Japanese infant patients. From the CT morphometry, it was found that rib cages of Japanese infants were smaller than those in Europeans and Americans. Radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters were used for dose measurement of a 3-y-old head-torso phantom. To examine the validity of the developed phantom, organ and effective doses by the in-phantom dosimetry system were compared with simulation values in a web-based CT dose calculation system (WAZA-ARI). The differences in doses between the two systems were doses of organs within scan regions and effective doses in head, chest and abdominopelvic CT examinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Perceived influence and college students' diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Forthofer, Melinda; Bantum, Erin O; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-06

    Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students' diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources' and students' behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees' influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116), college friends (n = 104), high school friends (n = 87), and significant others (n = 18). Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD) = 9(1.07)) and high school friends the least influential (M(SD) = 1.31(.42)) network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees' behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 %) or worse (39 %) eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD) = 9.25(1.04)). Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Among the groups nominated, high

  20. Perceived influence and college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook E. Harmon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources’ and students’ behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Methods Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees’ influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Results A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116, college friends (n = 104, high school friends (n = 87, and significant others (n = 18. Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD = 9(1.07 and high school friends the least influential (M(SD = 1.31(.42 network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees’ behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 % or worse (39 % eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD = 9.25(1.04. Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting

  1. Examining social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeneck, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To develop a vulnerability model that captures the social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability of Texas counties. Guided by previous research and methodologies proposed in the hazards and emergency management literature, a principle components analysis is used to create a tornado vulnerability index. Data were gathered from open source information available through the US Census Bureau, American Community Surveys, and the Texas Natural Resources Information System. Texas counties. The results of the model yielded three indices that highlight geographic variability of social vulnerability, built environment vulnerability, and tornado hazard throughout Texas. Further analyses suggest that counties with the highest tornado vulnerability include those with high population densities and high tornado risk. This article demonstrates one method for assessing statewide tornado vulnerability and presents how the results of this type of analysis can be applied by emergency managers towards the reduction of tornado vulnerability in their communities.

  2. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Sabouri,1 Markus Gerber,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Sakari Lemola,4 Peter J Clough,5 Nadeem Kalak,3 Mahin Shamsi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand2,3 1Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, AllamehTabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, 3Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, 4Faculty of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK Objective: The Dark Triad (DT describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1 to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2 to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women.Methods: A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18–37 years took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA.Results: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively. DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy, while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes.Conclusion: DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless. Keywords: dark triad, mental toughness, physical activity, young adults, sex

  3. Examining the Relationship Between Mental, Physical, and Organizational Factors Associated With Attrition During Maritime Forces Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsch, Olaf; Banko, Katherine M; Veenstra, Bertil J; Valk, Pierre J L

    2015-11-01

    For infantry units of the Dutch Ministry of Defence, high attrition rates (varying from 42 to 68%) during initial training are a persisting problem. The reasons for this attrition are diverse. Having better insight into the causes of attrition is a prerequisite for implementing preventive measures. To achieve this, a monitoring assessment system was developed that integrated the effects of physical, mental, and organizational determinants on operational readiness. The aim of this study was to implement the monitoring tools and to establish the set of determinants that best predicted attrition during infantry training of new recruits. Eighty-five recruits were monitored over a 24-week infantry training course. Before the training, recruits were screened for medical, psychological, and physical wellness. During the monitoring phase, mental, physiological, and organizational indicants were obtained using an array of tools such as questionnaires, chest belt monitors (for heart rate, acceleration, and skin temperature measurements), and computerized tests (e.g., vigilance, long-term memory). Survival analyses were used to tease out the determinants of individual and grouped predictors of attrition. Nearly half the recruits (47%) failed the training. Attrition was predicted by both physiological and mental determinants. However, the organizational determinant "trainers' judgment" on the "recruits' military quality" dominated the physiological and mental determinants. It was concluded that the monitoring system was successfully implemented during infantry training, and that the survival analysis method emphasized on single effects and interactions between the different determinants. Based on the current findings, we recommend several steps to successfully implement a monitoring method in settings with high demands.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination in bacterial acute rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Timo J; Koskenkorva, Timo; Närkiö, Mervi; Leino, Tuomo K; Koivunen, Petri; Alho, Olli-Pekka

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, the symptom progression pattern, and clinical signs in identifying bacterial acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). We conducted an inception cohort study among 50 military recruits with ARS. We collected symptoms daily from the onset of symptoms to approximately 10 days. At 9 to 10 days, standardized data on symptoms and physical findings were gathered. A positive culture of maxillary sinus aspirate was considered to be the reference standard for bacterial ARS. At 9 to 10 days, the presence or deterioration after 5 days of any of the symptoms could not be used to diagnose bacterial ARS. Toothache had an adequate positive likelihood ratio (positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 4.4) but was too rare to be used for screening. In contrast, several physical findings at 9 to 10 days were of more diagnostic use and frequent enough for screening. Moderate or profuse (vs. none/minimal) amount of secretion in nasal passage seen in anterior rhinoscopy satisfactorily either ruled in, if present (LR+ 3.2), or ruled out, if absent (negative likelihood ratio 0.2), bacterial ARS. If any secretion was seen in the posterior pharynx or middle meatus, the probability of bacterial ARS increased markedly (LR+ 5.3 and LR+ 11.0, respectively). We found symptoms or their change to be of little use in identifying bacterial ARS. In contrast, we observed several clinical findings after 9 to 10 days of symptoms to predict bacterial ARS quite accurately. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Use of Accessible Examination Tables in the Primary Care Setting: A Survey of Physical Evaluations and Patient Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Megan A; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Griffin, Joan M; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Lagu, Tara; Phelan, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Accessible diagnostic equipment, including height-adjustable examination tables, is necessary to accommodate patients with disabilities. Studies demonstrate that only a minority of clinics provide accessible equipment. For clinics with this equipment, no studies have examined the use of such equipment in routine clinical care. In primary care clinics with and without height-adjustable examination tables, we compared the frequency and variation in physical evaluations on examination tables and patients' perceptions of quality care. Survey administered to patients at two primary care clinics in Rochester, MN, in 2015. One clinic had height-adjustable examination tables in every exam room; the other clinic had none. A total of 399 English-speaking adult primary care patients (61% participation). Participants were asked whether they were physically evaluated on a table during their clinical encounter. In addition, they completed two subscales of the Patient Perception of Quality of Care survey: Perceptions of Provider's Bedside Manner and Perceptions of Provider's Work. Overall, there were no differences between clinics in the likelihood of patients being examined on an exam table or in their perceptions of quality of care. Across both clinics, patients who reported a disability were 27% less likely to be examined on a table, were less likely to rate their provider's bedside manner favorably (74% vs. 59%) and to have positive perceptions of their provider's work (46% vs. 32%) than patients without disabilities. The presence of accessible medical equipment was not associated with care delivered to patients. While this might not be meaningful for most patients, it could be problematic for patients with disabilities, who are less likely to be examined. Therefore, accessible equipment alone may not be sufficient to reduce disparities in the care experience. Provider- and organization-level factors must thus be considered in efforts to provide equitable care to patients

  6. Talking the talk, walking the walk: examining the effect of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Glover, Troy D

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have considered the joint effects of social and physical environments on physical activity (PA). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the compounding effects of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on PA. Data were collected from adults (n = 380) in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Perceptions of neighbourhood social connectedness and walkability were measured via survey. Minutes of neighbourhood PA for recreation and transportation were captured with a detailed 7-day log booklet. Four groups were created (e.g. high walkability/low social connectedness) and two factorial ANOVAs examined group differences in minutes of recreational and transport-related PA. There were significant differences across the four walkability/social connectedness groups for both recreational (F = 11.36, P transport-related PA (F = 8.12, P transport-related PA (24.5 min). The high walkability/low social connectedness group had greater transport-related PA than the two low walkability groups, while the high social connectedness/low walkability group had greater recreational PA than the two low social connectedness groups. These findings underscore the relationship between physical and social dimensions of urban form and their association with health behaviours. PA promotion efforts should take into account both physical (e.g. land-use planning) and social (e.g. walking group) environments.

  7. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015) to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days). The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views), 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes), and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes). Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico. PMID:29278903

  8. Additional prognostic value of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography for coronary risk assessment in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Michel; Boccalon, Henri; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Carrié, Didier; Ferrières, Jean

    2009-11-01

    The choice of noninvasive tests used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases must be based on medical evidence. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value, over conventional risk factors, of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography, in predicting a first coronary event. A prospective cohort study was conducted between 1996 and 2004 (n = 2,709), with follow-up in 2006 (response rate 96.6%). Participants had no history or symptoms of cardiovascular disease and had a standardized physical examination, a cardiac exercise testing, and carotid and femoral ultrasonography at baseline. Incident cases of definite coronary events were recorded during follow-up. Over the Framingham risk score, femoral bruit, positive exercise test, intima-media thickness >0.63 mm, and a femoral plaque provided significant additional information to the prediction model. The addition of the exercise test to the traditional risk factors, then the intima-media thickness and lastly the presence of femoral plaques, produces incremental increases in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73-0.78, P = .02) and about a 50% increase in the positive predictive value (15.8%-31.4%), with no effect on the negative predictive value (96.4%-96.9%). Physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography provide incremental information on the risk of coronary event in asymptomatic adults. Exercise testing and femoral ultrasonography also improve the accuracy of the risk stratification.

  9. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: How Physical and Radiological Examination Contribute to Successful Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishaba, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly in young adults. Vital signs are usually normal except for temperature. On physical examination, general appearance is normal compared with that of typical pneumonia such as pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Mycoplasma sometimes causes ear infections such as otitis media. It is important to distinguish between typical pneumonia and atypical pneumonia such as mycoplasma pneumonia because having the right diagnosis allows for the use of the correct antibiotic to treat CAP while preventing development of drug-resistant bacteria and also decreasing medical cost. The symptoms and diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumonia is multi-fold. Auscultation of patients can demonstrate trace late inspiratory crackles or normal alveolar sounds; however, bilateral polyphonic wheezes can sometimes be heard because of bronchiolitis. With regard to radiological findings, a chest radiogragh often shows bilateral reticulonodular or patchy consolidation in both lower lobes. Pleural effusion is rarely observed in adult cases. Immunocompetent patients tend to reveal more extensive shadowing compared with immunocompromised patients. As serological diagnostic methods are not able to offer 100% reliable diagnosis, integration of physical and radiological examination is crucial to accurately diagnose mycoplasma pneumonia. Herein, I review the typical findings from physical examination and imaging patterns of patients with mycoplasma pneumonia. PMID:27379238

  10. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ramos-Rincón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30, the cardiovascular system (7:38, the respiratory system (13:54, and the abdomen (11:10. We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015 to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days. The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views, 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes, and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes. Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico.

  11. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rincón, José M; Belinchón-Romero, Isabel; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Torre, Guillermo Martínez-de la; Harris, Meggan; Sánchez-Fernández, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015) to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days). The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views), 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes), and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes). Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico.

  12. Study of national registration systems for the health records of radiation workers. National registration systems for physical examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Haruo; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    The Health Control Policy of Japan was established in 1965 by the Atomic Energy Commission and has not been revised since then. However, in 1972, a low concerning the health of elderly persons was enacted, and the recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), which presents the basic standards regarding radiation protection, were published. Both of these events had a very strong impact on the drafting of health control policy, as the Japanese Government was compelled to introduce a new policy aimed at reducing the risk of cancer, the greatest physical probability risk facing radiation workers. Laws governing the physical examinations of radiation workers working in nuclear power stations in Japan are divided into three groups: Laws for Safety and Sanitary Conditions of controlling the data of these examinations is more complicated than that of the physical examinations of A-bomb survivors, a centralized registration system is needed. This paper proposes the need for such a registration system to be granted under the three laws governing special accounts for power supply municipalities and suggests setting up the system within regional medical information systems. It also proposes the founding of an overall health insurance cooperative, to be managed by the Contractors Safety Union in each municipality. (author)

  13. Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Michael K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

  14. Growth inhibition in rats fed inadequate and incomplete proteins: repercussion on mandibular biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela Monica; Bozzini, Carlos Eduardo Jose; Alippi, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of feeding growing rats with a diet containing inadequate and incomplete proteins on both the morphological and the biomechanical properties of the mandible. Female rats aged 30 d were fed freely with one of two diets, control (CD, 301 Cal/100g) and experimental (ED, 359 Cal/100g). CD was a standard laboratory diet, while ED was a synthetic diet containing cornflower supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Both diets had the same physical characteristics. Con...

  15. Examining individual, interpersonal, and environmental influences on children’s physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wilk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore individual-level socio-demographic factors and interpersonal-level factors related to social support, as well as the potential role of neighborhood and school environments that may influence the physical activity (PA levels of children (ages 9–11. Child and parent questionnaires included individual and interpersonal factors, and PA behaviour. Home postal codes were used to determine the neighbourhood the child resides within, as well as their geographic accessibility to recreation opportunities. The models were assessed using a series of cross-classified random-intercept multi-level regression models as children’s PA may be affected by both the school they attend and the neighbourhood in which they live. In the unadjusted model, PA varied significantly across school environments (γ = 0.023; CI: 0.003–0.043, but not across neighbourhoods (γ = 0.007; CI: -0.008 to 0.021. Boys were found to be more active compared to girls (b = 0.183; CI: 0.092–0.275, while the level of PA was lower for children whose fathers achieved post-secondary education (b = - 0.197; CI: -0.376 to 0.018 than for those whose parents completed only high school. The addition of the individual-level correlates did not have a substantial effect on level 2 variances and the level 2 variance associated with school environment remained statistically significant. At the interpersonal level, children’s perception of parental support (b = 0.117; CI: 0.091–0.143 and peer support (b = 0.111; CI: 0.079–0.142 were positively related to PA. The level 2 variance for the school environment became statistically non-significant when the interpersonal factors were added to the model. At the environmental level, geographic accessibility did not have a significant association with PA and they did not significantly affect level 1 or 2 variance. As many children do not accrue sufficient levels of PA, identifying modifiable determinants is

  16. Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam P; Cook, Chad E; Michener, Lori; Myer, Cortney A; Myer, Daniel M; Wright, Alexis A

    2012-11-01

    To update our previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. This review is an update of previous work, therefore the terms in the Medline and CINAHL search strategies remained the same with the exception that the search was confined to the dates November, 2006 through to February, 2012. The previous study dates were 1966 - October, 2006. Further, the original search was expanded, without date restrictions, to include two new databases: EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, version 2 (QUADAS 2) tool was used to critique the quality of each new paper. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. Since the publication of the 2008 review, 32 additional studies were identified and critiqued. For subacromial impingement, the meta-analysis revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the Neer test was 72% and 60%, respectively, for the Hawkins-Kennedy test was 79% and 59%, respectively, and for the painful arc was 53% and 76%, respectively. Also from the meta-analysis, regarding superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, the test with the best sensitivity (52%) was the relocation test; the test with the best specificity (95%) was Yergason's test; and the test with the best positive likelihood ratio (2.81) was the compression-rotation test. Regarding new (to this series of reviews) ShPE tests, where meta-analysis was not possible because of lack of sufficient studies or heterogeneity between studies, there are some individual tests that warrant further investigation. A highly specific test (specificity >80%, LR+ ≥ 5.0) from a low bias study is the passive distraction test for a SLAP lesion. This test may

  17. A Pilot Examination of a Mosque-Based Physical Activity Intervention for South Asian Muslim Women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Landry, Mireille; Zawi, Maha; Childerhose, Debbie; Stephens, Neil; Shafique, Ammara; Price, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Low levels of physical activity have been reported in South Asian Muslim women. Mosques could be beneficial in providing physical activity opportunities for Muslim women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a mosque-based physical activity program for South Asian Muslim women in Canada. Sixty-two South Asian Muslim women participated in a 24-week mosque-based exercise intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of the program was evaluated by pre-post survey questions from the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire among 28 women who consented to the research data collection. Nineteen women were assessed pre-and post-intervention. The women demonstrated increase in median scores of self-efficacy (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.004) and the importance of engaging in regular physical activity (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.01). Fewer participants were classified as inactive at the end of the intervention (42 % pre vs. 10 % post; p = 0.006). There was a mean increase in DASI scores (39.2 pre vs. 44.6 post; p = 0.06) reflecting an improvement in peak aerobic capacity and functional quality of life. Culturally relevant structured networks such as mosques are important assets when designing healthy lifestyle interventions for South Asian Muslim women.

