Clarence, Sherran; McKenna, Sioux
Much academic development work that is framed by academic literacies, especially that focused on writing, is concerned with disciplinary conventions and knowledges: conceptual, practical, and procedural. This paper argues, however, that academic literacies work tends to conflate literacy practices with disciplinary knowledge structures, thus…
Sorensen, J. L.; Thellesen, L.; Strandbygaard, J.
and evaluating a multiple-choice question(MCQ) test for use in a multi-disciplinary training program inobstetric-anesthesia emergencies. Methods: A multi-disciplinary working committee with 12members representing six professional healthcare groups andanother 28 participants were involved. Recurrent revisions......Background: The literature is sparse on written test developmentin a post-graduate multi-disciplinary setting. Developing and evalu-ating knowledge tests for use in multi-disciplinary post-graduatetraining is challenging. The objective of this study was to describethe process of developing....... Conclusion: Content and construct validity and reliability wereacceptable. The presented template for the development of thisMCQ test could be useful to others when developing knowledgetests and may enhance the overall quality of test development....
Jun 16, 2014 ... questioned the logic of self-reflection offered by the most recent stage of centric productions of ... articulated the certainty of his thinking self in opposition to the fleeting world of physical appearance. A result of ... and her is oddly a schema that befits the dominating knowledge scheme of the epoch: Science.
Hahn Heidi Ann
Full Text Available In a plenary talk at WMSCI 2012 entitled "Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens," this author asserted that behavioral science practitioners, often "back into" action research – they start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way, i.e., generalizable knowledge, that seems worthwhile to share with their community of practice. It was further asserted that, had the efforts been conceived of as research from the outset, the contributions to the body of knowledge would be more robust and the utility of the projects would improve as well. This paper continues on that theme. Action research and process improvement methods are briefly described and compared. A comparison of two Los Alamos National Laboratory engineering ethics training projects – one developed using a process improvement framework, the other using an action research framework – is put forth to provide evidence that use of a research "lens" can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them. The linkage between the Specifying Learning and Diagnosing stages of the Action Research Cycle provides one mechanism for integrating the knowledge gained into the product or process being studied and should provide a reinforcing loop that leads to continual improvement. The collaborative relationships among researchers and the individual, group, or organization that is the subject of the imp rovement op p ortunity (the "client", who are likely from very different backgrounds, and the interpretive epistemology that are among the hallmarks of action research also contribute to the quality of the knowledge gained. This paper closes with a discussion of how Inter-Disciplinary Communication is embedded within the action research paradigm and how this likely also enriches the knowledge gained.
Curran, R.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.
The paper is associated with the integration of multi-disciplinary knowledge within a Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE)-enabled design framework. To support this integration effort, the KNOMAD methodology has been devised. KNOMAD stands for Knowledge Optimized Manufacture And Design and is a
Davis, Brent; Renert, Moshe
We discuss the teachers' disciplinary knowledge of mathematics in this article, arguing two main points as we report on a 2-year study involving 22 practicing teachers. First we argue that teachers' knowledge of mathematics might be productively construed as a complex evolving form, a significant dimension of which is tacit knowledge. Second,…
Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine
This paper outlines how an existing collaborative forecasting tool called a prediction market (PM) can be integrated into an educational context to enhance information literacy skills and cognitive disciplinary knowledge. The paper makes a number of original contributions. First, it describes how this tool can be packaged as a pedagogical…
O'Connor, Kate; Yates, Lyn
This paper analyses shifts in the representation of history and physics as named organisational units on Australian university websites over the last 15 years in the context of broader questions about the production of knowledge in contemporary times. It derives from a broader project concerned with disciplinarity, changing university contexts and…
Full Text Available Comprehending multisemiotic texts has become a demanding task in all disciplinary domains, not only academic but also professional. Reading tables, pictures, graphs and words, as a whole or separately, is a challenge that most students must face. Nowadays there exists limited research available combining descriptive and experimental data on this field of study. In this paper, we help fill this gap by combining linguistic corpus descriptions and experimental designs in order to assess reading capacity of university students. The general objective of the paper was to determine if it was possible to comprehend a passage from a disciplinary genre (Monetary Policy Report, MPR through a single predominant semiotic system. In order to achieve this objective, an experiment with three versions of a text was designed: (a the original text (verbal and graphs, (b the text with predominance of graphs, and (c the text with predominance of the verbal system. The participants were 151 students of a university program in the field of Economics in Chile. They were divided into two groups: first and third year university students respectively. Overall results show no statistically significant differences between the three conditions of the experiment for each group. Nonetheless, there are significant differences between the reading scores of both groups, particularly, when the texts were composed predominantly of only one semiotic system (verbal or graphs. No differences were determined in the texts that required an integrated reading of verbal and graph systems. Results indicate that students with a higher level of disciplinary insertion (third-year students were able to comprehend information coded solely through graphs or words and produced a summary that contained the core semantic meaning of the texts given. These findings show that reading graphs is a skill that students acquire during instruction in specialized programs, by increasing their knowledge of
Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey
Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…
Full Text Available This paper examines how academic dependency of South Asia on the West has resulted in what has been termed ‘captive mind’, and its impact on the knowledge production process of South Asia. To this end, it observes that the relationship between Western centres of Social Science teaching and learning vs. those of the global South, in particular Asia, is an unequal one that stems from the colonial past, leading to the treatment of Western methods and types of knowledge production as superior and therefore worthy of imitation. The application of American and European methods of studying the Social Sciences to Asian settings without due adaptation, it argues, has rendered South Asian Sociology largely incapable of generating original knowledge to contribute to the growth of an emancipatory sociological imagination that will function for the benefit of the populace. Therefore it appeals to South Asian Sociologists – and other Social Scientists – to abandon the practice of studying regional social institutions as if these are exotic phenomena, practices, norms and ritual, and evolve their disciplinary framework in more critical, creative, and relevant ways.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the nutrition knowledge of physicians on the basic effects of diet on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Anonymous mailed dietary knowledge surveys to 6000 randomly selected physicians in the United States licensed in either Internal Medicine or Cardiology. Results Response rate: 16% (n = 639. Half of the physicians did not know that canola oil and 26% did not know olive oil were good sources of monounsaturated fat. Ninety-three percent (84% of cardiologists vs. 96% of internists; p Conclusions If physicians are to implement dietary and cholesterol management guidelines, they will likely need to become more knowledgeable about nutrition.
Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M
Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.
Yeung, James H; Goodman, Karen J; Fedorak, Richard N
Immunosuppressive agents, used commonly to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with an increased risk of infections, including those preventable by immunization. This study aimed to describe physician and patient values and knowledge regarding immunization and immunization histories. In all, 167 IBD patients and 43 gastroenterologists completed mail-out questionnaires. Patients were asked 15 questions about their immunization histories and attitudes towards immunization. Gastroenterologists were asked nine questions about immunization for the immunocompromised host. The questionnaire return rate was 45.7% (43/94) for gastroenterologists and 25.2% (167/661) for patients. Only 14.3% (6/42) of gastroenterologists reported taking an immunization history from most or all of their patients. Only 5.4% (9/167) of patients recalled being asked by their gastroenterologist whether their immunizations were up to date, and just 0.6% (1/164) recalled being asked for a detailed immunization history. Overall, 21.7% (35/161) of patients had refused to be immunized in the past; 18.6% (8/43) of gastroenterologists did not know if up-to-date immunizations were important prior to starting immunosuppressive therapy. Of note, 23.1% (9/39) of gastroenterologists and 46.7% (35/161) of patients did not know whether live vaccines should be avoided by those in the immunosuppressed state, and 42.9% (18/43) of gastroenterologists acknowledged they did not know which specific immunizations should be avoided for immunosuppressed patients. Gastroenterologists have limited knowledge of their IBD patients' immunization status and rarely take an adequate immunization history. Substantial proportions of IBD patients and gastroenterologists lack adequate knowledge of established immunization guidelines prior to initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Every year an estimated 3.07 million children die during their first month of life and about one-third of these deaths occur during the first 24 hours. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Inadequate progress has been made globally to reduce the amount of neonatal deaths that would be required to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Poor knowledge of newborn danger signs delays care seeking. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of key newborn danger signs among mothers in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: Results from a community survey of 765 recently delivered women were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Six key danger signs were identified, and spontaneous responses were categorized, tabulated, and analyzed. RESULTS: Knowledge of at least one key danger sign was significantly associated with being birth prepared (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3. Birth preparedness consisted of saving money, identifying transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant and buying a delivery kit or materials. Overall, respondents had a poor knowledge of key newborn danger signs: 58.2% could identify one and 14.8% could identify two. We found no association between women attending the recommended number of antenatal care visits and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.4, or between women using a skilled birth attendant at delivery and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the need to enhance education of mothers in antenatal care as well as those discharged from health facilities after delivery. Further promotion of birth preparedness is encouraged as part of the continuum of maternal care.
Full Text Available This paper addresses academic disciplinary writing practices, and how these are affected by changes in the landscape of Higher Education in the UK. After exploring the definition and understanding of the notion of “discipline”, the paper presents research from an ESRC-funded research project studying academics’ everyday writing practices, working closely with academics across different disciplines and different kinds of higher education institutions. The changing context of Higher Education in the UK is presented, in particular the emergence of new kinds of managerial practices which shape and co-ordinate the everyday writing work of academics. The paper shows that while some disciplines, such as History and Pure Mathematics, are associated with clearly-defined writing practices, others are more diverse. It discusses how managerial practices, particularly those driven by centralised national research evaluations, affect different disciplines in different ways.
Foster, Aroutis N.
Researchers question how and what students learn from commercial digital games. Using a concurrent mixed-methods approach, this study examined 30 students' construction of knowledge and skills while playing a commercial off-the-shelf game for 7 weeks. Quantitative data included students' background survey and pre- and post-assessments for…
Liu, Fei; Lim, Eric T. K.; Tan, Chee-Wee
an algorithmic historiographic citation analysis on 114767 articles in four distinct research areas, including technology acceptance, IT system success, trust, and knowledge management, extracted from ISI Web of Science database. 64 central articles in main paths of liquidization and crystallization were...
A student's emerging genre mastery is a complex process which involves learning not only relevant discoursal forms, but also a wide range of specialist knowledge frames. Recent research suggests that these knowledge frames are acquired during the development of a student's disciplinary identity. Although disciplinary identity clearly contributes…
Cano-Contreras, A D; Rascón, O; Amieva-Balmori, M; Ríos-Gálvez, S; Maza, Y J; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is one of the most common infections in humans. Due to its worldwide prevalence, a series of guidelines and recommendations has been developed for the appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management of patients with Hp infection. To evaluate the approach, attitudes, and knowledge of a group of Mexican general practitioners in relation to Hp. A cross-sectional study was conducted that evaluated the knowledge of Hp diagnosis and treatment through the application of a questionnaire. From the total of 430 questionnaires delivered, information was obtained from 411 (95% response rate). The most frequent indications for eradication treatment were peptic ulcer (48.4%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (41.8%), and dyspepsia (39.2%). Thirty-one percent of the physicians surveyed used more than one test to look for Hp, and serology was the most commonly employed method. The most widely used antibiotic regimen was clarithromycin plus amoxicillin (63.8%), followed by metronidazole plus tetracycline (16%). Ninety-two percent of the physicians confirmed eradication through endoscopy for the histologic analysis and only 23% utilized the breath test. Our results show the lack of knowledge about the established diagnostic and treatment recommendations for Hp infection. The implementation of workshops, courses, and conferences, or the formulation of practical guidelines should be directed at primary care physicians to strengthen the practice of medicine based on scientific evidence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Aoun, Antoine; Faddoul, Lara; El Jabbour, Flora; El Osta, Nada; Hlais, Sani; El Osta, Lana
This observational cross-sectional study aimed to examine the knowledge and practices of pregnant women in North Lebanon regarding periconceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation. A convenience sample of pregnant women attending gynecology clinics in North Lebanon was recruited between May and September 2013. Data were collected from a face-to-face interview performed by a trained local dietician as well as from review of obstetric charts. A total of 465 women were included in the study. Only 37 (7.9%) were aware of the role of FA in preventing birth defects, while 129 (27.7%) were able to identify one food item rich in FA or folate. Only 125 (26.9%) were taking FA supplementation before pregnancy. While 440 (94.6%) participants were taking FA supplements during pregnancy, 158 (34%) were receiving an inadequate dose. Adequate preconceptional supplementation of FA was significantly associated with the women's level of education (p =.008), planned pregnancy (p knowledge and inadequate intake of FA supplements before and during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.
Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A
Since 2001, there has been a tremendous increase in number of households protected by ITN and IRS in Ghana. However, there has not been evidence of a reduction in malaria cases as expected and reported deaths have rather increased since 2007. As a result, this study was undertaken to get a better understanding of perceptions of malaria, knowledge on mosquitoes and the value attached to ITNs among secondary and tertiary students in Cape Coast. Structured questionnaires were administered randomly to gather data on demographic characteristics of students, knowledge of mosquitoes and ITNs and attitude towards the use of ITN in seven public high schools and four tertiary institutions in Cape Coast metropolis. In addition, curriculums of science courses common to all students from junior high school to the university were carefully examined. A total of 492 students took part in this study and more than 90% of them had high knowledge of malaria transmission and ITN, but little knowledge of mosquito life history. Only 1% in secondary and 2.1% in tertiary institutions had seen or knew about all the development stages of mosquitoes. In high school and tertiary institutions, 24.2% and 10.8% of respondents, respectively, were able to mention other genera of mosquitoes, apart from Anopheles. Though 93.9% in senior high school and 86.7% in the tertiary institutions knew that ITNs are either used to protect oneself from mosquito bites or to prevent malaria, 32.7% of the respondents in secondary and 21.9% in tertiary institutions who owned ITN did not use them. The study reveals that respondents did not have adequate knowledge on the biology and behaviour of mosquitoes. This appears to weaken their knowledge of the link between the use of ITN and malaria control; the effect of this is that a significant number owned ITNs but did not use them. The implication is that if people will really accept and use ITN or other mosquito control interventions, then just creating awareness of
Wilder, Laura; Wolfe, Joanna
The ethics and efficacy of explicitly teaching disciplinary discourse conventions to undergraduate students has been hotly debated. This quasi-experimental study seeks to contribute to these debates by focusing on the conventional special "topoi" of literary analysis--conventions that previous Writing in the Disciplines (WID) research indicates…
Bergsholm, P; Martinsen, E W; Holsten, F; Neckelmann, D; Aarre, T F
Inadequate treatment of mood (affective) disorders is related to the mind/body dualism, desinformation about methods of treatment, the stigma of psychiatry, low funding of psychiatric research, low educational priority, and slow acquisition of new knowledge of psychiatry. The "respectable minority rule" has often been accepted without regard to the international expertise, and the consequences of undertreatment have not been weighed against the benefits of optimal treatment. The risk of chronicity increases with delayed treatment, and inadequately treated affective disorders are a leading cause of suicide. During the past 20 years the increase in suicide mortality in Norway has been the second largest in the world. Severe mood disorders are often misclassified as schizophrenia or other non-affective psychoses. Atypical mood disorders, notably rapid cycling and bipolar mixed states, are often diagnosed as personality, adjustment, conduct, attention deficit, or anxiety disorders, and even mental retardation. Neuroleptic drugs may suppress the most disturbing features of mood disorders, a fact often misinterpreted as supporting the diagnosis of a schizophrenia-like disorder. Treatment with neuroleptics is not sufficient, however, and serious side effects may often occur. The consequences are too often social break-down and post-depression syndrome.
McCluskey, Stephen C.
This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.
Milić Ivan D.
Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.
Budd, Julia M.
Evaluating cross-disciplinary collaboration has generally been undertaken using disciplinary standards. However, this practice is increasingly being found to be inadequate due to the often contradictory nature of the methods used. It has been suggested that methods that consider the unique integrative nature of these studies be employed. This…
Wineburg, Sam; Reisman, Abby
In this article, we draw clear distinctions between generic reading comprehension and disciplinary literacy in history. We argue that disciplinary reading restores agency to the reader, changing the typical relationship between text and reader, in which knowledge flows down from one to the other. Sourcing, for example, enjoins readers to engage…
... Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL... are inadequate to achieve the purpose of punishment and deterrence necessary to regulate an inmate's... punishment and deterrence which initially resulted in the inmate's placement in disciplinary segregation...
Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity. Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 3/27/2018.
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjoern Morten; Espeland, Ansgar
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
With the massification of higher education in a knowledge-driven economy, Western universities have struggled to keep pace with the cultural, linguistic, educational and economic diversity of university students and the complex realities of their lifeworlds. This has generated systemic inequities for diverse or "non-traditional"…
Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance. Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...
Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.
Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger
Pedersen, David Budtz; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Emmeche, Claus
The chapter offers an introduction to this volume on frontier research in the humanities. It frames recent discussions on research governance, public value of research, and the heterogeneous nature of the humanities within the overall context of international research policy and initiatives to in...... epistemic cultures are identified. However, actual interdisciplinary collaboration often starts bottom-up, with researchers self-organizing to find collaborators outside their own speciality....
Lehnert, K.; Ramamurthy, M. K.
Geosciences are globally connected by nature and the grand challenge problems like climate change, ocean circulations, seasonal predictions, impact of volcanic eruptions, etc. all transcend both disciplinary and geographic boundaries, requiring cross-disciplinary and international partnerships. Cross-disciplinary and international collaborations are also needed to unleash the power of cyber- (or e-) infrastructure (CI) by networking globally distributed, multi-disciplinary data, software, and computing resources to accelerate new scientific insights and discoveries. While the promises of a global and cross-disciplinary CI are exhilarating and real, a range of technical, organizational, and social challenges needs to be overcome in order to achieve alignment and linking of operational data systems, software tools, and computing facilities. New modes of collaboration require agreement on and governance of technical standards and best practices, and funding for necessary modifications. This presentation will contribute the perspective of domain-specific data facilities to the discussion of cross-disciplinary and international collaboration in CI development and deployment, in particular those of IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance) serving the solid Earth sciences and Unidata serving atmospheric sciences. Both facilities are closely involved with the US NSF EarthCube program that aims to network and augment existing Geoscience CI capabilities "to make disciplinary boundaries permeable, nurture and facilitate knowledge sharing, …, and enhance collaborative pursuit of cross-disciplinary research" (EarthCube Strategic Vision), while also collaborating internationally to network domain-specific and cross-disciplinary CI resources. These collaborations are driven by the substantial benefits to the science community, but create challenges, when operational and funding constraints need to be balanced with adjustments to new joint data curation practices and
Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David
that the estimates based on school-level data might underestimate the relationship between disciplinary climate and student achievement. Finally we find evidence for gender differences in the association between disciplinary climate and student achievement that can partly be explained by gender-specific perceptions......Disciplinary climate has emerged as one of the single most important factors related to student achievement. Using data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia and Norway we find a significant and nontrivial association...... between the perceived disciplinary climate in the classroom and students’ mathematics performance in Canada, Denmark and Norway. Furthermore we exploit country specific class-size rules in order to single out a subsample with classroom-level data (PISA is sampled by age and not by classes) and find...
Birkeland, Søren; Christensen, RD; Damsbo, Niels
In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients' complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process...
Various possibilities often exist in each step of radiopharmaceutical preparation, and multi-disciplinary knowledge and collaboration are necessary for improved choice of the preparation conditions. In the radionuclide production step, proton bombardment of a separated nuclide target usually exceeds other bombardments of natural targets. Isotope separation by laser-chemical method is expected to soon offer several enriched nuclides useful as the target in enough amount and moderate price. The design and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals will be directly influenced by further progress of enzymology and immunology. Nondestructive, continuous observation of chemical changes in vivo is a longing of radiochemists, and may be realized gradually through elaborate examination of chemical effects in Mossbauer absorption, γ-γ angular correlation, EC X-ray properties, and positron annihilation. Present knowledge and techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, on the other hand, can be utilized effectively in other fields of life sciences
Petersen, Eva Bendix; Millei, Zsuzsa
set out to explore how the psy- disciplines currently manifest and operate as significant cogs in the teacher education machine. Responding to Law and Urry’s (2004) call for a more “messy” social science, we offer an impressionistic assemblage ethnography, where we pick up and consider the psy...... -disciplinary cogs that we happen upon in our everyday lives as lecturers in Australian initial teacher education. We offer an incomplete list of some of these cogs, and indicate the ways in which they uphold psy-disciplinary knowledges, and the psy- gaze, as relevant and significant. We conclude by reflecting...
This study explored differences in disciplinary approaches of male and female teachers toward male and female children, examining the connection between educator's gender and method of disciplining urban, elementary school aged children. Participants were 20 New York State certified and licensed teachers in two elementary schools. Teacher surveys…
Disciplinary literacy is defined here as the ability to engage in social, semiotic, and cognitive practices consistent with those of content experts. Characterizing literacy development as a process of braiding 3 language strands of everyday language, abstract language, and metaphoric language, this article describes the lexical and grammatical…
Gethmann, C F; Hanekamp, G; Kaiser, M; Kamp, G; Lingner, S; Quante, M; Thiele, F
Interdisciplinarity has seemingly become a paradigm for modern and meaningful research. Clearly, the interdisciplinary modus of deliberation enables to unfold relevant but quite different disciplinary perspectives to the reflection of broader scientific questions or societal problems. However, whether the comprehensive results of interdisciplinary reflection prove to be valid or to be acceptable in trans-disciplinary terms depends upon certain preconditions, which have to be fulfilled for securing scientific quality and social trust in advisory contexts. The present book is written by experts and practitioners of interdisciplinary research and policy advice. It analyses topical and methodological approaches towards interdisciplinarity, starting with the current role of scientific research in society. The volume continues with contributions to the issues of knowledge and acting and to trans-disciplinary deliberation. The final conclusions address the scientific system as substantial actor itself as well as the...
Johnson, Tyler G.
The American Kinesiology Association has constructed an undergraduate core for degree programs that reside in kinesiology-based academic units. Since many Physical Education Teacher Education programs are housed in such units, there is a need to prioritize the areas of the undergraduate core, particularly the place of the scientific dimensions of…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to generate complicated conversations about identity and culture with an examination of various panoptic technologies, including separation, invisibility, control, and productivity. Drawn from Foucault’s panopticism, the author examines how discipline operates as a controlling power in several Korean institutions of schools, the seminary, and the military. This autobiographical self-reflexive research explores disciplinary images of “Korean-ness,” which has been discursively and materially constructed and embodied via panoptic technologies. These counter-narratives do not support for the advancement of the universalized version of the “Korean” identity. Rather, the author theorizes Korean identity as discursive practices in modern power structures, while dealing with the “political ‘double bind’” of (a individualization through instruments of discipline and (b the reinforcement of Confucian ideal of proper human relationships. This article provides educators with a lens to examine the ways in which disciplinary power/knowledge operates to control students’ ways of thinking, behaving, and living, in relation to “self,” “others,” and institutions. By opening possibilities to examine cultural identity beyond discovering “true” self, the author emphasizes the analyses of power in its examination of cultural sameness/difference in multicultural curriculum studies.
M. Tayfun Gülle
Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.
Health and health care problems can be addressed from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This raises challenges for how to do cross-disciplinary scholarship in ways that are still robust, rigorous and coherent. This paper sets out one particular approach to cross-cutting research--regulation--which has proved extremely fertile for scholars working in diverse fields, from coal mine safety to tax compliance. The first part of the paper considers how regulatory ideas might be applied to health and health care research in general. The second part goes on to sketch out how a regulation perspective on one specific area, illicit drug policy, can open up new directions for research. In conclusion, a future research agenda is outlined for regulatory scholarship on health and health care.
Showers, J; Johnson, C F
Unrealistic developmental and behavioral expectations of children, which are associated with child abuse, are related to a lack of knowledge about child development and child rearing. The Iowa Child Development Test (ICDT) was administered to college students to determine their knowledge of child health and development and effects on disciplinary approaches. The results indicated that college students had inadequate knowledge and those who most frequently chose harsh disciplinary methods in simulated child management situations were least knowledgeable. This finding is similar to that reported in an earlier study of high school seniors. College men knew less than college women about child development and health, and more frequently selected harsh punishment. Although noneducation and education majors did not differ with regard to level of knowledge on the ICDT, noneducation majors more frequently chose punish and abuse responses. The findings suggest a need to provide broad-based programs in child rearing education prior to parenthood to reduce the potentiating effects of inadequate knowledge of child health and development on the incidence of child abuse.
It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it
Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.
Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke [Oslo University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Hofmann, Bjoern Morten [University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Gjoevik University College, Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Gjoevik (Norway); Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...
Full Text Available This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.
Increasingly, nurses conduct scientific inquiry into complex health-care problems by collaborating on teams with researchers from other highly specialized fields. As cross-disciplinary research proliferates and becomes institutionalized globally, researchers will increasingly encounter the need to integrate their particular research perspectives within inquiries without sacrificing the potential contributions of their discipline-specific expertise. The work of the philosopher Bernard Lonergan (1904–1984) offers the necessary philosophical grounding. Here, I defend a role for philosophy in cross-disciplinary research and present selected ideas in Lonergan's work. These include: (1) a dynamic, normative pattern that each inquirer operates uniquely also forms the common core, or unity, in knowing; (2) the possibility of cross-disciplinary knowledge development is dependent on each researcher's consciousness of her or his attentiveness, intelligence, reasonableness, and responsibleness; and (3) shifts in researchers' viewpoints, or horizons, facilitate their collaborative inquiry and their grasp of the unity in knowing. The desire to know, shared by team members, drives their inquiry. Lonergan's stance is consistent with nursing values because it respects, but does not unconditionally privilege, any researcher or discipline. Arguments support a claim that Lonergan's perspective is well suited to guide nurse researchers participating on cross-disciplinary health research teams.
Dahal, S; Rijal, B P; Yogi, K N; Sherchand, J B; Parajuli, K; Parajuli, N; Pokhrel, B M
Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy for HAP is a common phenomena and one of the indicators of the poor stewardship. This study intended to analyze the efficacy of empirical antibiotics in the light of microbiological data in HAP cases. Suspected cases of HAP were followed for clinico-bacterial evidence, antimicrobial resistance and pre and post culture antibiotic use. The study was taken from February,2014 to July 2014 in department of Microbiology and department of Respiratory medicine prospectively. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Out of 758 cases investigated, 77(10 %) cases were HAP, 65(84%) of them were culture positive and 48(74 %) were late in onset. In early onset cases, isolates were Acinetobacter 10(42%), Escherichia coli 5(21%), S.aureus 4(17%), Klebsiella 1(4%) and Pseudomonas 1(4%). From the late onset cases Acinetobacter 15(28%), Klebsiella 17(32%) and Pseudomonas 13(24%) were isolated. All Acinetobacter, 78% Klebsiella and 36% Pseudomonas isolates were multi drug resistant. Empirical therapies were inadequate in 12(70%) of early onset cases and 44(92%) of late onset type. Cephalosporins were used in 7(41%) of early onset infections but found to be adequate only in 2(12%) cases. Polymyxins were avoided empirically but after cultures were used in 9(19%) cases. Empirical antibiotics were vastly inadequate, more frequently so in late onset infections. Use of cephalosporins empirically in early onset infections and avoiding empirical use of polymyxin antibiotics in late onset infections contributed largely to the findings. Inadequate empirical regimen is a real time feedback for a practitioner to update his knowledge on the local microbiological trends.
Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina
The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.
This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)
examined information management in a disciplinary perspective. It is argued that an exploration of the components of a discipline is important as a foundation for development of a conceptual framework for information management. The paper concludes by suggesting that information management has three...... different underlying concepts: Information Management 1: information management at institutional level. Information Management 2: contentoriented information management, rooted in information science and Information Management 3: technologyoriented information management, rooted in information systems......This paper addresses the need for a coherent conceptual framework for information management. The paper discusses the field of information management as represented by existing analyses of author affiliations, and a distinction is introduced between information management at institutional level...
This paper addresses the need for a coherent conceptual framework for information management. The paper discusses the field of information management as represented by existing analyses of author affiliations, and a distinction is introduced between information management at institutional level...... and information management at conceptual level. Conceptual frameworks should be founded on concepts. One of the challenges of developing a framework is to delimit the area of inquiry. Is information management a discipline in its own right, or is information management several disciplines? Little research has...... examined information management in a disciplinary perspective. It is argued that an exploration of the components of a discipline is important as a foundation for development of a conceptual framework for information management. The paper concludes by suggesting that information management has three...