  18. An examination of dyadic changes in optimism and physical health over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J; Kim, Eric S; Smith, Jacqui

    2018-01-01

    Having a partner high in optimism is associated with better health in older adults. However, partners, just like individuals, are not static entities and likely change considerably over time. The current study examined whether changes in one person's optimism was associated with corresponding changes in his or her partner's health over a 4-year period. We employed a sample of 2,758 heterosexual couples (5,516 individuals; Mage = 65.81, SD = 9.00), married an average of 36.06 years. Median level of education was at least a high school education (13.0% had less than a high school education; 56.1% had a high school education; 30.9% had at least some college education). Both couple members filled out measures of optimism and health twice over a 4-year period. Having a partner high in optimism at baseline was associated with increases in an actor's optimism 4 years later, r = .08, p .05) and partner (rs > .03) changes in optimism were associated with changes in self-rated health and chronic illnesses over time. There was also some evidence for an interaction effect (rs > .03), such that the worst outcomes were experienced among couples in which both members decreased in optimism. This is the first study to examine how changes in psychological characteristics are associated with changes in health within and across romantic partners. Possible mechanisms are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  20. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shiva, Niloofar

    2011-11-15

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI) was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI). In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  1. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Kalak, Nadeem; Shamsi, Mahin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Mental toughness (MT) refers to a psychological construct combining confidence, commitment, control, and challenge. High MT is related to greater physical activity (PA) and, relative to men, women have lower MT scores. The aims of the present study were 1) to investigate the association between DT, MT, and PA, and 2) to compare the DT, MT, and PA scores of men and women. A total of 341 adults (M=29 years; 51.6% women; range: 18-37 years) took part in the study. Participants completed a series of questionnaires assessing DT, MT, and PA. Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy were all significantly associated with higher MT scores (rs =0.45, 0.50, and 0.20, respectively). DT traits and MT were associated with more vigorous PA. Compared to men, women participants had lower scores for DT traits (overall score and psychopathy), while no differences were found for MT or PA in both sexes. DT traits, high MT, and vigorous PA are interrelated. This pattern of results might explain why, for instance, successful professional athletes can at the same time be tough and ruthless.

  2. Examining the Feasibility of Smartphone Game Applications for Physical Activity Promotion in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kacie C A; Zoellner, Jamie; Kadir, Adil; Dockery, Brandon; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Almeida, Fabio A; McCrickard, D Scott; Hill, Jennie L; You, Wen; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility (i.e., limited efficacy testing, practicality, and acceptability) of a 6-week smartphone game-based applications program for promoting physical activity (PA) in adolescents in an afterschool program. This mixed-method, quasi-experimental design study included 27 adolescents who evaluated four smartphone PA game-based applications in two Boys & Girls Clubs of America. After an initial baseline week (i.e., usual activity during their visit to the Club), adolescents played each game for 1 week. During a final week, the participants could choose to play any combination of the four games. An established conceptual framework was used to assess feasibility. Efficacy was assessed by changes in PA via wrist-worn accelerometers (model GT3x+; ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL). Practicality was measured through field notes, the number of players attending each session, and the proportion of attendees who played the games. Acceptability was measured using poststudy focus groups. Compared with baseline (3.22 metabolic equivalents [METs]), mean accelerometer values were significantly (PSmartphone games can be feasible for adolescents to use for PA. Lessons learned will be used to provide improvements for future game development and evaluation.

  3. Examining international clinical internships for canadian physical therapy students from 1997 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth; Biggar, John M; Leggett, Adrienne; Huang, Adrian; Mori, Brenda; Nixon, Stephanie A; Landry, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    To describe international clinical internships (ICIs) for Canadian physical therapy (PT) students, explore the experiences of individuals involved in ICIs, and develop recommendations for future ICIs based on these findings. This study employed a mixed-methods approach. An online questionnaire surveyed academic coordinators of clinical education (ACCEs, n=14) on the availability, destinations, and number of ICIs from 1997 to 2007. Semi-structured telephone interviews were then conducted with eight PT students, seven ACCEs, and three supervising clinicians to investigate their ICI experiences. Interview transcripts were coded descriptively and thematically using NVivo. ICIs are currently available at 12 of 14 Canadian PT schools. A total of 313 students participated in ICIs in 51 different destination countries from 1997 to 2007. Over this period, increasing numbers of students participated in ICIs and developing countries represented an increasing proportion of ICI destinations. Key themes identified in the interviews were opportunities, challenges, and facilitating factors. ICIs present unique opportunities for Canadian PT students. Recommendations to enhance the quality of future ICIs are (1) clearly defined objectives for ICIs, (2) additional follow-up post-ICI, and (3) improved record keeping and sharing of information on ICI destination countries and host sites.

  4. Examination of a mechanical amplifier in the incudostapedial joint gap: FEM simulation and physical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Martin; Eßinger, Till Moritz; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas

    2014-08-07

    Implantable assembly components that are biocompatible and highly miniaturized are an important objective for hearing aid development. We introduce a mechanical transducer, which could be suitable as part of a prospective fully-implantable hearing aid. The transducer comprises a sensor and an actuator unit in one housing, located in the joint gap between the middle ear ossicles, the incus and stapes. The setup offers the advantage of a minimally invasive and reversible surgical solution. However, feedback between actuator and sensor due to mechanical coupling limits the available stable gain. We show that the system can be stabilized by digital control algorithms. The transducer is tested both in a finite elements method simulation of the middle ear and a physical model of a human middle ear. First, we characterize the sensor and actuator elements separately. Then, the maximum stable gain (MSG) of the whole transducer is experimentally determined in the middle ear model. With digital feedback control (using a least mean squares algorithm) in place, the total signal gain is greater than 30 dB for frequencies of 1 kHz and above. This shows the potential of the transducer as a high frequency hearing aid.

  5. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hafsa; Imran, Saira; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, Andleeb; Khurshid, Rukshshan

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. It was observed that early age at menarche (25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment of malignancy and complications especially in the pubescent age. It is also found that Physical examination remain the useful indicators of prognosis in diagnosing cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the reasons for variations in breast disease outcomes i.e. malignant or benign.

  6. A comparison of physical examinations with musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis of biceps long head tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lin, Shu-Hsien; Hsu, Yen-Hsia; Chen, Shih-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2011-09-01

    Provocative tests are useful in diagnosing biceps tendon tendinitis. This is the first study to establish the reliability of these tests by comparing the resuts with musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) findings. This study examined 125 patients (69 women and 56 men) and 143 shoulders with shoulder pain. Yergason's test, Speed's test and a bicipital groove tenderness test were performed and musculoskeletal US findings were used as standard reference. Biceps tendon tendinitis was diagnosed with US in 39.1% of the patients and, of those, 55.3% had coexisting rotator cuff injury. The sensitivity and specificity of Yergason's test were 32% and 78%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Speed's test were 63% and 58%, respectively. In conclusion, all three tests are limited by poor sensitivity. US can be an image modality choice in diagnosing biceps pathology. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An examination of compensation effects in accelerometer-measured occupational and non-occupational physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Gay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-report data suggests a large proportion of total physical activity (PA occurs at work. However, adults with higher levels of occupational PA may compensate by engaging in less non-occupational PA. The study aims were to 1 estimate the intensity, volume, and duration of PA in American adults that occurs at work, and 2 determine if those more active at work are less active outside of work. A cross-sectional sample of full-time employed adults (N=510 was recruited from Georgia city and county governments in 2013–2015. Participants wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for two weeks. In 2016, for 442 participants with complete data including work schedules and self-reported job titles, accelerometer wear minutes were classified as either occupational or non-occupational, and as sedentary, LPA (light-intensity PA, or MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA. The proportion of daily PA that occurred during work was 41.2% for total PA, 41.0% for LPA, and 39.5% for MVPA. Higher levels of occupational LPA were associated with lower levels of non-occupational LPA (r=−0.38, P<0.0001. However, higher levels of occupational MVPA were associated with higher levels of non-occupational MVPA (r=0.17, P<0.0001. These associations remained significant in a MANOVA adjusting for labor sector and other covariates. On average, employed adults get more LPA and MVPA outside of work. Adults who do more occupational MVPA do not compensate by doing less non-occupational MVPA. In contrast, adults who do more occupational LPA do compensate by doing less non-occupational LPA. Evaluations of interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should be designed to detect compensation effects. Keywords: Intensity, Work, Accelerometer

  8. A systematic review of the diagnostic performance of orthopedic physical examination tests of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous reviews of the diagnostic performances of physical tests of the hip in orthopedics have drawn limited conclusions because of the low to moderate quality of primary studies published in the literature. This systematic review aims to build on these reviews by assessing a broad range of hip pathologies, and employing a more selective approach to the inclusion of studies in order to accurately gauge diagnostic performance for the purposes of making recommendations for clinical practice and future research. It specifically identifies tests which demonstrate strong and moderate diagnostic performance. Methods A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Embase Classic and CINAHL was conducted to identify studies of hip tests. Our selection criteria included an analysis of internal and external validity. We reported diagnostic performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Likelihood ratios were used to identify tests with strong and moderate diagnostic utility. Results Only a small proportion of tests reported in the literature have been assessed in methodologically valid primary studies. 16 studies were included in our review, producing 56 independent test-pathology combinations. Two tests demonstrated strong clinical utility, the patellar-pubic percussion test for excluding radiologically occult hip fractures (negative LR 0.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.03-0.08) and the hip abduction sign for diagnosing sarcoglycanopathies in patients with known muscular dystrophies (positive LR 34.29, 95% CI 10.97-122.30). Fifteen tests demonstrated moderate diagnostic utility for diagnosing and/or excluding hip fractures, symptomatic osteoarthritis and loosening of components post-total hip arthroplasty. Conclusions We have identified a number of tests demonstrating strong and moderate diagnostic performance. These findings must be viewed with caution as there are concerns over the methodological quality of the primary

  9. Physical activity after commitment lotteries: examining long-term results in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Schipper, Maarten; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Berkhout, Stef; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-02-26

    To overcome self-control difficulties, people can commit to their health goals by voluntarily accepting deadlines with consequences. In a commitment lottery, the winners are drawn from all participants, but can only claim their prize if they also attained their gym-attendance goals. In a 52-week, three-arm trial across six company gyms, we tested if commitment lotteries with behavioral economic underpinnings would promote physical activity among overweight adults. In previous work, we presented an effective 26-week intervention. In the present paper we analyzed maintenance of goal attainment at 52-week follow-up and the development of weight over time. We compared weight and goal attainment (gym attendance ≥ 2 per week) between three arms that-in the intervention period- consisted of (I) weekly short-term lotteries for 13 weeks; (II) the same short-term lotteries in combination with an additional long-term lottery after 26 weeks; and (III) a control arm without lottery-deadlines. After a successful 26-week intervention, goal attainment declined between weeks 27 and 52 in the long-term lottery arm, but remained higher than in the control group. Goal attainment did not differ between the short-term lottery arm and control arm. Weight declined slightly in all arms in the first 13 weeks of the trial and remained stable from there on. Commitment lotteries can support regular gym attendance up to 52 weeks, but more research is needed to achieve higher levels of maintenance and weight loss.

  10. Evaluating the effect of physical examination training on the competency of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh Salmasi, S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skill to perform physical exam (ph/ex is a vital aspect of clinical skills needed by physicians. In traditional curricula of medical schools little attention is paid to students' practical skills and more emphasis is put on the cognitive domain of learning. Purpose: To study the effect of training clinical skills as a part of reformed curricula on the medical students' practical competence. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 150 medical students who had started their externship after passing the clinical skill course, 50 were randomly selected. A self-assessment questionnaire with Likerts’ scale type items was distributed among the students .Data was analyzed by SPSS and measures of central value and dispersion were utilized for discussion. Results: The mean for standardized score for the effect of training in the clinical skill course (CSC on gaining the skill of ph/ex was 51.51(± 23.13 with a median of 50.69, and a range of 83.33-29.17. The value of 25th percentile for the score was 41.66 and the 75th percentile was 58.68. Conclusion: Integrating the training in CSC with the current curricula in medical schools, will provide the students the opportunity to perform the ph/ex completely and gain an acceptable and high quality professional function which will end in improving the patient satisfaction and reducing the costs of health and treatment services for the individuals, the families and the community. Keywords: CLINICAL SKILL, TEACHING PROCEDURE

  11. Examining physical activity service provision to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD communities in Australia: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Caperchione

    Full Text Available Strong evidence exists for the role of physical activity in preventing and managing a range of chronic health conditions. A particular challenge in promoting physical activity as a health strategy exists in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD groups, as such groups demonstrate high risk for a range of non-communicable diseases. The aim of this research was to examine the perspective of multicultural health service providers for CALD groups with respect to the physical activity services/initiatives on offer, access barriers to these services, and ideas for future service delivery in this area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 multicultural health service providers across the capital cities of the three most populous states in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria, and thematic content analysis was used to examine the data. Findings indicated that the majority of physical activity initiatives were associated with organizations offering other social services for CALD communities but were greatly restrained by resources. As well, it was found that most services were not designed by taking into account specific cultural requirements for CALD communities or their cultural expectations. Common barriers identified to service uptake were classified as socio-cultural (e.g., gender, language, context of health and environmental (e.g., transportation in nature. These findings should be utilized when planning future physical activity and health promotion initiatives for increasing CALD participation. In particular, programs need to be culturally tailored to the specific expectations of CALD groups, addressing cultural safety and sensitivity, and should be in partnership with other organizations to extend the reach and capacity.

  12. Accuracy of physical examination in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a common, potentially treatable endocrine disorder. Since hypothyroidism is not always associated with the signs and symptoms typically attributed to it, the diagnosis is often missed. Conversely, patients with typical signs and symptoms may not have the disease when laboratory tests are performed. Aims: We aimed to determine the accuracy of physical examination in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Setting and design: Prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional diagnostic study. Material and Methods: Consecutive outpatients from the medicine department were screened and an independent comparison of physical signs (coarse skin, puffy face, slow movements, bradycardia, pretibial oedema and ankle reflex against thyroid hormone assay (TSH and FT4 was performed. Statistical analysis: Diagnostic accuracy was measured as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, negative likelihood ratios and positive and negative predictive values. Results: Of the 1450 patients screened, 130 patients (102 women and 28 men underwent both clinical examination and thyroid function tests. Twenty-three patients (18% were diagnosed to have hypothyroidism by thyroid hormone assays. No single sign could easily discriminate a euthyroid from a hypothyroid patient (range of positive likelihood ratio (LR+ 1.0 to 3.88; range of negative likelihood ratio (LR-: 0.42 to 1.0. No physical sign generated a likelihood ratio large enough to increase the post-test probability significantly. The combination of signs that had the highest likelihood ratios (coarse skin, bradycardia and delayed ankle reflex was associated with modest accuracy (LR+ 3.75; LR- 0.48. Conclusion: Clinicians cannot rely exclusively on physical examination to confirm or rule out hypothyroidism. Patients with suspected hypothyroidism require a diagnostic workup that includes thyroid hormone assays.

  13. Self-detection and clinical breast examination: comparison of the two "classical" physical examination methods for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne Dominique; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Schmid, Seraina Margaretha; Schötzau, Andreas; Güth, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    This is the first comprehensive analysis comparing specific aspects of tumor detection between the two "traditional" breast cancer detection methods self-detection (SD) and clinical breast examination (CBE). a) Which method is better in detecting smaller tumors? Both methods showed similar mean tumor diameters (SD: 22.1 mm vs. CBE: 21.9 mm; p = 0.991). b) Different frequency distributions of tumor locations would indicate that certain locations in the breast are more difficult to palpate: comparison of both methods showed comparable results (p = 0.835). c) General differences in tumor sizes with regard to certain locations would be of importance because the patients and/or the physicians could be educated to pay particular attention to certain locations during physical examination, where larger tumors tend to be found: tumors located in the central region were with 25.0 mm significantly larger than those in the peripheral regions of the breast (superior: 21.6 mm, p = 0.001; inferior: 21.6 mm, p = 0.015; lateral: 21.9 mm, p = 0.002; medial (20.9 mm, p = 0.001). Tumor sizes within the four peripheral regions did not differ significantly. d) Patients whose tumors were found by CBE were older than those whose tumors were found by SD (67 years vs. 60 years, p < 0.001). annual CBE should be an integral part of general medical care in older women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A suggested model for physical examination and conservative treatment of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Stern, Ben; Reiman, Michael P; Tarara, Dan; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (AP) is a chronic debilitating syndrome that affects many athletes. As a syndrome, AP is difficult to diagnose both with clinical examination and imaging. AP is also a challenge for conservative intervention with randomized controlled trials showing mixed success rates. In other syndromes where clinical diagnosis and conservative treatment have been less than clear, a paradigm has been suggested as a framework for clinical decision making. To propose a new clinical diagnostic and treatment paradigm for the conservative management of AP. Relevant studies were viewed with regard to diagnosis and intervention and where a gap in evidence existed, clinical expertise was used to fill that gap and duly noted. A new paradigm is proposed to assist with clinical diagnosis and non-surgical intervention in patients suffering with AP. The level of evidence supporting this paradigm, according to the SORT taxonomy, is primarily level 2B. Further testing is warranted but following the suggested paradigm should lead to a clearer diagnosis of AP and allow more meaningful research into homogeneous patient populations within the AP diagnostic cluster. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): 2B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the role of acculturation in the leisure-time physical activity of South Asians living in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gordon J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Mummery, W Kerry; Chau, Shirley

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leisure-time physical activity of South Asians living in Canada using a four-mode, bidimensional acculturation framework. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. A random sample (N=204) of South Asian adults living in Calgary, Canada completed a telephone interview that assessed their leisure-time physical activity and acculturation. Interviews were conducted in either English or Punjabi, depending on participant preference. Cluster analysis identified four acculturation clusters: Low-Separated and High-Separated (with separation signifying different preference levels for maintaining one's heritage culture while distancing oneself from the mainstream culture); and Integrated-Heritage and Integrated-Mainstream (with integration indicating a preference for maintaining one's heritage culture and being involved in the mainstream culture-albeit with the former cluster emphasizing heritage more whereas the latter cluster emphasized the mainstream more). A MANOVA performed on light, moderate, and vigorous leisure-time physical activity using the four clusters was significant (p<.05). Moderate leisure-time physical activity was greater for the two separated clusters than the two integrated clusters (p<.05), with the Separated-Low cluster being greater than both the Integrated-Mainstream (p<.05) and the Integrated-Heritage (p<.01) clusters. Vigorous leisure-time physical activity was greater for the two integrated clusters than the two separated clusters (p<.01), with the Integrated-Mainstream cluster being greater than both the Separated-Low (p<.05) and Separated-High (p<.01) clusters. An integrative, four-mode bidimensional approach should be employed when developing messages and designing programs to promote and encourage leisure-time physical activity in South Asian communities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical activity patterns and socioeconomic position: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively

  17. How Much Walking Is Needed To Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2007 ACSM/AHA Physical Activity Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2007 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) physical activity guidelines recommend adults engage in either 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 60 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity per week to derive health benefits. Purpose In a 6-month clinical trial, we examined whether walking programs of moderate (leisurely-paced) and vigorous (fast-paced) intensity produced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness as predicted by the ACSM/AHA guidelines. Methods Participants (N = 155) were instructed to walk 30 minutes per day on 5 or more days per week, at either a moderate or vigorous intensity level (45–55% or 65–75% of maximum heart rate reserve [HRres ], respectively). Within each condition, we categorized participants based on their mean weekly amounts of exercise as reflected in written self-monitoring logs. Fitness was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test at pre- and post-treatment. This trial was conducted in Gainesville, FL between 1999 and 2003. Results Mean minutes of walking were related to changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in the vigorous (r = .47; p = exercise compared with those with low amounts of exercise. Conclusions Clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were observed in participants who walked a minimum of 60 minutes per week at a fast-pace but not those who walked at a leisurely-pace. These findings support the 2007 ACSM/AHA physical activity recommendations regarding vigorous, but not moderate, intensity physical activity for cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:21699118

  18. Hip and Lumbar Spine Physical Examination Findings in People Presenting With Low Back Pain, With or Without Lower Extremity Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Cheng, Abby; Steger-May, Karen; Maheshwari, Vaibhav; Van Dillen, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study, cross-sectional design. Background The hip-spine syndrome is described in patients with known arthritis of the hip. This study describes the hip examination findings of people presenting with low back pain (LBP). Objectives To (1) report examination findings of the hip in patients with LBP and (2) compare pain and function in patients with positive hip examination findings to those in patients without positive hip examination findings. Methods An examination and validated questionnaires of spine and hip pain and function were completed. Pain and function scores were compared between patients with and without positive hip findings. Results Consecutive patients (68 women, 33 men) with a mean age of 47.6 years (range, 18.4-79.8 years) participated. On physical examination, 81 (80%) had reduced hip flexion; 76 (75%) had reduced hip internal rotation; and 25 (25%) had 1, 32 (32%) had 2, and 23 (23%) had 3 positive provocative hip tests. Patients with reduced hip flexion had worse LBP-related (mean modified Oswestry Disability Index, 35.3 versus 25.6; P = .04) and hip-related function (mean modified Harris Hip Score, 66.0 versus 82.0; P = .03). Patients with reduced hip internal rotation had worse LBP-related function (mean Roland-Morris questionnaire, 12.4 versus 8.2; P = .003). A positive provocative hip test was coupled with more intense pain (median, 9 versus 7; P = .05) and worse LBP-related (mean Roland-Morris questionnaire, 12.1 versus 8.5; P = .02) and hip-related function (mean modified Harris Hip Score, 65.8 versus 89.7; P = .005). Conclusion Physical examination findings indicating hip dysfunction are common in patients presenting with LBP. Patients with LBP and positive hip examination findings have more pain and worse function compared to patients with LBP but without positive hip examination findings. Level of Evidence Symptom prevalence, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):163-172. Epub 3 Feb 2017. doi:10

  19. An Examination of Exercise-Induced Feeling States and Their Association With Future Participation in Physical Activity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.

  20. Family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia: examining the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cindy C; Wallhagen, Margaret I

    2014-01-01

    To identify strategies to assist family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in dealing with their caregiving demands, nurses must understand these family members' unique needs and how they currently deal with their demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health among FTD family caregivers. Participants were primary caregivers of individuals with FTD (with behavioral symptoms) living at home (N = 61). A small positive association was noted between problem-focused coping and caregiver physical health (r = 0.29, p coping and caregiver mental health (r = 0.21, p = 0.10). However, multiple regression analysis showed that emotion-focused coping (β = 0.46, p coping strategies when dealing with behavioral symptoms manifested by individuals with FTD. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Significant improvement of a clinical training course in physical examination after basic structural changes in the teaching content and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Carolin; Vogelmann, Roger; Lesevic, H; Bott-Flügel, Lorenz; Ott, I; Seyfarth, Melchior

    2013-01-01

    Regular student evaluations at the Technical University Munich indicate the necessity for improvement of the clinical examination course. The aim of this study was to examine if targeted measures to restructure and improve a clinical examination course session lead to a higher level of student satisfaction as well as better self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination. At three medical departments of the Technical University Munich during the 2010 summer semester, the quantitative results of 49 student evaluations (ratings 1-6, German scholastic grading system) of the clinical examination course were compared for a course before and a course after structured measures for improvement. These measures included structured teaching instructions, handouts and additional material from the Internet. 47 evaluations were completed before and 34 evaluations after the measures for improvement. The measures named above led to a significant improvement of the evaluative ratings in the following areas: short introduction to the topic of each clinical examination course (from 2.4±1.2 to1.7±1.0; p=0.0020) and to basic measures of hygiene (from 3.8±1.9 to 2.5±1.8; p=0.004), structured demonstration of each clinical examination step (from 2.9±1.5 to 1.8±1.0; p=0.001), sufficient practice of each clinical examination step (from 3.1±1.8 to 2.2±1.4; p=0.030) structured feedback on each clinical examination step (from 3.0±1.4 to 2.3±1.0; p=0.0070), use of handouts (from 5.2±1.4 to 1.8±1.4; plearning material (from 5.0±1.4 to 3.4±2.0; plearning experience (from 2.4±0.9 to 1.9±0.8; p=0.017), and self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination (from 3.5±1.3 to 2.5±1.1; p<0.01). Structured changes led to significant improvement in the evaluative ratings of a clinical examination course session concerning preparation of the tutors, structure of the course, and confidence in performing physical examinations.

  2. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  3. Assessment of patient's pain-related behavior at physical examination may allow diagnosis of recent osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacchini, Roberto; Paolino, Michela; Faraglia, Silvia; Cinotti, Gianluca; Postacchini, Franco

    2013-09-01

    Although innumerable studies have analyzed the multiple aspects of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, no study has focused on the clinical features related to spine pain in patients with recent osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). To determine whether the assessment of pain-related behavior (P-RB) of patients with osteoporotic VCFs of recent onset may allow the fracture to be strongly suspected, or even diagnosed, at physical examination. Pain-related behavior of elderly patients attending an outpatient spine clinic was evaluated on the basis of six consecutive movements made on the examining table. Fifty-six patients complaining only of lumbar or thoracic pain. The fractured patients (FPs), representing the fracture group (FG), were the 19 who had a recent VCF, whereas the control group (CG) consisted of the remaining 37 patients. Assessment of P-RB was based on six parameters: grimacing, sighing, clenching or blocking eyelids, gaping or strongly tightening the lips, need for help to take positions, and extreme difficulty to turn in the prone position. A score of 1 or a decimal was assigned to each parameter, the final score to each patient being 0 to 6. Three types of injury, acute (I), subacute (II), or chronic (III), were identified on the basis of the time elapsed from the probable occurrence of the fracture. The diagnosis of recent fracture was based on magnetic resonance images. Patients were videotaped during their movements. An examiner, unaware of the clinical history and diagnosis, gave a P-RB score to all patients and indicated whether they had to be placed in FG or CG, and also their presumable type of fracture. Subsequently, a DVD with the videotapes of all patients was given to three independent examiners, not specifically expert of spine conditions, who were asked to make the same evaluations as the first examiner. The mean scores for P-RB given by the first examiner were 4.6 to FG and 0.7 to CG (pPain-related behavior evaluation of

  4. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape ... into their respective receiving water bodies (Tembisa Dam, the Nahoon and Eastern Beach which are part of the Indian Ocean; the Tyume River and the Kat River).

  5. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7950 = Water SA (on-line). 687. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and. Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape Province. MNB Momba1*, AN Osode2 and M Sibewu1.

  6. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  7. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Imran, S.; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, A.; Khurshid, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. Study Design: This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. Results: It was observed that early age at menarche ( 25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size <2.5 cm was more common in both pubescent and reproductive age. While lump size with a range of 2.5-5.0 cm, was observed in all groups of patients. Fibroadenoma is observed in almost all women with pubescent age while both benign and malignant tumour observed in women with reproductive age. Malignant tumour was observed mostly in women with peri/post menopausal status. Conclusion: Study concluded that early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment

  8. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed.

  9. A prospective examination of exercise and barrier self-efficacy to engage in leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

    2009-06-01

    Pregnant women without medical contraindications should accumulate 30 min of moderate exercise on most days of the week, yet many pregnant women do not exercise at recommended levels. The purpose the study was to examine barriers to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and investigate barrier and exercise self-efficacy as predictors of self-reported LTPA during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 160) completed questionnaires eliciting barriers to LTPA, measures of exercise and barrier self-efficacy, and 6-week LTPA recall at gestational weeks 18, 24, 30, and 36. A total of 1,168 barriers were content-analyzed, yielding nine major themes including fatigue, time constraints, and physical limitations. Exercise self-efficacy predicted LTPA from gestational weeks 18 to 24 (beta = 0.32, R(2) = 0.26) and weeks 30 to 36 (beta = 0.41, R(2) = 0.37), while barrier self-efficacy predicted LTPA from weeks 24 to 30 (beta = 0.40, R(2) = 0.32). Pregnant women face numerous barriers to LTPA during pregnancy, the nature of which may change substantially over the course of pregnancy. Higher levels of self-efficacy to exercise and to overcome exercise barriers are associated with greater LTPA during pregnancy. Research and interventions to understand and promote LTPA during pregnancy should explore the dynamic nature of exercise barriers and foster women's confidence to overcome physical activity barriers.

  10. Sociodemographic, psychosocial and physical health correlates of common mental disorder symptoms among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago: Examining ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Logie, Carol

    2016-08-22

    Historical and cultural experiences have shaped the life experiences of cultural communities in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a cultural focus, the goal of this investigation was to examine ethnic variations both in the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms as well as in the associations between sociodemographic, psychosocial, physical health correlates and CMDs among mothers in Trinidad and Tobago. Participants included 1002 mothers (359 African-, 353 Indo- and 290 Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian). Mean comparisons indicated similarities in the levels of depression, somatisation and anxiety across ethnic groups. The associations between physical ill health, experiences of pain and depression and between physical ill health and somatisation were stronger for Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian than Indo-Trinidadian mothers. The relationship between early experiences of domestic violence and depression was stronger for Indo-Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. The associations between early experiences of domestic violence and depression and between experiences of pain and somatisation were stronger for African Trinidadian than Mixed-Ethnic Trinidadian mothers. Thus beyond the direct effects, mothers belonging to specific ethnic groups indicated greater or lesser vulnerabilities to CMDs depending on their exposure to specific correlates. Results have applicability for the development of culturally sensitive interventions for mothers experiencing CMDs. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  12. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Desiyana, Lydia Septa

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  13. Contrast-enhanced MRI compared with the physical examination in the evaluation of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Mira van; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Marion A.J. van; Berg, J.M. van den [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Haematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6 % female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9 %) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6 % showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. (orig.)

  14. Can the Social Vulnerability Index Be Used for More Than Emergency Preparedness? An Examination Using Youth Physical Fitness Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L; Robb, Sara W; Benson, Kelsey M; White, Alice

    2016-02-01

    The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), a publicly available dataset, is used in emergency preparedness to identify communities in greatest need of resources. The SVI includes multiple socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic indicators that also are associated with physical fitness and physical activity. This study examined the utility of using the SVI to explain variation in youth fitness, including aerobic capacity and body mass index. FITNESSGRAM data from 2,126 Georgia schools were matched at the census tract level with SVI themes of socioeconomic, household composition, minority status and language, and housing and transportation. Multivariate multiple regression models were used to test whether SVI factors explained fitness outcomes, controlling for grade level (ie, elementary, middle, high school) and stratified by gender. SVI themes explained the most variation in aerobic fitness and body mass index for both boys and girls (R2 values 11.5% to 26.6%). Socioeconomic, Minority Status and Language, and Housing and Transportation themes were salient predictors of fitness outcomes. Youth fitness in Georgia was related to socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic themes. The SVI may be a useful needs assessment tool for health officials and researchers examining multilevel influences on health behaviors or identifying communities for prevention efforts.

  15. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary DW Dezman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS. This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG, and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient’s risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%. Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that “atypical” symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while “typical” symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement.

  17. Follow-up of ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: the value of physical examination in patients with pretreatment elevated CA125 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menczer, Joseph; Chetrit, Angela; Sadetzki, Siegal; Golan, Abraham; Levy, Tally

    2006-10-01

    To assess the value of routine periodic physical examination in the follow-up of ovarian (OvC) and primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) patients with pretreatment elevated CA125 levels. Included were patients who had a pretreatment serum CA125 level above normal limits, had completed initial treatment, were in complete clinical remission on completion of the initial treatment and routinely attended the gynecologic oncology outpatient clinic. Recurrence was diagnosed when at least one of the following criteria was abnormal: symptoms, physical examination or elevated serum CA125 levels. Of 69 patients, a recurrence was diagnosed in 43. Abnormal physical examination for diagnosis of recurrence yielded a sensitivity rate of only 34.9%. The diagnosis of recurrence was based on an abnormal physical examination alone in 2 (4.6%) patients. In OvC and PPC patients with elevated pretreatment CA125 levels, physical examination has a limited impact on the diagnosis of recurrence.