This paper addresses the need for a coherent conceptual framework for information management. The paper discusses the field of information management as represented by existing analyses of author affiliations, and a distinction is introduced between information management at institutional level...... and information management at conceptual level. Conceptual frameworks should be founded on concepts. One of the challenges of developing a framework is to delimit the area of inquiry. Is information management a discipline in its own right, or is information management several disciplines? Little research has...... examined information management in a disciplinary perspective. It is argued that an exploration of the components of a discipline is important as a foundation for development of a conceptual framework for information management. The paper concludes by suggesting that information management has three...
The concept of participation has become increasingly important in a range of institutions and disciplinary contexts. The different institutional and disciplinary fields often interact indirectly by building on the same or interconnected ideals, logics and discourses or by using the same or simila......, education, employment and urban design....
... AFFAIRS Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice with... constitute the Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel from which Board members in a case are appointed. This notice announces that the roster of employees on the Panel is available for review and comment. Employees, employee...
... AFFAIRS Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice with... constitute the Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel from which Board members in a case are appointed. This notice announces that the roster of employees on the Panel is available for review and comment. Employees, employee...
... AFFAIRS Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice with... constitute the Disciplinary Appeals Board Panel from which Board members in a case are appointed. This notice announces that the roster of employees on the Panel is available for review and comment. Employees, employee...
This article reports on a study of senior academics' views of their disciplinary and interdisciplinary affiliations. It questions the idea that academics have a firm and fixed disciplinary identity from which they then act and suggests that academic work in the contemporary university challenges and changes how individuals view their disciplinary…
Liddicoat, Anthony J.
Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…
Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy
To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David
climate and student learning. Using data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 for the Nordic countries, we found a significant association between the perceived classroom disciplinary climate of schools...... and students’ mathematics performance across countries. On the basis of an analysis of a pooled sample consisting of all 5 Nordic countries, we found that the correlation between classroom disciplinary climate of schools and maths achievement is significantly stronger for boys than for girls. Further analyses...... showed that this finding may partly be attributable to gender differences in the perception of the disciplinary climate of schools, whereby boys seemed to perceive the classroom disciplinary climate of schools more positively than girls....
Deana D. Pennington
Full Text Available Complex environmental problem solving depends on cross-disciplinary collaboration among scientists. Collaborative research must be preceded by an exploratory phase of collective thinking that creates shared conceptual frameworks. Collective thinking, in a cross-disciplinary setting, depends on the facility with which collaborators are able to learn and understand each others' perspectives. This paper applies three perspectives on learning to the problem of enabling cross-disciplinary collaboration: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, constructivism, and organizational learning. Application of learning frameworks to collaboration provides insights regarding receptive environments for collaboration, and processes that facilitate cross-disciplinary interactions. These environments and interactions need time to develop and require a long phase of idea generation preceding any focused research effort. The findings highlight that collaboration is itself a complex system of people, scientific theory, and tools that must be intentionally managed. Effective management of the system requires leaders who are facilitators and are capable of orchestrating effective environments and interactions.
Sidaway, James; Hall, Tim
We consider geography textbooks in the context of discussions of canonicity, disciplinary histories and genre. Our paper, an introduction to the set that follows, presents an argument about the importance of textbooks and the shifting relationship of geography at different levels (school and university) to disciplinary history in the context of changes in the modes of publication. The papers that follow draw on material from a range of anglophone textbooks with reflections from Aoteraea/New Z...
Full Text Available The disciplinary accountability of the personnel from the local public administration isdifferently regulated, depending on the personnel category. The disciplinary accountability of the civilservants is an administrative-disciplinary accountability regulated by the Law no. 188/1999 concerningthe Status of the civil servants and can take place only under the circumstances stipulated by law, whilethe disciplinary accountability of the persons hired on the basis of the individual work contract isregulated by the Work Law, Law no. 53/2003 and can take place only under the circumstances stipulatedby this law. The only basis of the disciplinary responsibility is the disciplinary infringement, that in factrepresents a deed related to work, a deed consisting in an action or inaction carried out with guilt by theemployee, through which this one broke the legal norms, the internal regulations, the individual workcontract or the applicable collective work contract, the orders and the legal dispositions of the hierarchicalsuperiors (Law no. 53/2003, Art. 263, Paragr. 2.
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadequate HACCP Systems. 417.6... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.6 Inadequate HACCP Systems. A HACCP system may be found to be inadequate if: (a) The HACCP plan in operation does not meet the requirements set forth in...
Full Text Available Objective: In oncology practice, nutrition and also metabolic activity are essential to support the nutritional status and prevent malignant cachexia. It is important to evaluate the patients and plan the maneuvers at the start of the therapy. The primary objective of the study is to define the nutritional status of hospitalized patients and the factors affecting it in order to define the most susceptible patients and maneuvers for better nutritional support. Methods: Patients hospitalized in oncology clinic for therapy were evaluated for food intake and nutritional status through structured interviews. The clinical properties, medical therapies, elements of nutritional support were noted and predictors of inadequate nutritional status (INS were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty three patients, between 16-82 years old (median: 52 were evaluated. Nearly half of the patients (185, 43% reported a better appetite at home than in hospital and declared that hospitalization is an important cause of loss of appetite (140/185, 75.6%. Presence of nausea/vomiting (N/V, depression, age less than 65 and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were associated with increased risk of INS in hospitalized cancer patients. On the contrary, steroid medication showed a positive impact on nutritional status of cancer patients. Conclusion: N/V, younger age, presence of depression and NSAIDs medication were associated with INS in hospitalized cancer patients. Clinicians should pay more attention to this group of patients. In addition, unnecessary hospitalizations and medications that may disturb oral intake must be avoided. Corticosteroids are important tools for managing anorexia and INS.
Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram
Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…
Johnson, Robert R.
This article argues that craft knowledge can provide a disciplinary rationale for writing studies. It draws from the ancient concepts of teche, phronesis, and the four causes of making and makes the case for a definition of disciplinary knowledge fitting for writing studies. The article concludes with a conceptual framework that can serve as a…
Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca
Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p < .001) and bullying (AOR 1.5, p = .02), a permissive school was associated with higher odds of depression symptoms (AOR 2.1, p = .04), and an authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wen, Ping; Hong, Xiao; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Linglin; Gu, Xuekui; Gao, Zhihua; Chen, Qianming
With economic and cultural globalization, the trend of globalization of higher education becomes inevitable. Using the concept of competitiveness, the authors established a principal component analysis (PCA) model to examine disciplinary competitiveness in stomatology of various higher education institutions worldwide. A total of forty-four universities entered the final list according to these calculations. Possible reasons for their selection were explored and explained at macro and micro levels. The authors further accessed various sources of data and summarized several suggestions for enhancing disciplinary competitiveness for other universities in pursuit of promoting their position in the global spectrum.
McQuaid, Kelly Kathleen
Adolescent readers require a broad range of reading skills to deal with the challenges of reading complex text. Some researchers argue for a discipline-specific focus to address the low reading proficiency rates among secondary students. Disciplinary literacy attends to the different ways disciplines, such as science, generate and communicate knowledge. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine if and to what degree disciplinary literacy reading strategies impact student learning outcomes in reading comprehension and science content knowledge for 132 7th grade science students in five Southern Arizona charter schools and whether reading ability moderates that impact. The theoretical foundation for this study rested on expert-novice theory and Halliday's theory of critical moments of language development. It is not known if and to what degree disciplinary literacy reading strategies impact student learning outcomes in reading comprehension and science content knowledge for 7th grade science students and whether or not reading ability has a moderating effect on those student learning outcomes. The results for MANCOVA did not produce statistically significant results nor did the moderation analysis for the influence of reading ability on reading comprehension in the disciplinary literacy group. However, the moderation analysis for the influence of reading ability on science content knowledge resulted in conditional significant results for low (p reading comprehension instruction focused on learning science content in the science classroom.
Shackelford, Jo L.; Cappiccie, Amy
Misunderstanding of the symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leaves first responders ill-equipped to handle encounters involving subjects with brain injury. This paper details a cross-disciplinary project to develop and disseminate a training curriculum designed to increase first responders' knowledge of and skills with TBI survivors.…
Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…
Carlson, James R.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have increased expectations for stakeholders (students, teachers, teacher educators) to gain knowledge, skills, and dispositions related to discipline-specific ways of reading and writing. Despite the increased rigor, implementation of disciplinary literacy practices varies widely by content, grade level, and…
The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of
Wang, Xiangyu; Rui,
This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.
Stam, Henderikus J
Two arguments with attempts to unify psychology are adumbrated in this commentary. First, the unification of psychology is largely a disciplinary maneuver and not primarily an epistemological act. Second, the discipline of psychology has been unified for some time around a series of methodological and functional categories that have served to support its institutional projects but hide metaphysical problems. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vaughan, Lauri J.; Smith, Sue; Cranston, Meredith
Teachers become experts in their discipline and its writing conventions after years of study. However, they ask students who switch subjects five or six times a day to change disciplinary lenses every hour or so. This article presents an alternative to the established approach of simply integrating generalized information literacy skills into…
Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Lyytinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa
Drawing upon the notions of academic capitalism and the transformation of academic research from traditional academic orientation into market orientation, the paper sets out to empirically scrutinize the changing nature of academic research, focusing especially on disciplinary differences. The paper is based on a survey of heads of departments and…
The Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal is empowered to deal with all cases of professional discipline under the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is examined against the background of constitutional provision that affects the exercise of the powers of the ...
... with the child. (c) If the State adopts such a policy, and the child transfers from one school to... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.229 Disciplinary information. (a) The State may require that a public agency include in the records of a child with a disability a statement...
Britt, Judy; Ming, Kavin
In this article, a social studies teacher and a literacy teacher describe a vision for social studies that highlights reading practices that foster disciplinary literacy in elementary geography. Their purpose is to share a practical approach for enriching elementary social studies lessons and activities with a geographic lens. During the…
Parsons, Susan K; Fineberg, Iris C; Lin, Mingqian; Singer, Marybeth; Tang, May; Erban, John K
Disciplinary diversity in team composition is a valuable vehicle for oncology care teams to provide high-quality, person-centered comprehensive care. Such diversity facilitates care that effectively addresses the complex needs (biologic, psychosocial, and spiritual) of the whole person. The concept of professional or disciplinary diversity centers on differences in function, education, and culture, reflecting variety and heterogeneity in the perspectives of team members contributing to care. Thorough understanding of the skills, knowledge, and education related to each team member's professional or lay expertise is critical for members to be able to optimize the team's potential. Furthermore, respect and appreciation for differences and similarities across disciplinary cultures allow team members to create a positive collaboration dynamic that maintains a focus on the care of the person with cancer. We present a case study of one oncology team's provision of care to the patient, a Chinese immigrant woman with breast cancer. The case illuminates the strengths and challenges of disciplinary diversity in team composition in assessing and addressing potential barriers to care. Coordinated sharing of information among the varied team members facilitated understanding and care planning focused on the patient's concerns, needs, and strengths. Importantly, collaboration across the disciplinarily diverse set of team members facilitated high-quality oncology care and promoted equity in access to the full range of care options, including enrollment on a National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trial. Further implications of disciplinary diversity in oncology care teams are considered for both clinical practice and research.
Full Text Available The modern physician is using pharmaceuticals as his prime tool. Unfortunately, this tool is much less efficient than you might expect from the biochemical theory. The belief in drugs as the solution to the health problems of mankind, overlooking important existing knowledge on quality of life, personal development, and holistic healing seems to be one good reason why approximately every second citizen of our modern society is chronically ill. The biomedical paradigm and the drugs are certainly useful, because in many situations we could not do without the drugs (like antibiotics, but curing infections or diseases in young age is not without consequences, as the way we perceive health and medicine is influenced by such experiences. When we get a more severe disease in midlife, we also believe drugs will make us healthy again. But at this age, the drugs do not work efficiently anymore, because we have turned older and lost much of the biological coherence that made us heal easily when we were younger. Now we need to assume responsibility, take learning, and improve our quality of life. We need a more holistic medicine that can help us back to life by allowing us to access our hidden resources. The modern physician cannot rely solely on drugs, but must also have holistic tools in his medical toolbox. This is the only way we can improve the general health of our populations. Whenever NNT (Number Needed to Treat is 2 or higher, the likelihood of the drug to cure the patient is less than 50%, which is not satisfying to any physician. In this case, he must ethically try something more in order to cure his patients, which is the crossroads where both traditional manual medicine and the tools of a scientific holistic medicine are helpful.
In this research I'm moving and exploring in a landscape of an inter-disciplinary improvisation performance. The research is structured by choosing one performance which functions as a documented snippet of an ongoing interdisciplinary improvisation practice and is a vehicle to analyse what sort of skills and knowledge enable and are developed in that specific ongoing practice. I map out the validity of those skills and knowledge in relationship to a dancer's know-how in a new paradigm of ...
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...
Fang, Zhihui; Coatoam, Suzanne
The recent call for a disciplinary perspective on literacy instruction in the content areas has generated considerable interest among literacy educators. This column addresses some of the questions that have been raised about disciplinary literacy. These questions concern the definition and assessment of disciplinary literacy, as well as the…
Full Text Available World population aging is a phenomenon we are confronting with, more than past. This fact has different implications for today’s societies. One of these aspects is workforce (1. Some factors have resulted in more tendencies of workers to remain in their works including: Economic, societal, cultural factors, and social trends and laws such as increasing age of retirement in the middle twentieth century, which recently increased more (2. Productive workforce is one of major assets of each country. So, in one hand we have older adults in our workplaces and in other hand, we are following to retain employee’s productivity at first, and then, improve it. Ergonomics as a multidisciplinary science, attempts to make balance between human capabilities and its limitations by fitting the task to the person or fitting the person to the task. In this way, workers’ fatigue and errors are minimized and productivity and well-being optimized (3. In more developed countries like United States, approximately 66.3 percent of adults aged 55-64 years are in the workforce (4. In our country, Iran, 7.3% of populations were more than 60 yrs. in 2006 (5 which indicate our population is aging, though accurate number of those people in work is lacking. Older adults have physical and mental changes as a common result of aging. Physical changes show itself as decline in physical capabilities, and mental changes involved in sensation and perception, cognition, and motor control (6. So, it is essential to acknowledge these changes and adopt suitable strategies and accommodations for job circumstances and living environments when considering older adults. In general, a few ergonomics studies explored the effect of aging on environmental modifications and job adaptation. To best of my knowledge, also in Iran there are few studies that presented in conferences or published in journals. Therefore, as a closing remark, it is widely needed to pay more
Ortega, José Luis
The main objective of this work was to group altmetric indicators according to their relationships and detect disciplinary differences with regard to altmetric impact in a set of 3793 research articles published in 2013. Three of the most representative altmetric providers (Altmetric, PlumX and Crossref Event Data) and Scopus were used to extract information about these publications and their metrics. Principal component analysis was used to summarize the information on these metrics and detect groups of indicators. The results show that these metrics can be grouped into three components: social media, gathering metrics from social networks and online media; usage, including metrics on downloads and views; and citations and saves, grouping metrics related to research impact and saves in bookmarking sites. With regard to disciplinary differences, articles in the General category attract more attention from social media, Social Sciences articles have higher usage than Physical Sciences, and General articles are more cited and saved than Health Sciences and Social Sciences articles.
Y. L. Semenova
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary and meta-disciplinary integration in education reflects a comprehensive approach to education and training, and makes it possible to single out both the main elements of educational content and subject interrelations, re solving the problem of fragmentation and isolation of different subjects. The paper considers the way of improving students’ bilingual communicative competence by means of implementing interdisciplinary and meta-disciplinary integration in teaching process. By the above competence the authors understand the readiness and ability to perform effective interpersonal, inter-group and inter-cultural communication both in native and foreign languages. The paper describes the meta-disciplinary principle that involves school training of general methods, techniques, schemes and mental work patterns used in working with any materials in any sphere of knowledge, and not lim- ited by specific subjects. The authors recommend the culture dialog as the condition, means and way of personal development in learning native and foreign languages. Bilingual informational, cultural and semantic interrelations, comparison of cultures and languages stimulate students’ cognitive process actualizing their personal experience, facilitating both socio-linguistic and socio-cultural discursive knowledge, providing the effective development of communication skills. The example of meta-disciplinary integration is given demonstrating the students’ communicative competence development in the process of training for the creative part of the unified state examinations in the Russian and English languages.
Vargas, Perla A
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
Rhodus, N L; Brown, J
Recent studies indicate that nearly one in five older adults has xerostomia (dry mouth). Salivary gland dysfunction and/or inadequate saliva increases the difficulty of these older adults in obtaining proper nutrition. Problems in lubricating, masticating, tolerating, tasting, and swallowing food contribute notably to the complex physiological and psychological manifestations of aging. To our knowledge, the literature has not demonstrated an association between xerostomia and malnutrition in the elderly. We randomly selected 67 older adults from institutionalized and free-living geriatric populations. Nutritional intake analysis was performed on both groups of study subjects, who were found to have xerostomia by use of sialometry, and on control subjects matched for age, sex, and physical status. Intake of total energy, protein, dietary fiber, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, calcium, iron, and zinc was compared with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Subjects' intakes were also compared with that of a control group. Medical systemic information and number and types of medications were compared among the groups. Statistical analysis of the data indicated significant (p less than .001) inadequacies in the nutritional intake patterns of institutionalized and free-living older adults with xerostomia. Subjects with xerostomia (more than 75% of the free-living and institutionalized seniors) had significant deficiencies of fiber, potassium, vitamin B-6, iron, calcium, and zinc. Taste and food perception were significantly reduced in the elders with xerostomia. Our study indicates the potential contribution of xerostomia to the high prevalence of geriatric malnutrition in the United States.
Wall Michael K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.
Full Text Available This paper is genealogical research that aims to present one of the historical ways that led to the emergence of sociology as a modern science. We discuss how and why this kind of genealogical research is important for explaining the emergence, transformation and regionalisation of power/knowledge. By following the arguments developed by Michel Foucault, we argue that the disciplinary practices emerging in European societies during the 18th and 19th centuries strongly influenced the upsurge of power/knowledge that would be transformed in sociology. We conclude that the appearance of the institutions – elements of what Foucault called the disciplinary society – led to the rise of new discourses of their legitimisation and to the birth of sociology.
Dhand, Amar; Luke, Douglas A.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Academic collaboration is critical to knowledge production, especially as teams dominate scientific endeavors. Typical predictors of collaboration include individual characteristics such as academic rank or institution, and network characteristics such as a central position in a publication network. The role of disciplinary affiliation in the initiation of an academic collaboration between two investigators deserves more attention. Here, we examine the influence of disciplinary patterns on collaboration formation with control of known predictors using an inferential network model. The study group included all researchers in the Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences (ICTS) at Washington University in St. Louis. Longitudinal data were collected on co-authorships in grants and publications before and after ICTS establishment. Exponential-family random graph models were used to build the network models. The results show that disciplinary affiliation independently predicted collaboration in grant and publication networks, particularly in the later years. Overall collaboration increased in the post-ICTS networks, with cross-discipline ties occurring more often than within-discipline ties in grants, but not publications. This research may inform better evaluation models of university-based collaboration, and offer a roadmap to improve cross-disciplinary collaboration with discipline-informed network interventions. PMID:26760302
Goldman, Susan R.; Britt, M. Anne; Brown, Willard; Cribb, Gayle; George, MariAnne; Greenleaf, Cynthia; Lee, Carol D.; Shanahan, Cynthia
This article presents a framework and methodology for designing learning goals targeted at what students need to know and be able to do in order to attain high levels of literacy and achievement in three disciplinary areas--literature, science, and history. For each discipline, a team of researchers, teachers, and specialists in that discipline…
Workforce challenge to nuclear power industry: • We are facing the aging workforce and talent loss since the tough time of nuclear power industry. • Professional workforce fostering in nuclear power industry always needs a long period of time. • Professional workforce fostering in nuclear power industry is a systematic and interdisciplinary work. Talents fostering in nuclear power industry: Major measures → national overall planning; engineering practice; knowledge management; disciplinary construction; cooperation and communication
Verónica Crousse Rastelli
Full Text Available The process of recognition of the characteristics and differences between art, art in public space and public art have been clarifying which are the competencies that a public artist must have. The traditional artist, accustomed to act inside the introspective and self-referential art field, has not necessarily the skills or the methodological tools to act in a complex and dynamic environment as the public space, which requires that the other - the public - is centered in the project objectives. The complexity of the public space cannot be covered by a single discipline, so that in the urban design and public art processes, becomes a necessity the interdisciplinary work in order to achieving a broad vision and an integrating synthesis of the problems, to propose adequate responses to the complexity of these projects that include the needs and expectations of the community. How should be the proper educational training of a public artist? Should it start under a disciplinary training integrated with other disciplines such as design - which have a marked vocation towards the other - or should it be necessary to create a specific training capable of both integrate the communicative an expressive skills through aesthetics – as the artistic language – and satisfy the collective needs. All these with the development of interdisciplinarity work competences in order to address projects of art and design in the public realm. We came to the conclusion that it is important the disciplinary artistic training, as the base of a specialized knowledge. Developing an educational attitude for interdisciplinary work, that releases the artist from the introspective aspects of the artistic training to the interdisciplinary work for the collective.
Full Text Available The article presents basic findings about courts of honor in Lithuania. The data about disciplinary violations in five legal professions-judges, lawyers, prosecutors, notaries, and bailiffs-was obtained while implementing a scientific project on certain issues of legal ethics. The article provides data on the following issues: subjects initiating disciplinary cases; the number of cases for each legal profession; decisions taken in cases of disciplinary violations; categories of disciplinary violations; sanctions provided. The article is intended to initiate further discussion about these matters among scientists, practitioners, and the general public, not just in Lithuania but in other countries as well.
DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.
In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…
The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape ... into their respective receiving water bodies (Tembisa Dam, the Nahoon and Eastern Beach which are part of the Indian Ocean; the Tyume River and the Kat River).
7950 = Water SA (on-line). 687. The impact of inadequate wastewater treatment on the receiving water bodies – Case study: Buffalo City and. Nkokonbe Municipalities of the Eastern Cape Province. MNB Momba1*, AN Osode2 and M Sibewu1.
Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter
Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....
Aim: Laboratory investigations are important aspect of patient management and inadequate information or errors arising from the process of filling out laboratory Request Forms can impact significantly on the quality of laboratory result and ultimately on patient care. Objectives: This study examined the pattern of deficiencies ...
Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad
Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nielsen, Sanne Schnell; Gottschau, Jette
This paper examines a cross-disciplinary, problem-oriented workshop dealing with consumer issues. The workshop forms part of the four-year Danish teacher training course offered by the Copenhagen Day and Evening College of Teacher Training. The workshop covers issues related to civic, environmental...... and consumer education, along with pedagogical issues, with the aim of developing a holistic, integrated approach to consumer citizenship education. The workshop concept is based on the “IVAC” (Investigation, Visions, Actions & Changes) model (Jensen 1997). As our point of departure, we take a practical...... these competences in their practical teaching of consumer citizenship education in Danish comprehensive schools. Comprehensive schools are state schools combining primary and lower secondary education. In Denmark, teacher training includes 24 weeks of teaching practice. The workshop forms an integral part...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disciplinary action. 1203.735-105 Section 1203.735-105 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE... in this part by an employee or special Government employee may be cause for appropriate disciplinary...
The issue of disruptive behaviour in schools has become a major stress and concern to teachers. However, in order to minimize these behaviours, teachers are utilizing various disciplinary strategies. The aim of this study was to examine students' and teachers' attitudes toward disciplinary styles and to compare the views of ...
Although a growing body of research has been conducted on student misconduct in universities, quantitative data on disciplinary action undertaken by institutions against student transgressions are largely absent from the literature. This paper provides baseline quantitative data on disciplinary action against students in the universities. It is…
The escalation of learner indiscipline cases in schools suggests failure by teachers to institute adequate alternative disciplinary measures after corporal punishment was outlawed in South African schools. We sought to address the following two research questions: (a) How do educators view their disciplinary capabilities in ...
Garnett, Robert F.; Vanderlinden, Lisa K.
Disciplinary models of learning such as ethnography (cultural anthropology) and market competition (economics) have received little attention in the burgeoning literature on "how teacher thinking shapes education". To mobilize the pedagogical potential of these disciplinary idioms, the authors draw from the path-breaking works of Palmer and…
Berkers, Gitte; Biesaart, Monique C I H; Leeuwenburgh-Pronk, Wendela G
To give an overview of disciplinary cases regarding action taken by paediatricians and paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse and to discuss the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. Retrospective, descriptive study. We considered all disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013 against paediatricians or paediatric residents and selected complaints regarding action taken in cases of (suspected) child abuse. We divided these complaints into six categories and studied the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. From 33 disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013, we selected 76 complaints regarding action taken by paediatricians or paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse. The majority of these complaints concerned the reporting or requesting of information in the context of (suspected) child abuse. All of the complaints in the category 'unwarranted reporting of child abuse' were declared unfounded by the disciplinary judge. The disciplinary board declared all complaints unfounded in cases where the paediatrician or paediatric resident had followed the Dutch national protocol regarding reporting of child abuse and domestic violence. The disciplinary board examines whether action was taken in accordance with reasonable standards of professional competence and considers that paediatricians have an important role in identifying child abuse.
S, Birkeland; RD, Christensen; N, Damsbo
The risk of being disciplined in connection with a complaint case causes distress to most general practitioners. The present study examined the characteristics of complaint cases resulting in disciplinary action.......The risk of being disciplined in connection with a complaint case causes distress to most general practitioners. The present study examined the characteristics of complaint cases resulting in disciplinary action....
Socialization into disciplinary cultures, organizational factors and individual anxieties seem to inhibit inter-disciplinary collaboration. The majority of rice breeders and a small group of molecular biologists emphasize the relative merits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in the near term vis-à-vis the currently controversial ...
Leeftink, A. G.; Vliegen, I. M.H.; Hans, E. W.
Scheduling appointments in a multi-disciplinary clinic is complex, since coordination between disciplines is required. The design of a blueprint schedule for a multi-disciplinary clinic with open access requirements requires an integrated optimization approach, in which all appointment schedules are
...: typically, only very few aspects of the situation directly affect each other. Despite their success, belief networks are inadequate as a knowledge representation language for large, complex domains...
Marta Szabo White
Full Text Available Inspired by the intersection of character, emotions, and logic, much like a Hungarian Rhapsody which is beautifully sad; this paper explores ethos, pathos, and logos in the context of Academic Globalization. As students of the world, an inter-disciplinary language is pivotal for inter-disciplinary communication. Given that the current state of the world stems primarily from miscommunications, it is imperative to launch a cognitive language tool which underscores global commonalities and mitigates cultural differences. Such a platform would foster interdisciplinary research, education, and communication. New paradigms would evolve, grounded in ethos, pathos, and logos. Like yin and yang, these states are interrelated, interacting, and interchanging learning spheres. Just as day and night blend at some point; just as the Parthenon epitomized Greek thought, celebrated the birthplace of democracy, and for the first time, depicted everyday citizens in friezes- underscoring their impactful role- ethos, pathos, and logos represent cross-disciplinary communication devices which synergistically transform and ignite academic globalization. The Literature Review links the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos with the seminal work Lewis and his LMR framework, which has given birth to Cultureactive and subsequently to ICE [InterCultural Edge]. http://www.fuqua.duke.edu/ciber/programs/we_organize/ice/ Accessed February 14, 2014
Zaucha, Jacek; Davoudi, Simin; Slob, Adriaan; Bouma, Geiske; van Meerkerk, Ingmar; Oen, Amy Mp; Breedveld, Gijs D
An integrative approach across disciplines is needed for sustainable lagoon and estuary management as identified by integrated coastal zone management. The ARCH research project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) has taken initial steps to overcome the boundaries between disciplines and focus on cross-disciplinary integration by addressing the driving forces, challenges, and problems at various case study sites. A model was developed as a boundary-spanning activity to produce joint knowledge and understanding. The backbone of the model is formed by the interaction between the natural and human systems, including economy and governance-based subsystems. The model was used to create state-of-the-lagoon reports for 10 case study sites (lagoons and estuarine coastal areas), with a geographical distribution covering all major seas surrounding Europe. The reports functioned as boundary objects to build joint knowledge. The experiences related to the framing of the model and its subsequent implementation at the case study sites have resulted in key recommendations on how to address the challenges of cross-disciplinary work required for the proper management of complex social-ecological systems such as lagoons, estuarine areas, and other land-sea regions. Cross-disciplinary integration is initially resource intensive and time consuming; one should set aside the required resources and invest efforts at the forefront. It is crucial to create engagement among the group of researchers by focusing on a joint, appealing overall concept that will stimulate cross-sectoral thinking and focusing on the identified problems as a link between collected evidence and future management needs. Different methods for collecting evidence should be applied including both quantitative (jointly agreed indicators) and qualitative (narratives) information. Cross-disciplinary integration is facilitated by functional boundary objects. Integration offers important
Full Text Available Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million, micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion, and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion. We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density. This decline has been particularly strong in East and Southeast Asia and weaker in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where dietary micronutrient density has declined over this 50-year period. At the global level, micronutrients with the lowest levels of adequate estimated intake are calcium, iron, vitamin A, and zinc, but there are strong differences between countries and regions. Fortification has reduced the estimated prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in all low-income regions, except South Asia. The food supply in many countries is still far below energy requirements, which suggests a need to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods. Countries where the food energy supply is adequate show a very large variation in dietary quality, and in many of these countries people would benefit from more diverse diets with a greater proportion of micronutrient-dense foods. Dietary quality can be improved through fortification, biofortification, and agricultural diversification, as well as efforts to improve access to and use of micronutrient-dense foods and nutritional knowledge. Reducing poverty and increasing education, especially of women, are integral to sustainably addressing malnutrition.
Beal, Ty; Massiot, Eric; Arsenault, Joanne E; Smith, Matthew R; Hijmans, Robert J
Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million), micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion), and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion). We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density. This decline has been particularly strong in East and Southeast Asia and weaker in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where dietary micronutrient density has declined over this 50-year period. At the global level, micronutrients with the lowest levels of adequate estimated intake are calcium, iron, vitamin A, and zinc, but there are strong differences between countries and regions. Fortification has reduced the estimated prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in all low-income regions, except South Asia. The food supply in many countries is still far below energy requirements, which suggests a need to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods. Countries where the food energy supply is adequate show a very large variation in dietary quality, and in many of these countries people would benefit from more diverse diets with a greater proportion of micronutrient-dense foods. Dietary quality can be improved through fortification, biofortification, and agricultural diversification, as well as efforts to improve access to and use of micronutrient-dense foods and nutritional knowledge. Reducing poverty and increasing education, especially of women, are integral to sustainably addressing malnutrition.
Full Text Available In order to conduct the prior disciplinary investigation, the employee shall be convoked in writing by the person authorized by the employer to carry out the research, specifying the subject, date, time and place of the meeting. For this purpose the employer shall appoint a committee charged with conducting the prior disciplinary investigation. Prior disciplinary research cannot be done without the possibility of the accused person to defend himself. It would be an abuse of the employer to violate these provisions. Since the employee is entitled to formulate and sustain defence in proving innocence or lesser degree of guilt than imputed, it needs between the moment were disclosed to the employee and the one of performing the prior disciplinary investigation to be a reasonable term for the employee to be able to prepare a defence in this regard. The employee's failure to present at the convocation, without an objective reason entitles the employer to dispose the sanctioning without making the prior disciplinary investigation. The objective reason which makes the employee, that is subject to prior disciplinary investigation, unable to present to the preliminary disciplinary investigation, should be at the time of the investigation in question.
Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Berard, Alain; Boucart, Muriel; Bouccara, Didier; Brand, Gérard; Charras, Kevin; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Gzil, Fabrice; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Madjlessi, Arach; Malaquin-Pavan, Évelyne; Penicaud, Luc; Platel, Hervé; Pozzo, Thierry; Reintjens, Christophe; Salmon, Éric; Vergnon, Laurent; Robert, Philippe
Relations between sensory functions and Alzheimer's disease are still under-explored. To understand them better, the Fondation Médéric Alzheimer has brought together a multi-disciplinary expert group. Aristote's five senses must be enhanced by today's knowledge of proprioception, motor cognition and pain perception. When cognition breaks down, the person with dementia perceives the world around her with her sensory experience, yet is unable to integrate all this information to understand the context. The treatment of multiple sensory inputs by the brain is closely linked to cognitive processes. Sensory deficits reduce considerably the autonomy of people with dementia in their daily life and their relations with others, increase their social isolation and the risk of accidents. Professionals involved with neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly aware of sensory deficits, which can bias the results of cognitive tests. However, there are simple tools to detect these deficits, notably for vision, hearing and balance disorders, which can be corrected. Many interventions for cognitive rehabilitation or quality of life improvement are based on sensory functions. The environment of people with dementia must be adapted to become understandable, comfortable, safe and eventually therapeutic.
overall pain knowledge. Conclusion. There is an inadequate level of pain knowledge among members of the sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapy ... Improving an individual's coping skills is more important than determining the extent to which there may be a psychological cause of the pain. 0.62. Pain due to ...
Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Bradley, Colin
Purpose Internationally, healthcare systems are moving towards delivering care in an integrated manner which advocates a multi-disciplinary approach to decision making. Such an approach is formally encouraged in the management of Atrial Fibrillation patients through the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Since the emergence of new oral anticoagulants switching between oral anticoagulants (OACs) has become prevalent. This case study considers the role of multi-disciplinary decision making, given the complex nature of the agents. The purpose of this paper is to explore Irish General Practitioners' (GPs) experience of switching between all OACs for Arial Fibrillation (AF) patients; prevalence of multi-disciplinary decision making in OAC switching decisions and seeks to determine the GP characteristics that appear to influence the likelihood of multi-disciplinary decision making. Design/methodology/approach A probit model is used to determine the factors influencing multi-disciplinary decision making and a multinomial logit is used to examine the factors influencing who is involved in the multi-disciplinary decisions. Findings Results reveal that while some multi-disciplinary decision-making is occurring (64 per cent), it is not standard practice despite international guidelines on integrated care. Moreover, there is a lack of patient participation in the decision-making process. Female GPs and GPs who have initiated prescriptions for OACs are more likely to engage in multi-disciplinary decision-making surrounding switching OACs amongst AF patients. GPs with training practices were less likely to engage with cardiac consultants and those in urban areas were more likely to engage with other (non-cardiac) consultants. Originality/value For optimal decision making under uncertainty multi-disciplinary decision-making is needed to make a more informed judgement and to improve treatment decisions and reduce the opportunity cost of making the wrong decision.
Full Text Available Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii peer influence; and (iii noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called "schools of thought". We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i social interactions, and (ii peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model's implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science.
Robinson, Keith; Harris, Angel L
Despite numerous studies on parental involvement in children's academic schooling, there is a dearth of knowledge on how parents respond specifically to inadequate academic performance. This study examines whether 1) racial differences exist in parenting philosophy for addressing inadequate achievement, 2) social class has implications for parenting philosophy, and 3) parents' philosophies are consequential for children's academic achievement. Using data from the Child Development Supplement (N=1041) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we sort parents into two categories-those whose parenting repertoires for addressing poor achievement include punitive responses and those whose repertoires do not. We then determine whether racial differences exist between these categories and how various responses within the aforementioned categories are related to students' academic achievement. The findings show that white and black parents have markedly different philosophies on how to respond to inadequate performance, and these differences appear to impact children's achievement in dramatically different ways. Educators and policy makers should pay particular attention to how parents respond to inadequate achievement as imploring parents of inadequately performing students to be more involved without providing them with some guidance might exacerbate the problem.
A number of philosophical points of view that have guided parents' attempts to socialize their children are presented. Research findings and conclusions that explore the impact on children of parental disciplinary practices are discussed. (Author/AM)
Full Text Available As well as other liberal professions in Romania, also the profession as an architect is regulated by special norms, the Law No 184/2001, whose provisions are amended by the Rules governing the functioning and organization of the Romanian Order of Architects and the Code of Ethics of Architects. The specificity of the disciplinary liability of the architects towards the common law is given by specific sanctions, by the authorities competent in performing the disciplinary investigation of the disciplinary offences, as well as by the specific procedural rules. The present study aims to offer a brief analysis of these aspects which differentiate the disciplinary liability of architects towards that of the employees performing their activities under an employment contract.
This paper provides a high-level evaluation of organised crime and the threats arising from online organised crime, within a multi-disciplinary perspective. It draws on a range of academic, industry and other materials to distinguish the key characteristics of online organised crime and to identify some of the multi-disciplinary resources which are available to counter it. Real-life case studies and other examples, together with the Tables in the Appendices, are used to demonstrate how contem...
Leeftink, A. G.; Vliegen, I. M.H.; Hans, E. W.
Scheduling appointments in a multi-disciplinary clinic is complex, since coordination between disciplines is required. The design of a blueprint schedule for a multi-disciplinary clinic with open access requirements requires an integrated optimization approach, in which all appointment schedules are jointly optimized. As this currently is an open question in the literature, our research is the first to address this problem. This research is motivated by a Dutch hospital, which uses a multi-di...
Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.
facilities needed for next generation of underground assessments and experiments. There are growing interests in developing multi-disciplinary programs in DULs and some URLs have rooms set aside for physics experiments. Examples of DULs and URLs with interactions between earth sciences and physics include Gran Sasso in Italy, Kaimioka in Japan, Canfranc in Spain, LSBB in France, WIPP in New Mexico, DUSEL in South Dakota, and Jing Ping deep tunnel underground laboratory proposal in China. Instruments of common interests include interferometers, laser strain meters, seismic networks, tiltmeters, gravimeters, magnetometers, and other sensors to detect signals over different frequencies and water chemical analyses, including radon concentrations. Radon emissions are of concern for physics experiments and are studied as possible precursors of earthquakes. Measuring geoneutrino flux and energy spectrum in different locations is of interests to both physics and earth sciences. The contributions of U and Th in the crust and the mantle to the energy production in the Earth can be studied. One final note is that our ongoing reviews are aimed to contribute to technological innovations anticipated through inter-disciplinary interactions.
Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe
Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth
Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael
Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055
Rudolph, Sophie; Sriprakash, Arathi; Gerrard, Jessica
This paper offers a critique of 'powerful knowledge'--a concept in Education Studies that has been presented as a just basis for school curricula. Powerful knowledge is disciplinary knowledge produced and refined through a process of 'specialisation' that usually occurs in universities. Drawing on postcolonial, decolonial and Indigenous studies,…
Full Text Available This study was conducted at colleges in three countries (United States, Venezuela, and Spain and across three academic disciplines (engineering, education, and business, to examine how experienced faculty define competencies for their discipline, and design instructional interaction for online courses. A qualitative research design employing in-depth interviews was selected. Results show that disciplinary knowledge takes precedence when faculty members select competencies to be developed in online courses for their respective professions. In all three disciplines, the design of interaction to correspond with disciplinary competencies was often influenced by contextual factors that modify faculty intention. Therefore, instructional design will vary across countries in the same discipline to address the local context, such as the needs and expectations of the learners, faculty perspectives, beliefs and values, and the needs of the institution, the community, and country. The three disciplines from the three countries agreed on the importance of the following competencies: knowledge of the field, higher order cognitive processes such as critical thinking, analysis, problem solving, transfer of knowledge, oral and written communication skills, team work, decision making, leadership and management skills, indicating far more similarities in competencies than differences between the three different applied disciplines. We found a lack of correspondence between faculty’s intent to develop collaborative learning skills and the actual development of them. Contextual factors such as faculty prior experience in design, student reluctance to engage in collaborative learning, and institutional assessment systems that focus on individual performance were some of these reasons.
Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias
This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.
Full Text Available Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001 to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292. V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004. The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001 (n = 18. Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2, vascular access recirculation (n = 1, and error in the samples (n = 1. In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed
Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon
Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.
Heck, A.; Uylings, P.; Kędzierska, E.; Ellermeijer, T.
In the Dutch secondary education system, students must carry out at the end of their school career a rather large research or design project to demonstrate their ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills while pursuing a research question or design goal in some depth. They are encouraged to
Rodela, Romina; Alašević, Dušan
Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address
Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.
-medicated at home. Initial consultations are at primary local health facilities where less effective drugs are prescribed at inadequate dosages. Recommended ACTs were also often prescribed at inadequate dosages. Education in the use of ...
Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon
Cross-disciplinary use of science is needed to solve complex, real-world problems, but carrying out scientific research with multiple very different disciplines is in itself a non-trivial problem. Perspectives matter. In this paper we carry out a philosophical analysis of the perspectival nature...... of science, focusing on the synchronic structure of scientific perspectives across disciplines and not on the diachronic, historical structure of shifting perspectives within single disciplines that has been widely discussed since Kuhn and Feyerabend. We show what kinds of cross-disciplinary disagreement...... to expect due to the perspectival structure of science, suggest how to handle different scientific perspectives in cross-disciplinary work through perspectives of a second order, and discuss some fundamental epistemic differences between different types of science....
Full Text Available In this paper, we tackle the challenge of linking scholarly information in multi-disciplinary research infrastructures. There is a trend towards linking publications with research data and other information, but, as it is still emerging, this is handled differently by various initiatives and disciplines. For OpenAIRE, a European cross-disciplinary publication infrastructure, this poses the challenge of supporting these heterogeneous practices. Hence, OpenAIRE wants to contribute to the development of a common approach for discipline-independent linking practices between publications, data, project information and researchers. To this end, we constructed two demonstrators to identify commonalities and differences. The results show the importance of stable and unique identifiers, and support a ‘by reference’ approach of interlinking research results. This approach allows discipline-specific research information to be managed independently in distributed systems and avoids redundant maintenance. Furthermore, it allows these disciplinary systems to manage the specialized structures of their contents themselves.
Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D
Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.
Thomas, Janet T
Clinical supervision is considered an integral component of the training of psychologists, and most of the professional literature is focused on this type of supervision. But psychologists also may supervise fully credentialed colleagues in other circumstances. One such context occurs when licensing boards mandate supervision as part of a disciplinary order. When supervision is provided in disciplinary cases, there are significant implications for the ethical dimensions of the supervisory relationship and concomitant ethical challenges for supervisors. Not only are the goals, objectives, and supervisory tasks of disciplinary supervision distinct from other types of supervision, but the supervisor's ethical responsibilities also encompass unique dimensions. Competence, informed consent, boundaries, confidentiality, and documentation are examined. Recommendations for reports to licensing boards include a statement of the clinical or ethical problems instigating discipline, description of how these problems have been addressed, and an assessment of the supervisee's current practices and ability to perform competently. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Sharing scientific data with the objective of making it discoverable, accessible, reusable, and interoperable requires work and presents challenges being faced at the disciplinary level to define in particular how the data should be formatted and described. This paper represents the Proceedings of a session held at SciDataCon 2016 (Denver, 12–13 September 2016. It explores the way a range of disciplines, namely materials science, crystallography, astronomy, earth sciences, humanities and linguistics, get organized at the international level to address those challenges. The disciplinary culture with respect to data sharing, science drivers, organization, lessons learnt and the elements of the data infrastructure which are or could be shared with others are briefly described. Commonalities and differences are assessed. Common key elements for success are identified: data sharing should be science driven; defining the disciplinary part of the interdisciplinary standards is mandatory but challenging; sharing of applications should accompany data sharing. Incentives such as journal and funding agency requirements are also similar. For all, social aspects are more challenging than technological ones. Governance is more diverse, often specific to the discipline organization. Being problem‐driven is also a key factor of success for building bridges to enable interdisciplinary research. Several international data organizations such as CODATA, RDA and WDS can facilitate the establishment of disciplinary interoperability frameworks. As a spin‐off of the session, a RDA Disciplinary Interoperability Interest Group is proposed to bring together representatives across disciplines to better organize and drive the discussion for prioritizing, harmonizing and efficiently articulating disciplinary needs.
Scott, David M; Friedli, David
School principals were surveyed in rural and urban Nebraska schools to compare policies and procedures on school attendance, and to contrast the use of disciplinary procedures for attendance, violence and substance abuse. A survey was sent to a 50 percent random sample of Nebraska schools. Respondent school addresses in metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) areas were categorized as urban, and non-MSA respondents were classified as rural area schools. Of the 680 surveys mailed, 464 (68.2 percent) completed surveys were returned. Overall, 86.2 percent of respondents were from rural schools and 13.8 percent from urban schools. A list of disciplinary problems and procedures was reported for a first-time offense by rural and urban schools. Both an "occasional attendance problem" and a "chronic attendance problem" were most frequently addressed through parent contact in both urban and rural areas. For "fighting with another student," rural schools most commonly reported discipline by teacher, followed by discipline by principal and parent contact. In urban schools, discipline by principal was most common. For "using drugs other than alcohol or tobacco at school" in both areas, disciplinary procedures included parent contact and short-term suspension. A list of disciplinary problems and procedures was also reported for a second-time offense and third-time offense. For "fighting with another student," the most commonly reported procedure was discipline by principal and parent contact for a second-time offense, followed by short-term suspension and long-term suspension for a third-time offense. For "using drugs other than alcohol or tobacco at school," for a second time offense was long-term suspension and semester expulsion for a third-time offense. Principals were also asked in an open-response format, what program or procedures were currently in place to prevent violence in their school. Common responses were "conflict resolution training," followed by "the Boys Town
Dortmans, Jos C F M; Peeters, Ben P H; Koch, Guus
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and may cause devastating losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Its causative agent is Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1. Many countries maintain a stringent vaccination policy against ND, but there are indications that ND outbreaks can still occur despite intensive vaccination. It has been argued that this may be due to antigenic divergence between the vaccine strains and circulating field strains. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a highly virulent genotype VII virus (NL/93) obtained from vaccinated poultry during an outbreak of ND in the Netherlands in 1992-1993. Using this strain, we investigated whether the identified genetic evolution of NDV is accompanied by antigenic evolution. In this study we show that a live vaccine that is antigenically adapted to match the genotype VII NL/93 outbreak strain does not provide increased protection compared to a classic genotype II live vaccine. When challenged with the NL/93 strain, chickens vaccinated with a classic vaccine were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality and virus shedding was significantly reduced, even with a supposedly suboptimal vaccine dose. These results suggest that it is not antigenic variation but rather poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccination practices that may be responsible for outbreaks and spreading of virulent NDV field strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raakjaer, J.; Son, D.M.; Stæhr, Karl-Johan
or used in Vietnam including the data-collection system. The Vietnamese approach is supported by an institutional structure consisting of a multi-disciplinary advisory system to facilitate the process of using indicators and to introduce knowledge-based management. The article concludes by identifying...
Interdisciplinary understanding is crucial for readers today. This article integrates the ideas of four care-aesthetics-column writers in order to illustrate and discuss nursing art and aesthetic care experiences in a cross-disciplinary conversation. This article reflects critically on the art, culture, and nature of nursing in the five themes of: 1) the shape of nursing knowledge, "science" or "art"?; 2) the caring arts: passively regulative or consciously creative labor?; 3) busy hospital workers: a landscape of persons and objects or the creators of the scenery?; 4) nursing skills, arts, and the Tao; and 5) art liberation: is the nursing profession in need of a revolution or fundamental reform? This article utilizes diverse and occasionally contradictory points of view together with practical examples in order to encourage readers to interlink their disparate professional nursing skills and draw aesthetic knowledge from multiple sources and experiences.
Jacques Remy Poortmans
Full Text Available Different fuels are available to generate ATP for muscle activities during sport events. Glycogen from striated muscles and liver stores may be converted to lactic acid or almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2, triacylglycerol within the muscle itself and fatty acids from adipose tissue could be converted to CO2 in acting muscles, some free amino acids can be released within the muscle itself and from intestinal stores to sustain the amount of ATP generation indispensable for muscle contraction. All single biochemical reactions, but one, need one or several enzymes to activate the conversion of a substrate into a product. The energy transformation in biochemical reactions is led by application of so-called free energy. Reversible and non-reversible reactions within a metabolic pathway are dependent on specific enzymes near or far from equilibrium. Allosteric enzymes are regulatory enzymes that provide the direction in the pathway. A regulatory enzyme is either activated or inhibited by small regulators (ligands. A reversible substrate cycle between A and B is catalyzed by two enzymes with different fluxes. The need of ATP production for muscle contraction is under the leadership of regulatory enzymes and available substrate stores. The improvement of adapted metabolic reactions under sport training depends on the appropriate increase of regulatory enzymes within the glycolytic and oxidative pathways. The amount of some specific enzymes is increased by training in order to improve the maximum activity of the metabolic pathway. Unfortunately, several publications do not precisely implicate the appropriate enzyme(s to explain or reject the adaptation induced by the training schedule. A few examples will illustrate the factual interpretation and the inadequate allegation.
Laires, Pedro A; Laíns, Jorge; Miranda, Luís C; Cernadas, Rui; Rajagopalan, Srini; Taylor, Stephanie D; Silva, José C
Despite the widespread treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), data on treatment patterns, adequacy of pain relief, and quality of life are limited. The prospective multinational Survey of Osteoarthritis Real World Therapies (SORT) was designed to investigate these aspects. To analyze the characteristics and the patient reported outcomes of the Portuguese dataset of SORT at the start of observation. Patients ≥50 years with primary knee OA who were receiving oral or topical analgesics were eligible. Patients were enrolled from seven healthcare centers in Portugal between January and December 2011. Pain and function were evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and WOMAC. Quality of life was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Inadequate pain relief (IPR) was defined as a score >4/10 on item 5 of the BPI. Overall, 197 patients were analyzed. The median age was 67.0 years and 78.2% were female. Mean duration of knee OA was 6.2 years. IPR was reported by 51.3% of patients. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio - OR 2.15 [95%CI 1.1, 4.5]), diabetes (OR 3.1 [95%CI 1.3, 7.7]) and depression (OR 2.24 [95%CI 1.2, 4.3]) were associated with higher risk of IPR. Patients with IPR reported worst outcomes in all dimensions of WOMAC (p<0.001) and in all eight domains and summary components of SF-12 (p<0.001). Our findings indicate that improvements are needed in the management of pain in knee OA in order to achieve better outcomes in terms of pain relief, function and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Oakley, K. V.; Gurney, R. J.
Successful communication and collaboration entails mutual understanding, and transfer, of information. The risk of misunderstanding and/or miscommunication between collaborating groups is tackled in different ways around the globe; some are well documented whereas others may be unknown outside particular groups, whether defined geographically or by specialism. For example; in some countries legally binding contracts define the terms of collaboration. Some regions place greater emphasis on developing trust relationships, and sometimes an official agreement is implied, such as many electronic data transfers on the web. International collaboration on climate change increasingly involves electronic data exchange (e.g. open access publications, shared documents, data repositories etc.) and with this increased reliance on electronic data a need has arisen for scientists to collaborate both internationally and cross-disciplinarily particularly with information technology and data management specialists. Trust of data and metadata on the internet (e.g. privacy, legitimacy etc.) varies, possibly due to a lack of internationally agreed standards for data governance and management, leaving many national, regional and institutional practices tailored to the needs of that group only. It is proposed that building trust relationships between cross-disciplinary and international groups could help facilitate further communication, understanding and benefits from the relationship, while still maintaining independence as separate groups. Complex international cross-disciplinary group relationship dynamics are not easily mapped and producing a set of trust building rules that can be applied to any current and future collaboration with equal validity may be unfeasible. An alternative to such a set of rules may be found in a Trust Manager, whose role is to improve mutually beneficial knowledge exchange between groups, build trust and increase future collaborative potential. This
Objective. To establish the previous rugby experience, the knowledge and the use of injury prevention techniques by South African schoolboy rugby players. Design. Before the first full-contact match of the 1991 rugby season, 2 330 players completed a detailed questionnaire. Setting. I-!igh schools in the Cape Province.
Hart, C H; Robinson, C C
Parents (109 mothers, 109 fathers) of 109 middle-class preschool-age children were interviewed separately in individual taperecorded home interviews to assess whether either parent was prone to use assertion of power or inductive reasoning as disciplinary strategies. Fathers reported using more power-assertive disciplining strategies with their preschool-age children than mothers.
Joseph Picot, Christine
An elementary mathematics coach describes her process and instructional strategies for using academic word lists to support students' disciplinary literacy development. Using teacher coaching, the author explores methods for classroom teachers to embed and authentically integrate best practices in vocabulary instruction to support disciplinary…
Applied the Biglan model of disciplinary differences to the information-seeking behavior patterns of undergraduates responding to questions on the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ). Discusses implications for the redesign of academic library services and use of the Biglan model as a theoretical framework for future library research.…
Kirell, Leah R.
The following dissertation explores how higher education faculty members' memories of learning content and learning to write influence their pedagogical practices and examines how disciplinary and departmental contexts intersect with those pedagogical practices. The research was designed as a nested case study that draws on interview data,…
Knapp, Bernhartd; Bardenet, Rémi; Bernabeu, Miguel O
Cross-disciplinary collaborations have become an increasingly important part of science. They are seen as a key factor for finding solutions to pressing societal challenges on a global scale including green technologies, sustainable food production and drug development. This has also been realized...
Administration of corporal punishment in secondary schools tends to be cruel, inhuman and could result in child abuse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the use of corporal punishment on the disciplinary control of secondary education students in Calabar Metropolis of Nigeria. The study ...
This study was carried out to examine and analyze the use of corporal punishment in disciplinary control of secondary schools students in Delta State. Two research questions were raised and one hypothesis was generated and tested. 515 principals were selected through the use of the multi-stage random sampling ...
Administration of corporal punishment in secondary schools tends to be cruel, inhuman and could result in child abuse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the use of corporal punishment on the disciplinary control of secondary education students in Calabar. Metropolis of Nigeria. The study ...
Mueller, Derek Norton
"Clouds, Graphs, and Maps: Distant Reading and Disciplinary Imagination" examines recent efforts by scholars in rhetoric and composition to account for patterns and trends indicative of the discipline's maturation. Many of these "discipliniographic" appraisals resort, on the one hand, to anecdotal, experience-based accounts or, on the other hand,…
Sandstrom, Marlene J.
This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…
Masuda, Avis M.
This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts, language and…
McCracken, Christopher W.
As interdisciplinary work becomes more common in the sciences, research into the rhetorical processes mediating disciplinary integration becomes more vital. This dissertation, which takes as its subject the integration of microbiology and ecology, combines a postplural approach to rhetoric of science research with Victor Turner's "social drama" analysis and a third-generation activity theory methodological framework to identify conceptual and practical conflicts in interdisciplinary work and describe how, through visual and verbal communication, scientists negotiate these conflicts. First, to understand the conflicting disciplinary principles that might impede integration, the author conducts a Turnerian analysis of a disciplinary conflict that took place in the 1960s and 70s, during which American ecologists and biologists debated whether they should participate in the International Biological Program (IBP). Participation in the IBP ultimately contributed to the emergence of ecology as a discipline distinct from biology, and Turnerian social drama analysis of the debate surrounding participation lays bare the conflicting principles separating biology and ecology. Second, to answer the question of how these conflicting principles are negotiated in practice, the author reports on a yearlong qualitative study of scientists working in a microbial ecology laboratory. Focusing specifically on two case studies from this fieldwork that illustrate the key concept of textually mediated disciplinary integration, the author's analysis demonstrates how scientific objects emerge in differently situated practices, and how these objects manage to cohere despite their multiplicity through textually mediated rhetorical processes of calibration and alignment.
Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard
Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…
The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the iterative design development of an Academy for 11-18 year olds focusing on the following research question: "What are the features of the multi-disciplinary interactions and associated modelling techniques, which lead to the development of an Academy proposal which meets its…
Parenti, Melissa A.
Becoming more disciplined about teaching disciplinary literacy in our classrooms can be a challenge. Encouraging student production of the academic language and the demands and styles of thinking associated with each discipline requires an additional push that was often overlooked in content area instruction of the past. As this new journey in…
This paper provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of innovative sport technology brought about by cross-disciplinary research in sport, engineering, medical and material sciences. Sport technology has subsequently contributed greatly to the enhancement of epidemiology, prevention and management ...
This article presents an overview of how to relate reading to a content area, specifically technology education. The author notes that, with the new focus on Common Core English Language Arts State Standards and state-developed standards, technology and engineering teachers should include disciplinary literacy in their curriculum. Academic…
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initiation of disciplinary proceeding. 19.197 Section 19.197 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Parties and Representational Practice Before the OCC; Standards of Conduct § 19.197...