  18. A practical, evidence-based, comprehensive (PEC) physical examination for diagnosing pathology of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Samuel; Krill, Michael K; Amoo-Achampong, Kelms; Kwon, KiHyun; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Clinical examination of the shoulder joint has gained attention as clinicians aim to use an evidence-based examination of the biceps tendon, with the desire for a proper diagnosis while minimizing costly imaging procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a decision tree analysis that enables the development of a clinical algorithm for diagnosing long head of biceps (LHB) pathology. A literature review of Level I and II diagnostic studies was conducted to extract characteristics of clinical tests for LHB pathology through a systematic review of PubMed, Medline, Ovid, and Cochrane Review databases. Tests were combined in series and parallel to determine sensitivities and specificities, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined for each combination using a subjective pretest probability. The "gold standard" for diagnosis in all included studies was arthroscopy or arthrotomy. The optimal testing modality was use of the uppercut test combined with the tenderness to palpation of the biceps tendon test. This combination achieved a sensitivity of 88.4% when performed in parallel and a specificity of 93.8% when performed in series. These tests used in combination optimize post-test probability accuracy greater than any single individual test. Performing the uppercut test and biceps groove tenderness to palpation test together has the highest sensitivity and specificity of known physical examinations maneuvers to aid in the diagnosis of LHB pathology compared with diagnostic arthroscopy (practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination). A decision tree analysis aides in the practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination diagnostic accuracy post-testing based on the ordinal scale pretest probability. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Accuracy of the Physical Examination for the Diagnosis of Midlumbar and Low Lumbar Nerve Root Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Rainville, James; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Jouve, Cristin; Hartigan, Carol; Limke, Janet; Pena, Enrique; Li, Ling; Swaim, Bryan; Hunter, David J

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment. Objective To determine the accuracy of the physical examination for the diagnosis of midlumbar nerve root impingement (L2, L3, or L4), low lumbar nerve root impingement (L5 or S1) and level-specific lumbar nerve root impingement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using individual tests and combinations of tests. Summary of Background Data The sensitivity and specificity of the physical examination for the localization of nerve root impingement has not been previously studied. Methods Sensitivities, specificities and LRs were calculated for the ability of individual tests and test combinations to predict the presence or absence of nerve root impingement at midlumbar, low lumbar, and specific nerve root levels. Results LRs ≥5.0 indicate moderate to large changes from pre-test probability of nerve root impingement to post-test probability. For the diagnosis of midlumbar impingement, the femoral stretch test (FST), crossed femoral stretch test (CFST), medial ankle pinprick sensation, and patellar reflex testing demonstrated LRs ≥5.0 (LR ∞). LRs ≥5.0 were seen with the combinations of FST and either patellar reflex testing (LR 7.0; 95% CI 2.3–21), or the sit-to-stand test (LR ∞). For the diagnosis of low lumbar impingement, the Achilles reflex test demonstrated a LR ≥5.0 (LR 7.1; CI 0.96–53); test combinations did not increase LRs. For the diagnosis of level-specific impingement, LRs ≥5.0 were seen for anterior thigh sensation at L2 (LR 13; 95% CI 1.8–87); FST at L3 (LR 5.7 ; 95% CI 2.3–4.4); patellar reflex testing (LR 7.7; 95% CI 1.7–35), medial ankle sensation (LR ∞), or CFST (LR 13; 95% CI 1.8–87) at L4; and hip abductor strength at L5(LR 11; 95% CI 1.3–84). Test combinations increased LRs for level-specific root impingement at the L4 level only. Conclusions Individual physical examination tests may provide clinical information which substantially alters the likelihood

  20. Examining Motivations to Play Pokémon GO and Their Influence on Perceived Outcomes and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Oriol; Alberico, Claudia; Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron

    2017-10-24

    Pokémon GO is the most played augmented reality game in history. With more than 44 million players at the peak of its popularity, the game has sparked interest on its effects on the young population's health. This pilot study examined motivations to start playing Pokémon GO among a sample of US college students, and how motivations were associated with perceived outcomes of the playing experience and physical activity derived while playing. In November 2016, we asked a sample of 47 US college students (all Pokémon GO players) to complete online surveys and install an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) tool and step counter on their smartphones. The EMA tool prompted a set of questions on playing behavior and physical activity, 3 times per day (12:00 PM, 7:00 PM, and 10:00 PM), for 7 days. We used a factorial analysis to identify 3 distinctive groups of players based on their motivations to start playing Pokémon GO. We tested differences across motivation groups related to 5 unique outcomes using 1-way analysis of variance. We extracted 3 interpretable factors from the clustering of motivations to start playing Pokémon GO: Pokémon and video game fans (n=26, 55% of the sample), physical activity seekers (n=8, 17%), and curious & social (n=13, 28%). The clusters differed significantly on the enjoyment of different aspects of the game, particularly battling, discovering new places, and meeting new people, as well as differences in agreement that playing improved mood and made them more social. Days when playing Pokémon GO were associated with higher number of steps reported at the end of the day, especially among physical activity seekers, but also for Pokémon and video game fans. All groups perceived traffic as a major threat to playing. Days during which Pokémon GO was played were positively associated with a set of beneficial health behaviors, including higher physical activity levels, more socialization, and better mood. Results, however, depended on

  1. Confidence versus Performance as an Indicator of the Presence of Alternative Conceptions and Inadequate Problem-Solving Skills in Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…

  2. Inadequate Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Hospital Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, S; Rijal, B P; Yogi, K N; Sherchand, J B; Parajuli, K; Parajuli, N; Pokhrel, B M

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy for HAP is a common phenomena and one of the indicators of the poor stewardship. This study intended to analyze the efficacy of empirical antibiotics in the light of microbiological data in HAP cases. Suspected cases of HAP were followed for clinico-bacterial evidence, antimicrobial resistance and pre and post culture antibiotic use. The study was taken from February,2014 to July 2014 in department of Microbiology and department of Respiratory medicine prospectively. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Out of 758 cases investigated, 77(10 %) cases were HAP, 65(84%) of them were culture positive and 48(74 %) were late in onset. In early onset cases, isolates were Acinetobacter 10(42%), Escherichia coli 5(21%), S.aureus 4(17%), Klebsiella 1(4%) and Pseudomonas 1(4%). From the late onset cases Acinetobacter 15(28%), Klebsiella 17(32%) and Pseudomonas 13(24%) were isolated. All Acinetobacter, 78% Klebsiella and 36% Pseudomonas isolates were multi drug resistant. Empirical therapies were inadequate in 12(70%) of early onset cases and 44(92%) of late onset type. Cephalosporins were used in 7(41%) of early onset infections but found to be adequate only in 2(12%) cases. Polymyxins were avoided empirically but after cultures were used in 9(19%) cases. Empirical antibiotics were vastly inadequate, more frequently so in late onset infections. Use of cephalosporins empirically in early onset infections and avoiding empirical use of polymyxin antibiotics in late onset infections contributed largely to the findings. Inadequate empirical regimen is a real time feedback for a practitioner to update his knowledge on the local microbiological trends.

  3. Predictors of an inadequate defibrillation safety margin at ICD implantation: insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jonathan C; Marcus, Gregory M; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Sood, Nitesh; Parker, Matthew W; Kluger, Jeffrey; Lampert, Rachel; Russo, Andrea M

    2014-07-22

    Defibrillation testing is often performed to establish effective arrhythmia termination, but predictors and consequences of an inadequate defibrillation safety margin (DSM) remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to develop a simple risk score predictive of an inadequate DSM at implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation and to examine the association of an inadequate DSM with adverse events. A total of 132,477 ICD Registry implantations between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Using logistic regression models, factors most predictive of an inadequate DSM (defined as the lowest successful energy tested 3 days (odds ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.30; p < 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.63 to 2.36; p < 0.0001). A simple risk score identified ICD recipients at risk for an inadequate DSM. An inadequate DSM was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital adverse events. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Groin Pain Associated With Sports Hernia Using Dynamic Ultrasound and Physical Examination: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Chan; Nam, Ki Yeun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Ki Hyung; Lee, Ho Jun; Sim, Gyu Jeong

    2015-12-01

    Groin pain in athletes is a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Sports hernia is one of the common causes of groin pain. We report a case of sports hernia, initially presented as groin pain and aggravated by sports activity. A 19-year-old soccer player visited the outpatient department of general surgery and was referred to the rehabilitation center due to no abnormalities detected in the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography. An incipient direct bulge of the posterior inguinal wall was detected with dynamic ultrasound when abdominal tension was induced by raising both legs during a full inhalation. Surgery was performed and preoperatively both groins showed the presence of inguinal hernia. Diagnosing sports hernia is very challenging. Through careful history documentation and physical examination followed by dynamic ultrasonography, we identified his posterior inguinal wall deficiency for early management.

  5. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  6. An investigation of the relationships among academic performance, clinical performance, critical thinking, and success on the physical therapy licensure examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrely, Ann M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships among clinical education performance, academic performance, critical thinking (CT) skills, and success on the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) of graduates from a post-baccalaureate professional physical therapy program. Results of previous research comparing clinical and academic performance measures have been mixed. Academic performance measures have been linked to CT skills and NPTE performance but identifying factors related to success on the NPTE is unclear. Subjects. Forty-two graduates of one professional physical therapy program participated. The average age at completion of the program was 28.77 years (SD 3.89) with a range of 24-40 years. The sample was primarily female (69%) and White/non-Hispanic (92.9%) with the remaining 7.1% representing Asian/Pacific Islander. Data for this study collected at the end of the academic program included scores for the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), ratings on the Clinical Performance Instrument (CPI), and final Grade Point Average (GPA). The remaining data was self-reported after graduation with each participant providing individual NPTE scores to the researcher. Analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0 to calculate a Pearson product moment correlation comparing the scores on the CCTST, CPI, GPA, and NPTE. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the outcome variable of passing the NPTE on the first attempt and scores on the CCTST, CPI and GPA. Two-tailed Pearson product moment correlation found significant relationships between CCTST scores and success on the NPTE (r=0.35; p=0.023) and between GPA and success on the NPTE (r=0.334; p=0.031). Logistic regression analysis results were not significant for any of the variables. CONCLUSION AND CONCLUSION: This research indicates a relationship exists between CCTST, GPA and the NPTE. Expanding the search for meaningful variables to include admission data

  7. Improving doctor-patient communication: content validity examination of a novel urinary system-simulating physical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, WenGang; Song, YaJun; Zhong, Xiao; Feng, JiaYu; Wang, PingXian; Huang, ChiBing

    2016-01-01

    Effective doctor-patient communication is essential for establishing a successful doctor-patient relationship and implementing high-quality health care. In this study, a novel urinary system-simulating physical model was designed and fabricated, and its content validity for improving doctor-patient communication was examined by conducting a randomized controlled trial in which this system was compared with photographs. A total of 240 inpatients were randomly selected and assigned to six doctors for treatment. After primary diagnosis and treatment had been determined, these patients were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. Patients in the experimental group participated in model-based doctor-patient communication, whereas control group patients received picture-based communication. Within 30 min after this communication, a Demographic Information Survey Scale and a Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) were distributed to investigate patients' demographic characteristics and their assessments of total satisfaction, distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. The study results demonstrated that the individual groups were comparable with respect to demographic variables but that relative to patients in the picture-based communication group, patients in the model-based communication group had significantly higher total satisfaction scores and higher ratings for distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. These results indicate that the physical model is more effective than the pictures at improving doctor-patient communication and patient outcomes. The application of the physical model in doctor-patient communication is helpful and valuable and therefore merits widespread clinical popularization.

  8. A multilevel examination of school and student characteristics associated with physical education class enrollment among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve R; Burkhalter, Robin; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2010-09-01

    Schools can be an efficient venue for promoting physical activity (PA) among adolescents. Physical education (PE) requires investigation because it is a variable associated with adolescent PA levels and its existence in schools represents a significant opportunity for strategies to combat declining PA levels among this population. This article examines the between-school variability in student rates of PE enrollment among a large sample of high schools in Ontario, Canada, and identifies the school- and student-level characteristics associated with PE enrollment. This cross-sectional study utilized self-reported school- and student-level data from administrators and students at 73 high schools. Students' enrollment in PE, demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables was linked to school environment data comprising of school demographics and administrator assessed quality of policies, facilities, and programs related to PA. Analysis involved multilevel modeling. The mean rate of PE enrollment among the 73 high schools was 62.4%, with rates by school ranging from 28.9% to 81.1%. When student demographics, behavioral, and psychosocial factors were controlled for, there was still a school effect for student PE enrollment. The school effect was explained by the provision of daily PE and school median household income. This is the first study to examine the extent to which PE enrollment varies between schools and to identify school factors associated with school variability in rates of PE enrollment. Although most variation in PE enrollment lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy makers.

  9. Diagnosis of knee injuries: comparison of the physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging with the findings from arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Orlando Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and concordance of the physical examination (PE and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in comparison with arthroscopy, in diagnosing knee injuries. METHODS: Prospective study on 72 patients, with evaluation and comparison of PE, MRI and arthroscopic findings, to determine the concordance, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: PE showed sensitivity of 75.00%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44% for medial meniscal (MM lesions, while it showed sensitivity of 47.82%, specificity of 93.87% and accuracy of 79.16% for lateral meniscal (LM lesions. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries, PE showed sensitivity of 88.67%, specificity of 94.73% and accuracy of 90.27%. For MM lesions, MRI showed sensitivity of 92.50%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44%, while for LM injuries, it showed sensitivity of 65.00%, specificity of 88.46% and accuracy of 81.94%. For ACL injuries, MRI showed sensitivity of 86.79%, specificity of 73.68% and accuracy of 83.33%. For ACL injuries, the best concordance was with PE, while for MM and LM lesions, it was with MRI ( p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Meniscal and ligament injuries can be diagnosed through careful physical examination, while requests for MRI are reserved for complex or doubtful cases. PE and MRI used together have high sensitivity for ACL and MM lesions, while for LM lesions the specificity is higher. Level of evidence II - Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference "gold" standard.

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  11. Risk factors for and consequences of inadequate surgical margins in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Mads; Homøe, Preben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine which factors are associated with inadequate surgical margins and to assess the postoperative consequences. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 110 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery during a 2-year period...... was examined. Clinical, histopathologic, and operative variables were related to the surgical margin status. Furthermore postoperative treatment data were compared with margin status. RESULTS: Univariate statistically significant associations were found between the tumor site in the floor of mouth, more...

  12. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Katie E; Flament, Martine F; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Obeid, Nicole; Schubert, Nicholas; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    More physical activity (PA) and less screen time (ST) are positively associated with mental health in adolescents; however, research is limited by short-term designs and the exclusion of ST when examining PA. We examined: (a) changes in PA, ST, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety over four assessments spanning 11years, and (b) bidirectional relationships between initial PA, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of change in each other during adolescence. Between 2006 and 2010, participants from Ottawa Canada (Time1; N=1160, Mean age=13.54years) completed questionnaires at four points covering the ages from 10 to 21years. Latent growth modeling was used. PA decreased over time whereas ST and symptoms of depression and anxiety increased over time. Controlling for sex, ethnicity, school location, zBMI, birth year, and parents' education, initially higher anxiety was associated with initially higher ST (covariance=.88, panxiety were associated with increases in ST (covariance=.07, p=.06) and increases in depression (covariance=.41, panxiety, or depression were found as predictors of change in each other. Interventions targeting depression around age 13 may be useful to prevent further declines in PA. Similarly, interventions to reduce ST may be beneficial for concurrent reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety, irrespective of PA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Adherence to Physical Activity Among Older Adults Using a Geographic Information System: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo; Choi, Mona

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adherence to physical activity (PA) among older adults in Korea using data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANESIV), and to illustrate geographic variations in PA using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A secondary analysis of the KNHANES IV data from 2007 to 2008 was used for this study. Participants of the study included 2,241 older adults over the age of 65. Estimates on adherence to PA were obtained for vigorous, moderate, walking, strengthening, and stretching activities. All estimates were weighted to represent Korean population. The association between participants' characteristics and PA was analyzed using Wald chi-square test. Maps depicting regional variations in PA were created using GIS software. Adherence to PA among Korean older adults who met national recommendations during the period of year 2007-2008 was about 9% in vigorous activity, 10% in moderate activity, and 48% in walking. The most common type of PA was walking. A higher level of PA was associated with male gender, younger age, high level of income and education, and living with family. The majority of older adults did not meet the national PA recommendations, suggesting that consistent surveillance and intervention for PA in the geriatric population are needed in the future. Maps generated using GIS visually showed regional differences in PA among the study participants. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of physical activity in America: a first characterization of physical activity profile using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Chih Jeffrey; Jarosz, Renata; Goldin, Michael; Patel, Amy; Smuck, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    To develop and implement methodologies for characterizing accelerometry-derived patterns of physical activity (PA) in the United States in relation to demographics, anthropometrics, behaviors, and comorbidities using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative database. Computer-generated modeling in silico. A total of 6329 adults in the United States from the NHANES 2003-2004 database. To discover subtle multivariate signal in the dynamic and noisy accelerometry data, we developed a novel approach, termed discretized multiple adaptive regression and implemented the algorithm in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. The intensity of PA decreased with both increased age and increased body mass index. Both greater education and greater income correlate with increased activity over short durations and reduced activity intensity over long durations. Numerous predictors demonstrated effects within activity ranges that may be masked by use of the standard activity intensity intervals. These include age, one of the most robust variables, where we discovered decreasing activities inside the moderate activity range. It also includes gender, where women compared with men have increased proportions of active times up to the center of light activity range, and income greater than $45,000, where a complex effect is seen with little correspondence to existing cut-points. The results presented in this study suggest that the method of multiple regression and heat map visualization can generate insights otherwise hidden in large datasets such as NHANES. A review of the provided heat maps reveals the trends discussed previously involving demographic, anthropometric, comorbidity, and behavioral variables. It also demonstrates the power of accelerometry to expose alterations in PA. Ultimately, this study provides a US population-based norm to