Leeftink, A G; Vliegen, I M H; Hans, E W
Scheduling appointments in a multi-disciplinary clinic is complex, since coordination between disciplines is required. The design of a blueprint schedule for a multi-disciplinary clinic with open access requirements requires an integrated optimization approach, in which all appointment schedules are jointly optimized. As this currently is an open question in the literature, our research is the first to address this problem. This research is motivated by a Dutch hospital, which uses a multi-disciplinary cancer clinic to communicate the diagnosis and to explain the treatment plan to their patients. Furthermore, also regular patients are seen by the clinicians. All involved clinicians therefore require a blueprint schedule, in which multiple patient types can be scheduled. We design these blueprint schedules by optimizing the patient waiting time, clinician idle time, and clinician overtime. As scheduling decisions at multiple time intervals are involved, and patient routing is stochastic, we model this system as a stochastic integer program. The stochastic integer program is adapted for and solved with a sample average approximation approach. Numerical experiments evaluate the performance of the sample average approximation approach. We test the suitability of the approach for the hospital's problem at hand, compare our results with the current hospital schedules, and present the associated savings. Using this approach, robust blueprint schedules can be found for a multi-disciplinary clinic of the Dutch hospital.
Capraro, Robert M.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Nite, Sandra; Rice, Devyn; Lincoln, Yvonna; Young, Jamaal; Young, Jemimah
STEM disciplinary language is a necessary component for STEM success. It can be developed through experiences and attention to the development of STEM activities that are rich in language and can be acquired through practical experiences and systematic practice. Secondary students participated in an informal STEM summer camp where they learned to…
Sterlacchini, S.; Frigerio, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Brambilla, M.
from 2 840 000 to 9 350 000 €, depending on the selected temporal scenario and the expected closing time of the potentially affected structures. The multi-disciplinary approach discussed in this study may assist local decision makers in determining the nature and magnitude of the expected losses due to a dangerous event, which can be anticipated in a given study area, during a specified time period. Besides, a preventive knowledge of the prospective physical effects and economic consequences may help local decision makers to choose the best prevention and mitigation options and to decide how to allocate resources properly, so that potential benefits are maximised at an acceptable cost.
damage ranged considerably from 2 840 000 to 9 350 000 €, depending on the selected temporal scenario and the expected closing time of the potentially affected structures.
The multi-disciplinary approach discussed in this study may assist local decision makers in determining the nature and magnitude of the expected losses due to a dangerous event, which can be anticipated in a given study area, during a specified time period. Besides, a preventive knowledge of the prospective physical effects and economic consequences may help local decision makers to choose the best prevention and mitigation options and to decide how to allocate resources properly, so that potential benefits are maximised at an acceptable cost.
Shadrack Themba Mzangwa
Full Text Available This article examines the perceptions of unionised members on the handling of grievance and disciplinary matters against management of a higher education institution. Using a sample of thirty-four unionised members in one of the higher education institutions in South Africa, the study found that unionised members perceived the management of higher education institution as abusing its power against unionised employees. The management treats unionised employees negatively based on race and further denies unionised members an opportunity to engage freely on issues of labour. The other finding is that unionised members feel strongly to belong to the unions in spite of the union’s leadership’s lack of knowledge and poor representation of its members against the management of a higher education institution. The findings suggest that unionised members felt undermined and disregarded by management whilst they are not happy on how their own leadership handles the grievance and disciplinary matters.
Russa, Mary B; Rodriguez, Christina M; Silvia, Paul J
Although intergenerational patterns of punitive physical punishment garner considerable research attention, the mechanisms by which historical, cognitive, and contextual factors interplay to influence disciplinary responding remains poorly understood. Disciplinary attitudes have been shown to mediate the association between disciplinary history and disciplinary responding. The present study investigated whether frustration influences these mediation effects. Half of a sample of 330 undergraduates was randomly assigned to frustration induction. Structural equation modeling confirmed that, for participants in the frustration condition, the relation between disciplinary history and physical discipline decision-making was fully mediated by attitudes approving physical discipline. In contrast, for respondents in the no-frustration condition, the pathway from disciplinary history to discipline decision-making was only partially mediated by attitudes. Under conditions of frustration, attitudes may become a more central means by which personal disciplinary history is associated with disciplinary decision-making. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks, Emily; Hougen, Martha; Dahlgren, Mary E; Ocker-Dean, Emily; Smith, Dennie L
Several national reports have suggested the usefulness of systematic, explicit, synthetic phonics instruction based on English word structure along with wide reading of quality literature for supporting development in early reading instruction. Other studies have indicated, however, that many in-service teachers are not knowledgeable in the basic concepts of the English language. They may be well versed in children's literature but not know how to address the basic building blocks of language and reading. The authors hypothesized that one of the reasons for this situation is that many instructors responsible for training future elementary teachers are not familiar with the concepts of the linguistic features of English language. This hypothesis was tested by administering a survey of language concepts to 78 instructors. The results showed that even though teacher educators were familiar with syllabic knowledge, they performed poorly on concepts relating to morphemes and phonemes. In a second study, 40 instructors were interviewed about best practices in teaching components and subskills of reading. Eighty percent of instructors defined phonological awareness as letter-sound correspondence. They also did not mention synthetic phonics as a desirable method to use for beginning reading instruction, particularly for students at risk for reading difficulties. In conclusion, providing professional development experiences related to language concepts to instructors could provide them the necessary knowledge of language concepts related to early literacy instruction, which they could then integrate into their preservice reading courses.
Feng, L.; Jeusfeld, M.A.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.
From the standpoint of satisfying human's information needs, the current digital library (DL) systems suffer from the following two shortcomings: (i) inadequate high-level cognition support; (ii) inadequate knowledge sharing facilities. In this article, we introduce a two-layered digital library
Vladimir I. Freyman
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present new methods of quality results assessment of the education corresponding to requirements of Federal State Educational Standards (FSES of the Third Generation developed for the higher school. The urgency of search of adequate tools for quality competency measurement and its elements formed in the course of experts’ preparation are specified. Methods. It is necessary to consider interference of competency components such as knowledge, abilities, possession in order to make procedures of assessment of students’ achievements within the limits of separate discipline or curriculum section more convenient, effective and exact. While modeling of component structure of the disciplinary competence the testable design of components is used; the approach borrowed from technical diagnostics. Results. The research outcomes include the definition and analysis of general iterative methodology for testable designing component structure of the disciplinary competence. Application of the proposed methodology is illustrated as the example of an abstract academic discipline with specified data and index of labour requirement. Methodology restrictions are noted; practical recommendations are given. Scientific novelty. Basic data and a detailed step-by-step implementation phase of the proposed common iterative approach to the development of disciplinary competence testable component structure are considered. Tests and diagnostic tables for different options of designing are proposed. Practical significance. The research findings can help promoting learning efficiency increase, a choice of adequate control devices, accuracy of assessment, and also efficient use of personnel, temporal and material resources of higher education institutions. Proposed algorithms, methods and approaches to procedure of control results organization and realization of developed competences and its components can be used as methodical base while
This study examined the disciplinary behaviors displayed at secondary education institutions located in Turkey and the disciplinary punishments imposed for those behaviors. The study made an attempt to reveal how disciplinary punishments imposed at high schools were distributed by different variables and whether those punishments varied by year,…
... disciplinary action involving financial harm to a customer. 1.67 Section 1.67 Commodity and Securities... Miscellaneous § 1.67 Notification of final disciplinary action involving financial harm to a customer. (a... with a contract market in a disciplinary matter which cannot be further appealed at the contract market...
Full Text Available This paper examines the comprehension of general and disciplinary expository texts as a function of previous domain-specific knowledge, and working memory capacity. Novices or experts in psychology topics read a general expository text and a disciplinary expository text. Two measures of comprehension were collected: the production of a summary, and the response to multiple-choice questions. Working memory capacity was measured with the Reading Span Task. Results indicated better performance from experts on the disciplinary text. No differences were found on the general text, or as a function of working memory, except for expert readers in disciplinary texts. These results support the hypothesis that previous domain-specific knowledge is a key factor in differences in text comprehension, in comparison with the working memory capacity hypothesis.
跨越科系的藩籬：我國研究型大學實施前段不分系模式分析與個案大學實施策略之探討 Crossing the Border of Disciplinary Knowledge: An Analysis of the Choice of Major at the Upper Level of College in Research-Oriented Comprehensive Universities, with the Use of One Case Study Based on Student Needs in Taiwan
王秀槐 Hsiou-Huai Wang
Full Text Available 國際高等教育趨勢顯示全球化、知識經濟與大眾化的議題持續受到廣泛的關注。在此一趨勢發展下，大學科系間的界限愈來愈模糊，高等教育日益重視知識的統整融合，多元適性選擇的呼聲也水漲船高。我國教育當局為因應此一趨勢，逐步展開「大學前段不分系」的試辦與推廣，近年來亦有部分校系開始實施大學前段不分系措施。針對此一高等教育領域方興未艾的重大改革，國內相關實徵研究卻仍鳳毛麟角。本研究為彌補此一不足，首先提出大學前段不分系的目的為協助學生「適性選擇」與「跨領域學習」；再針對國內15 所研究型綜合大學實施前段不分系的院系單位，分析其辦理模式與規劃的課程如何滿足學生適性選擇與跨領域學習需求，歸納出三種分流模式與四類課程規劃；最後針對1 所研究型綜合大學，蒐集學生需求資料與相關修課規定，發現該校學生較傾向於追求跨領域學習；研究者參考前述辦理模式，提出未來規劃前段不分系措施的建議，期使大學前段不分系改革更能貼近學生需求。 The recent trend of globalization, knowledge economy, and massive expansion have increasingly collapsed the boundaries between academic disciplines, and promoted cross-disciplinary learning and individualized choices in higher education. To meet such challenges, a number of institutions in Taiwan have recently implemented the policy of “choice of major at the upper level of college” or “declaration of major at sophomore or junior year.” However, analyzing student needs and the curriculum structure of a university before launching an appropriate model is necessary. Therefore, this study analyzes various models currently implemented by 15 research-oriented comprehensive universities before exploring the student needs and the curriculum structure of a research
Full Text Available The presence of unfamiliar words and expressions in academic texts is a serious obstacle to students reading in a second language. EAP has responded to this challenge by taking the view that there is a common core of academic vocabulary which is frequent across an academic register. This paper briefly considers this view by examining the range, frequency, collocation, and meaning of items on the Academic Word List (AWL in a large multidisciplinary corpus. Our corpus analysis shows that individual lexical items on the list often occur and behave in different ways across disciplines and that words commonly contribute to ‘lexical bundles’ which also reflect disciplinary preferences. Our findings question the widely held assumption that there is a single core vocabulary needed for academic study and suggests that teachers should assist students towards developing a more restricted, disciplinary-based lexical repertoire.
Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action
Safavi, Mehdi; Håkanson, Lars
In an exploratory case study of a university merger, this study inductively examines how governance structures in universities impact the creation and exploitation of knowledge, both in core academic activities (research and teaching) and in related and supporting administrative tasks. Similarities......-apprentice type of personal relationships, but make them inferior to firms in the pursuit of innovative, inter-disciplinary combinations of knowledge. The reasons behind these similarities and differences are explained, possible extensions of the knowledge-based theory of the firm are proposed and some tentative...
Hanson, Lynne; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Abo-El Ella, Shaimaa
The use of an inter-disciplinary teaching strategy in the context of mental health law is explored here as a means of balancing concerns for the patient's best interests and maximizing their autonomy. One law professor and one psychiatrist participated in joint teaching sessions in the Queen's University School of Medicine, and share their strategies for overcoming perceived conflicts between patient's legal rights and the practice of psychiatry. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pearlman, Jay; Bourassa, Mark; Hill, Katherine; Miloslavich, Patricia; Simmons, Samantha; Sloyan, Bernadette; Telszewski, Maciej
Since the OceanObs'09 Conference, the ocean observing community has been improving coordination and collaboration amongst physical, biogeochemical and biology/ecosystem communities. Societal and scientific requirements for sustained observations are being captured in Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), many of which are also Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System reporting to the UNFCCC. Significant progress has been made through the introduction of the Framework for Ocean Observing in 2012 and the creation and refinement of the disciplinary EOVs, based on expert evaluation of feasibility and impact. With advances in observing technology, and the definition of EOVs, clear opportunities exist to improve the coordinated planning and implementation of observing activities measuring EOVs across the three disciplines of physical, biogeochemical and biology/ecosystem oceanography. In early 2017, a workshop examined priority steps forward with the objectives: • To build on the established societal and scientific requirements expressed in EOVs, identify the key applications and phenomena that will benefit from co-located multi-disciplinary sustained observations • To identify near-term innovation priorities for observing platforms and sensors to enable multi-disciplinary observations, and • To identify programmatic and professional connections between existing and emerging observing networks that will increase multi-disciplinary observations. To support these objectives and to provide a mechanism for looking at convergence across the oceans disciplines, three preselected demonstration themes were defined and discussed: • Changes in plankton communities (including ocean color), • Oxygen minimum zones, • Open ocean/shelf interactions (including boundary currents) These themes were chosen because they represent global and challenging problems that are best addressed through collaboration of physical, biogeochemical and
Full Text Available The last 20 years have seen increasing interest in the way in which meaning is made in different professional and academic disciplines. Central to this issue is the notion of disciplinary values, that is, qualities which define what is prized or stigmatised by different professional communities. In the present paper, the notion of disciplinary values is used to examine the way legal writers communicate meaning in different genres. To this end, six adjective/adverb sets which have a prominent place in legal discourse (“clear/ly”, “important/ly”, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” are identified. Their collocates and semantic preferences are studied in four 500,000-word corpora consisting of texts from the area of commercial law: academic journal articles, case law, legislation, and legal documents. Although the frequency and use of “clear/ly” and “important/ly” appear not to differ greatly from those found in other corpora of written and academic written texts such as the British National Corpus (BNC and the British Academic Written English corpus (BAWE, “reasonable/ly”, “appropriate/ly”, “correct/ly” and “proper/ly” were found to be salient in some or all of the subcorpora. The reasons for this are then analysed within the framework of disciplinary values. These words appear to convey attributes that have particular importance in the legal profession, reflecting disciplinary values that cross the boundaries between various written genres.
Lecarpentier, Damien; Michelini, Alberto; Wittenburg, Peter
The EUDAT project is a European data initiative that brings together a unique consortium of 25 partners - including research communities, national data and high performance computing (HPC) centers, technology providers, and funding agencies - from 13 countries. EUDAT aims to build a sustainable cross-disciplinary and cross-national Commom Data Infrastructure (CDI) that provides a set of shared services for accessing and preserving research data. The design and deployment of these services is being coordinated by multi-disciplinary task forces comprising representatives from research communities and data centers. One of EUDAT's fundamental goals is the facilitation of cross-disciplinary data-intensive science. By providing opportunity for disciplines from across the spectrum to share data and cross-fertilize ideas, the CDI will encourage progress towards this vision of open and participatory data-intensive science. EUDAT will also facilitate this process through the creation of teams of experts from different disciplines, aiming to cooperatively develop services to meet the needs of several communities. Five research communities joined the EUDAT initiative at the start - CLARIN (Linguistics), ENES (Climate Modeling), EPOS (Earth Sciences), LifeWatch (Environmental Sciences - Biodiversity), VPH (Biological and Medical Sciences). They are acting as partners in the project, and have clear tasks and commitments. Since EUDAT started on the 1st of October 2011, we have been reviewing the approaches and requirements of these five communities regarding the deployment and use of a cross-disciplinary and persistent data e-Infrastructure. This analysis was conducted through interviews and frequent interactions with representatives of the communities. In this talk will be provided an updated status of the current CDI with specific refernce to the solid Earth science commnity of EPOS.
This essay was written in response to an invitation by the editors of NSS issued after the author had reviewed the paper entitled 'Methodological challenges of trans-disciplinary research' submitted by Christian Pohl and Gertrude Hirsch-Hadorn (see Pohl and Hirsch Hadorn, 2008). The essay provides an accounting for the transformation in my emotioning as I read the submitted paper by introducing three sets of distinctions: (i) a model of research practice; (ii) an explication of the nature of ...
Capraro, Robert M.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Nite, Sandra; Rice, Devyn; Lincoln, Yvonna; Young, Jamaal; Young, Jemimah
STEM disciplinary language is a necessary component for STEM success. It can be developed through experiences and attention to the development of STEM activities that are rich in language and can be acquired through practical experiences and systematic practice. Secondary students participated in an informal STEM summer camp where they learned to use Google Sketchup® and a 3-D printer to design their own objects. They interacted with peers and collaborated on issues as they arose, to solve pr...
Knowledge, Perception and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change among Farmers in Southern Agricultural Zone of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. ... The major constraints to adaptation by the respondents were inadequate finance, poor infrastructures, unfavourable government/trade policies and poor technology.
Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann
The objective of this study was to examine the association between inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish among low-income Latinas aged 40 and older and cervical cancer screening knowledge and behavior. Spanish-speaking Latinas aged 40-78 of various nationalities (n = 205) participated in a study that included a survey on cervical cancer knowledge and behavior administered in Spanish and the Spanish version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Compared to those with adequate and marginal health literacy, women with inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish were significantly less likely to have ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.37) or in the last three years (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.68) and were significantly more likely to have had their last Pap test at a local public hospital (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-4.97). Even when controlling for other factors, women with inadequate health literacy were 16.7 times less likely (adjusted odds ratio, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.55) to have ever had a Pap test. Almost half of the population we studied will have difficulty interpreting written medical materials, even in Spanish. When developing efforts to reach women who have not been screened, programs and service providers need to be aware that the women most in need of information about screening may be more likely to be unable to read any written materials provided to them, regardless of the language or level of simplicity of the materials. Programs and strategies need to be implemented to increase screening prevalence and to minimize the identified gaps in regular screening for Latinas who have low health literacy.
Tarnow-Mordi, W O; Sutton, P; Wilkinson, A R
Proximal airway humidity was measured during mechanical ventilation in 14 infants using an electronic hygrometer. Values below recommended minimum humidity of adult inspired gas were recorded on 251 of 396 occasions. Inadequate humidification, largely due to inadequate proximal airway temperature, is commoner than recognised in infants receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:3740912
Tarnow-Mordi, W O; Sutton, P; Wilkinson, A R
Proximal airway humidity was measured during mechanical ventilation in 14 infants using an electronic hygrometer. Values below recommended minimum humidity of adult inspired gas were recorded on 251 of 396 occasions. Inadequate humidification, largely due to inadequate proximal airway temperature, is commoner than recognised in infants receiving mechanical ventilation.
Full Text Available Using contemporary insights from feminist critical theory and the literary device of synecdoche, we argue that transdisciplinary knowledge is productive because it maximizes serendipity. We draw on student learning experiences in a course on “Gender and Science” to illustrate how the dichotomous frameworks and part-whole correspondences that are predominant in much disciplinary discourse must be dismantled for innovative intellectual work to take place. In such a process, disciplinary presumptions interrogate and unsettle one another to produce novel questions and answers.
Full Text Available The Melvil Dewey Decimal Classification system maps the human knowledge domains into a library classification decimal system, which means that the knowledge is discretized. The domains are countable similarly to how Cantor proved the countability of the fractions' domain. The debate about the "inter-" and "multi-" disciplinary domains may also be extended into "sub-domains" or from another point of view – into "super-domains". However, Science and Technology has rapidly developed after it was classified. If at the beginning, two decimal digits were enough to classify the world's knowledge into a knowledge domain, today we need more digits – about five. This means we are able to display about a million domains of knowledge. The decimal point indicates the sub-division in the zooming-in; the number of such decimal points is unlimited. Thus, the number of hierarchical levels in the knowledge-tree is unlimited. The maximal level is unreachable since it propagates in time. This intriguing issue raises doubts whether the tree is the most appropriate structure in the current state of the knowledge classification. However, I believe that the knowledge tree is a convenient way of expressing various connections between the knowledge domains. There are other models such as multi-level graph-networks that approximate closer to reality. These models can be further visualized by graph diagrams. The knowledge diagram is more complicated, considering the interaction between science and industry relative to each domain. The model of reality might be compared to the object-oriented programming languages approximating reality in order to construct more naturally computer programs that can model the world. The mutual correspondence of the knowledge domains is dynamic. Some examples of relatively new domains are as follows: biotechnology, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, integro-differential equations, data warehouse, data mining, requirements engineering, micro
Witteveen, Hester; van den Berg, Peter; Vermeulen, Guus
The aim of this study was to compare a multidisciplinary approach of menstrual (related) migraine, combining the neurological and gynaecological consultation, to a mono-disciplinary approach involving neurological treatment. There is a clear relationship between the menstruation cycle and the occurrence of migraine (menstrual migraine). Nowadays the treatment of menstrual (related) migraine is performed by a neurologist. A treatment with attention to hormonal treatment seems more convenient. This retrospective study was performed in a cohort using data of 88 women with menstrual (related) migraine who visited the menstrual migraine clinic between 2012 and 2014 (intervention group). The results were compared to a historical control group, which consisted of women with menstrual (related) migraine who were treated before 2012 and received a mono-disciplinary approach. In the intervention group the Headache Impact (HIT) score significantly improved (65 to 59 points). The mean headache days per month declined significantly (from 6 to 3.83 days) and these women needed less use of pain medication. In the control group the decline in HIT score was less striking (65 to 63.5 points) and the mean headache days per month increased (6 to 6,5 days). It appeared that 20 out of 27 patients in the control group required a gynaecological consultation in course of time. A multidisicplinary treatment of women with menstrual (related) migraine gives better results compared to a mono-disciplinary approach. These results should be interpreted with caution as we performed a retrospective study with a relative small control group.
This paper uses Bernstein's sociology of knowledge and studies of professional knowledge and expertise to identify how knowledge value is constituted in higher education curricula. It is argued that different knowledge structures and forms of disciplinary community influence how curricula are determined, and lead to distinctive types of knowledge…
Mantis, George Constantine
Several needs exist in the military, commercial, and civil sectors for new hypersonic systems. These needs remain unfulfilled, due in part to the uncertainty encountered in designing these systems. This uncertainty takes a number of forms, including disciplinary uncertainty, that which is inherent in the analytical tools utilized during the design process. Yet, few efforts to date empower the designer with the means to account for this uncertainty within the disciplinary analyses. In the current state-of-the-art in design, the effects of this unquantifiable uncertainty significantly increase the risks associated with new design efforts. Typically, the risk proves too great to allow a given design to proceed beyond the conceptual stage. To that end, the research encompasses the formulation and validation of a new design method, a systematic process for probabilistically assessing the impact of disciplinary uncertainty. The method implements Bayesian Statistics theory to quantify this source of uncertainty, and propagate its effects to the vehicle system level. Comparison of analytical and physical data for existing systems, modeled a priori in the given analysis tools, leads to quantification of uncertainty in those tools' calculation of discipline-level metrics. Then, after exploration of the new vehicle's design space, the quantified uncertainty is propagated probabilistically through the design space. This ultimately results in the assessment of the impact of disciplinary uncertainty on the confidence in the design solution: the final shape and variability of the probability functions defining the vehicle's system-level metrics. Although motivated by the hypersonic regime, the proposed treatment of uncertainty applies to any class of aerospace vehicle, just as the problem itself affects the design process of any vehicle. A number of computer programs comprise the environment constructed for the implementation of this work. Application to a single
Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is a common cause of cerebrovascular disease in childhood. Primary stroke prevention is effective using transcranial Doppler (TCD scans to measure intracranial blood velocities, and regular blood transfusions or hydroxycarbamide when these are abnormal. Inadequate TCD scans occur when it is not possible to measure velocities in all the main arteries. We have investigated the prevalence and significance of this in a retrospective audit of 3915 TCD scans in 1191 children, performed between 2008 and 2015. 79% scans were normal, 6.4% conditional, 2.8% abnormal and 12% inadequate. 21.6% of 1191 patients had an inadequate scan at least once. The median age of first inadequate scan was 3.3 years (0.7-19.4, with a U-shaped frequency distribution with age: 28% aged 2-3 years, 3.5% age 10 years, 25% age 16 years. In young children reduced compliance was the main reason for inadequate TCDs, whereas in older children it was due to a poor temporal ultrasound window. The prevalence of inadequate TCD was 8% in the main Vascular Laboratory at King's College Hospital and significantly higher at 16% in the outreach clinics (P<0.0001, probably due to the use of a portable ultrasound machine. Inadequate TCD scans were not associated with underlying cerebrovascular disease.
Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Molina, Jose Luis; Pulido Velazquez, Manuel; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio
Understanding the co-evolution and interrelations between natural and human pressures on water systems is required to ensure a sustainable management of resources under uncertain climate change conditions. To pursue multi-disciplinary research is therefore necessary to consider the multiplicity of stressors affecting water resources, take into account alternative perspectives (i.e. social, economic and environmental objective and priorities) and deal with uncertainty which characterize climate change scenarios. However, approaches commonly adopted in water quality assessment are predominantly mono-disciplinary, single-stressors oriented and apply concepts and models specific of different academic disciplines (e.g. physics, hydrology, ecology, sociology, economy) which, in fact, seldom shed their conceptual blinders failing to provide truly integrated results. In this context, the paper discusses the benefits and limits of adopting a multi-disciplinary approach where different knowledge domains collaborate and quantitative and qualitative information, coming from multiple conceptual and model-based research, are integrated in a harmonic manner. Specifically, Bayesian Networks are used as meta-modelling tool for structuring and combining the probabilistic information available in existing hydrological models, climate change and land use projections, historical observations and expert opinion. The developed network allows to perform a stochastic multi-risk assessment considering the interlacing between climate (i.e. irregularities in water regime) and land use changes (i.e. agriculture, urbanization) and their cascading impacts on water quality parameters (i.e. nutrients loadings). Main objective of the model is the development of multi-risk scenarios to assess and communicate the probability of not meeting a "Good chemical water status" over future timeframe taking into account projected climatic and not climatic conditions. The outcomes are finally used to identify
Yadlapati, Rena; Johnston, Elyse R; Gregory, Dyanna L; Ciolino, Jody D; Cooper, Andrew; Keswani, Rajesh N
Adequate bowel preparation is essential to safe and effective inpatient colonoscopy. Predictors of poor inpatient colonoscopy preparation and the economic impacts of inadequate inpatient preparations are not defined. The aims of this study were to (1) determine risk factors for inadequate inpatient bowel preparations, and (2) examine the association between inadequate inpatient bowel preparation and hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing inpatient colonoscopy preparation over 12 months (1/1/2013-12/31/2013). Of 524 identified patients, 22.3% had an inadequate preparation. A multiple logistic regression model identified the following potential predictors of inadequate bowel preparation: lower income (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04, 1.22), opiate or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use (OR 1.55; 0.98, 2.46), and afternoon colonoscopy (OR 1.66; 1.07, 2.59); as well as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (OR 1.15; 1.05, 1.25) and symptoms of nausea/vomiting (OR 1.14; 1.04, 1.25) when a fair preparation was considered inadequate. Inadequate bowel preparation was associated with significantly increased hospital LOS (model relative mean estimate 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.51) and hospital costs (estimate 1.31; 1.03, 1.67) when compared to adequate preparations. The rate of inadequate inpatient bowel preparations is high and associated with a significant increase in hospital LOS and costs. We identified five potential predictors of inadequate inpatient preparation: lower socioeconomic class, opiate/TCA use, afternoon colonoscopies, ASA class ≥3, and pre-preparation nausea/vomiting; these data should guide future initiatives to improve the quality of inpatient bowel preparations.