  15. Ultrasound, physical examination, and CA 125 measurement for the detection of recurrence after conservative surgery for early borderline ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, G; Rota, S; Lissoni, A; Meni, A; Brancatelli, G; Buda, A

    2001-04-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors often affect women of childbearing age and the prognosis is outstanding. Given the young age of several patients and the good prognosis, fertility-sparing surgery is considered adequate for stage I tumors. However, women treated conservatively have a relatively small but well-defined risk of recurrence and no study has specifically addressed the optimal follow-up technique. From 1981 to 1997, 164 women underwent fertility-sparing surgery for stage I borderline ovarian tumor and were followed prospectively. After surgery all women underwent physical examination and ultrasound examination every 3 months for 2 years after first diagnosis and every 6 months thereafter. Measurement of serum CA 125 levels was planned every 6 months in patients with a serous tumor. With a median follow-up of 71, months 28 women treated with fertility-sparing surgery (28/164 = 17%) had either recurrence of borderline tumor (23) or recurrence with carcinoma. Complete details of follow-up procedures are available for 24 women and they represent the study population. An abnormal adnexal mass was detected in 18 of 19 women with recurrent borderline tumor. One patient had diagnosis due to persistent free fluid. All five women with invasive carcinoma had diagnosis of a complex adnexal mass. Gynecologic examination was suspicious (palpable mass) in 7 cases and obviously abnormal (large mass or nodules) in another 7. CA 125 serum levels were elevated in 8 cases. Transvaginal ultrasound is currently the most effective diagnostic technique for the follow-up of young patients treated conservatively for early borderline ovarian tumor. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Comparative study of the detection of joint injury in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Mami; Kawakami, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Naoki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Kita, Junko; Okada, Akitomo; Koga, Tomohiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kamachi, Makoto; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hideki; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Takao, Shoichiro; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Uetani, Masataka; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-03-01

    To verify whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven joint injury is sensitive as compared with joint injury determined by physical examination. MRI of the wrist and finger joints of both hands was examined in 51 early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by both plain and gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI. Synovitis, bone edema, and bone erosion (the latter two included as bone lesions at the wrist joints); metacarpophalangeal joints; and proximal interphalangeal joints were considered as MRI-proven joint injury. Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists had given a physical examination just before the MRI study. The presence of tender and/or swollen joints in the same fields as MRI was considered as joint injury on physical examination. The association of MRI-proven joint injury with physical examination-proven joint injury was examined. A total of 1,110 sites were available to be examined. MRI-proven joint injury was found in 521 sites, whereas the other 589 sites were normal. Physical examination-proven joint injury was found in 305 sites, which was significantly low as compared with MRI-proven joint injury (P = 1.1 × 10(-12) versus MRI). Joint injury on physical examination was not found in 81.5% of the sites where MRI findings were normal. Furthermore, an association of the severity of MRI-proven joint injury with that of joint injury on physical examination was clearly demonstrated (P = 1.6 × 10(-15), r(s) = 0.469). Our present data suggest that MRI is not only sensitive but accurately reflects the joint injury in patients with early-stage RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Examining Explanations for the Link Between Bullying Perpetration and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration: Do They Vary by Bullying Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8–10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N =2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840

  18. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  20. The Examination of Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Their Teacher Training to Include Students with Disabilities in General Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Despite legislative mandates, only 32% of states require specific licensure in adapted physical education (APE); consequently, general physical educators are challenged with including students with disabilities into regular classrooms. Although physical education teachers are considered qualified personnel to teach students with disabilities in…

  1. The effect of mere measurement from a cardiovascular examination program on physical activity and sedentary time in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Lisa; Baumann, Sophie; Ullrich, Antje; Weymar, Franziska; John, Ulrich; Ulbricht, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) by self-report or device as well as assessing related health factors may alter those behaviors. Thus, in intervention trials assessments may bias intervention effects. The aim of our study was to examine whether leisure-time PA, transport-related PA, and overall ST measured via self-report vary after assessments and whether a brief tailored letter intervention has an additional effect. Among a sample of subjects with no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular intervention, a number of 175 individuals participated in a study comprising multiple repeated assessments. Of those, 153 were analyzed (mean age 54.5 years, standard deviation = 6.2; 64% women). At baseline, participants attended a cardiovascular examination (standardized measurement of blood pressure and waist circumference, blood sample taking) and wore an accelerometer for seven days. At baseline and after 1, 6, and 12 months, participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A random subsample received a tailored counseling letter intervention at month 1, 3, and 4. Changes in PA and ST from baseline to 12-month follow-up were analyzed using random-effects modelling. From baseline to 1-month assessment, leisure-time PA did not change (Incidence rate ratio = 1.13, p  = .432), transport-related PA increased (Incidence rate ratio = 1.45, p  = .023), and overall ST tended to decrease (b = - 1.96, p  = .060). Further, overall ST decreased from month 6 to month 12 (b = - 0.52, p  = .037). Time trends of the intervention group did not differ significantly from those of the assessment-only group. Results suggest an effect of measurements on PA and ST. Data of random-effects modelling results revealed an increase of transport-related PA after baseline to 1-month assessment. Decreases in overall ST may result from repeated assessments. A brief tailored letter intervention seemed to

  2. The comparisons between thermography and ultrasonography with physical examination for wrist joint assessment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerkvaleekul, Butsabong; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Sungkarat, Witaya; Chitrapazt, Niyata; Fuangfa, Praman; Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonography (US) for detecting wrist arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Although IRT could help us in detecting joint inflammation, IRT studies in JIA patients with wrist arthritis are still limited. Currently, no validated US criteria exist for detecting arthritis, and the most useful parameters between gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) or power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) remain unclear. Forty-six JIA patients were included in this study. Detecting wrist arthritis at varying degrees using IRT and US were compared with physical examination. Sixteen patients had previous wrist arthritis that is currently inactive and 30 still had wrist arthritis. The median ages (IQR) were 7.7 (4.3) and 10.2 (4.8) years, respectively. Fifteen healthy participants were included, with a median age (IQR) of 9.2 (2.0) years. Using IRT, mean temperature (T mean ) and maximum temperature (T max ) at skin surface in the region of interest (ROI) in the arthritis group were higher than in the inactive group and the healthy controls with p  <  0.05. When patients with arthritis were subgroup analyzed by disease severity based on physical examination, the moderate to severe arthritis had T mean and T max higher than the mild arthritis group with statistical significance. The heat distribution index (HDI), two standard deviations of all pixel temperature values in the ROI, in the moderate to severe arthritis group was higher than in the healthy controls (p  =  0.027). The receiver operating characteristic analysis in arthritis detection revealed diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and 71.4% and specificity of 80.0% and 93.3% at cut-off points of T mean   ⩾  31.0 °C and T max   ⩾  32.3 °C, respectively. For US, GSUS and PDUS are useful in detecting arthritis, providing high sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (81.3%). Our study demonstrated that both IRT and US were applicable tools

  3. Patient education for colon cancer screening: a randomized trial of a video mailed before a physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane G; Lemon, Stephenie C; Puleo, Elaine; Estabrook, Barbara; Luckmann, Roger; Erban, Stephen

    2004-11-02

    Colorectal cancer screening is underused, and primary care clinicians are challenged to provide patient education within the constraints of busy practices. To test the effect of an educational video, mailed to patients' homes before a physical examination, on performance of colorectal cancer screening, particularly sigmoidoscopy. Randomized, controlled trial. 5 primary care practices in central Massachusetts. 938 patients age 50 to 74 years who were scheduled for an upcoming physical examination, had no personal history of colorectal cancer, and were eligible for lower-endoscopy screening according to current guidelines. Participants were randomly assigned to receive usual care (n = 488) or a video about colorectal cancer, the importance of early detection, and screening options (n = 450). Baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone assessments were conducted. A dependent variable classified screening since baseline as 1) sigmoidoscopy with or without other tests, 2) another test or test combination, or 3) no tests. Overall screening rates were the same in the intervention and control groups (55%). In regression modeling, intervention participants were nonsignificantly more likely to complete sigmoidoscopy alone or in combination with another test (odds ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.88 to 1.70]). Intervention dose (viewing at least half of the video) was significantly related to receiving sigmoidoscopy with or without another test (odds ratio, 2.81 [CI, 1.85 to 4.26]). Recruitment records showed that at least 23% of people coming for periodic health assessments were currently screened by a lower-endoscopy procedure and therefore were not eligible. The primary care sample studied consisted primarily of middle-class white persons who had high screening rates at baseline. The results may not be generalizable to other populations. The trial was conducted during a period of increased health insurance coverage for lower-endoscopy procedures and public media attention to colon

  4. An examination of eating behaviors, physical activity, and obesity in african american adolescents: gender, socioeconomic status, and residential status differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for

  5. Physical examination instead of laboratory tests for most infants born to mothers colonized with group B Streptococcus: support for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2010 recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Luigi; Ronfani, Luca; Da Riol, Rosalia; Demarini, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    To compare 2 approaches in the management of neonates at risk for group B Streptococcus early-onset sepsis: laboratory tests plus standardized physical examination and standardized physical examination alone. Prospective, sequential study over 2 consecutive 12-month periods, carried out in the maternity hospitals of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (north-eastern Italy). All term infants were included (7628 in the first period, 7611 in the second). In the first period, complete blood count and blood culture were required for all infants at risk, followed by a 48-hour period of observation with a standardized physical examination. In the second period, only standardized physical examination was performed. Study outcomes were: (1) number of neonates treated with antibiotics; and (2) time between onset of signs of possible sepsis and beginning of treatment. There was no difference between the 2 periods in the rate of maternal colonization (19.7% vs 19.8%, P = .8), or in other risk factors. The interval between onset of signs of sepsis and starting of antibiotics was not different in the 2 periods. Significantly fewer infants were treated with antibiotics in the second period (0.5% vs 1.2%, P physical examination seem to offer no advantage over standardized physical examination alone; the latter was associated with fewer antibiotic treatments. Our results are in agreement with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2010 recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the acceptability of Peer Physical Examination (PPE) in medical and osteopathic students: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Rosaria; Piccolo, Annalisa; Consorti, Giacomo; Zurlo, Joseph

    2013-08-22

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of training in medical and osteopathic curricula. The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability of PPE in two classes of medical and osteopathic students after their first experience, to obtain comparative information useful for an understanding of the different professional approaches. The leading hypothesis was that osteopathic students enter the curriculum with a more positive attitude to bodily contact.As a secondary aim, this study validated the new version of a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of PPE. A new version of a previously validated questionnaire and an instrument from the literature (the Examining Fellow Student [EFS] questionnaire) were used for a cross-sectional survey in a class of 129 3rd year medical students and in two parallel classes of 1st year osteopathic students (total of 112 students). The mean score of the new questionnaire was significantly higher for the osteopathic students than for the medical students (53.4 ± 6.3 vs. 43.4 ± 8.9; p student. The EFS mean score also showed a significant difference between the osteopathic and medical students (30.76 ± 2.9 vs. 27.85 ± 4.3; p accounting for 62.8% of the variance. Criterion validity was assessed by correlation with the EFS (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.61). Reliability was expressed in terms of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which equals 0.86. These quantitative results are consistent with previous qualitative research on the process of embodiment both in medicine and osteopathy. The new questionnaire proved to be valid and reliable. The objective assessment of the acceptability of PPE is a way to determine differences in students' attitudes towards contact with the body and can be used for counselling students regarding career choice. This study can also highlight differences between students from different professions and serve as a basis for reflection for improved mutual interprofessional understanding and future

  7. A prospective study examining the influence of cardiac rehabilitation on the sedentary time of highly sedentary, physically inactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Oh, P I; Faulkner, G E; Alter, D A

    2017-09-08

    Prolonged sedentary time is recognized as a distinct health risk, and mortality risks are expected to be greatest for individuals with low exercise levels. It is unknown whether participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs influences sedentary behaviour particularly among those patients expected to be at greatest mortality risk. This study examined the influence of CR participation on sedentary behaviour and identified the proportion and characteristics (socio-demographic and clinical) of patients who do not meet exercise recommendations and have prolonged sedentary times. A prospective study was conducted among patients of an exercise-based CR program and assessments performed at baseline and 3 months. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour information were collected by self-report, and convergent validity was examined on an accelerometer-wearing subsample. Of 468 CR patients approached, 130 participants were recruited with an average sedentary time of 8hours/day. Sedentary behaviour remained consistent at follow-up (relative change= -2.4%, P=0.07) notwithstanding a greater proportion meeting exercise recommendations (relative change= 57.4%). 19.2% of participants were classified to have prolonged sedentary time and not meet exercise recommendations at baseline. No significant differences were found between the characteristics of high-risk individuals and lower risk subgroups. Findings were consistent among the accelerometer-derived subgroup and the overall sample despite poor to moderate convergent validity. These results suggest that the exercise-focus of CR may not reduce sedentary behaviours. Future studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviour-specific reduction strategies are more effective than traditional exercise-based strategies and lead to meaningful improvements in clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics in patients with adequate versus inadequate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055

  9. Attitudes of Students with Learning Disabilities toward Participation in Physical Education: A Teachers' Perspective--Qualitative Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have confirmed that students with disabilities engage in significantly less physical activity than their nondisabled peers in physical education class. One of the elements that influences student participation in physical education class is attitude, and there is a gap in the literature with respect to investigating the attitudes…

  10. Examination of the Attitudes of School of Physical Education and Sports Students towards Teaching Profession in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Turan; Kirtepe, Abdurrahman; Ugurlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the attitudes of the students who are studying in the physical education and sports departments towards the teaching profession. 244 students attending Ahi Evran University School of Physical Education and Sports and Firat University Sports Sciences Faculty Physical Education and Sport Teacher Training,…

  11. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Competitive sports for children and adolescents: should an electrocardiogram be required in the pre-participation physical examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Cláudio Aparício Silva; Foronda, Antonio; Baptista, Luciana de Pádua Silva

    2009-08-01

    The growing number of children and adolescents, aged 7 to 17 years, that participate in competitive sports requires preventive medical care. The pre-participation physical examination (PPE) requires appropriate medical knowledge to insure safe medical clearance. Recent sudden death events related to sports practice have raised doubts concerning the need for a medical evaluation based on medical tests, which due to the delay in its implementation may result in demotivation and abandonment of the sports practice. This is a review study, including data collected during a period of 30 years at the Olympic Training and Research Center (COTP) of the Municipal Secretary of Sports of São Paulo, where future athletes are identified, socially included and trained; and the objective of the study was to evaluate the need for the involvement of medical organizations in the preparation of a EPP protocol for the cardiovascular assessment of this population, according to the Brazilian reality. We had no normative standard, and so we relied on data collected from protocols that were established by other countries, but we defined which conduct to be taken with each of our individuals.

  14. Correlation between Global Rating Scale and Specific Checklist Scores for Professional Behaviour of Physical Therapy Students in Practical Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Turner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the specific item checklist (checklist and global rating scale (GRS scores are correlated in practical skills examinations (PSEs. Professional behaviour was evaluated using both the checklist and GRS scores for 183 students in three PSEs. Mean, standard deviation, and correlation for checklist and GRS scores were calculated for each station, within each PSE. Pass rate for checklist and GRS was determined for each PSE, as well as for each individual checklist item within each PSE. Overall, pass rate was high for both checklist and GRS evaluations of professional behaviour in all PSEs. Generally, mean scores for the checklist and GRS were high, with low standard deviations, resulting in low data variability. Spearman correlation between total checklist and GRS scores was statistically significant for two out of five stations in PSE 1, five out of six stations in PSE 2, and three out of four stations in PSE 3. The GRS is comparable to the checklist for evaluation of professional behaviour in physical therapy (PT students. The correlation between the checklist and GRS appears to become stronger in the assessment of more advanced students.

  15. Bedside lung ultrasound, mobile radiography and physical examination: a comparative analysis of diagnostic tools in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Andrew J; Nalos, Marek; Sue, Kwan-Hing; Hruby, Jan; Campbell, Daniel M; Braham, Rachel M; Orde, Sam R

    2016-06-01

    To compare lung ultrasonography (LUS), chest xray (CXR) and physical examination (Ex) for the detection of pathological abnormalities in the lungs of critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study of 145 patients in the intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital who were undergoing echocardiography for a clinical indication. Each patient was independently assessed by Ex, CXR and LUS on the same day. Examiners were asked to comment on the presence or absence and severity of pleural effusion, lung consolidation and alveolar interstitial syndrome (AIS). Independent expert examiners performed the LUS and an independent radiologist reported on the CXR. Ex, CXR and LUS were in fair agreement with each other in detecting a pulmonary abnormality (CXR v LUS, κ = 0.31; CXR v Ex, κ = 0.29; LUS v Ex, κ = 0.22). LUS detected more abnormalities than did CXR (16.2%; χ(2) = 64.1; P < 0.001) or Ex (23.5%; χ(2) = 121.9; P < 0.001). CXR detected more pleural effusions than LUS (9.3%; χ(2) = 7.6; κ = 0.39), but LUS detected more pleural effusions than Ex (22.8%; χ(2) = 36.4; κ = 0.18). There was no significant difference in the performance of LUS and CXR in quantifying the size of a pleural effusion (Z = -1.2; P = 0.23). Ex underestimated size compared with CXR or LUS. LUS detected more consolidation than CXR (17%; χ(2) = 115.9; P < 0.001) and Ex (16.2%; χ(2) = 90.3; P < 0.001). We saw no difference in performance between CXR and Ex in detecting lung consolidation (0.9%; χ(2) = 0.51; P < 0.48). LUS detected more cases of AIS than CXR (5.5%; χ(2) = 7.9; P = 0.005) and Ex (13%; χ(2) = 25.8; P < 0.001). There was only fair-to-moderate agreement between LUS, CXR and Ex in detecting pulmonary abnormalities, including pleural effusion, lung consolidation and AIS. The higher rate of detection from LUS, combined with its ease of use and increasing accessibility, makes for a powerful diagnostic tool in the ICU.

  16. Physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of superior labrum anterior-posterior lesions of the shoulder: a sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Nirav K; Colton, Anne; Webner, David; Sennett, Brian; Huffman, G Russell

    2008-03-01

    The overall purpose of our study was to examine the sensitivity of physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrogram for the identification of arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesions of the shoulder. An analysis of 51 consecutive patients with arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesions and no history of shoulder dislocation was performed. Before undergoing surgery, all patients underwent a standardized physical examination and had either an MRI and/or MR arthrogram performed. Sensitivity analysis was then performed on the results of both the physical examination maneuvers and the radiologic imaging compared to the arthroscopic findings at surgery. The sensitivity of O'Brien's (active compression) test was 90%, whereas the Mayo (dynamic) shear was 80% and Jobe's relocation test was 76%. The sensitivity of a physical examination with any 1 of these 3 SLAP provocative tests being positive was 100%. Neer's sign (41%) and Hawkin's impingement tests (31%) each had low sensitivity for SLAP lesions. The sensitivity of MRI for SLAP lesions was 67% when interpreted by the performing surgeon, 53% when read by a radiologist. When the MR arthrograms were analyzed alone, the sensitivity was 72% (surgeon) and 50% (radiologist), respectively. All 3 physical examination maneuvers traditionally considered provocative for SLAP pathology (O'Brien's, Mayo shear, and Jobe's relocation) were sensitive for the diagnosis of SLAP lesions. MRI and MR arthrogram imaging had lower sensitivity than these physical examination tests in diagnosing SLAP lesions. Patient history, demographics, and the surgeon's physical examination should remain central to the diagnosis of SLAP lesions. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients with universally applied gold standard.

  17. Evaluating Photographs as a Replacement for the In-Person Physical Examination of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment in Elderly Hospital Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle; Thomas, Jolene; Suen, Jenni; Ong, De Sheng; Sharma, Yogesh

    2018-02-08

    Undernourished patients discharged from the hospital require follow-up; however, attendance at return visits is low. Teleconsultations may allow remote follow-up of undernourished patients; however, no valid method to remotely perform physical examination, a critical component of assessing nutritional status, exists. This study aims to compare agreement between photographs taken by trained dietitians and in-person physical examinations conducted by trained dietitians to rate the overall physical examination section of the scored Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Nested cross-sectional study. Adults aged ≥60 years, admitted to the general medicine unit at Flinders Medical Centre between March 2015 and March 2016, were eligible. All components of the PG-SGA and photographs of muscle and fat sites were collected from 192 participants either in the hospital or at their place of residence after discharge. Validity of photograph-based physical examination was determined by collecting photographic and PG-SGA data from each participant at one encounter by trained dietitians. A dietitian blinded to data collection later assessed de-identified photographs on a computer. Percentage agreement, weighted kappa agreement, sensitivity, and specificity between the photographs and in-person physical examinations were calculated. All data collected were included in the analysis. Overall, the photograph-based physical examination rating achieved a percentage agreement of 75.8% against the in-person assessment, with a weighted kappa agreement of 0.526 (95% CI: 0.416, 0.637; Pphysical examination by trained dietitians achieved a nearly acceptable percentage agreement, moderate weighted kappa, and fair sensitivity-specificity pair. Methodological refinement before field testing with other personnel may improve the agreement and accuracy of photograph-based physical examination. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  19. Racial and Social Class Differences in How Parents Respond to Inadequate Achievement: Consequences for Children's Future Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Keith; Harris, Angel L

    2013-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on parental involvement in children's academic schooling, there is a dearth of knowledge on how parents respond specifically to inadequate academic performance. This study examines whether 1) racial differences exist in parenting philosophy for addressing inadequate achievement, 2) social class has implications for parenting philosophy, and 3) parents' philosophies are consequential for children's academic achievement. Using data from the Child Development Supplement (N=1041) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we sort parents into two categories-those whose parenting repertoires for addressing poor achievement include punitive responses and those whose repertoires do not. We then determine whether racial differences exist between these categories and how various responses within the aforementioned categories are related to students' academic achievement. The findings show that white and black parents have markedly different philosophies on how to respond to inadequate performance, and these differences appear to impact children's achievement in dramatically different ways. Educators and policy makers should pay particular attention to how parents respond to inadequate achievement as imploring parents of inadequately performing students to be more involved without providing them with some guidance might exacerbate the problem.

  20. Who should swing the stethoscope? An audit of baseline physical examination and blood monitoring on new patients accepted by an early intervention in psychosis team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Jim; McAllister, Mark; Blair, Alison

    2009-11-01

    It has been established that patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of physical illness and that physical health screening should be performed when an individual experiences a first episode of psychosis. The aim of the audit was to examine how physical health screening was achieved in the real world of an early intervention in psychosis (EIP) service in Scotland. Of particular interest was considering if primary or secondary care were more effective in providing specific physical health assessment for those presenting to the service. A case note audit was performed. The audit shows that physical examination and blood tests were being completed in the majority of service users under the care of the Esteem service. However, an unacceptably high number were not undergoing sufficient initial screening for metabolic syndrome or having baseline monitoring prior to commencing antipsychotic medication. Our results suggest that relying on primary care to provide physical health screening was not an effective approach in a population experiencing first-episode psychosis. Having a psychiatrist motivated to perform physical health screening within the EIP team may help to improve the uptake of physical health screening. Strategies to improve physical health screening in EIP services are discussed. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Examining acute bi-directional relationships between affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in free-living situations using electronic ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the relationship of physical activity with acute affective and physical feeling states is informed largely by lab-based studies, which have limited generalizability to the natural ecology. This study used ecological momentary assessment to assess subjective affective and physical feeling states in free-living settings across 4 days from 110 non-physically active adults (Age M = 40.4, SD = 9.7). Light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively by an accelerometer. Multilevel modeling was used to test the bi-directional associations between affective and physical feeling states and LPA/MVPA minutes. Higher positive affect, lower negative affect and fatigue were associated with more MVPA over the subsequent 15 min, while higher negative affect and energy were associated with more LPA over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Additionally, more LPA and MVPA were associated with feeling more energetic over the subsequent 15 and 30 min, and more LPA was additionally associated with feeling more negative and less tired over the subsequent 15 and 30 min. Positive and negative affective states might serve as antecedents to but not consequences of MVPA in adults' daily lives. Changes in LPA may be predicted and followed by negative affective states. Physical feeling states appear to lead up to and follow changes in both LPA and MVPA.

  2. The Association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verkooijen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Gert A; Kremers, Stef P J

    2008-01-01

    , sense of coherence, and physically active self-concept as potential mediating and moderating variables. METHOD: Data were obtained through a postal survey among 3,940 Danes aged 16 to 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify significant associations as well...... disappeared. Further analyses revealed that physically active self-concept acted both as a mediator and as a moderator of the studied relationship. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that participation in leisure time physical activity is indeed inversely associated with adolescent smoking, but only when physical...... activity is perceived as an important part of the self. Hence, interventions designed to promote physical activity among youth may also aim to boost physically active self-concepts....

  3. Keeping women active: an examination of the impacts of self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and leadership on women's persistence in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kathleen M; Little, Donna E

    2010-10-01

    Physical inactivity in women is a worldwide problem that has not only been well-documented but has provoked much government concern and policy activity. However, an even more important issue is encouraging women's persistence in physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between women's experiences of participation in a government-funded physical activity festival, their intentions to continue participation, and their participation behavior six months after the festival. Results from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 20 women revealed that enhanced self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and supportive leadership had motivated the women's future intentions to participate. Follow-up surveys showed their levels of interest and participation in physical activity had been maintained. These results enhance our understanding of the relationship between key outcomes of women's physical activity participation and their persistence in physical activity.

  4. Using ecological momentary assessment to examine antecedents and correlates of physical activity bouts in adults age 50+ years: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; King, Abby C

    2009-12-01

    National recommendations supporting the promotion of multiple short (10+ minute) physical activity bouts each day to increase overall physical activity levels in middle-aged and older adults underscore the need to identify antecedents and correlates of such daily physical activity episodes. This pilot study used Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine the time-lagged and concurrent effects of empirically supported social, cognitive, affective, and physiological factors on physical activity among adults age 50+ years. Participants (N = 23) responded to diary prompts on a handheld computer four times per day across a 2-week period. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), self-efficacy, positive and negative affect, control, demand, fatigue, energy, social interactions, and stressful events were assessed during each sequence. Multivariate results showed that greater self-efficacy and control predicted greater MVPA at each subsequent assessment throughout the day (p physical activity levels.

  5. Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Drogset, Jon O; Granviken, Fredrik; Rø, Magne; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2017-01-25

    Physical examination tests of the shoulder (PETS) are clinical examination maneuvers designed to aid the assessment of shoulder complaints. Despite more than 180 PETS described in the literature, evidence of their validity and usefulness in diagnosing the shoulder is questioned. This meta-analysis aims to use diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) to evaluate how much PETS shift overall probability and to rank the test performance of single PETS in order to aid the clinician's choice of which tests to use. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Cochrane guidelines and the PRISMA statement. A fixed effect model was used to assess the overall diagnostic validity of PETS by pooling DOR for different PETS with similar biomechanical rationale when possible. Single PETS were assessed and ranked by DOR. Clinical performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratio. Six thousand nine-hundred abstracts and 202 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 20 articles were eligible and data from 11 articles could be included in the meta-analysis. All PETS for SLAP (superior labral anterior posterior) lesions pooled gave a DOR of 1.38 [1.13, 1.69]. The Supraspinatus test for any full thickness rotator cuff tear obtained the highest DOR of 9.24 (sensitivity was 0.74, specificity 0.77). Compression-Rotation test obtained the highest DOR (6.36) among single PETS for SLAP lesions (sensitivity 0.43, specificity 0.89) and Hawkins test obtained the highest DOR (2.86) for impingement syndrome (sensitivity 0.58, specificity 0.67). No single PETS showed superior clinical test performance. The clinical performance of single PETS is limited. However, when the different PETS for SLAP lesions were pooled, we found a statistical significant change in post-test probability indicating an overall statistical validity. We suggest that clinicians choose their PETS among those with the highest pooled DOR and to assess validity to their own specific clinical

  6. Inadequate doses of hemodialysis. Predisposing factors, causes and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehuén Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001 to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292. V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004. The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001 (n = 18. Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2, vascular access recirculation (n = 1, and error in the samples (n = 1. In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  8. Incremental Value of Pocket-Sized Echocardiography in Addition to Physical Examination during Inpatient Cardiology Evaluation: A Multicenter Italian Study (SIEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bello, Vitantonio; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Conte, Lorenzo; Fabiani, Iacopo; Posteraro, Alfredo; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Barletta, Valentina; Nicastro, Irene; Mariotti, Egidio; Severino, Sergio; Caso, Pio; Benedetto, Frank; Savino, Ketty; Carerj, Scipione

    2015-10-01

    We prospectively assessed the incremental value of a pocket-sized echocardiography (PSE) device during cardiology consultations, in addition to physical examination, ECG reading, and chest x-ray. A total of 443 consecutive patients (53% men), referred for bedside consultations, underwent physical examination, ECG, and CXR, followed by PSE examination. The physician completed a detailed questionnaire (clinical and echocardiographic data, scanning time, abnormal results). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was generated to test the predictive discrimination value of the different methods. The incremental value of PSE examination compared to clinical visit alone or combined with ECG results was expressed as a global chi-square value. The PSE examination did not influence the definitive diagnosis in only 23.5% of cases, while 25.3% of the diagnoses were confirmed and verified by PSE. The clinical diagnosis was enriched by PSE in 21.9% of cases, and the diagnosis was changed in 26.2%. The area under curve (AUC) of physical examination + ECG results (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 67%) was significantly higher than physical examination alone (sensitivity: 75%; specificity: 62%) (P echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  10. Beyond Performance Metrics: Examining a Decrease in Students' Physics Self-Efficacy through a Social Networks Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Remy; Brewe, Eric; Zwolak, Justyna P.; Potvin, Geoff; Williams, Eric A.; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-01-01

    The Modeling Instruction (MI) approach to introductory physics manifests significant increases in student conceptual understanding and attitudes toward physics. In light of these findings, we investigated changes in student self-efficacy while considering the construct's contribution to the career-decision making process. Students in the Fall 2014…

  11. An Examination of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Comprehension of the Concept of Physics through Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutlu, Isil

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to lay bare pre-service primary school teachers' perception of "physics" through metaphors. The study was realized with the participation of 38 freshmen pre-service teachers taking General Physics at a public university. Data of the study were obtained with participants filling the blanks in the following…

  12. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. An examination of high school students' attitudes toward physical education with regard to sex and sport participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Canan; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed attitudes of high school students toward physical education with regard to sex and sport participation. A total of 440 sport participants (175 girls and 265 boys) and of 427 nonsport participants (227 girls and 200 boys), all of whom were 15 yr. old, voluntarily participated. The Attitudes Toward Physical Education Scale was administered to assess participants' attitudes toward physical education. The results of 2 x 2 (Sex x Sports Participation) analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in attitudes toward physical education between sport participants and nonsport participants, with the former scoring higher, and a difference between boys and girls, with boys scoring higher. However, there was no significant interaction between sex and sports participation on attitudes toward physical education. In general, sport participants had more favorable Attitudes Toward Physical Education scores than nonsport participants, and high school boys scored significantly higher than girls. There was a significant difference in Attitudes Toward Physical Education scores between female and male high school students, with boys having more favorable attitude scores.

  14. Comparing the frequency of physical examination techniques performed by associate and baccalaureate degree prepared nurses in clinical practice: does education make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean

    2006-03-01

    Rapid changes in health care have underscored the need for reform in health professions education, including nursing education. One of many problems cited in the nursing and other health sciences education literature is overcrowded curricula; therefore, an evaluation of content is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the frequency that physical examination techniques are performed by associate and baccalaureate degree prepared nurses. Participants completed a survey on performance of various physical examination techniques. A Mann-Whitney test showed no differences between the two groups in terms of frequency of techniques performed. A small negative correlation was found between frequency and years of experience with the nutrition assessment category. A comparison of physical examination content covered in baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs is needed to further understand these findings.