Luo, Jake; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Pelfrey, Clara M; Zhang, Guo-Qiang
Cross-institutional cross-disciplinary collaboration has become a trend as researchers move toward building more productive and innovative teams for scientific research. Research collaboration is significantly changing the organizational structure and strategies used in the clinical and translational science domain. However, due to the obstacles of diverse administrative structures, differences in area of expertise, and communication barriers, establishing and managing a cross-institutional research project is still a challenging task. We address these challenges by creating an integrated informatics platform to reduce the barriers to biomedical research collaboration. The Request Management System (RMS) is an informatics infrastructure designed to transform a patchwork of expertise and resources into an integrated support network. The RMS facilitates investigators' initiation of new collaborative projects and supports the management of the collaboration process. In RMS, experts and their knowledge areas are categorized and managed structurally to provide consistent service. A role-based collaborative workflow is tightly integrated with domain experts and services to streamline and monitor the life-cycle of a research project. The RMS has so far tracked over 1,500 investigators with over 4,800 tasks. The research network based on the data collected in RMS illustrated that the investigators' collaborative projects increased close to 3 times from 2009 to 2012. Our experience with RMS indicates that the platform reduces barriers for cross-institutional collaboration of biomedical research projects. Building a new generation of infrastructure to enhance cross-disciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration has become an important yet challenging task. In this paper, we share the experience of developing and utilizing a collaborative project management system. The results of this study demonstrate that a web-based integrated informatics platform can facilitate and
The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are grouped into the broad disciplinary areas of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences, and Engineering, Technology and Application of Science, and feature learning progressions based on endpoint targets for each grade band. Since the Middle School DCIs build on the expected learning achievements to be reached by the end of Fifth Grade, and High School DCI similarly build on the expected learning achievements expected for the end of Eighth Grade, the Middle School grade band is of particular importance as the bridge between the Elementary and High School curriculum. In states where there is not a special Middle School Certification many of these science classes are taught by teachers prepared to teach at the Elementary level (and who may have limited content background). As a result, some pre-service and in-service teachers have expressed reduced self-confidence in both their own science content knowledge and their ability to apply it in the NGSS-based classroom, while decades of research has demonstrated the pervasiveness of science misconceptions among teachers. Thus the adoption of NGSS has the potential to drive talented teachers out of the profession who feel that they are ill-prepared for this sweeping transition. The key is providing rigorous education in both content and pedagogy for pre-service teachers and quality targeted professional development for in-service teachers. This report focuses on the Middle School Space Sciences grade band DCIs and presents research on specific difficulties, misconceptions and uncertainties with the material demonstrated by pre-service education students over the past four years in a required university science content course, as well as two year-long granted workshop series for current Middle School teachers. This information is relevant to the development of both new content courses aligned with NGSS for pre
the study draws upon Foucauldian concepts like disciplinary power, confession, pastoral power and subjectivation. I will argue that the critique of the patient provides us with an example of the way that disciplinary power works in the case of an informal indictment of the methods and practice at an asylum....... A key issue is whether the critique is not itself a part of the self-legitimation of disciplinary power....
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine recidivists’ and non-recidivists’ differences in characteristics of the psychosocial functioning after a treatment in a Disciplinary Centre for Juveniles in Sarajevo Canton, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was conducted on a sample of 131 juvenile delinquents adjudicated with the educational measure of referral to the juvenile disciplinary centre. The statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS 17.0 program package. The differences between recidivists and non-recidivists were measured using Mann-Whitney test on all variables. A group of four variables were compared by: (a school factors, (b family factors, (c spare time activities and peer relationships and (d personality and behaviour of juveniles. The results have shown that risk factors are more pronounced in recidivists in all four areas of the psychosocial functioning. The largest difference is in the areas related to spare time activities and peer-relationships, as well as family functioning. The results indicate that the intensified treatment should focus on these areas in order to prevent recidivism.
Graziela A.H. Zottis
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.
Zottis, Graziela A H; Salum, Giovanni A; Isolan, Luciano R; Manfro, Gisele G; Heldt, Elizeth
to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10- to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks) and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring). A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7%) were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; pdiscipline was not associated with bullying. bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Katherine G. Akers
Full Text Available Academic librarians are increasingly engaging in data curation by providing infrastructure (e.g., institutional repositories and offering services (e.g., data management plan consultations to support the management of research data on their campuses. Efforts to develop these resources may benefit from a greater understanding of disciplinary differences in research data management needs. After conducting a survey of data management practices and perspectives at our research university, we categorized faculty members into four research domains—arts and humanities, social sciences, medical sciences, and basic sciences—and analyzed variations in their patterns of survey responses. We found statistically significant differences among the four research domains for nearly every survey item, revealing important disciplinary distinctions in data management actions, attitudes, and interest in support services. Serious consideration of both the similarities and dissimilarities among disciplines will help guide academic librarians and other data curation professionals in developing a range of data-management services that can be tailored to the unique needs of different scholarly researchers.
Full Text Available This study investigates the indexed papers dated from 1996 to 2002, included in the Taiwan Humanities Citation Index (THCI. The goal is to explore disciplinary interflow of Library & Information Science (LIS studies in Taiwan. The results show that the researchers of LIS mostly cooperate with researchers and scholars in the fields of social science and engineering & technology. In addition, LIS researchers focusing on “Library & Information Technology” and “Reader Services” frequently cooperate with researchers from other disciplines. With regard to their citation behaviors, LIS researchers frequently cite literatures of the Social Science, Engineering & Technology, and History. Especially, the major of cited literatures are written in Chinese and published 5 to 10 years earlier than the citing papers.The LIS research topic, “Administration and Management”, has the largest COC (citation outside category index and WCOC (weighted citation outside category index. As an LIS research topic, “Administration and Management” might have relatively higher degree of disciplinary interflow. [Article content in Chinese
Ramm, Hans Henrik
Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...
Clyde, Jerremie; Wilkinson, Glenn R.
The gamic mode is an innovative way of authoring scholarly history that goes beyond the printed text or digital simulations by using digital game technologies to allow the reader to interact with a scholarly argument through meaningful choice and trial and error. The gamic mode makes the way in which the past is constructed as history explicit by…
Canary, Heather E.; Hansen, Kody D.; Rinehart, Marc D.; May, Kristal; Barlow, Jahn
Research institutions are charged with developing and managing conflict of interest (COI) policies regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of research. Prior research indicates that university researchers may not understand the purpose of these policies and may resent the time taken to demonstrate compliance. Policy communication is not a…
Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.
Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.
Yan, Koon-Kiu; Wang, Daifeng; Sethi, Anurag; Muir, Paul; Kitchen, Robert; Cheng, Chao; Gerstein, Mark
Biological systems are complex. In particular, the interactions between molecular components often form dense networks that, more often than not, are criticized for being inscrutable 'hairballs'. We argue that one way of untangling these hairballs is through cross-disciplinary network comparison-leveraging advances in other disciplines to obtain new biological insights. In some cases, such comparisons enable the direct transfer of mathematical formalism between disciplines, precisely describing the abstract associations between entities and allowing us to apply a variety of sophisticated formalisms to biology. In cases where the detailed structure of the network does not permit the transfer of complete formalisms between disciplines, comparison of mechanistic interactions in systems for which we have significant day-to-day experience can provide analogies for interpreting relatively more abstruse biological networks. Here, we illustrate how these comparisons benefit the field with a few specific examples related to network growth, organizational hierarchies, and the evolution of adaptive systems.
Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Schedel, Ingo
This research-based essay offers a cross-disciplinary examination of ethics education in MBA programs. Based on data underlying the Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) survey we find: that business schools doubled the number of ethics-related courses in different disciplines between 2005 and 2009......: business schools increasingly risk creating a gap between their upbeat rhetoric around ethics education and their actual MBA curriculum. Such decoupling is likely to emerge because schools face a tension between increasing institutional pressures to legitimize their MBA programs and internal impediments......, that about 75% of all offered courses are electives, and that integration of ethics varies considerably between disciplines with management-related courses exposing students more often to ethical questions. Further, we find that and hardly change over time. We argue that these results point towards a problem...
Wulkan, Mark L; Walsh, Stephanie M
The multi-disciplinary team is essential for the success of an adolescent bariatric surgical program. This article will describe the components of the team and their roles. Essential members include a pediatrician or pediatric subspecialist with an interest and expertise in adolescent obesity, a pediatric surgeon with bariatric expertise, or an adult bariatric surgeon with adolescent experience, adolescent/child psychologist, pediatric nutritionist, exercise physiologist or physical therapist, nursing support, and a patient coordinator. Some programs have found a social worker to be helpful as well. The function of the team members is more important than the title. A physical therapist may develop an activity program or a social worker may function as the coordinator. The whole team, led by the pediatric bariatrician, makes decisions concerning the selection of candidates for bariatric surgery. During team rounds, each patient is discussed and treatment decisions are made. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena; Montalbano, Vera
An investigation on student understanding of waves is performed during an optional laboratory realized in informal extracurricular way with few, interested and talented pupils. The background and smart intuitions of students rendered the learning path very dynamic and ambitious. The activities started by investigating the basic properties of waves by means of a Shive wave machine. In order to make quantitative observed phenomena, the students used a camcorder and series of measures were obtained from the captured images. By checking the resulting data, it arose some learning difficulties especially in activities related to the laboratory. This experience was the starting point for a further analysis on disciplinary knots and learning problems in the physics of waves in order to elaborate a teaching-learning proposal on this topic.
Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Schedel, Ingo
This research-based essay offers a cross-disciplinary examination of ethics education in MBA programs. Based on data underlying the Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) survey we find: that business schools doubled the number of ethics-related courses in different disciplines between 2005 and 2009......: business schools increasingly risk creating a gap between their upbeat rhetoric around ethics education and their actual MBA curriculum. Such decoupling is likely to emerge because schools face a tension between increasing institutional pressures to legitimize their MBA programs and internal impediments...... to fully integrate ethics into the curriculum. We suggest that more effective ethics education requires structural changes to the curriculum, in particular more mandatory ethics courses and a stronger integration of ethics-related debates into disciplines like finance and accounting....
Borrego, Maura; Creamer, Elizabeth G.
This work directly compares three explanations for differences in experiences of interdisciplinary research collaborators using a sample of 347 academics from 144 different research intensive and extensive universities in the United States who were awarded funding from the same directorate of the National Science Foundation. The findings provide a much more positive view of interdisciplinary collaboration than is routinely found in the literature. Despite varied disciplinary backgrounds, members of the sample are extremely satisfied with their experiences with interdisciplinary collaboration and have much more in common than they differ in their attitudes and experiences, including how they meet collaborators, the difficulties they have encountered, their approach to the division of labor, and their interest in collaboration as a venue for learning. Findings dispute the stereotype that the relational element of collaboration is significantly more salient for women than it is for men.
Bosman, Caryl; Dredge, Dianne
Tourism planning and management does not exist in a vacuum. It is inextricably interwoven into urban and rural landscapes, and it affects the daily lives of the people who inhabit the places that tourists also want to visit. However, tourism educators often deliver tourism management subject matter...... from within tourism programmes, and there is little integration into broader understandings of the dynamics and management challenges associated with tourism landscapes. In this chapter we explore an integrated and holistic approach to curriculum design and delivery that places the planning...... and management of tourism places within a broader post-disciplinary context. In particular, the chapter challenges the tourism-centric nature of tourism management curricula by presenting a case study of an urban and environmental planning studio wherein students’ understandings of tourism are framed within...
Houseal, Ana; Gillis, Victoria; Helmsing, Mark; Hutchison, Linda
The current discussion among adolescent literacy researchers describes two positions at either end of a continuum: a generalist content area reading approach and a disciplinary literacy approach. Within the field, there are misunderstandings about the disciplinary literacy approach and claims that adolescents are ill suited to the kinds of…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...
.... 207(j). 45.3 Section 45.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.3 Disciplinary proceedings under 18 U.S.C. 207(j). (a) Upon a determination by the Assistant... authorized by 18 U.S.C. 207(j), or subjected to other appropriate disciplinary action under that statute. The...
Brooks, Catherine Francis
In this essay, disciplinary "convergence" is offered as a construct that references the blurring of disciplinary walls, academic borders and institutional divisions, a construct that can frame conversations about the role of disciplines in addressing today's student needs in higher education. Convergence as a construct allows for a…
Hickey, Pamela J.; Lewis, Tarie
Effective disciplinary literacy instruction is an essential element in the education of multilingual learners. In this article, we provide an overview of disciplinary literacy as well as instructional approaches that support meaningful pedagogy for these students. We recognize that multilingual learners are already skilled at negotiating language…
Rainey, Emily C.; Maher, Bridget L.; Coupland, David; Franchi, Rod; Moje, Elizabeth Birr
In this piece, the authors offer two illustrations of central features of disciplinary literacy teaching. One illustration describes an episode of history literacy teaching, and the other describes an episode of physics literacy teaching. Both examples show how teachers may support students' development of disciplinary inquiry, disciplinary…
Maphosa, Cosmas; Shumba, Almon
The escalation of learner indiscipline cases in schools suggests failure by teachers to institute adequate alternative disciplinary measures after corporal punishment was outlawed in South African schools. We sought to address the following two research questions: (a) How do educators view their disciplinary capabilities in the post-corporal…
Moyo, George; Khewu, Noncedo P. D.; Bayaga, Anass
The aim of the study was to determine the consistency prevailing between the disciplinary practices in the schools and the principles of the Alternatives-to-Corporal Punishment strategy. The three main research questions that guided the study were to determine (1) How much variance of offences can be explained by disciplinary measures of…
van Dijk, E Ivar; Dute, Jos C J; ten Ham, Peter B G
To gain insight into the importance for medical disciplinary courts of the collective health interest in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Descriptive retrospective study. The electronic databases of the Dutch government gazette (Staatscourant) and the Netherlands' medical disciplinary courts were searched for disciplinary court rulings on actions and negligence in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We found 67 verdicts relevant to our subject in the period 1995-2013. Of these 67 disciplinary hearings, 12 were filed by the Netherlands' health inspectorate, 29 by the patient and 26 by a representative or next of kin. The defendants included 31 medical specialists, 12 dentists and 11 general practitioners. The disciplinary tribunal imposed measures in 23 cases, including 5 suspensions. In the case of serious infectious diseases the disciplinary courts decide that the caregiver also has to take into account the interests of other parties than caregiver and the patient. Medical microbiologists in hospitals should even go so far as to surrender their responsibility for general patient safety, if they are unable to comply with the applicable medical guideline. It is also striking that in questions of vaccination the disciplinary court judge is inclined to put a child's health interests before parental authority. One final striking point is that the health inspectorate plays an important role as complainant in disciplinary cases concerning prevention of infection.
An extensive body of scholarship has documented the way disciplinary texts and activities are produced and mediated through their relationship to a wide array of extradisciplinary discourses. This article seeks to complement and extend that line of work by drawing upon Witte's (1992) notion of intertext to address the way disciplinary activities…
Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna
Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews ( n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.
Qualls, R. Christopher
Although academic dishonesty is known to be prevalent in institutions of higher education, little research has examined the role that differences in disciplinary techniques used in childhood play in its occurrence. This study investigated the relationship between specific disciplinary practices, particularly harsh physical discipline, and the…
Dobbs, Christina L.; Ippolito, Jacy; Charner-Laird, Megin
Secondary teachers nationwide are encouraged by the Common Core State Standards and recent research to enact disciplinary literacy instruction. However, little is known about how teachers make sense of teaching disciplinary literacy skills to adolescents. To what extent might adolescents still need the kinds of foundational support provided by…
Jessop, Tansy; Maleckar, Barbara
This paper explores disciplinary patterns of assessment and feedback, using data from the Transforming the Experience of Students through Assessment project. Its central research question concerns the effect of disciplinary assessment patterns on student learning. Audit data from 18 degree programmes at 8 UK universities showed variations in…
Amade-Escot, Chantal; Bennour, Nabila
This paper relates to students' productive disciplinary engagement (PDE) within the teaching of gymnastics in Tunisia. Students' engagement is investigated from the pragmatist and social-interactionist perspective of the didactic joint action framework in conjunction with productive disciplinary engagement. Data were collected through ethnographic…
Frambaugh-Kritzer, Charlotte; Buelow, Stephanie; Simpson Steele, Jamie
Disciplinary literacies in dance and drama are underrepresented in classrooms and in scholarship, especially at the elementary level. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine how preservice teachers constructed meaning of the disciplinary literacies in dance and drama. The theoretical framework guiding this study was drawn from…
Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna
Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews (n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.
Stacey L. Raimondi
Full Text Available Forensic science programs and courses have traditionally been housed within chemistry departments at the college/university level, largely because the pioneers of the field were chemists who applied technology that was more chemical than biological in nature. However, with the development of such areas of study as DNA analysis, anatomical studies, and forensic entomology, it is becoming more and more important for forensic science students to have a strong biological background as well as a chemical background. Furthermore, while biology students are typically required to have extensive chemistry training as part of their major, the converse is not true for chemistry students. Therefore, it is possible that a student interested in forensic science could complete a major in chemistry and never have taken a biology class, leaving them woefully under-prepared for any type of masters program or career in forensic science immediately following graduation. Indeed, an examination of available positions in forensic science shows a large number of positions for DNA analysts for which the typical chemistry student would not be prepared without extensive biology training (http://www.aafs.org. Furthermore, positions for medical examiners or pathologists require extensive training in biology in addition to the continued medical training and residency programs. Therefore, it seems imperative that introductory forensic science courses adapt to these needs and be taught with a more bi-disciplinary approach in order to educate students on the whole field rather than one aspect. To that end, a new bi-disciplinary Forensic Science course was developed at Elmhurst College. This course was team-taught by a biology and a chemistry professor so that students would obtain a thorough understanding of the field and techniques used by both biologists and chemists. A description of this new version of a forensic science course follows, focusing on the addition of biology
Charlton, Bruce G
It is plausible to assume that in the future science will form the compulsory core element both of school curricula and multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees. But for this to happen entails a shift in the emphasis and methods of science teaching, away from the traditional concern with educating specialists and professionals. Traditional science teaching was essentially vocational, designed to provide precise and comprehensive scientific knowledge for practical application. By contrast, future science teaching will be a general education, hence primarily conceptual. Its aim should be to provide an education in flexible rationality. Vocational science teaching was focused on a single-discipline undergraduate degree, but a general education in abstract systematic thinking is best inculcated by studying several scientific disciplines. In this sense, 'science' is understood as mathematics and the natural sciences, but also the abstract and systematic aspects of disciplines such as economics, linguistics, music theory, history, sociology, political science and management science. Such a wide variety of science options in a multi-disciplinary degree will increase the possibility of student motivation and aptitude. Specialist vocational science education will progressively be shifted to post-graduate level, in Masters and Doctoral programs. A multi-disciplinary and conceptually-based science core curriculum should provide an appropriate preparation for dealing with the demands of modern societies; their complex and rapidly changing social systems; and the need for individual social and professional mobility. Training in rational conceptual thinking also has potential benefits to human health and happiness, since it allows people to over-ride inappropriate instincts, integrate conflicting desires and pursue long-term goals.
Estis-Deaton, Asia; Sheiner, Eyal; Wainstock, Tamar; Landau, Daniella; Walfisch, Asnat
To evaluate the impact of inadequate prenatal care on long-term morbidity among the offspring of an ethnic minority population. A retrospective population-based cohort analysis was performed among all Bedouin women with singleton pregnancies who delivered in a tertiary medical center in Israel between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2014. Morbidity was defined as pediatric hospitalization across six distinct disease categories before 18 years of age. The cumulative morbidity rates were compared for offspring born following pregnancies with either inadequate (prenatal care facility) or adequate prenatal care. Overall, 127 396 neonates were included; 19 173 (15.0%) were born following inadequate prenatal care. Pediatric hospitalizations for all morbidities other than cardiovascular ones were less frequent among the inadequate prenatal care group than the adequate prenatal care group (Pprenatal care group, with the exception of cardiovascular disease. Inadequate prenatal care correlated with reduced pediatric hospitalization rates among offspring, possibly owing to a lack of child healthcare service utilization within the Bedouin population. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Ruhl, Catherine
To evaluate responses of registered nurse members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) to a survey that sought their recommendations for staffing guidelines and their perceptions of the consequences of inadequate nurse staffing. The goal was to use these member data to inform the work of the AWHONN nurse staffing research team. Secondary analysis of responses to the 2010 AWHONN nurse staffing survey. Online. AWHONN members (N = 884). Review of data from an online survey of AWHONN members through the use of thematic analysis for descriptions of the consequences of inadequate nurse staffing during the childbirth process. Three main themes emerged as consequences of inadequate staffing or being short-staffed: Missed Care, Potential for Failure to Rescue, and Job-Related Stress and Dissatisfaction. These themes are consistent with those previously identified in the literature related to inadequate nurse staffing. Based on the responses from participants in the 2010 AWHONN nurse staffing survey, consequences of inadequate staffing can be quite serious and may put patients at risk for preventable harm. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danielsson, Anna T.; Berge, Maria; Lidar, Malena
The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytical framework for exploring how relations between knowledge and power are constituted in science and technology classrooms. In addition, the empirical purpose of this paper is to explore how disciplinary knowledge and knowledge-making are constituted in teacher-student interactions.…
Full Text Available Women’s knowledge has often been seen as “a whole set of knowledges that have been disqualified as inadequate to their task or insufficiently elaborated: naive knowledges, located low down on the hierarchy, beneath the required level of cognition or scientificity." (Foucault 1980, p. 82. In this description, scientific knowledges are seen to be hierarchically more important, with traditional knowledges ranged beneath them. In this hierarchy, women’s knowledges are found wanting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the assertion that women’s knowledges are inadequate and to document ways in which they are marginalised. Revaluing women’s knowledge is recognised as one of the most direct methods of changing the way a society works. A vast literature has argued that is a key factor in development and has been shown to lead to poverty alleviation, to the development of active citizens and to the creation of a more open and democratic society. Possibilities for the revaluing of women’s knowledge using information and communication technologies are considered, focussing on the concepts of open access and the information commons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v5i3.3381
Full Text Available Introduction: Skull-based osteomyelitis is bony infection which generally originates from inadequately treated chronic infection, adjoining tissue infection or after trauma.Case: 11 month female child had a trivial fall while standing near a bucket. The child developed fracture of right clavicle and left orbital swelling which was inadequately treated. This resulted in in spread of infection to adjoining tissues, skull bones, sinuses and brain.Conclusion: Cranial base osteomyelitis is rare but dreaded condition which requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid mortality and morbidity in form of neurological deficits and permanent disability
Wiggins, H. V.
The rapid physical and social changes currently underway in the Arctic - and changes in the way in which we study and manage the region - require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the "new arctic". There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such efforts. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. Efforts must draw on bodies of knowledge from project management, strategic planning, organizational development, group dynamics, and other fields. In addition, collaborations between scientific disciplines face challenges unique to scientific culture. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies - both successes and failures - will be presented that draw on several projects at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS; www.arcus.org), a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.
Jarke, Matthias; Nissen, Hans W.; Rose, Thomas; Schmitz, Dominik
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important drivers for innovation. In particular, project-driven SMEs that closely cooperate with their customers have specific needs in regard to information engineering of their development process. They need a fast requirements capture since this is most often included in the (unpaid) offer development phase. At the same time, they need to maintain and reuse the knowledge and experiences they have gathered in previous projects extensively as it is their core asset. The situation is complicated further if the application field crosses disciplinary boundaries. To bridge the gaps and perspectives, we focus on shared goals and dependencies captured in models at a conceptual level. Such a model-based approach also offers a smarter connection to subsequent development stages, including a high share of automated code generation. In the approach presented here, the agent- and goal-oriented formalism i * is therefore extended by domain models to facilitate information organization. This extension permits a domain model-based similarity search, and a model-based transformation towards subsequent development stages. Our approach also addresses the evolution of domain models reflecting the experiences from completed projects. The approach is illustrated with a case study on software-intensive control systems in an SME of the automotive domain.
Nelson, Nicole C
In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.
Johnson, Heather L; Ling, Catherine G; McBee, Elexis C
Older adults are disproportionately affected by disaster. Frail elders, individuals with chronic diseases, conditions, or disabilities, and those who live in long-term care facilities are especially vulnerable. Purpose The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to describe the system-wide knowledge and skills that multi-disciplinary health care providers need to provide appropriate care for the elderly during domestic-humanitarian and disaster-relief efforts. Data sources A systematic search protocol was developed in conjunction with a research librarian. Searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were conducted using terms such as Disaster, Geological Processes, Aged, Disaster Planning, and Vulnerable Populations. Forty-six articles met criteria for inclusion in the review. Policies and guidance regarding evacuating versus sheltering in place are lacking. Tenets of elderly-focused disaster planning/preparation and clarification of legal and ethical standards of care and liability issues are needed. Functional capacity, capabilities, or impairments, rather than age, should be considered in disaster preparation. Older adults should be included in disaster planning as population-specific experts. Implications for Practice A multifaceted approach to population-specific disaster planning and curriculum development should include consideration of the biophysical and psychosocial aspects of care, ethical and legal issues, logistics, and resources.
Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M
This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.
Oliver, Amanda J.; Covar, Ronina A.; Goldfrad, Caroline H.
Objective To evaluate the dose-response, efficacy, and safety of fluticasone furoate (FF; 25 µg, 50 µg, and 100 µg), administered once daily in the evening during a 12-week treatment period to children with inadequately controlled asthma. Study design This was a Phase IIb, multicenter, stratified...
Barkallah, Eya; Freulard, Johan; Otis, Martin J-D; Ngomo, Suzy; Ayena, Johannes C; Desrosiers, Christian
Inadequate postures adopted by an operator at work are among the most important risk factors in Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Although several studies have focused on inadequate posture, there is limited information on its identification in a work context. The aim of this study is to automatically differentiate between adequate and inadequate postures using two wearable devices (helmet and instrumented insole) with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and force sensors. From the force sensors located inside the insole, the center of pressure (COP) is computed since it is considered an important parameter in the analysis of posture. In a first step, a set of 60 features is computed with a direct approach, and later reduced to eight via a hybrid feature selection. A neural network is then employed to classify the current posture of a worker, yielding a recognition rate of 90%. In a second step, an innovative graphic approach is proposed to extract three additional features for the classification. This approach represents the main contribution of this study. Combining both approaches improves the recognition rate to 95%. Our results suggest that neural network could be applied successfully for the classification of adequate and inadequate posture.
Quasim, Shahla; Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz
This study aims at the inadequacy of academic environment as an indicator contributing to the inadequate teaching and learning situation in Pakistan. The main focus is to look into the low proficiency of students in the subject of English at secondary school level. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed from the literature concerned and The…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if lack of funds results in inadequate maintenance? 170.811 Section 170.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.811 What happens if lack of funds...
Silva, Cristiane M; Silva, Silvia A da; Antunes, Margarida M de C; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Brandt, Katia G
To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29ng/mL; p=0.041) and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p=0.049) than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.002). Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.972). Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D and poor sleep quality are prevalent in pregnant women, but low levels of vitamin D are not associated with poor sleep quality. Further studies with larger sample sizes and studies that include preterm deliveries and special sleep disorders should be performed to understand this issue better.
I (Waterhouse, 2006) argued that, because multiple intelligences, the Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theories have inadequate empirical support and are not consistent with cognitive neuroscience findings, these theories should not be applied in education. Proponents countered that their theories had sufficient empirical support, were…
Full Text Available The article stated, in substance, that by accepting the hypothesis of continuing transformation of content and configuration "small worlds", along with developments in technology and behavioral sciences, necessarily supported the finding that mutations endo-exogenous influences organizational entity as a whole his notable consequences on management. Doxastic management is a new epistemological covered by copyright scientifically in 2013 (Ioan Gaf-Deac, Fundamentals of Doxastic Management, FMP, Bucharest, 2013, 508 pp., ISBN 978-606-93321-5-3. It appears that is not yet discerned neighborhood structure between the model, physical reality and metaphysical reality. It also considers that the segment infinite / finite (physical reality model possible site management, doxastic operating, new emphases on the horizon iterative expected idealization /aspirate. Quasi-complete objectification management decisions can be obtained by iterations and iteration as long as no detectable only certainty in the construction of finite elements, quasi-infinitesimal. Such a view is advanced through the management ranks to the original formula, for the first time, relying on conceptual refinement that pervades the environment, economic and social-productive, generally classified as systemic, for the beginning of the XXI century. Etymological explanatory are described aspects of doxastic and believe that management is global doxastic depositary of conceptual management. Describe the elements that define managerial complexity in terms of using new information technologies, shaping the early conceptual management and doxastic formulas disciplinary explanatory content doxastic management reflected in the conceptual doxometric premises management.
In this 'solicited' talk, I will firstly navigate through some of the most influential dendroecological/-climatological advancements of roughly the last decade. Afterwards, I will outline pending challenges in modern tree-ring research, including the ongoing involvement of (quantitative) wood anatomical materials, methods and perspectives. Finally, I will provide several examples of how dendroecological approaches might indeed be able to contribute towards identifying and shifting research frontiers, as well as crossing disciplinary boundaries; not only within the vast field of natural sciences but also with the humanities. While presenting an array of timely case studies, with all of them being centered on either tree-ring data or associated techniques, this talk will comprise multiple aspects of archaeology, astronomy, biology, ecology, epidemiology, history, mycology and volcanology. In so doing, I hope to stimulate discussion on the potential and limitations of state-of-the-art tree-ring research across various spatiotemporal scales of resolution, which may range from the cell to the hemisphere and from the day to the Holocene. Despite its overview character, this talk will place emphases on utilizing big datasets, on valuing Russia's scientific landscape, on performing high-resolution radiocarbon measurements, and on linking volcanic activity, climate variability and human history.
Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike
Myelo-meningoceles are part of congenital afflictions of the spinal column. They arise from the failure of the neural tube to fuse properly during early embryonic growth. The causes and sequalae are multiple and, therefore, require multiple disciplines, to handle them. This study assessed the role of inter-disciplinary approach in the management of myelo-meningoceles. From 1975 to 2007, the author repaired 20 midline lumbar and lumbo-sacral myelo-meningoceles; 5 in Jamaica and 15 in Nigeria. There were 11 males and 9 females. Their ages, at operation, ranged from 1 to 168 days. All had urine and faecal incontinence and severe paraparesis to paraplegia. Skeletal deformities were present in 16 cases. The operations were carried out under routine general anaesthesia and in prone position. All cases were followed-up for up to 60 months, apart from one who died 4 days at home after discharge. There were no deaths within the period of hospitalisation, usually about 14 days. Those followed-up have not made much improvement, though they were able to sit up without support and move around by shifting on their buttocks on the floor. We must continue to help these patients, but under the umbrella of specialised rehabilitation centres with the different specialists working together to make these patients attain a meaningful life and be useful to themselves and the society.
McPhillips, Lauren E.; Chang, Heejun; Chester, Mikhail V.; Depietri, Yaella; Friedman, Erin; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kominoski, John S.; McPhearson, Timon; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Rosi, Emma J.; Shafiei Shiva, Javad
Extreme events are of interest worldwide given their potential for substantial impacts on social, ecological, and technical systems. Many climate-related extreme events are increasing in frequency and/or magnitude due to anthropogenic climate change, and there is increased potential for impacts due to the location of urbanization and the expansion of urban centers and infrastructures. Many disciplines are engaged in research and management of these events. However, a lack of coherence exists in what constitutes and defines an extreme event across these fields, which impedes our ability to holistically understand and manage these events. Here, we review 10 years of academic literature and use text analysis to elucidate how six major disciplines—climatology, earth sciences, ecology, engineering, hydrology, and social sciences—define and communicate extreme events. Our results highlight critical disciplinary differences in the language used to communicate extreme events. Additionally, we found a wide range in definitions and thresholds, with more than half of examined papers not providing an explicit definition, and disagreement over whether impacts are included in the definition. We urge distinction between extreme events and their impacts, so that we can better assess when responses to extreme events have actually enhanced resilience. Additionally, we suggest that all researchers and managers of extreme events be more explicit in their definition of such events as well as be more cognizant of how they are communicating extreme events. We believe clearer and more consistent definitions and communication can support transdisciplinary understanding and management of extreme events.
Journal for Language Teaching ... approaches to academic literacies development; the role of collaborative partnerships between academic literacies and disciplinary specialists; and how to shift from tacit knowledge of the norms and conventions of disciplines to explicit teaching of these norms and conventions. Drawing ...
In this article I make the case that epistemic othering constitutes epistemic injustice, which is inscribed in the disciplinary formations of knowledge. As they help us produce our world, these formations, nowadays, preside over a considerable part of university practices and their conditions of privilege and disadvantage.
long consultative process. Ultimately, a continental, multi-sectoral and an Inter-, Transand Multi-disciplinary (MIT) approaches might be the most appropriate in the protection of the IKS and the needs and interests of indigenous medical practitioners. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, indigenous medicine practioners, ...
Full Text Available The escalation of learner indiscipline cases in schools suggests failure by teachers to institute adequate alternative disciplinary measures after corporal punishment was outlawed in South African schools. We sought to address the following two research questions: (a How do educators view their disciplinary capabilities in the post-corporal punishment period? and (b How do educators view the usefulness of alternative disciplinary measures? The study adopted a qualitative approach. A case study of three purposively selected practising junior secondary school educators was used. Data were collected through interviews. We found that educators generally feel disempowered in their ability to institute discipline in schools in the absence of corporal punishment. Educators revealed that learners do not fear or respect educators because they know that nothing will happen to them. Although educators are aware of alternative disciplinary measures, they view them as ineffective and time consuming.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) tools developed to perform multi-disciplinary analysis based on low fidelity computation methods have been used in...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Industry is driven by the cost of man-power and time to market, and is still awaiting a versatile and reliable multi-disciplinary analysis code. The proposed JFLO...
The N-PMD group had higher knowledge of child development, more awareness of harmful effects of corporal punishment, more knowledge about positive discipline alternatives, and lower belief in the value of corporal punishment. These variables may be considered important facilitators of effective discipline. Keywords: ...
The world of computing simulation has experienced great progresses in recent years and requires more exigent multidisciplinary challenges to satisfy the new upcoming demands. Increasing the importance of solving multi-disciplinary problems makes developers put more attention to these problems and deal with difficulties involved in developing software in this area. Conventional finite element codes have several difficulties in dealing with multi-disciplinary problems. Many of these codes are d...
Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M; Waisse, Silvia; Ferraz, Márcia H M
History of science as a formal and autonomous field of research crosses over disciplinary boundaries. For this reason, both its production and its working materials are difficult to classify and catalog according to discipline-based systems of organization of knowledge. Three main problems might be pointed out in this regard: the disciplines themselves are subject to a historical process of transformation; some objects of scientific inquiry resist constraint within rigid disciplinary grids but, rather, extend across several disciplinary boundaries; and the so-called digital revolution has replaced spatial with temporal display sequences and shifted the traditional emphasis on knowledge to user-oriented approaches. The first part of this essay is devoted to a conceptual analysis of the various approaches to the organization of knowledge formulated over time, whereas the second considers the new possibilities afforded by a faceted model of knowledge organization compatible with user-oriented relational databases to the research materials and production of history of science.
This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...
Chen, Guang-Fu; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Chen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Li; Long, Qi; Kong, Qi; Mao, Heng
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-disciplinary treatment approaches in reducing neurological disabilities in premature infants. A total of 117 infants who were born premature in our hospital between March 2008 and February 2010 but had no congenital malformations and no severe neonatal complications, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly allocated to a multi-disciplinary treatment group (n=63) and a control group (n=54). While patients in the control group underwent an early conventional treatment, those in the multi-disciplinary treatment group were subjected to regular development monitoring, neurological examination and screening for brain injury, neuro-nutrition and neurodevelopment therapies, and rehabilitation training. The incidence rates of abnormalities in posture, reflex, sleep, muscle tone and EEG were significantly lower in the multi-disciplinary treatment group than in the control froup (Planguage barrier, abnormal muscle tone and hearing impairment were significantly lower in the multi-disciplinary treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Early multi-disciplinary intervention approaches may significantly improve mental and motor developments and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy-associated neurological disabilities in premature infants.
Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Martinkenas, Arvydas; Mockiene, Vida; Suominen, Tarja
This study looks to describe health care professionals' knowledge regarding patient safety. A quantitative study using questionnaires was conducted in three multi-disciplinary hospitals in Western Lithuania. Data were collected in 2014 from physicians, nurses, and nurse assistants. The overall results indicated quite a low level of safety knowledge, especially in regard to knowledge concerning general patient safety. The health care professionals' background factors such as their profession, education, the information about patient safety they were given during their vocational and continuing education, as well as their experience in their primary speciality seemed to be associated with several patient safety knowledge areas. Despite a wide variation in background factors, the knowledge level of respondents was generally found to be low. This requires that further research into health care professionals' safety knowledge related to specific issues such as medication, infection, falls, and pressure sore prevention should be undertaken in Lithuania.
Full Text Available A 74-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type II and Alzheimer′s disease, taking donepezil for 4 months was operated for right modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. During the procedure a higher dose of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant was required than those recommended for her age yet the muscle relaxation was inadequate intra-operatively. Residual neuromuscular blockade persisted postoperatively, due to the cumulative effect of large doses of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, needing post-operative ventilatory assistance. After ruling out other causes of resistance to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, we concluded that acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was primarily responsible for inadequate muscle relaxation and delayed post-operative neuromuscular recovery.
Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A
The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.
Occupational accidents due to inadequate working conditions and work environment present a major problem in highly industrialised countries, as well as in developing ones. Occupational accidents are a regular and accompanying phenomenon in all human activities and one of the main health related and economic problems in modern societies.The aim of this study is the analysis of the connections of unfavourable working conditions and working environment on occupational accidents. Occurrence of oc...
Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian
Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...
Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela Monica; Bozzini, Carlos Eduardo Jose; Alippi, Rosa Maria
This study describes the effects of feeding growing rats with a diet containing inadequate and incomplete proteins on both the morphological and the biomechanical properties of the mandible. Female rats aged 30 d were fed freely with one of two diets, control (CD, 301 Cal/100g) and experimental (ED, 359 Cal/100g). CD was a standard laboratory diet, while ED was a synthetic diet containing cornflower supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Both diets had the same physical characteristics. Con...
Charlier, C; Goffinet, F; Azria, E; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M
Listeria monocytogenes infection during pregnancy can lead to dramatic fetal or neonatal outcomes. No clinical trial has evaluated treatment options, and retrospective studies of cases are therefore important to define optimal regimens. We report four cases of materno-neonatal listeriosis illustrating inadequate antimicrobial therapy management and discuss recommended treatment options. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Fuentes-López, Eduardo; Fuente, Adrian; Contreras, Karem V
The aim of this study is to determine possible associations between vocal hygiene habits and self-reported vocal symptoms in telemarketers. A cross-sectional study that included 79 operators from call centres in Chile was carried out. Their vocal hygiene habits and self-reported symptoms were investigated using a validated and reliable questionnaire created for the purposes of this study. Forty-five percent of telemarketers reported having one or more vocal symptoms. Among them, 16.46% reported that their voices tense up when talking and 10.13% needed to clear their throat to make their voices clearer. Five percent mentioned that they always talk without taking a break and 40.51% reported using their voices in noisy environments. The number of working hours per day and inadequate vocal hygiene habits were associated with the presence of self-reported symptoms. Additionally, an interaction between the use of the voice in noisy environments and not taking breaks during the day was observed. Finally, the frequency of inadequate vocal hygiene habits was associated with the number of symptoms reported. Using the voice in noisy environments and talking without taking breaks were both associated with the presence of specific vocal symptoms. This study provides some evidence about the interaction between these two inadequate vocal hygiene habits that potentiates vocal symptoms.
Bixby, Dale L
The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are the standard of care for treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Compared with interferon-based treatment, the previous standard of care, imatinib is associated with significantly higher cytogenetic response rates and prolonged overall survival. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both newer and more potent TKIs, significantly improve cytogenetic and molecular response rates compared with imatinib. Despite significant advances in CML treatment enabled by the TKIs, a fraction of patients who receive frontline treatment with a TKI demonstrate inadequate response. The reasons for this vary, but in many cases, inadequate response can be attributed to non-adherence to the treatment regimen, intolerance to the drug, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug, or a combination of reasons. More often than not, strategies to improve response necessitate a change in treatment plan, either a dose adjustment or a switch to an alternate drug, particularly in the case of drug intolerance or drug resistance. Improved physician-patient communication and patient education are effective strategies to address issues relating to adherence and intolerance. Because inadequate response to TKI treatment correlates with poor long-term outcomes, it is imperative that patients who experience intolerance or who fail to achieve appropriate responses are carefully evaluated so that appropriate treatment modifications can be made to maximize the likelihood of positive long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lorenzoni, Raymond P; Choi, Jaeun; Choueiter, Nadine F; Munjal, Iona M; Katyal, Chhavi; Stern, Kenan W D
Kawasaki disease is the primary cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in developed nations. Timely diagnosis of Kawasaki disease incorporates transthoracic echocardiography for visualization of the coronary arteries. Sedation improves this visualization, but not without risks and resource utilization. To identify potential sedation criteria for suspected Kawasaki disease, we analyzed factors associated with diagnostically inadequate initial transthoracic echocardiography performed without sedation. This retrospective review of patients Kawasaki disease from 2009 to 2015 occurred at a medium-sized urban children's hospital. The primary outcome was diagnostically inadequate transthoracic echocardiography without sedation due to poor visualization of the coronary arteries, determined by review of clinical records. The associations of the primary outcome with demographics, Kawasaki disease type, laboratory data, fever, and antipyretic or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment prior to transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed. In total, 112 patients (44% female, median age 2.1 years, median BSA 0.54 m 2 ) underwent initial transthoracic echocardiography for suspected Kawasaki disease, and 99 were not sedated. Transthoracic echocardiography was diagnostically inadequate in 19 out of these 99 patients (19.2%) and was associated with age ≤ 2.0 years, weight ≤ 10.0 kg, and antipyretic use ≤ 6 hours before transthoracic echocardiography (all P Kawasaki disease. These factors should be considered when deciding which patients to sedate for initial Kawasaki disease transthoracic echocardiography. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; César, Cibele Comini
Work ability depends on a balance between individual resources and work demands. This study evaluated factors that are associated with inadequate work ability among workers in the clothing industry. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 306 workers in 40 small and medium-sized enterprises. We assessed work ability, individual resources, physical and psychosocial demands, and aspects of life outside work using a binary logistic regression model with hierarchical data entry. The mean work ability was 42.5 (SD=3.5); when adjusted for age, only 11% of the workers showed inadequate work ability. The final model revealed that smoking, high isometric physical load, and poor physical environmental conditions were the most significant predictors of inadequate work ability. Good working conditions and worker education must be implemented to eliminate factors that can be changed and that have a negative impact on work ability. These initiatives include anti-smoking measures, improved postures at work, and better physical environmental conditions.
Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn
As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.
In the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, graduate students at the doctoral level were participants. This program required exposure to other disciplines, to various approaches to problem definition, to various methodologies, concepts, and research techniques. It was expected that the students had gained experiences and…
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.
This document is the first in a multi-document final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Program in Educational Research conducted at the University of Pittsburgh, September 1972 to August 1974. Part one of this document gives a brief overview of the entire final report, describing the three products emerging from the program (student growth,…
This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge...... within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization....
Astuti, Andari Puji; Wijayatiningsih, Testiana Deni; Azis, Abdul; Sumarti, Sri Susilogati; Barati, Dwi Anggani Linggar
One of the competencies of teachers to be mastered under the constitution is pedagogic competence. This study aims to provide an overview of the pedagogic competence of Preservice teachers through the mastery of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Content knowledge (CK). The research method used is descriptive qualitative, with data retrieval technique through essay tests, questionnaire and interview. The results showed that of the five PCK indicators, only knowledge of learning strategies to teach chemistry already in high category. For Content Knowledge of preservice teachers are in the middle category for indicators of knowledge of disciplinary content, whereas knowledge that alternative frameworks for thinking about the content exist and the knowledge of the relationship between big ideas and the supporting ideas in a content area is in the fair category.
Atwal, Anita; Duncan, Helen; Queally, Claire; Cedar, S H
Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor's perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data. Participants' experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme. Our research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production. Implications for Rehabilitation The patients' expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme. Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable
This article is divided into two parts: Part 1 consists of the position stand of The Canadian Association of Applied Sport Sciences on the involvement of children in competitive sports, and Part II presents scientific background and rationale pertinent to the position statements. Each part is divided into major categories reflecting the multi-disciplinary concerns of the participation of pre- and post-pubescent children in sport situations at all levels. Psychological considerations focus on the child learning a sense of competence and control through sport participation. Success in a sport should not be based solely on winning, but on one's own performance and attained goals. Sport involvement can provide one important avenue for a child's social development. Non-aggressive behaviour and a constructive problem-solving approach should be encouraged. Any form of discrimination towards sport participation or competition should be discouraged. From the physiological and medical point of view, it should be recognized that each child is different in his/her response and tolerance to exercise due to a great range of variability in growth rates, anthropometric indices, gender and state of health, even in children of a similar chronological age. Younger prepubertal children should be encouraged to participate in a wide variety of motor skills, whereas older post-pubertal children can become more specialized in their training and sport participation. A child's performance and adaptation to training should not be directly compared to an adult's as significant differences exist, especially during the years of accelerated growth. Environmental exercise tolerance is also more limited to children than adults. In younger children repetitive heavy loading of the musculoskeletal system should be approached with caution. With proper equipment design and usage, and rule modifications, serious injuries can be avoided. Medical disabilities should be evaluated on an individual basis and
Wipfli, Heather; Press, David J; Kuhn, Virginia
The development of new global health academic programs provides unique opportunities to create innovative educational approaches within and across universities. Recent evidence suggests that digital media technologies may provide feasible and cost-effective alternatives to traditional classroom instruction; yet, many emerging global health academic programs lag behind in the utilization of modern technologies. We created an inter-departmental University of Southern California (USC) collaboration to develop and implement a course focused on digital media and global health. Course curriculum was based on core tenants of modern education: multi-disciplinary, technologically advanced, learner-centered, and professional application of knowledge. Student and university evaluations were reviewed to qualitatively assess course satisfaction and educational outcomes. 'New Media for Global Health' ran for 18 weeks in the Spring 2012 semester with N=41 students (56.1% global health and 43.9% digital studies students). The course resulted in a number of high quality global health-related digital media products available at http://iml420.wordpress.com/. Challenges confronted at USC included administrative challenges related to co-teaching and frustration from students conditioned to a rigid system of teacher-led learning within a specific discipline. Quantitative and qualitative course evaluations reflected positive feedback for the course instructors and mixed reviews for the organization of the course. The development of innovative educational programs in global health requires on-going experimentation and information sharing across departments and universities. Digital media technologies may have implications for future efforts to improve global health education.
North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.
The implications of the climate change phenomenon are far-reaching, and will impact every person on Earth. These problems will be complex, and will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. To employ a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the impact climate change is having in the world in which we live, a team of 57 Western Kentucky University (WKU) faculty, staff, and students participated in a study abroad program to seven ports in the North Sea and North Atlantic, including three ports in Iceland, onboard the Semester at Sea ship, MV Explorer. This program combined interdisciplinary learning, service learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges. Together, the group learned how climate change affects the world from varied academic perspectives, and how more often than not these perspectives are closely interrelated. Courses taught during the experience related to climate change science and communication, economics, future trends, and K-12 education. Each student also participated in a The $100 Solution™ service-learning course. While in port, each class engaged in a discipline-specific activities related to the climate change topic, while at sea students participated in class lectures, engaged in shipboard lectures by international experts in their respective fields, and participated in conversations with lifelong learners onboard the ship. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the WKU students to over 100 persons from the University of Akureyri in Akureyri, Iceland, representatives of neighboring Icelandic communities, environmental agencies, and tourism bureaus about what they had learned about climate change during their travels. By forging this relationship, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they
Full Text Available Background: The development of new global health academic programs provides unique opportunities to create innovative educational approaches within and across universities. Recent evidence suggests that digital media technologies may provide feasible and cost-effective alternatives to traditional classroom instruction; yet, many emerging global health academic programs lag behind in the utilization of modern technologies. Objective: We created an inter-departmental University of Southern California (USC collaboration to develop and implement a course focused on digital media and global health. Design: Course curriculum was based on core tenants of modern education: multi-disciplinary, technologically advanced, learner-centered, and professional application of knowledge. Student and university evaluations were reviewed to qualitatively assess course satisfaction and educational outcomes. Results: ‘New Media for Global Health’ ran for 18 weeks in the Spring 2012 semester with N=41 students (56.1% global health and 43.9% digital studies students. The course resulted in a number of high quality global health-related digital media products available at http://iml420.wordpress.com/. Challenges confronted at USC included administrative challenges related to co-teaching and frustration from students conditioned to a rigid system of teacher-led learning within a specific discipline. Quantitative and qualitative course evaluations reflected positive feedback for the course instructors and mixed reviews for the organization of the course. Conclusion: The development of innovative educational programs in global health requires on-going experimentation and information sharing across departments and universities. Digital media technologies may have implications for future efforts to improve global health education.
Melby, Melissa K; Takeda, Wakako
Japanese public health nutrition often promotes 'traditional' cuisine. In-depth interviews with 107 Japanese adults were conducted in Tokyo from 2009 to 2011, using free-listing methods to examine dietary ideals and realities to assess the extent to which realities reflect inadequate nutrition education or lifestyle constraints. Ideal-reality gaps were widest for breakfast. Most people reported Japanese ideals: rice and miso soup were prototypical foods. However, breakfast realities were predominantly western (bread-based). While those aged 40-59 were more likely to hold Japanese ideals (P=0.063), they were less likely to achieve them (P=0.007). All those reporting western ideals achieved them on weekdays, while only 64% of those with Japanese ideals achieved them (PJapanese ideals were positively correlated with proportion of cooking-related housework, and negatively correlated with living standard and income. Ideal menu content was in line with current Japanese nutrition advice, suggesting that more nutrition education may not change dietary ideals or behavior. Participant-reported reasons for ideal-reality discordance demonstrate that work-life balance issues, especially lack of time and family structure/life rhythm, are the largest obstacles to the attainment of dietary ideals. People reporting 'no time' as a primary reason for ideal-reality gaps were less likely to achieve their Japanese ideals (odds ratio=0.212). Time realities of people's lives may undermine educational efforts promoting Japanese breakfasts. When dietary reality/behavior departs from guidelines, it is often assumed that people lack knowledge. If ideals are in line with dietary guidelines, then lack of knowledge is not the likely cause and nutrition education is not the optimal solution. By asking people about the reasons for gaps between their ideals and realities, we can identify barriers and design more effective policies and programs to achieve dietary ideals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier
Indigenous knowledge (IK) has faced and is still facing threats of extinction owing to lack of or inadequate documentation of its processes and usefulness. Researches in IK have, for many years, suffered a herculean task of data elicitation which in essence has negatively affected its documentation. This study was carried ...
Xará, Daniela; Silva, Acácio; Mendonça, Júlia; Abelha, Fernando
To evaluate the frequency, determinants, and outcome of inadequate emergence after elective surgery in the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Prospective observational study. 12-bed PACU of a tertiary-care hospital in a major metropolitan area. 266 adult patients admitted to the PACU. To evaluate inadequate emergence, the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) was administered to patients 10 minutes after their admission to the PACU. Demographic data, perioperative variables, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) in the PACU and the hospital were recorded. 40 (15%) patients showed symptoms of inadequate emergence: 17 patients (6.4%) screened positive for emergence delirium and 23 patients (8.6%) showed hypoactive emergence. Determinants of emergence delirium were longer duration of preoperative fasting (P = 0.001), higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (P = 0.002), and major surgical risk (P = 0.001); these patients had a higher frequency of postoperative delirium (P = 0.017) and had higher nausea VAS score 6 hours after surgery (P = 0.001). Determinants of hypoactive emergence were duration of surgery (P = 0.003), amount of crystalloids administered during surgery (P = 0.002), residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001), high-risk surgery (P = 0.002), and lower core temperature on PACU admission (P = 0.028); these patients also had more frequent residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001) postoperative delirium (P < 0.001), and more frequent adverse respiratory events (P = 0.02). Patients with hypoactive emergence had longer PACU and hospital LOS. Preventable determinants for emergence delirium were higher postoperative pain scores and longer fasting times. Hypoactive emergence was associated with longer postoperative PACU and hospital LOSs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lawaetz, Mads; Homøe, Preben
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine which factors are associated with inadequate surgical margins and to assess the postoperative consequences. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 110 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery during a 2-year period...... was examined. Clinical, histopathologic, and operative variables were related to the surgical margin status. Furthermore postoperative treatment data were compared with margin status. RESULTS: Univariate statistically significant associations were found between the tumor site in the floor of mouth, more...
Alsiyabi, Abdullah S; Felton, David A; Cooper, Lyndon F
A critical factor that needs to be evaluated during the diagnosis and treatment planning phase for patients seeking an implant-tissue-supported overdenture or metal-resin implant fixed denture is the presence of adequate interarch distance. The amount of interarch distance is critical to the selection of appropriate implant abutments and attachments for both implant-tissue-supported overdentures and metal-resin implant fixed complete dentures. This clinical report describes a patient with complications related to the failure to diagnose inadequate interarch distance, and the methods used to resolve the patient's chief complaint. A guide for abutment-attachment selection using one commercially available implant system is given.
Kostyk, Chris; Risch, Tim
The harsh and complex hypersonic flight environment has driven design and analysis improvements for many years. One of the defining characteristics of hypersonic flight is the coupled, multi-disciplinary nature of the dominant physics. In an effect to examine some of the multi-disciplinary problems associated with hypersonic flight engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a non-linear 6 degrees-of-freedom, full vehicle simulation that includes the necessary model capabilities: aerothermal heating, ablation, and thermal stress solutions. Development of the tool and results for some investigations will be presented. Requirements and improvements for future work will also be reviewed. The results of the work emphasize the need for a coupled, multi-disciplinary analysis to provide accurate
Lindenskov, Lena; Andresen, Mette
-disciplinary teaching. The study revealed examples of good practice in planning and teaching. In addition, it served to illuminate interesting aspects of how students perceived the school subject mathematics and its relations to other subjects and to common sense.......' performed under the reform by a team of experienced teachers. The aim of the case study was to inquire how the teachers met the demands of the introduction of this new concept and, to look for signs of new relations established by the students between mathematics and other subjects, as a result of the multi......A new concept, compulsory multi-disciplinary courses, was introduced in upper secondary school curriculum as a central part of a recent reform. This paper reports from a case study of such a triple/four-disciplinary project in mathematics, physics, chemistry and ‘general study preparation...
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... making, which I call ‘sound knowledge’. Sound knowledge is an approach to knowledge that takes the reflexive considerations of actors in policymaking processes as well as in research about what knowledge is into account. Seeing knowledge as sound makes connections between different ideas, concepts...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances...
Full Text Available Background. Oral anticoagulants have been used in the prevention of thromboembolic complications for over six decades. A rare, but possible problem in the application of these medications could be resistance to them. Case report. We presented a patient with nonocclusive thrombosis of the mechanical mitral prosthesis due to inadequately treated resistance to peroral anticoagulant therapy. Resistance to oral anticoagulant medications was proven by an increased dosage of warfarin up to 20 mg and, after that, acenokumarol to 15 mg over ten days which did not lead to an increase in the international normalized ratio (INR value over 1.2. On the basis of information that she did not take food rich in vitamin K or medications which could reduce effects of oral anticoagulants, and that she did not have additional illnesses and conditions that could cause an inadequate response to anticoagulant therapy, it was circumstantially concluded that this was a hereditary form of resistance. Because of the existing mechanical prosthetics on the mitral position, low molecular heparin has been introduced into the therapy. The patient reduced it on her own initiative, leading to nonocclusive valvular thrombosis. Conclusion. When associated complications like absolute arrhithmia does not exist, the finding of resistance to oral anticoagulant agents is an indication for the replacement of a mechanical prosthetic with a biological one which has been done in this patients.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common form of monogenic autoinflammatory conditions, and response to colchicine has been considered as one of its distinctive features among other hereditary periodic fever disorders. Prophylactic colchicine has been shown to be effective in the prevention of inflammatory attacks and development of amyloidosis. However, the highest tolerable doses of colchicine may not be adequate enough to manage these goals in approximately 5% of FMF patients. Inadequate response to colchicine in fully compliant FMF patients may be associated with genetic and/or environmental factors affecting disease severity and colchicine bioavailability. Clarification of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of FMF has revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) cytokine is the most likely target to attack, and several case reports and case series have already documented the efficacy and safety of available anti-IL-1 agents, such as anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab in those patients inadequately responding to colchicine. Characterization and early identification of those FMF patients with uncontrolled inflammatory activity have become more important after the availability of new treatment options for the prevention of disease-associated complications and permanent damages. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolf, Megan R; Rosenstock, Jason B
The authors studied whether low levels of exercise or inadequate sleep correlated with higher levels of burnout and depression in medical students. Medical students of all years at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in Fall 2012 and Winter 2013. Validated measures were used to assess exercise, sleep, burnout, and depression. Response rates were 28.7 % at the beginning of the school year and 22.6 % at the middle of the school year. Burnout rates overall were 22.4 % at the beginning of the year and 19.2 % in the middle of the year. Eight percent of students screened positive for depression at the beginning of the year and 9.3 % in the middle of the year. Decreased exercise frequency was significantly correlated with lower professional efficacy. Pathological sleepiness was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of burnout. Inadequate sleep correlated with significantly lower professional efficacy and higher exhaustion scores. Burnout was associated with a positive depression screen. Positive depression screening, pathological sleepiness, and sleeping less than 7 h a night were independent predictors of burnout. Sleep habits, exercise, and a positive depression screen were associated with burnout risk within the medical student population.
Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W
Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.
Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi
Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.
Yury M. Filippov
Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the topical issues of the judges and judicial employees’ disciplinary responsibility in England and Wales after the adoption of the Constitutional Reform Act and creation of the new disciplinary bodies. Present article contains a short analysis of the mechanism of professional and ethical standards among judges and magistrates of England and Wales maintenance, possible conflict of interests settlement and questions of conduct in the need of disciplinary trial. Author consider features of the lord powers - chancellor in the questions of bringing judges and magistrates to the disciplinary responsibility, interaction of the Lord Chancellor with the Lord - Supreme Judge and the Ministry of Justice in the questions of the disciplinary investigations organization and conduct. At the same time author considers an aspect that responsibility before the civil society has an informal character and doesn't assume carrying out any trial. At the same time possibility of judge's and court's employees behavior discussion by public organizations and associations and also in press is a usual practice. In the conclusion author notes that to the number of features of English model of the disciplinary responsibility of judges and judicial employees it is necessary to include active participation of public authorities in the process of trial on the complaints in regard to actions of judges and judicial employees (Ministry of Justice is authorized to conduct such trials, the dual legal nature of such decision on the complaint which is taken out not only on behalf of the judicial community, but also a name of the Lord Chancellor appointed by the Parliament, general procedure of the judge's and worker's of courts, and also coroners accountability.
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…
Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...
Pliskin Joseph S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS has great potential for the management of chronic disease and the analysis of clinical and administrative health care data. Asthma is a chronic disease associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care use. Epidemiologic data from all over the world show an increasing prevalence of asthma morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective treatment. These facts led to the emergence of strategies developed to improve the quality of asthma care. The objective To develop an efficient tool for quality assurance and chronic disease management using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Geographic location The southern region of Israel. January 1998 – October 2000. Databases Administrative claims data of the largest HMO in Israel: drug dispensing registry, demographic data, Emergency Room visits, and hospitalization data bases. Methods We created a list of six markers for inadequate pharmaceutical treatment of childhood asthma from the Israeli clinical guidelines. We used this list to search the drug dispensing registry to identify asthmatic children who received inadequate treatment and to assess their health care utilization and bad outcomes: emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Using GIS we created thematic maps on which we located the clinics with a high percentage of children for whom the treatment provided was not in adherence with the clinical guidelines. Results 81% of the children were found to have at least one marker for inadequate treatment; 17.5% were found to have more than one marker. Children with markers were found to have statistically significant higher rates of Emergency Room visits, hospitalizations and longer length of stay in hospital compared with children without markers. The maps show in a robust way which clinics provided treatment not in accord with the clinical guidelines. Those clinics have high rates of Emergency Room
Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young
Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed
Yordanov, Youri; Dechartres, Agnes; Porcher, Raphaël; Boutron, Isabelle; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe
To assess the waste of research related to inadequate methods in trials included in Cochrane reviews and to examine to what extent this waste could be avoided. A secondary objective was to perform a simulation study to re-estimate this avoidable waste if all trials were adequately reported. Methodological review and simulation study. Trials included in the meta-analysis of the primary outcome of Cochrane reviews published between April 2012 and March 2013. We collected the risk of bias assessment made by the review authors for each trial. For a random sample of 200 trials with at least one domain at high risk of bias, we re-assessed risk of bias and identified all related methodological problems. For each problem, possible adjustments were proposed that were then validated by an expert panel also evaluating their feasibility (easy or not) and cost. Avoidable waste was defined as trials with at least one domain at high risk of bias for which easy adjustments with no or minor cost could change all domains to low risk. In the simulation study, after extrapolating our re-assessment of risk of bias to all trials, we considered each domain rated as unclear risk of bias as missing data and used multiple imputations to determine whether they were at high or low risk. Of 1286 trials from 205 meta-analyses, 556 (43%) had at least one domain at high risk of bias. Among the sample of 200 of these trials, 142 were confirmed as high risk; in these, we identified 25 types of methodological problem. Adjustments were possible in 136 trials (96%). Easy adjustments with no or minor cost could be applied in 71 trials (50%), resulting in 17 trials (12%) changing to low risk for all domains. So the avoidable waste represented 12% (95% CI 7% to 18%) of trials with at least one domain at high risk. After correcting for incomplete reporting, avoidable waste due to inadequate methods was estimated at 42% (95% CI 36% to 49%). An important burden of wasted research is related to inadequate
Mar 2, 2015 ... Background: Inadequate knowledge and wrong perception of multidrug‑resistant tuberculosis (MDR‑TB) by Health. Care Workers (HCWs) and patients are detrimental to tuberculosis control programs. Objective: The aim was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of HCWs and TB patients about MDR‑TB in ...
Yang, Xianmin; Qiu, Qin; Yu, Shengquan; Tahir, Hasan
The openness of open-knowledge communities (OKCs) leads to concerns about the knowledge quality and reliability of such communities. This confidence crisis has become a major factor limiting the healthy development of OKCs. Earlier studies on trust evaluation for Wikipedia considered disadvantages such as inadequate influencing factors and…
Conclusion: Although inadequate knowledge and inappropriate home practices about FC were rampant in the study community, using community members to teach and sensitize the mothers on FC improved their knowledge base significantly. The use of effective educational intervention programmes and parental support ...
Bonnes, J.L.; Westra, S.W.; Bouwels, L.H.; Boer, M.J. de; Brouwer, M.A.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.
INTRODUCTION: In view of the shift from routine toward no or selective defibrillation testing, optimization of the current risk stratification for inadequate defibrillation safety margins (DSMs) could improve individualized testing decisions. Given the pathophysiological differences in myocardial
Holdt Christensen, Peter
The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....
Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah
Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…
Loo, Sai Y.
This paper focuses on teacher education in the English further education sector, where the teaching of disciplinary and pedagogic knowledge is an issue. Using research findings, the paper advocates an approach based on collaboration and informed research to emphasize and integrate knowledge(s) in situated teaching contexts despite working in a…
Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær
Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....
The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 20 - 21, 2013. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (from here on referred to as the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk. Overall, the SRP thinks the well-qualified research team has compiled an excellent summary of background information in the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report. The SRP would like to commend the authors in general and particularly note that while the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report has been written using a single nutrient approach, the research plan takes a much more integrated and physiologically based approach.
Carina Maciel Silva-Boghossian
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP on the composition of the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis (CP in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2 with inadequate metabolic control and in systemically healthy (SH individuals. Forty individuals (20 DM2 and 20 SH with CP underwent full-mouth periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 4 deep sites of each individual and tested for mean prevalence and counts of 45 bacterial taxa by the checkerboard method. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and 3 months after SRP. At baseline, those in the DM2 group presented a significantly higher percentage of sites with visible plaque and bleeding on probing compared with those in the SH group (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group presented significantly higher levels of C. rectus and P. gingivalis, and lower prevalence of P. micra and S. anginosus, compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. At the 3-month visit, both groups showed a significant improvement in all clinical parameters (p < 0.01. Those in the DM2 group showed significantly higher prevalence and/or levels of A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii I, A. oris, A. odontolyticus, C. sputigena, F. periodonticum, and G. morbillorum compared with those in the SH group (p ≤ 0.001. However, those in the DM2 group showed a significant reduction in the levels of P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (p ≤ 0.001 over time. Those in the SRP group showed improved periodontal status and reduced levels of putative periodontal pathogens at 3 months’ evaluation compared with those in the DM2 group with inadequate metabolic control.
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker
Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....
Hsu, Jonathan C; Marcus, Gregory M; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Sood, Nitesh; Parker, Matthew W; Kluger, Jeffrey; Lampert, Rachel; Russo, Andrea M
Defibrillation testing is often performed to establish effective arrhythmia termination, but predictors and consequences of an inadequate defibrillation safety margin (DSM) remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to develop a simple risk score predictive of an inadequate DSM at implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation and to examine the association of an inadequate DSM with adverse events. A total of 132,477 ICD Registry implantations between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Using logistic regression models, factors most predictive of an inadequate DSM (defined as the lowest successful energy tested 3 days (odds ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.30; p < 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.63 to 2.36; p < 0.0001). A simple risk score identified ICD recipients at risk for an inadequate DSM. An inadequate DSM was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital adverse events. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Donna Kalmbach; Nava, Robert Ch.
This inquiry explores who is the "good teacher of color". Through Michel Foucault's notion of biopower and disciplinary power, the analysis attempts to problematize the subject-position of "teacher of color" by exploring how a Latino intern and a Latina intern negotiated their subjectivity in a large diverse school district. Participants'…
Marshall, Delia; Conana, Honjiswa; Maclon, Rohan; Herbert, Mark; Volkwyn, Trevor
This paper examines a collaborative partnership between discipline lecturers and an academic literacy practitioner in the context of undergraduate physics. Gee's sociocultural construct of Discourse is used as a framework for the design of an introductory physics course, explicitly framed around helping students access the disciplinary discourse…
Porter, Heather D.
This article presents a summation of the field's past contributions to understanding the nature of undergraduate reading practices and meaning making processes in relation to contemporary perspectives of disciplinary literacies. In presenting a synthesis of over 40 studies across interdisciplinary journals, the goal was to construct a generalized…
Willcocks, Stephen George
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of shared leadership to multi-disciplinary cancer care. It examines the policy background and applies concepts from shared leadership to this context. It includes discussion of the implications and recommendations. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper examining policy documents and secondary literature on the topic. While it focuses on the UK National Health Services, it is also relevant to other countries given they follow a broadly similar path with regard to multi-disciplinary working. Findings The paper suggests that shared leadership is a possible way forward for multi-disciplinary cancer care, particularly as policy developments are supportive of this. It shows that a shared perspective is likely to be beneficial to the further development of multi-disciplinary working. Research limitations/implications Adopting shared leadership needs to be explored further using appropriate empirical research. Practical implications The paper offers comments on the implications of introducing shared leadership and makes recommendations including being aware of the barriers to its implementation. Originality/value The paper offers an alternative view on leadership in the health-care context.
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.
Part two of a seven-section, final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, this document contains discussions of quantification and reason analysis. Quantification is presented as a language consisting of sentences (graphs and tables), words, (classificatory instruments), and grammar (rules for constructing and…
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.
This document, the sixth of a final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, is a collection of three essays. The first--Notes on the History of Interdisciplinarity--by Judy Rosen, brings together and outlines the general points and findings of the literature that has been generated in an attempt to evaluate the…
Di Domenico, Paula M.; Elish-Piper, Laurie; Manderino, Michael; L'Allier, Susan K.
This study investigated how a high school literacy coach provided coaching to support teachers' understanding and implementation of disciplinary literacy instruction. With a focus on collaborations between the literacy coach and teachers in the disciplines of social studies, math, and English, this article presents three case studies that…
Melissa V. Eitzel; Sibyl Diver; Hillary Sardiñas; Lauren M. Hallett; Jessica J. Olson; Adam Romero; Gustavo de L. T. Oliveira; Alex T. Schuknecht; Rob Tidmore; Katharine N. Suding
Restoration ecology is a deepening and diversifying field with current research incorporating multiple disciplines and infusing long-standing ideas with fresh perspectives. We present a list of 10 recent pivotal papers exemplifying new directions in ecological restoration that were selected by students in a cross-disciplinary graduate seminar at the University of...
This qualitative case study explored preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs about disciplinary literacy as they engaged in a blog project with middle-school students to discuss historical texts. Twenty-eight PSTs, enrolled in a semester-long social studies methods course and participating in the blog project as a course assignment, constituted the…
de Vries, Rogier W.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; Souchkov, Valeri
The work that is described in this report consists of creating a framework for facilitating the use of TRIZ in analysing and solving mono- and co-disciplinary design issues during design of electromechanical products at a large company in the Netherlands. Guidelines have been developed that serve as
Schwab, Karen Walker
This paper is a literature review using the Douglas-Widavasky Grid/Group theory as a framework to examine, from a cross cultural perspective, preferred parental disciplinary methods. The four rival cultures defined in the Grid/Group theory mirror the cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism and power distance described by Geert Hofstede.…
Organizational behavior: An introductory text (4th edn). England: Prentice Hall. Infantino, J. and Little, E. (2005), Students' perceptions of classroom behaviour problems and the effectiveness of different disciplinary methods, Educational Psychology. 25,5, pp.498-508. McDaniel, T. R. and Kappan, P. D. (1986). "A Primer on ...
This paper draws on the notion of disciplinary power developed by Michel Foucault to discuss whether the professional practices inherent in British health visiting can be understood in terms of support or surveillance. The notion of disciplinary power embedded within Foucault's writings has been widely applied to the sociological analysis of health care professions. While a number of studies have focused on nursing practice, there has been little empirical work developing these ideas in the context of British health visiting. A qualitative approach using interviews with 24 health visitors and 16 women who had experienced domestic violence was used. For reasons of confidentiality, the women were not matched to the health visitors. Data analysis was continuous with data collection and led to identification of a number of categories. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism underpinned the analysis. The women who participated in this research described their engagement in a number of disciplinary practices. These included the discursive production of themselves as good mothers, subjects and objects of the health visiting gaze, as well as their practices of resistance to health visiting work. Analysis of the health visitors' interview data provided further evidence concerning the exercise of disciplinary power in their everyday work of providing support and health care to women and children. The paper highlights tensions within the health visitor's role between welfare and surveillance, as well as differences between lay and professional perspectives.
Hellman, Matilda; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Nordstrom, Benjamin R.; van Holst, Ruth J.
Drawing on explanatory pluralism this cross-disciplinary theoretical study asks whether excessive compulsive online gaming can be called an addiction on the basis of what is known about the disorder. This article discusses the concept of addiction; the social seating of the problems and it reviews,
Kane, Justine M.
In this paper, I offer a framework for exploring the academic and disciplinary identities young African American children construct in urban science classrooms. Using interviews, fieldnotes, and videotapes of classroom lessons, I juxtapose the ways in which two children tell about their experiences in school and science with their performances of…
Korzenny, Felipe; And Others
This study examines the effect of parental socialization forces on children's learning of antisocial behavior from television portrayals. The intervening variables are the patterns of parental disciplinary practices and general interaction with their children in their everyday life. Two types of parental styles were identified: induction,…
Full Text Available After the abolition of corporal punishment at schools, teachers have been faced with an increase in unacceptable learner behaviour and threatening situations in their classrooms. An urgent need arose to address learner discipline in innovative ways. Disciplinary hearings that deal with cases of serious misconduct represent a shift away from authoritarian control towards a corrective and restorative approach. This article presents views of educators that had acted as evidence leaders (“ELs” at disciplinary hearings. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews in a district of the Gauteng Education Department. AtlasTi software was utilised to analyse the verbatim interview transcriptions. Educators that usually served as evidence leaders (“prosecutors”, but had not been trained in law, experienced problems in conducting quasi-judicial functions without proper support and training. ELs regularly experience animosity from parents and learners; are frustrated by the unwillingness and failure of the provincial education departments to act in accordance with an SGB recommendation. Disciplinary hearings are time-consuming and lawyers representing learners complicate rather than facilitate the process. These weaknesses jeopardise the efficacy and fairness of the process and may ultimately defeat the purpose of a disciplinary hearing.
Abstract. In tertiary education settings it is imperative for students to move confidently between the academic discourses of a variety of disciplines. Thus, it is merited to aim writing interventions at genres that straddle disciplinary boundaries. Following a survey on preferred genres and text types at the University of Pretoria an ...
McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria
Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…
Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen
This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…
Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.
Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…
Wickens, Corrine M.; Manderino, Michael; Parker, Jenny; Jung, Jinhong
In recent years, disciplinary literacy has been at the forefront of adolescent literacy research and practice but has largely focused on the four core content areas: English language arts, social studies, science, and mathematics. Drawing on a physical education lens, this article is a call to expand the definitions, approaches, and framework of…
Liliana Cortés Garzón
The article carries out an approach to some theoretical positions that draw near cultural studies, cultural history and its relationship with plastic and visual arts, in the historiographical analysis of contemporary thinkers that undertake trans-disciplinary looks, to elaborate new theories that sustain index research in plastic and visual arts.
Liliana Cortés Garzón
Full Text Available The article carries out an approach to some theoretical positions that draw near cultural studies, cultural history and its relationship with plastic and visual arts, in the historiographical analysis of contemporary thinkers that undertake trans-disciplinary looks, to elaborate new theories that sustain index research in plastic and visual arts.
Via interview data focused on instructor practices and values, this study sought to describe some of what performing and visual arts instructors do at the university level to effectively teach disciplinary values through writing. The study's research goals explored how relationships to writing process in visual and performing arts support…
Cooke, A.G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Poelman, Wim; Scheidl, R.; Jakoby, B.
Agile software development methods are used extensively in the software industry. This paper describes an argument to explain why these methods can be used within a multi-disciplinary project and provides a concrete description on how to implement such a method, using a case-study to support the
This study examined the disciplinary enculturation experiences of three Korean students in U.S.-based Master of Arts in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MATESOL) programs. Guided by theories of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998) and social identities (Block, 2007; Clarke, 2008; Norton, 2009), and largely drawn…
..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...
Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A.
Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two…
DePalma, Renee; Membiela, Pedro; Pazos, Mercedes Suarez
This article provides a vision of school disciplinary strategies as provided by childhood school memories of practicing or unemployed teachers. This narrative approach allows us to understand the school and its daily routines and rituals from an insiders' point of view, drawing upon the double perspective teachers employ when reflecting on their…
Hellman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Nordstrom, B.R.; Holst, R.J. van
Drawing on explanatory pluralism this cross-disciplinary theoretical study asks whether excessive compulsive online gaming can be called an addiction on the basis of what is known about the disorder. This article discusses the concept of addiction; the social seating of the problems and it reviews,
Stead, Joan; Lloyd, Gwynedd; Kendrick, Andrew
This paper explores dilemmas and tensions between two models of school based inter-agency meetings to prevent disciplinary exclusion from school. The first model is characterised by innovative practice developed through long established professional relationships and addresses both individual and strategic issues in supporting young people who are…
Girard, Brian; Harris, Lauren McArthur
The authors present a case study of a world history teacher's mediation of her students' world historical thinking and writing through unit-level cognitive tools. They analyze both scaffolding and disciplinary tools that the teacher constructed for her students in order to improve their world historical thinking, and the degree to which the…
Moran, Katherine E.
Research in the area of academic writing has demonstrated that writing varies significantly across disciplines and among genres within disciplines. Two important approaches to studying diversity in disciplinary academic writing have been the genre-based approach and the corpus-based approach. Genre studies have considered the situatedness of…
Generic attributes such as "holding a critical stance", "using evidence to support claims", and "projecting an impersonal voice" are central to disciplinary academic writing in higher education. These attributes, also referred to as "skills", have for a long time been conceptualised as transferable in that…
... Section 0.737-3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Post Employment Conflict of Interest § 0.737-3 Initiation of administrative disciplinary hearing. (a... Inspector General, the Director of the Office of Government Ethics and to the Criminal Division, Department...
Sengupta, Pratim; Clark, Doug
The authors extend the theory of "disciplinary integration" of games for science education beyond the virtual world of games, and identify two key themes of a practice-based theoretical commitment to science learning: (1) materiality in the classroom, and (2) iterative design of multiple, complementary, symbolic inscriptions (e.g.,…
Efim L. Kon
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is a development of approaches and recommendations on the selection of quantitative and qualitative component structure of disciplinary competencies, as well as ways of its formal description. One of the main problems, which it is necessary to decide while developing a studying and methodical discipline complex (for example, a discipline program, a fund of estimation tools, etc. of competence-oriented educational program, is designing of a component structure of each part of competence (a disciplinary competence, that is involved in the formation of the discipline. In this case, a significant impact on this process has not only the content of thematic plan and selected kinds of class and self works of students, but proposed control tools and diagnosing methods of learning outcomes specified in the competency format. Methods. It is proposed to use joint (testable design component structure of disciplinary competencies and control tools (tests, test materials, check the level of development of their constituent elements described in the triad of «to know», «to be able to», «to master». Requirements to the basic quantitative and qualitative properties of disciplinary competence component structure are formulated and substantiated. A structure of diagnostic table that makes it possible to set a correspondence between disciplinary competence elements and components and their control tests, and also to fix outcomes of current control of development level (test reactions in the binary and not binary alphabets is proposed and analyzed. A classification of diagnostic tests is given; their impact on format and properties of diagnostic table is shown. Scientific novelty. The approach to designing of a testable component structure of disciplinary competence is proposed; it allows setting some properties of control object, which can increase procedure effective and decoding precision of diagnosis of learning outcomes
Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano; Browdy, Steve; Parsons, Mark; Duerr, Ruth; Pearlman, Francoise
The goal of NSF's EarthCube is to create a sustainable infrastructure that enables the sharing of all geosciences data, information, and knowledge in an open, transparent and inclusive manner. Brokering of data and improvements in discovery and access are a key to data exchange and promotion of collaboration across the geosciences. In this presentation we describe an evolutionary process of infrastructure and interoperability development focused on participation of existing science research infrastructures and augmenting them for improved access. All geosciences communities already have, to a greater or lesser degree, elements of an information infrastructure in place. These elements include resources such as data archives, catalogs, and portals as well as vocabularies, data models, protocols, best practices and other community conventions. What is necessary now is a process for levering these diverse infrastructure elements into an overall infrastructure that provides easy discovery, access and utilization of resources across disciplinary boundaries. Brokers connect disparate systems with only minimal burdens upon those systems, and enable the infrastructure to adjust to new technical developments and scientific requirements as they emerge. Robust cyberinfrastructure will arise only when social, organizational, and cultural issues are resolved in tandem with the creation of technology-based services. This is a governance issue, but is facilitated by infrastructure capabilities that can impact the uptake of new interdisciplinary collaborations and exchange. Thus brokering must address both the cyberinfrastructure and computer technology requirements and also the social issues to allow improved cross-domain collaborations. This is best done through use-case-driven requirements and agile, iterative development methods. It is important to start by solving real (not hypothetical) information access and use problems via small pilot projects that develop capabilities
This dissertation analyzes the sociotechnical practices through which nanoengineering is produced as a new disciplinary and professional site of "innovation for the benefit of society." I argue that innovation constitutes a rationalizing discourse that serves to justify the establishment of a field, department, and major. Additionally, it serves as an organizing logic that constitutes the nanoengineer as an inherently ethical actor, and nanoengineering as a benefactor of a universalized consumer-subject. I contribute an empirically grounded feminist science studies perspective on how material and discursive practices of innovation rationalize, define, and justify a new scientific discipline; how moral and ethical reasoning is figured within technical practices and pedagogies; and how sociocultural, historical, political, and technical imaginaries figure and are themselves refigured in the constitution of nanoengineering. My analysis is based on an ethnography I conducted from 2010-2014 of one of the world's first nanoengineering departments and its new undergraduate nanoengineering major, located at the University of California, San Diego. This included observing most of the undergraduate courses; conducting 85 interviews with faculty, students, and administrators; observing a nanoengineering laboratory; participating in department meetings and events; collaborating with the department to produce a new department newsletter; and analyzing the media used in the department and curriculum. More specifically, my dissertation chapters examine how popular culture is enrolled in the consolidation of a new discipline; how a particular ethos, with a moral stance and value positions, gets taught in the context of technical education; how liberal and neoliberal logics of rational individualism, autonomy, and the invisible hand get worked into the material and discursive practices of self-assembly in the nanoengineering laboratory; how the institutional goal of producing human
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...
Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.
Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira
Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....
Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.
Daniel, R.; Behe, C.
A "co-production of knowledge" approach brings together different knowledge systems while building equitable and collaborative partnerships from `different ways of knowing.' Inuit Indigenous Knowledge is a systematic way of thinking applied to phenomena across biological, physical, cultural and spiritual systems; rooted with a holistic understanding of ecosystems (ICC Alaska 2016). A holistic image of Arctic environmental change is attained by bringing Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holders and scientists together through a co-production of knowledge framework. Experts from IK and science should be involved together from the inception of a project. IK should be respected as its own knowledge system and should not be translated into science. A co-production of knowledge approach is important in developing adaptation policies and practices, for sustainability and to address biodiversity conservation (Daniel et al. 2016). Co-production of knowledge is increasingly being recognized by the scientific community at-large. However, in many instances the concept is being incorrectly applied. This talk will build on the important components of co-production of knowledge from an Inuit perspective and specifically IK. In this presentation we will differentiate the co-production of knowledge from a multi-disciplinary approach or multi-evidence based decision-making. We underscore the role and value of different knowledge systems with different methodologies and the need for collaborative approaches in identifying research questions. We will also provide examples from our experiences with Indigenous communities and scientists in the Arctic. References: Inuit Circumpolar Council of Alaska. 2016. Alaskan Inuit Food Security Conceptual Framework: How to Assess the Arctic From An Inuit Perspective, 201pp. Daniel, R., C. Behe, J. Raymond-Yakoubian, E. Krummel, and S. Gearhead. Arctic Observing Summit White Paper Synthesis, Theme 6: Interfacing Indigenous Knowledge, Community
Brenda M. Morrow
Conclusion: Many South African physiotherapists manage patients requiring palliative care, despite inadequate training and limited knowledge in this field. More under- and postgraduate learning opportunities should be made available for physiotherapists in the area of palliative care.
Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah
NASA is preparing for long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit that will be challenged in several ways, including long-term exposure to the space environment, impacts to crew physiological and psychological health, limited resources, and no resupply. The food system is one of the most significant daily factors that can be altered to improve human health, and performance during space exploration. Therefore, the paramount importance of determining the methods, technologies, and requirements to provide a safe, nutritious, and acceptable food system that promotes crew health and performance cannot be underestimated. The processed and prepackaged food system is the main source of nutrition to the crew, therefore significant losses in nutrition, either through degradation of nutrients during processing and storage or inadequate food intake due to low acceptability, variety, or usability, may significantly compromise the crew's health and performance. Shelf life studies indicate that key nutrients and quality factors in many space foods degrade to concerning levels within three years, suggesting that food system will not meet the nutrition and acceptability requirements of a long duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit. Likewise, mass and volume evaluations indicate that the current food system is a significant resource burden. Alternative provisioning strategies, such as inclusion of bioregenerative foods, are challenged with resource requirements, and food safety and scarcity concerns. Ensuring provisioning of an adequate food system relies not only upon determining technologies, and requirements for nutrition, quality, and safety, but upon establishing a food system that will support nutritional adequacy, even with individual crew preference and self-selection. In short, the space food system is challenged to maintain safety, nutrition, and acceptability for all phases of an exploration mission within resource constraints. This document presents the
Bernknopf, R.; Pearlman, J.
Assessing the impact and benefit of geospatial information is a multidisciplinary task that involves the social, economic and environmental knowledge to formulate indicators and methods. There are use cases that couple the social sciences including economics, psychology, sociology that incorporate geospatial information. Benefit - cost analysis is an empirical approach that uses money as an indicator for decision making. It is a traditional base for a use case and has been applied to geospatial information and other areas. A new use case that applies indicators is Meta Regression analysis, which is used to evaluate transfers of socioeconomic benefits from different geographic regions into a unifying statistical approach. In this technique, qualitative and quantitative variables are indicators, which provide a weighted average of value for the nonmarket good or resource over a large region. The expected willingness to pay for the nonmarket good can be applied to a specific region. A third use case is the application of Decision Support Systems and Tools that have been used for forecasting agricultural prices and analysis of hazard policies. However, new methods for integrating these disciplines into use cases, an avenue to instruct the development of operational applications of geospatial information, are needed. Experience in one case may not be broadly transferable to other uses and applications if multiple disciplines are involved. To move forward, more use cases are needed and, especially, applications in the private sector. Applications are being examined across a multidisciplinary community for good examples that would be instructive in meeting the challenge. This presentation will look at the results of an investigation into directions in the broader applications of use cases to teach the methodologies and use of indicators that have applications across fields of interest.