  15. Utility of Postoperative Radiographs for Pediatric Scoliosis: Association Between History and Physical Examination Findings and Radiographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, David N; Bible, Jesse E; Gadomski, Stephen P; Samade, Richard; Armaghani, Sheyan; Mencio, Gregory A; Devin, Clinton J

    2014-07-02

    Postoperative radiographs are routinely obtained following surgery for the correction of scoliosis in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the utility of obtaining routine postoperative radiographs in the management of these patients. A total of 1969 clinic notes and corresponding radiographs regarding 451 consecutive patients with scoliosis (age range, ten to eighteen years) who had surgical correction over a ten-year period at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Curve etiology, preoperative curve characteristics, and surgical procedures performed were recorded. All postoperative clinic notes and radiographs were reviewed for abnormalities and changes in treatment course. It was then determined whether clinical signs and symptoms and/or abnormal radiographic findings led to a change in treatment course, which was defined as a therapeutic intervention or further diagnostic testing. Of the 451 patients in this study (average age [and standard deviation], 14.7 ± 2.4 years), 72.5% had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 23.3% had neuromuscular scoliosis, and 4.2% had other underlying causes of scoliosis. A change in treatment course occurred in the cases of forty-two patients, all of whom had symptomatic findings on postoperative history and physical examination and only fifteen of whom had supportive abnormal findings on postoperative radiographs. Curve etiology and surgical procedures performed had no impact on radiographic utility. A significant increase in utility was seen for radiographs obtained at visits one year or more following surgery compared with those obtained at visits less than one year following surgery (1.7% compared with 0.3%, p = 0.001). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of routine postoperative radiographs in guiding treatment course were 35.7%, 98.1%, 28.8%, and 98.6%, respectively. Routine radiographs provide low utility in guiding

  16. Correlation of liver stiffness measured by FibroScan with sex and age in healthy adults undergoing physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Chongshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the reference range of liver stiffness in healthy population, and to investigate the influence of age and sex on liver stiffness. MethodsA total of 1794 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in China National Petroleum Corporation Central Hospital from October 1, 2012 to October 31, 2014 were enrolled, and FibroScan was used to perform liver stiffness measurement (LSM. Since LSM value was not normally distributed, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare LSM value between male and female patients, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LSM value between different age groups, and the Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between LSM value and age. The one-sided percentile method was used to determine the range of normal reference values in male and female subjects or in different age groups. ResultsLSM was successfully performed in 1590 patients, and the rate of successful measurement was 88.63%. A total of 107 patients were excluded due to abnormal liver enzymes. The analysis showed that LSM value showed a significant difference between male and female subjects (Z=-4.980, P<0.001, as well as between different age groups (χ2=16.983, P=0.001. Age was positively correlated with LSM value (r=0.087, P=0.001. The reference range was estimated to be ≤7.1 kPa in adults, ≤7.0 kPa in females, and ≤7.2 kPa in males. From the perspective of age, the reference range was estimated to be ≤6.8 kPa in persons aged 20-29 years, ≤6.7 kPa in persons aged 30-44 years, ≤7.8 kPa in persons aged 45-59 years, and ≤8.8 kPa in persons aged 60-74 years. ConclusionLiver stiffness value is influenced by sex and age. Sex and age should be taken into account while performing liver stiffness measurement in healthy subjects.

  17. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær; Thomsen Ernst, Martin; Fredens, Kjeld; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Wedderkopp, Niels; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Gudex, Claire; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2016-04-11

    Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013. Eligible schools in two municipalities in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate in the study. After stratification by municipality, twelve schools were randomized to either an intervention group or a control group, comprising a total of 505 children with mean age 7.2 ± 0.3 years. The intervention was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools' math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire filled out by the parents), creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT), aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test) and body mass index. PA during math lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school) were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS)-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register their children's PA behavior in leisure time. The results of this randomized controlled trial are expected to provide schools and policy-makers with significant new insights into the potential of classroom

  18. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  19. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Have

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of physical activity (PA into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. Methods The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013. Eligible schools in two municipalities in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate in the study. After stratification by municipality, twelve schools were randomized to either an intervention group or a control group, comprising a total of 505 children with mean age 7.2 ± 0.3 years. The intervention was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools’ math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF questionnaire filled out by the parents, creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT, aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test and body mass index. PA during math lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register their children’s PA behavior in leisure time. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial are expected to provide schools and policy-makers with

  20. Initial treatment of severe malaria in children is inadequate – a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -medicated at home. Initial consultations are at primary local health facilities where less effective drugs are prescribed at inadequate dosages. Recommended ACTs were also often prescribed at inadequate dosages. Education in the use of ...

  1. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus

    2012-11-09

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Greek pre-service physical education teachers’ beliefs about curricular orientations: Instrument validation and examination of four important goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Adamakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The way people interpret reality is influenced by their mental constructions, their cognitive abilities and their beliefs. Physical Education (PE students have a wide range of formed beliefs concerning the purposes of PE, which cannot be easily modified, even during undergraduate studies. OBJECTIVE: This study validated the scores from a previously constructed questionnaire and investigated the Physical Education students’ belief systems toward the Greek curricular outcome goals. METHODS: Students (N = 483; males = 259, females = 224 from a Greek Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. They completed the Greek version of the four factor instrument “Attitudes/beliefs toward curriculum in physical education”. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the validation of the instrument and MANOVAs followed in order to control for group differences. Finally, a profile analysis was run in order to determine if PE students considered each goal to be equally important. RESULTS: The validation of the instrument confirmed the proposed four factors dependant model. Both internal consistency and the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices produced valid and reliable scores. The profile analysis was significant, indicating that students did not view the outcome goals as equally important. The leading goal was physical activity and fitness, followed by self-actualization, social development and motor skill development. MANOVA results for comparisons between sub-groups revealed significant differences only between genders. CONCLUSIONS: Between groups similarities and differences are discussed, focusing on the classification of the four important outcome goals. Currently, Greek Physical Education students consider physical activity and fitness outcome goal as the most important, while motor skill development is considered the least important one.

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  5. Keeping the Physical Educator "Connected" an Examination of Comfort Level, Usage and Professional Development Available for Technology Integration in the Curricular Area of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matthew R.; Worrell, Vicki; Unruh, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Schools continue to integrate the use of technology, and gymnasiums are not an exception. The purpose of the study was to determine the comfort level of Physical Education teachers integrating technology in the gymnasium, determine types of professional development provided for technology use, and potential barriers associated with technology…

  6. A Daily Process Examination of the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Verbal and Physical Aggression in Community Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  7. Walkable for whom? Examining the role of the built environment on the neighbourhood-based physical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loptson, Kristjana; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy

    2012-07-26

    To date, only a few studies have attempted to study the processes by which community design and the built and social environments affect individual physical activity, especially in children. Qualitative enquiry is useful for exploring perceptions and decision-making, and to understand the processes involved in how people interact with their environments. This study used qualitative methods to gain insight into the pathways linking the neighbourhood environment with children's activity patterns. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews with 24 child-parent dyads (children aged 10-14 years). Families lived in neighbourhoods ranging from lowest to highest median income and representing the three main design types found in Saskatoon - urban, semi-suburban and suburban. Parents and children underscored the importance of safe environments for children's physical activity: streets or paths they can cycle on without feeling threatened, parks and green spaces free of criminal activity, and neighbourhoods where people know each other and children have friends to play with. Although grid-pattern urban neighbourhoods with a high density of destinations may in principle promote active transportation, the higher levels of crime and traffic danger that tend to exist in these areas may hinder physical activity in children.CONOCLUSION: Understanding what facilitates activity in children is a complex endeavour. It requires understanding the barriers to physical activity present at the neighbourhood level as well as social and perceptual factors that act in interdependent ways to either promote or hinder children's physical activity.

  8. Perceptions and the role of group exercise among New York City adults, 2010-2011: an examination of interpersonal factors and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Melanie J; Yi, Stella S; Bartley, Katherine F; Eisenhower, Donna L

    2015-03-01

    To examine associations of descriptive norms (i.e., behaviors of social group members) and exercising 'with a partner' or 'as a part of a group' on weekly leisure-time physical activity. T-tests and adjusted multivariable linear models were used to test the associations between descriptive norms and exercising with a partner or as a part of a group with self-reported leisure-time physical activity using the cross-sectional, population-based New York City Physical Activity and Transit (PAT) Survey 2010-2011 (n=3806). Overall, 70.6% of adult New Yorkers reported having physically active friends. Having active friends was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity; however, the effect varied by sex. Compared to those who did not have active friends, males with active friends reported two times more activity (56 min/week) and women reported two and a half times more activity (35 min/week) (both p-valuesPhysically active males and females who usually engaged in leisure-time activities as a part of a group reported 1.4 times more activity than those who exercised alone (both p-valuesexercise were associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults. Based on these associations, encouraging group exercise may be an effective strategy for increasing leisure-time physical activity among certain subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inadequate ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis prevention in public hospitals in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W

    2009-04-01

    Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.

  10. Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi

    2017-01-01

    Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.

  11. Metabolic regulation during sport events: factual interpretations and inadequate allegations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Remy Poortmans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Different fuels are available to generate ATP for muscle activities during sport events. Glycogen from striated muscles and liver stores may be converted to lactic acid or almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2, triacylglycerol within the muscle itself and fatty acids from adipose tissue could be converted to CO2 in acting muscles, some free amino acids can be released within the muscle itself and from intestinal stores to sustain the amount of ATP generation indispensable for muscle contraction. All single biochemical reactions, but one, need one or several enzymes to activate the conversion of a substrate into a product. The energy transformation in biochemical reactions is led by application of so-called free energy. Reversible and non-reversible reactions within a metabolic pathway are dependent on specific enzymes near or far from equilibrium. Allosteric enzymes are regulatory enzymes that provide the direction in the pathway. A regulatory enzyme is either activated or inhibited by small regulators (ligands. A reversible substrate cycle between A and B is catalyzed by two enzymes with different fluxes. The need of ATP production for muscle contraction is under the leadership of regulatory enzymes and available substrate stores. The improvement of adapted metabolic reactions under sport training depends on the appropriate increase of regulatory enzymes within the glycolytic and oxidative pathways. The amount of some specific enzymes is increased by training in order to improve the maximum activity of the metabolic pathway. Unfortunately, several publications do not precisely implicate the appropriate enzyme(s to explain or reject the adaptation induced by the training schedule. A few examples will illustrate the factual interpretation and the inadequate allegation.

  12. Inadequate pain relief among patients with primary knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laires, Pedro A; Laíns, Jorge; Miranda, Luís C; Cernadas, Rui; Rajagopalan, Srini; Taylor, Stephanie D; Silva, José C

    Despite the widespread treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), data on treatment patterns, adequacy of pain relief, and quality of life are limited. The prospective multinational Survey of Osteoarthritis Real World Therapies (SORT) was designed to investigate these aspects. To analyze the characteristics and the patient reported outcomes of the Portuguese dataset of SORT at the start of observation. Patients ≥50 years with primary knee OA who were receiving oral or topical analgesics were eligible. Patients were enrolled from seven healthcare centers in Portugal between January and December 2011. Pain and function were evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and WOMAC. Quality of life was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Inadequate pain relief (IPR) was defined as a score >4/10 on item 5 of the BPI. Overall, 197 patients were analyzed. The median age was 67.0 years and 78.2% were female. Mean duration of knee OA was 6.2 years. IPR was reported by 51.3% of patients. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio - OR 2.15 [95%CI 1.1, 4.5]), diabetes (OR 3.1 [95%CI 1.3, 7.7]) and depression (OR 2.24 [95%CI 1.2, 4.3]) were associated with higher risk of IPR. Patients with IPR reported worst outcomes in all dimensions of WOMAC (p<0.001) and in all eight domains and summary components of SF-12 (p<0.001). Our findings indicate that improvements are needed in the management of pain in knee OA in order to achieve better outcomes in terms of pain relief, function and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  14. High diagnostic yield and accuracy of history, physical examination, and ECG in patients with transient loss of consciousness in FAST: The fainting assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Nynke; Boer, Kimberly R.; Colman, Nancy; Bakker, Annemieke; Stam, Jan; van Grieken, Johannes J. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Linzer, Mark; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Wieling, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    Yield and Accuracy of Diagnosing TLOC. Background: Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a common clinical problem. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the yield and accuracy of the initial evaluation, consisting of standardized history, physical examination, and ECG performed by

  15. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, S.M. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses' (PNs') advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were

  16. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, S.M.E. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses’ (PNs’) advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. Subjects/Methods: A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were

  17. Using Rasch Analysis to Examine the Dimensionality Structure and Differential Item Functioning of the Arabic Version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Sinani, Yousra; El Shourbagi, Sahar; Fakhroo, Hessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the Rasch model technique to examine the dimensionality structure and differential item functioning of the Arabic version of the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children (PPASC). A sample of 220 Omani fourth graders (120 males and 100 females) responded to an Arabic translated version of the PPASC. Data on students'…

  18. Physics 30 Program Machine-Scorable Open-Ended Questions: Unit 2: Electric and Magnetic Forces. Diploma Examinations Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document outlines the use of machine-scorable open-ended questions for the evaluation of Physics 30 in Alberta. Contents include: (1) an introduction to the questions; (2) sample instruction sheet; (3) fifteen sample items; (4) item information including the key, difficulty, and source of each item; (5) solutions to items having multiple…

  19. An Examination of Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Utilizing Contemporary Music in the Classroom Environment: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David C.; Pleban, Francis T.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To provide further information regarding physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of incorporating music in PE lessons and to evaluate the influence of music on the classroom environment using a qualitative approach. Method: Electronic survey interviews were conducted with 26 veteran PE instructors (10 male, 16 female), from 7…

  20. Do Experts and Novices Direct Attention Differently in Examining Physics Diagrams? A Study of Change Detection Using the Flicker Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphew, Jason W.; Mestre, Jose P.; Ross, Brian H.; Strand, Natalie E.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that experts identify or perceive meaningful patterns in visual stimuli related to their domain of expertise. This study explores the speed with which experts and novices detect changes in physics diagrams. Since change detection depends on where individuals direct their attention, differences in the speed with which experts and…

  1. Examining the Moderating Effect of Appearance Impression Motivation on the Relationship between Perceived Physical Appearance and Social Physique Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorose, Anthony J.; Hollembeak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the conceptual importance of impression motivation in predicting social anxiety (Leary & Kowalski, 1995; Schlenker & Leary, 1982), no research has tested the link between impression motivation specifically regarding one's physical appearance (appearance impression motivation, or AIM) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this…

  2. Assessing Morphological Awareness as a Predictor of Academic Performance and Performance on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kelley A.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to validate a method for assessing Morphological Awareness (MA) using multimorphemic words commonly used in the academic and clinical practice settings of physical therapy. The Medical Morphology Test (MMT) was developed for this study and was compared to scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT©). The…

  3. A qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory to examine determinants of guideline adherence among physical therapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, Janneke; Rutten, Geert Mj; Rutten, Steven Tj; Kremers, Stef P.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in physical therapy. Many evidence-based guidelines, however, are not used extensively after dissemination, and interventions aimed at increasing guideline adherence often have limited effects. As a prerequisite for changing this situation, the aims

  4. A qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory to examine determinants of guideline adherence among physical therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harting, J.; Rutten, G.M.J.; Rutten, S.T.; Kremers, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in physical therapy. Many evidence-based guidelines, however, are not used extensively after dissemination, and interventions aimed at increasing guideline adherence often have limited effects. OBJECTIVE: As a prerequisite for changing

  5. Teasing apart the effect of visibility and physical co-presence to examine the effect of CMC on interpersonal attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Emmelyn; Antheunis, Marjolijn; Schouten, Alexander; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the possible difference in interpersonal attraction between communicators in cue-rich computer-mediated communication (CMC) and face-to-face (FtF) communication. The first aim was to determine whether physical co-presence and visibility may account for differences in

  6. Examining Disclosure of Physical and Sexual Victimization by Method in Samples of Women Involved in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Karim, Nidal; Sullivan, Cris M.; Beeble, Marisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions vary on what constitutes sexual and/or physical abuse, and scholars have debated on which methods might yield the most accurate response rates for capturing this sensitive information. Although some studies suggest respondents prefer methods that provide anonymity, previous studies have not utilized high-risk or stigmatized…

  7. Examining the accessibility of high-quality physical activity behaviour change support freely available online for men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Camille E; Gelder, Charlotte; Binnewerg, Lena; McIntosh, Megan; Turnbull, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    While the internet is considered a promising avenue for providing physical activity support to prostate cancer survivors, little is known about the accessibility of quality websites in the real world. This work aimed to explore what websites prostate cancer survivors are likely to find when seeking physical activity support online and to evaluate their quality using evidenced-based criteria. A search strategy was developed in consultation with prostate cancer survivors (n = 44) to reflect the most common ways they are likely to search the internet. The search was then conducted by a single reviewer, and identified websites were assessed for quality by two reviewers using an evidence-based quality assessment tool developed for this study. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Of the 45 identified websites, 13 (29%) received a high quality rating, 22 (49%) received a moderate rating and 10 (22%) received a low quality rating. Higher-quality websites tended to have a .org or .gov domain and tended to be located using searches specific to prostate cancer or prostate cancer and exercise. Very few websites contained complete information regarding the physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors, and no websites provided comprehensive behaviour change support. There are some good-quality physical activity websites accessible to men with prostate cancer. However, they may be difficult to find and/or require updating to include complete recommendations and more behaviour change support. Efforts to improve physical activity information online and strategies to direct prostate cancer survivors to higher-quality websites and support services are needed to ensure safety and efficacy.

  8. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  9. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  11. Hairy polyp of the pharynx obscured on physical examination by endotracheal tube, but diagnosed on brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budenz, Cameron L.; Lesperance, Marci M. [University of Michigan Medical School, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gebarski, Stephen [University of Michigan Medical School, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of hairy polyp of the pharynx diagnosed on brain MRI in order to stress the need to examine carefully all tissues included on an imaging study, even those outside the clinically stated region of interest, and to remind practitioners to consider unusual as well as common etiologies for neonatal respiratory distress. Our case is unique in that thorough examination of a brain MRI, ordered in the evaluation of presumed central apnea, led to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  14. A qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory to examine determinants of guideline adherence among physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Rutten, Geert Mj; Rutten, Steven Tj; Kremers, Stef P

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in physical therapy. Many evidence-based guidelines, however, are not used extensively after dissemination, and interventions aimed at increasing guideline adherence often have limited effects. As a prerequisite for changing this situation, the aims of this study were to gain an in-depth understanding of the determinants of guideline adherence among physical therapists in the Netherlands and to evaluate the opportunities of a theoretical framework in this respect. This observational study consisted of 3 focus group interviews (n=12, 10, and 8) between November 2002 and January 2003. Physical therapists were asked to discuss their opinions about and experiences with the Dutch guidelines for low back pain. Data were analyzed qualitatively using a directed approach to content analysis. Both the interview route and the analysis of the interviews were informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Our study yielded in-depth insights into the various determinants of guideline adherence. Overall, the participants had rather unfavorable opinions about issues related to the dissemination of the guidelines (first phase of the diffusion process) and provided relatively little information on the subsequent adoption process (second phase of the diffusion process). The theoretical framework appeared to be a useful tool to properly structure the focus group interviews, to systematically analyze the data collected, and to determine that supplementary interviews would be necessary to cover the entire diffusion process. Our findings indicated that the diffusion process of guidelines among physical therapists was not yet completed. The use of theory can provide added value to guideline implementation studies.

  15. Examining Work Performance in Immersive Virtual Environments versus Face-to-Face Physical Environments through Laboratory Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    well as practical implications. In the balance of the paper, we draw from the educational psychology , immersiveness, and media richness...of this study. 2. Background In this section we summarize succinctly a core set of literature from educational psychology , immersiveness, and...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2.1. Educational psychology The question of what can be accomplished via virtual versus physical

  16. Physical Activity as a Vital Sign: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Ambrose, Kirsten R.; Stiller, Jamie L.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Voisin, Christiane; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Leigh F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is strongly endorsed for managing chronic conditions, and a vital sign tool (indicator of general physical condition) could alert providers of inadequate PA to prompt counseling or referral. This systematic review examined the use, definitions, psychometric properties, and outcomes of brief PA instruments as vital sign measures, with attention primarily to studies focused on arthritis. Methods Electronic databases were searched for English-language literatu...

  17. Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus(C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarze Sieglinde

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Occupational physicians are very often confronted with questions as to the fitness of the postural and locomotor systems, especially the spinal column. Occupational medical assessment and advice can be required by patients with acute symptoms, at routine check-ups, by persons who have problems doing certain jobs, and for expert medical reports as to the fitness of persons with chronic disorders or after operations. Therefore, for occupational medical purposes a physical examination must aim primarily to investigate functions and not structures or radiologic evidence. The physical examination should be structured systematically and according to regions of the body and, together with a specific (pain anamnesis should provide a basis for the medical assessment. This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system, named fokus(C (Funktionsorientierte Koerperliche Untersuchungssystematik, also available on DVD. fokus(C has been developed with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is rather information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use. Here, in contrast to the very extensive measures recommended for orthopaedic and manual diagnosis, for reasons of efficiency and usability of the system in routine occupational medical examinations the examination is structured according to the findings. So it is reduced to that which is most necessary and feasible.

  18. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  19. Daily physical activity predicts degree of insulin resistance: a cross-sectional observational study using the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rachael K; Horowitz, Jeffrey F; Holleman, Robert G; Swartz, Ann M; Strath, Scott J; Kriska, Andrea M; Richardson, Caroline R

    2013-01-28

    This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status. Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, a cross-sectional observational study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control that uses a stratified, multistage probability design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. The analysis included 402 healthy U.S. adults with valid accelerometer, cardiorespiratory fitness, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. After controlling for relevant confounding variables we performed a multiple linear regression to predict homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) based on average daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In our bivariate models, MVPA, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat percentage were all significantly correlated with log HOMA-IR. In the complete model including MVPA and relevant confounding variables, there were strong and significant associations between MVPA and log HOMA-IR (β= -0.1607, P=0.004). In contrast the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and log HOMA-IR was not significant. When using an objective measure of physical activity the amount of time engaged in daily physical activity was associated with lower insulin resistance, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was not. These results suggest that the amount of time engaged in physical activity may be an important determinant for improving glucose metabolism.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  1. Physical examination of the female internal and external genitalia with and without pelvic organ prolapse: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Avita K; Siegelman, Evan S; Arya, Lily A

    2015-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse, a herniation of pelvic organs through the vagina, is a common condition in older women. Pelvic organ prolapse distorts vaginal anatomy making pelvic examination difficult. A clinician must accurately identify anatomic landmarks both in women presenting with symptoms of prolapse and in women noted to have coincidental prolapse during routine gynecologic examination. We present a systematic approach to the female pelvic examination including anatomic landmarks of the external genitalia, vagina, and uterus in women with normal support as well as changes that occur with pelvic organ prolapse. Knowledge and awareness of normal anatomic landmarks will improve a clinician's ability to identify defects in pelvic support and allow for better diagnosis and treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Mikyung; Jo, Jaeseong; Lee, Yunhwan; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Baek, Weon-Chil

    2013-11-01

    this study examined the association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among the community-dwelling Korean elderly. subjects consisted of 2,264 aged 65 years or older in the 2008-09 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as 2 SD below the mean of the appendicular skeletal muscle/weight for healthy young adults. Obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women. Levels of physical activity were classified using the metabolic equivalent task method. the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.1% in men and 11.9% in women. Among those with sarcopenia, obesity was prevalent in 68.3% of men and 65.0% of women. Adjusting for all covariates, compared with those with low physical activity, men who engaged in moderate and high activity were 38% and 74%, respectively, less likely to have sarcopenia (Ptrend physical activity and sarcopenia was not significant. For sarcopenic obesity, men participating in moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.87] and high (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12-0.60) physical activity, compared with low activity, had significantly lower risk (Ptrend = 0.001). In women, high physical activity was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenic obesity (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.86). physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older Korean adults. There were gender differences in the relationship, with stronger associations observed in men than in women.

  3. Beyond performance metrics: Examining a decrease in students' physics self-efficacy through a social networks lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Remy; Brewe, Eric; Zwolak, Justyna P.; Potvin, Geoff; Williams, Eric A.; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-12-01

    The Modeling Instruction (MI) approach to introductory physics manifests significant increases in student conceptual understanding and attitudes toward physics. In light of these findings, we investigated changes in student self-efficacy while considering the construct's contribution to the career-decision making process. Students in the Fall 2014 and 2015 MI courses at Florida International University exhibited a decrease on each of the sources of self-efficacy and overall self-efficacy (N =147 ) as measured by the Sources of Self-Efficacy in Science Courses-Physics (SOSESC-P) survey. This held true regardless of student gender or ethnic group. Given the highly interactive nature of the MI course and the drops observed on the SOSESC-P, we chose to further explore students' changes in self-efficacy as a function of three centrality measures (i.e., relational positions in the classroom social network): inDegree, outDegree, and PageRank. We collected social network data by periodically asking students to list the names of peers with whom they had meaningful interactions. While controlling for PRE scores on the SOSESC-P, bootstrapped linear regressions revealed post-self-efficacy scores to be predicted by PageRank centrality. When disaggregated by the sources of self-efficacy, PageRank centrality was shown to be directly related to students' sense of mastery experiences. InDegree was associated with verbal persuasion experiences, and outDegree with both verbal persuasion and vicarious learning experiences. We posit that analysis of social networks in active learning classrooms helps to reveal nuances in self-efficacy development.

  4. Beyond performance metrics: Examining a decrease in students’ physics self-efficacy through a social networks lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Dou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Modeling Instruction (MI approach to introductory physics manifests significant increases in student conceptual understanding and attitudes toward physics. In light of these findings, we investigated changes in student self-efficacy while considering the construct’s contribution to the career-decision making process. Students in the Fall 2014 and 2015 MI courses at Florida International University exhibited a decrease on each of the sources of self-efficacy and overall self-efficacy (N=147 as measured by the Sources of Self-Efficacy in Science Courses-Physics (SOSESC-P survey. This held true regardless of student gender or ethnic group. Given the highly interactive nature of the MI course and the drops observed on the SOSESC-P, we chose to further explore students’ changes in self-efficacy as a function of three centrality measures (i.e., relational positions in the classroom social network: inDegree, outDegree, and PageRank. We collected social network data by periodically asking students to list the names of peers with whom they had meaningful interactions. While controlling for PRE scores on the SOSESC-P, bootstrapped linear regressions revealed post-self-efficacy scores to be predicted by PageRank centrality. When disaggregated by the sources of self-efficacy, PageRank centrality was shown to be directly related to students’ sense of mastery experiences. InDegree was associated with verbal persuasion experiences, and outDegree with both verbal persuasion and vicarious learning experiences. We posit that analysis of social networks in active learning classrooms helps to reveal nuances in self-efficacy development.

  5. Examining the content of weight, nutrition and physical activity advices provided by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: analysis of videotaped consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, S M E; Noordman, J; van Dulmen, S; Hiddink, G J

    2014-01-01

    To examine the content of Dutch practice nurses' (PNs') advices about weight, nutrition and physical activity to overweight and obese patients. A 100 videotaped real-life PN consultations (The Netherlands, 2010/2011) with overweight or obese patients were selected. An observational checklist was developed to assess frequency and content. Personalization of advices was scored, as also the guidelines on which PNs based their advices. Content analysis was used to identify different categories of advices. About one quarter of advices concerned weight, over two-thirds nutrition and one-third physical activity. Lose weight, eat less fat and be more physically active in general were the main categories for each type of advice. Despite high clarity of advices, lower scores were found for specificity and personalization. Very few nutrition advices were provided in combination with physical activity advices. Weight advices often related to the patient's complaint. PNs seldom set a concrete weight goal. Although benefits of physical activity were discussed, often no practical advices were provided about how to achieve this. Integrated lifestyle advice was not common: advices about nutrition and physical activity were fragmented throughout the consultation. Obesity prevention needs more emphasis in PNs' educational programs.

  6. Examining the Error of Mis-Specifying Nonlinear Confounding Effect with Application on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some confounders are nonlinearly associated with dependent variables, but they are often adjusted using a linear term. The purpose of this study was to examine the error of mis-specifying the nonlinear confounding effect. Methods: We carried out a simulation study to investigate the effect of adjusting for a nonlinear confounder in the…

  7. Unemployment among Women: Examining the Relationship of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P.; Smith, Mark W.; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of…

  8. Using Project-Based Data in Physics to Examine Television Viewing in Relation to Student Performance in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2009-10-01

    Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the number of television sets at home and the number of hours of operation, data emerged that allowed an investigation of associations between each of these variables and student performance in physics. A negative impact on performance was found in its consistent decrease as both the number of sets and the time the sets are on increase. These results provide dramatic independent confirmation of the negative impact of television viewing on achievement determined through meta-analysis of many studies, and are also consistent with those in the literature at large, particularly from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Furthermore, the totally `blind' participation of the subjects lends a degree of authenticity rarely found in a classically designed study. The findings impact scientific literacy, since performance in science and conceptions of science and scientists, are all inextricably linked.

  9. Unemployment among Canadians with physical and a co-morbid mental disability: an examination of the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Erin; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Stuart, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Co-occurring disabilities are common and data indicate that those with both physical and mental disabilities face greater discrimination in the workforce. However, studies that consider disability type in determining labor market outcomes are needed; particularly in Canada. The objective was to examine the association of disability type and unemployment among working-aged Canadians using data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS). The 2006 PALS is a post-censal sample survey of individuals whose everyday activities are limited due to a physical/mental condition. The study design is cross-sectional. Two groups were compared: persons with one or more physical disabilities exclusively vs. those with one or more physical disabilities and a mental disability. We calculated the prevalence of unemployment and used multiple logistic regression to measure the association between disability type and unemployment, while considering relevant covariates. The prevalence of unemployment was 20% overall; 35.4% in those with a co-morbid mental disability and 18.5% in those with exclusively physical disabilities. Those with a mental co-morbidity had approximately double the odds of being unemployed relative to those with exclusively physical disabilities and the effect remained significant (at p disability severity. Compared to those with exclusively physical disabilities, individuals with co-morbid physical and mental disabilities were found to be at a significantly greater disadvantage when accessing employment. More research is needed to clarify whether these findings are indicative of discrimination and to proceed toward removing workplace barriers that persist in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Examination of expert and novice teachers' constructivist-oriented teaching practices using a movement approach to elementary physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Rovegno, I

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of expert and novice teachers' constructivist-oriented teaching practices while using a movement approach to teach elementary physical education. Three expert and three novice teachers' constructivist-oriented teaching practices (18 lessons, 3 each) were evaluated using the Educational Games Observation Rubric (EGOR), a rubric specifically designed and validated for this study. Data sources included transcripts of two formal interviews with each teacher, transcripts of the 18 videotaped lessons, and coding from the EGOR. The expert teachers were more likely than the novice teachers to facilitate students' self-regulation and critical thinking about movement quality, to link new learning to students' prior knowledge and emerging relevance, and to guide students' social interaction. As with the expert teachers, the novice teachers encouraged students to engage in, elaborate on, and share ideas about movement variety tasks.

  11. Examining the Effects of Long Term Exercise Training on Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of 12 - 15 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz ÖZVEREN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make a determination about the case, by searching physical and physiological parameters with Eurofit tests of boy students at İzmir. The research was made on the age group of 12 - 15 years old, volunteer 1002 boy students who are studying at primary schools; those were chosen randomly in Karabağlar, Konak and Buca boroughs in İzmir. Height and weight, body fat percentage, vertical bounce, 20 m. shuttle run test test, max VO2, grip strength, leg strength, back strength, FVC and FEV1 tests were applied to these students. In conclusion, there were significant differences between test group and control group.

  12. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  15. Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B; Tabone, Jiyoung K; Bryan, George M; Taylor, Catherine A; Napoleon-Hanger, Cynthia; Banman, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    This study set out to carry out a feasible, real-world, randomized clinical trial to examine the benefits of home-based paraprofessional parent aide services in reducing physical abuse and neglect risk in high-risk parents. Families were randomly assigned to receive either parent aide plus case management services (n = 73) or case management services only (n = 65), collecting in-home data on physical child abuse and neglect and proximal risk and protective factors, just prior to service initiation, and again after six months of services. Mothers receiving parent aide and case management services reported significant improvements from baseline to six-month follow-up in self-reported indicators of physical child abuse risk, as well as improvements on parental stress, mastery, depression, and anxiety, whereas mothers receiving only case management services did not. The slopes of such observed changes across groups, however, were not found to be statistically significantly different. No discernable improvements were found with regard to indicators of risk for child neglect. As the first randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of parent aide services, this study provides the first controlled evidence examining the potential benefits of this service modality. This study suggests promising trends regarding the benefit of parent aide services with respect to physical child abuse risk reduction and related predictors, but evidence does not appear to suggest that such services, as they are presently delivered, reduce child neglect. These findings support the continued use of parent aide services in cases of physical child abuse and also suggest careful consideration of the ways such services may be better configured to extend their impact, particularly with respect to child neglect risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D'Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (−0.35 to 0.20 and from poor to fair (−0.01 to −0.38 between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001, while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02. Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets.

  17. Examination of