Soule, Dax Christian
Geophysical data and methods are a key source for information about geologic features beneath the seafloor that are difficult to sample directly. Our knowledge of the Earth's structure has largely relied on our ability to apply classical physics to study the Earth's through the transmission of seismic and electromagnetic waves. As our data collection capabilities have benefited from technological advancements in connectivity, bandwidth, power usage, battery life and data storage, the scope of questions that can be addressed using seismology and other techniques is broadening. Larger data sets and increased bandwidth offer opportunities to explore multiple questions with individual data streams. This dissertation explores using seismology and other sources of time series data both as tools for exploring novel science questions but also as tools for teaching Earth science to students as they develop Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) skills. These analyses (1) create a model of crustal thickness and lower crustal velocities for crustal ages of 0.1-1.2 Ma on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge by inverting travel times of crustal paths and non-ridge-crossing wide-angle Moho reflections obtained from a three-dimensional tomographic experiment; (2) use fin whale calls recorded by a seafloor seismic network on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to create over 150 whale tracks using new techniques and identify four characteristic inter-pulse intervals (IPIs) that indicate group size and swimming speed and direction; and (3) engage students in analysis of data collected by networks of environmental sensors, which are used to study various natural phenomena, such as nutrient loading, climate change, and stream discharge to compare approaches to implementation in an undergraduate time-series analysis course. These results demonstrate the utility of seafloor networks as both instruments of primary data collection and teaching
In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...
philosophy, taken off from all the implementations, is only based on concepts and language. It is upper disciplinary. The focus of this study is to argue the Library and Information Science theory problematic in Turkey and an attempt to describe knowledge of this field. The theory of knowledge of any discipline can solely be established and enhanced onto the unique knowledge of that discipline. Mentioning of theory of Library and Information Science knowledge, is possible due to the distinctive knowledge detached from other disciplines. This distinctive knowledge, is the knowledge of library institution, that has come unchanged since its first models, and when removed from the field (LIS, becomes ordinary and moves out of originality of the library and information science. “The theory of knowledge of the field of Library and information science” need to be examined from three perspectives: Library and information science field knowledge; knowledge of organization of recorded information as object of the library (all processes from selection to use and knowledge of the user.
Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 13, low (LP, 6.5%; n = 15, or high (HP, 30%; n = 14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P P P P + cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P P = 0.09 and HP (P P Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.
Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Broens, Jasper; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J
We studied whether healthcare professionals adequately perceived if preschool children were overweight and whether this was influenced by their own body mass index (BMI). We sent 716 Dutch healthcare professionals questionnaires containing seven pictures and seven sketches of three- and four-year-old children showing body weights from underweight to morbidly obese. The professionals rated the pictures on a five-point scale from too heavy to too light and chose the sketch that they felt best depicted the child's body shape. They also reported their own height and weight and their BMI was calculated. Of the 716 questionnaires, 346 (48.3%) were returned with complete information and analysed. Healthcare professionals mostly chose sketches that showed children as being lighter than they really were. Depending on their own BMI group, the overweight child was perceived as having a normal weight by 74-79% of the healthcare professionals. The obese children were rated correctly by 44-52% of the professionals, but 14-15% said their weight was normal. The morbidly obese child was adequately assessed by 93-98% of the professionals. Healthcare professionals inadequately perceived whether three- and four-year-old children were overweight and this may have hindered early interventions, leading to overweight children becoming overweight adolescents. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Kepple, Nancy J
Supervisory neglect, or the failure of a caregiver to appropriately supervise a child, is one of the predominant types of neglectful behaviors, with alcohol use being considered a key antecedent to inadequate supervision of children. The current study builds on previous work by examining the role of parental drinking and alcohol outlet densities while controlling for caregiver and child characteristics. Data were obtained from 3,023 participants via a telephone survey from 50 cities throughout California. The telephone survey included items on neglectful parenting practices, drinking behaviors, and socio-demographic characteristics. Densities of alcohol outlets were measured for each of the 202 zip codes in the study. Multilevel Bernoulli models were used to analyze the relationship between four supervisory neglect parenting practices and individual-level and zip code-level variables. In our study, heavy drinking was only significantly related to one of our four outcome variables (leaving a child where he or she may not be safe). The density of on premise alcohol outlets was positively related to leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. This study demonstrates that discrete relationships exist between alcohol related variables, social support, and specific supervisory neglect subtypes at the ecological and individual levels.
K. A. Almansoori
Full Text Available Orthopedic residents have one of the highest fellowship participation rates among medical specialities and there are growing concerns that inadequate residency training may be contributing to this trend. Therefore, a mixed-exploratory research survey was distributed to all 148 graduating Canadian orthopedic residents to investigate their perceptions and attitudes for pursuing fellowships. A response rate of 33% (n=49 was obtained with the majority of residents undertaking one (27% or two (60% fellowships. Surgical-skill development was reported as the most common motivating factor, followed by employment and marketability; malpractice protection and financial reasons were the least relevant. The overwhelming majority of residents (94%, n=46 felt adequately prepared by their residency training for independent general practice, and 84% (n=41 of respondents did not feel that current fellowship trends were due to poor residency training. Three common themes were expressed in their comments: the growing perceived expectation by healthcare professionals and employers to be fellowship-certified, the integration of fellowship training into the surgical education hierarchy, and the failure of residency training curriculums to accommodate for this trend. In conclusion, Canadian orthopedic residents are confident of their residency training and are increasingly pursuing fellowships to primarily develop their surgical skills and expertise.
Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, all stakeholders in South Africa are deeply concerned about the level and scope of underachievement in mathematics, not only at Grade 12 level, but, indeed, at University, University of Technology and Further Education and Training levels. These concerns assume a deeper dimension in light of the fact that inadequate achievement in mathematics inevitably will have a ripple effect on the academic situation in any country: inadequate achievement in mathematics precludes learners from applying for admission to sought-after ﬁ elds of study, which, in turn, prevents numerous learners from realising their true potential and, eventually, from being happy and successful in careers that they might otherwise have been able to execute successfully. It goes without saying that inadequate achievement in mathematics will impact negatively on the overall economic situation in any country (even more so in a developing country such as South Africa. Truth being, achievement in mathematics amounts to equipping oneself with survival skills. In this article, the spotlight shifts from a narrow and outdated focus on problems that are associated with inadequate achievement in mathematics to possible solutions for this disconcerting situation and the implied challenge it raises. The focus is thus on three levels that collectively underpin and impact on achievement in mathematics, viz. the macro level, the meso level and the micro level. The macro level refers mainly to the input by the national government (and, by default, the National Department of Education. In the ﬁ rst instance, it is the responsibility of the state to provide adequate schooling facilities for all learners, irrespective of where they ﬁ nd themselves. Furthermore, it is the duty of the state to ensure that every learner has access to basic facilities, including food, water, sanitation and housing. The state (via the National Department of Education is also
Bazilian, Morgan; Onyeji, Ijeoma
We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ► We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ► Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ► Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.
Kothuis, B.L.M.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs
The MFFD research program aims for integral design of multifunctional flood defenses. A team of academic researchers from multiple disciplinary backgrounds would integrate their knowledge to reach this goal. The aim of the current research project was to design and
States that knowledge has disappeared in and from adult education because it is rarely viewed as educational content or a didactic task of instruction. Explains that this is due to both internal and external disciplinary reasons and discusses these reasons in detail. (CMK)
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker
Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...
Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean
We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...
Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.
Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador
A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
K Ryan Wessells
Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country
Bonnes, Judith L; Westra, Sjoerd W; Bouwels, Leon H R; DE Boer, Menko Jan; Brouwer, Marc A; Smeets, Joep L R M
In view of the shift from routine toward no or selective defibrillation testing, optimization of the current risk stratification for inadequate defibrillation safety margins (DSMs) could improve individualized testing decisions. Given the pathophysiological differences in myocardial substrate between ischemic and nonischemic heart disease (IHD/non-IHD) and the accompanying differences in clinical characteristics, we studied inadequate DSMs and their predictors in relation to the underlying etiology. Cohort of routine defibrillation tests (n = 785) after first implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)-implantations at the Radboud UMC (2005-2014). A defibrillation threshold >25 J was regarded as an inadequate DSM. In total, 4.3% of patients had an inadequate DSM; in IHD 2.5% versus 7.3% in non-IHD (P = 0.002). We identified a group of non-IHD patients at high risk (13-42% inadequate DSM); the remainder of the cohort (>70%) had a risk of only 2% (C-statistic entire cohort 0.74; C-statistic non-IHD 0.82). This was based upon two identified interaction terms: (1) non-IHD and age (aOR 0.94 [95% CI 0.91-0.97]); (2) non-IHD and the indexed left ventricular (LV) internal diastolic diameter (aOR 3.50 [95% CI 2.10-5.82]). The present study on risk stratification for an inadequate DSM not only confirms the importance of making a distinction between IHD and non-IHD, but also shows that risk factors in an entire cohort (LV dilatation, age) may only apply to a subgroup (non-IHD). Appreciation of this concept could favorably affect current risk stratification. If confirmed, our approach may be used to optimize individualized testing decisions in an upcoming era of non-routine testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish the variables that influenced recidivism in juvenile delinquents after the implemented treatment at the Disciplinary Centre for Juveniles in Canton Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research was conducted on the sample of 131 juvenile delinquents adjudicated with the educational measure of referral to the juvenile disciplinary centre. The statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS 17.0 program package. The results demonstrated that the significant predictors for the occurrence of recidivism are unplanned spare time, socializing with peers of an unacceptable behaviour, poor academic success and the risk of pre-expulsion from school. The results indicate that the treatment should primarily be focused on these variables in order to contribute to the reduction of recidivism.
St-Pierre, Isabelle; Holmes, Dave
This paper describes discipline as a specific technique of power which constitutes, in our view, a form of institutional violence. The need to create and maintain safe and healthy work environments for healthcare professionals is well documented. Foucault's concept of disciplinary power was used to explore institutional violence from a critical perspective. Violence is identified as an important factor in the recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Given the shortage of such professionals, there is an urgent need to take a fresh look at their working environments and working conditions. Power, surveillance and disciplinary techniques are used at all levels of hospital management to control and contain both human resources and costs. By associating common workplace practices with institutional violence, employers who have a policy of zero tolerance toward workplace violence will need to re-examine their current ways of operating.
Alexandre dos Santos Lopes
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the sources of law that has an correlation with the disciplinary procedural law, especially when you realize the reverberation of principles inflows and axiological values arising from the constitution that procedural species. Calls that outline the sources of law that are related to this kind of administrative process, translates into significant challenge, insofar as its structure, especially in the new constitutional order (post- positivist allows, starting from the look and constitutional filter, define more precisely the height, feature and densification in the context of the Brazilian legal system, enabling better framing of disciplinary procedural legal relationship.
Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Donald A; Barboza, Sharen; Nash, Robin
This study examined the number of days that prisoners spent in a special disciplinary housing unit in New York State prison before a suicide occurred. Suicides that occurred between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed. A total of 32 suicides occurred in one-person special housing cells during the 11-year period. Inmates spent a median of 63 days in a special disciplinary housing cell before committing suicide. The aggregate median sentence these inmates were serving in special housing at the time of suicide was 298.5 days. Because most suicides in a special housing unit occurred within eight weeks of placement, enhanced observation of special housing inmates is warranted in that period at a minimum.
Larsson, Anna; Wisselgren, Per
Bounding a scientific discipline is a way of regulating its cognitive direction as well as its relations to neighboring disciplines and extra-academic authorities. In this process of identity making, disciplinary history often is a crucial element. In this article, focusing on the historiography of Swedish sociology and the reception of Gustaf Steffen, Sweden's first professional sociologist, it is argued that Steffen's marginalized role in the traditional accounts should be understood not only with reference to his supposed theoretical shortcomings, but also in the historical context of the early postwar reestablishment of sociology as an academic discipline and its prevalent need for a new disciplinary identity, strategically adjusted to the contemporary institutional and political settings.
Shukor, Nurbiha A.; Tasir, Zaidatun; Van der Meijden, Henny; Harun, Jamalludin
Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such, this research attempted to investigate the students'…
Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Harun, J.
Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such,
Mark Rahmes; Rick Pemble; Kevin Fox; John Delay
We describe a multi-disciplinary system model for determining decision making strategies based upon the ability to perform data mining and pattern discovery utilizing open source actionable information to prepare for specific events or situations from multiple information sources. We focus on combining detection theory with game theory for classifying ships in Arctic Ocean to verify ship reporting. More specifically, detection theory is used to determine probability of deciding if a ship or c...
Silva, Francisco; Rodrigues E Rodrigues, Manuel; Bernardes, João
Disciplinary actions may have a significant impact in medical doctors' and patients' lives. The objective of this study was the assessment of the disciplinary actions in Obstetrics and Gynecology that occurred in the north of Portugal in years 2008 to 2012. Retrospective descriptive study based on the anonymized data contained in the annual activity reports of Conselho Disciplinar da Seção Regional Norte da Ordem dos Médicos from 2008 to 2012. We calculated the proportion of disciplinary actions in Obstetrics and Gynaecology over the total number of registered specialists in that speciality. We also analysed the type of complainers, accused, institutions, complaints and decisions. For statistical inference proportions with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. From years 2008 to 2012, we registered 1040 complaints in all medical specialities in the north of Portugal. Obstetrics and Gynecology was the forth most affected specialty, with a total of 54 complaints. Forty-three complaints were related with medical malpractice and if we only consider this type of complaint Obstetrics and Gynecology was the most affected specialty. The most frequent complainers and accused were, respectively, patients themselves and female physicians, with 41 to 60 years of age. Fifty-two complaints were archived without punishment while two still await conclusion. The overall results of this study are in agreement with those reported by other authors. Obstetrics and Gynecology was the forth speciality with highest risk for any disciplinary action in the north of Portugal in years 2008 to 2012 and the first one in relation with alleged negligence. All presented and already concluded complaints were archived without penalty, except two that are still under evaluation.
Disciplinary Literacy addresses the practical issues of how teachers can help students engage in creativity, communication, and critical thinking, while remaining true to the rigors of academic disciplines. The authors detail specific literacy actions to increase connections between the disciplines of mathematics, history, science, English language arts, music and student's lives. For teachers and administrators there are immediately transferable instructional models provided for different content areas, including aligned connections with Common Core Standards.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the current challenges and future perspectives of accounting education. To adapt to changes in contemporary society, discussions of accounting that focus only on the internal aspects of accounting will be insufficient. This paper is arranged in terms of four inter-disciplinary perspectives : liberal arts, critical thinking, multiple intelligence theory and experiential learning. The first and second of these perspectives address the challenges of accoun...
Peres, Marco A; Luzzi, Liana; Peres, Karen G; Sabbah, Wael; Antunes, Jose L; Do, Loc G
To assess changes over time of the absolute and relative household income-related inequalities in inadequate dentition (ID) among Australians, Brazilians and USA adults. This study used nationwide oral health survey data from Australia (n = 1200 in 1999; n = 2729 in 2005), Brazil (n = 13 431 in 2003; n = 9779 in 2010) and USA (n = 2542 in 1999; n = 1596 in 2005). Absolute income inequalities were calculated using Absolute Concentration Index (ACI) and Slope Index of Inequality (SII), while relative inequalities were calculated using Relative Concentration Index (RCI) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Prevalence of ID in the studied period dropped from 8.7% to 3.1% in Australia; from 42.1% to 22.4% in Brazil; and remained stable in USA, nearly 8.0%. Absolute income inequalities were highest in Brazil, followed by the USA and Australia; relative inequalities were lower in Brazil than in Australia and the USA. ID was higher among Brazilian females (2010) and for the poorest group in all countries and periods. A remarkable reduction in absolute inequalities were found in Australia [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and AIC 60%] and in Brazil (SII 25%; ACI 33%) while relative inequalities increased both in Australia (RCI and RII 40%) and in Brazil (RCI 24%; RII 38%). No changes in absolute and relative income inequalities were found in the USA. There were still persistent absolute and relative income inequalities in ID in all examined countries. There has been a reduction in absolute income inequalities in ID but an increase in relative income inequalities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Caetano, Michelle C; Ortiz, Thaís T; Terreri, Maria Teresa S R L A; Sarni, Roseli O S; Silva, Simone G L; Souza, Fabíola I S; Hilário, Maria Odete E
To evaluate the dietary intake of children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) using a 24-hour diet recall and relating it to the patients' clinical and anthropometric characteristics and to the drugs used in their treatment. By means of a cross-sectional study, we assessed the 24-hour diet recalls of outpatients. Their nutritional status was classified according to the CDC (2000). The computer program NutWin UNIFESP-EPM was used for food intake calculation. The Recommended Dietary Allowances and the Brazilian food pyramid were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Median age was 12 years for JIA patients and 16.5 years for JSLE patients. Among the JIA patients, 37.5% had active disease, and among the JSLE patients, 68.2% showed Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) > 4. Malnutrition was found in 8.3 and 4.5% of the JIA and JSLE patients, respectively, and obesity was present in 16.7 and 18.2%. For JIA patients, the excessive intake of energy, protein, and lipids was 12.5, 75, and 31.3%, respectively. For JSLE patients, the excessive intake of energy, protein, and lipids was 13.6, 86.4, and 36.4%, respectively. Low intake of iron, zinc, and vitamin A was found in 29.2 and 50, 87.5 and 86.4, and 87.5 and 95.2% of the JIA and JSLE patients, respectively. There was not a significant association between intake, disease activity, and nutritional status. Patients with rheumatic diseases have inadequate dietary intake. There is excessive intake of lipids and proteins and low intake of micronutrients.
Full Text Available Global biodiversity priorities are primarily addressed through the establishment or expansion of conservation areas (CAs. Spatial prioritization of these CAs can help minimize biodiversity loss by accounting for the uneven distribution of biodiversity and conservation considerations (e.g., accessibility, cost, and biodiversity threats. Furthermore, optimized spatial priorities can help facilitate the judicious use of limited conservation resources by identifying cost effective CA designs. Here, we demonstrate how key species and ecosystems can be incorporated into systematic conservation planning to propose the expansion and addition of new CAs in the biodiversity-unique and data-poor region of Qinghai Plateau, China. We combined species distribution models with a systematic conservation planning tool, MARXAN to identify CAs for biodiversity on Qinghai Plateau. A set of 57 optimal CAs (273,872 km2, 39.3 % of this Province were required to achieve the defined conservation targets in Qinghai Province. We also identified 29 new CAs (139,216 km2, 20% of Qinghai Province outside the existing nature reserve (NRs that are necessary to fully achieve the proposed conservation targets. The conservation importance of these 29 new CAs was also indicated, with 10 labeled as high priority, 11 as medium priority, and 8 as low priority. High priority areas were more abundant in the eastern and southeastern parts of this region. Our results suggest that many species remain inadequately protected within the Qinghai Plateau, with conservation gaps in eastern and northwestern regions. The proposed more representative and effective CAs can provide useful information for adjusting the existing NRs and developing the first National Park in China.
Jong Ho Kim
Full Text Available BackgroundWe compared the efficacies of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily relative to pioglitazone (15 mg once daily as an add-on treatment to metformin for reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThe present study was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled investigation comparing the effects of vildagliptin and pioglitazone in Korean patients receiving a stable dose of metformin but exhibiting inadequate glycemic control. Each patient underwent a 16-week treatment period with either vildagliptin or pioglitazone as an add-on treatment to metformin.ResultsThe mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline were –0.94% in the vildagliptin group and –0.6% in the pioglitazone group and the difference between the treatments was below the non-inferiority margin of 0.3%. The mean changes in postprandial plasma glucose (PPG levels were –60.2 mg/dL in the vildagliptin group and –38.2 mg/dL in the pioglitazone group and these values significantly differed (P=0.040. There were significant decreases in the levels of total, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol in the vildagliptin group but increases in the pioglitazone group. The mean change in body weight was –0.07 kg in the vildagliptin group and 0.69 kg in the pioglitazone group, which were also significantly different (P=0.002.ConclusionAs an add-on to metformin, the efficacy of vildagliptin for the improvement of glycemic control is not inferior to that of pioglitazone in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, add-on treatment with vildagliptin had beneficial effects on PPG levels, lipid profiles, and body weight compared to pioglitazone.
Montgomery, Stephanie C; Privette, Alicia R; Ferguson, Pamela L; Mirdamadi, Meena; Fakhry, Samir M
Despite focused national efforts to promote acute care surgery (ACS), little is known about medical student awareness of ACS as a career choice. The impending shortage of general surgeons emphasizes the need to increase interest in this comprehensive surgical specialty. The goal of this study was to determine whether students would be more likely to consider choosing ACS if they were aware of the specialty and its benefits. A survey was distributed electronically to medical students at our institution, a Level I trauma center with an active ACS service. The survey asked questions regarding specialty choice and factors that were used in making that decision. Also included were questions regarding their familiarity and affinity for ACS. The survey was returned by 518 students. Each medical school year was proportionately represented. Twenty-one percent of the students reported surgery as their career choice; however, women were half as likely to choose surgery as men. When asked to define ACS, 23% of all students gave the correct response. Only 8.9% of the students in the preclinical years correctly defined ACS. Even in the clinical years, 54% were unaware of ACS as a specialty. Students reported that the top factors that influenced their choice were controllable lifestyle, predictable schedule, and a positive medical school role model. When asked to identify what would make ACS appealing, a 50-hour work week was deemed most influential. When given the definition of ACS with approximate pay and on-call hours, 41.5% of the students and 75% of those interested in surgery would be likely to choose ACS as a career. This study highlights that awareness of ACS as a specialty is lacking. This may reflect inadequate marketing of our "brand" both locally and nationally. Focused efforts at familiarizing students with ACS and increased role modeling may increase interest in ACS.
Arbel, Yaron; Milwidsky, Assi; Finkelstein, Ariel; Halkin, Amir; Revivo, Miri; Berliner, Shlomo; Ellis, Martin; Herz, Itzhak; Keren, Gad; Banai, Shmuel
Anemia confers an adverse prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several mechanisms have been implicated in the etiology of anemia in this setting, including inflammation, blood loss, and the presence of comorbidities such as renal failure. To evaluate the adequacy of bone marrow response as potentially reflected by elevation in blood and reticulocyte counts. Consecutive men with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset and who presented to our catheterization laboratory during a 36 month period were included in the study. The cohort was divided into quartiles according to hemoglobin concentration, and differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics between the groups were evaluated. A total of 258 men with STEMI were recruited, 22% of whom suffered from anemia according to the World Health Organization classification (hemoglobin < 13 g/dl). Men in the lowest quartile of hemoglobin concentration presented with significantly lower white blood cell and platelet counts (9.6 ± 2.9 vs. 12.6 ± 3.6 x 103/μl, P < 0.001) and (231 ± 79 vs. 263 ± 8 x 103/μl, P < 0.01), respectively, despite higher inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) compared with patients in the upper hemoglobin concentration quartile. Reticulocyte production index was not significantly higher in anemic patients, with a value of 1.8, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 in the ascending hemoglobin quartiles, respectively (P = 0.292). Anemic men with STEMI have relatively lower leukocyte and platelet counts as well as a reduced reticulocyte count despite higher inflammatory biomarkers. These findings might suggest inadequate bone marrow response.
Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent
, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...
Sadler, Euan; Hawkins, Rebecca; Clarke, David J; Godfrey, Mary; Dickerson, Josie; McKevitt, Christopher
This article examines the process of training informal carers on stroke units using the lens of power. Care is usually assumed as a kinship obligation but the state has long had an interest in framing the carer and caring work. Training carers in healthcare settings raises questions about the power of the state and healthcare professionals as its agents to shape expectations and practices related to the caring role. Drawing on Foucault's notion of disciplinary power, we show how disciplinary forms of power exercised in interactions between healthcare professionals and carers shape the engagement and resistance of carers in the process of training. Interview and observational field note extracts are drawn from a multi-sited study of a training programme on stroke units targeting family carers of people with stroke to consider the consequences of subjecting caring to this intervention. We found that the process of training informal carers on stroke units was not simply a matter of transferring skills from professional to lay person, but entailed disciplinary forms of power intended to shape the conduct of the carer. We interrogate the extent to which a specific kind of carer is produced through such an approach, and the wider implications for the participation of carers in training in healthcare settings and the empowerment of carers. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the consistency prevailing between the disciplinary practices in the schools and the principles of the Alternatives-to-Corporal Punishment strategy. The three main research questions that guided the study were to determine (1 How much variance of offences can be explained by disciplinary measures of alternative corporal punishment? (2 How well do the different measures of alternative corporal punishment predict offences? (3 Which is the best predictor of offences given a set of alternative measures? Twenty-nine schools participated in the survey andfive schools participated in the case study, so the achieved sample was 34 schools. From the 29 survey schools, one principal and one Life Orientation (LO teacher participated. All in all 58 people participated. The results revealed that 66.60% of the variation in the offence of vandalism was explained by the predictors. When vandalism was predicted it was found that School identification (p = .693, p .05. The results reveal that there was no established consistency between the disciplinary practices in the schools and the principles of the alternatives-to-corporal punishment strategy.
Taha, Ali S; Saffouri, Eliana; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J
Objectives The understanding of changes in comorbidity might improve the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB); such changes might not be detectable in short-term studies. We aimed to study UGIB mortality as adjusted for comorbidity and the trends in risk scores over a 14-year period. Methods Patients presenting with UGIB to a single institution, 1996–2010, were assessed. Those with multiple comorbidities were managed in a multi-disciplinary care unit since 2000. Trends with time were assessed using logistic regression, including those for Charlson comorbidity score, the complete Rockall score and 30-day mortality. Results 2669 patients were included. The Charlson comorbidity score increased significantly with time: the odds of a high (3+) score increasing at a relative rate of 4.4% a year (OR 1.044; p<0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 4.9% and inpatient mortality was 7.1%; these showed no relationship with time. When adjusted for the increasing comorbidity, the odds of death decreased significantly at a relative rate of 4.5% per year (p=0.038). After the introduction of multi-disciplinary care, the raw mortality OR was 0.680 (p=0.08), and adjusted for comorbidity it was 0.566 (p=0.013). Conclusions 30-day mortality decreased when adjusted for the rising comorbidity in UGIB; whether this is related to the introduction of multi-disciplinary care needs to be considered. PMID:28839780
Ilardi, S S; Feldman, D
Plaud's (2001) radical behavioral manifesto suggests that a psychological science based exclusively upon the study of environment-behavior functional contingencies would yield a discipline unencumbered by mentalism, vaguely delineated disciplinary boundaries, or inappropriate reductionism. In reply, we note that: (a) mental events-e.g., thoughts and feelings-are increasingly accessible to objective investigation, and provide an observable proximal causal mechanism for the environmental selection of behavior; (b) the call for pristine disciplinary boundaries is anachronistic, inasmuch as progress in the natural sciences has engendered disciplinary boundaries that are increasingly porous; (c) cognitive neuroscience facilitates a comprehensive understanding of complex human behavior by mapping out the relationship between such behavior and underlying brain events, thereby engaging in an appropriate form of reductionism (constitutive reductionism) that has become a hallmark of the natural sciences; and (d) ironically, it is radical behaviorism, in its disavowal of the informational level of complexity instantiated in brain events, that engages in inappropriate eliminative reductionism (i.e., reducing neural information to "nothing but" its underlying bring states). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Munk, Lyle Kris
The primary emphasis in dental education is on developing students' cognitive intelligence (thinking) and technical intelligence (doing), while emotional intelligence (being) receives less emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore a potential consequence of the paucity of emotional intelligence education by determining the level of emotional intelligence-related (EI-R) infractions in state dental board disciplinary actions and characterizing the types of those infractions. For this study, 1,100 disciplinary action reports from 21 state dental boards were reviewed, and disciplinary infractions were classified as cognitive intelligence-related (CI-R) infractions, technical intelligence-related (TI-R) infractions, and EI-R infractions. EI-R infractions were then subcategorized into emotional intelligence clusters and competencies using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The results showed that 56.6% of the infractions were EI-R. When the EI-R infractions were subcategorized, the four competencies most frequently violated involved transparency, teamwork and collaboration, organizational awareness, and accurate self-assessment. Understanding the frequency and nature of EI-R infractions may promote awareness of the need for increased attention to principles of emotional intelligence in dental education and may encourage integration of those principles across dental curricula to help students understand the impact of emotional intelligence on their future well-being and livelihood.
Full Text Available The present inter-disciplinary research is aimed at investigating the impact of computerized application of spatial visualization on motor and concentration skills. An experiment composed of experimental and control groups for checking the central hypothesis among subjects of the same age group was carried out by physical education MA students. Virtual simulations offer MA students and teachers the unique opportunity to observe and manipulate normally inaccessible objects, variables and processes in real time. The research design focused on a qualitative research comparing the pupils' percents of success in spatial visualization and motor skills between pre- and post- training. The findings showed that just as the students realized the experimental group pupils' achievements, the computer's inter-disciplinary impact on motor performance and concentration skills became clear to the MA students. The virtual computerized training based on spatial visualization mostly contributed to the inter-disciplinary research, physical education and communication. All the findings lead to the conclusion that computerized application of spatial visualization seem to mediate between virtual reality and developing motor skills in real time involving penalty kick, basketball, jumping, etc.
Rock, Georg; Bil, Cees
The CE Conference series is organized annually by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement (ISPE) and constitutes an important forum for international scientific exchange on concurrent and collaborative enterprise engineering. These international conferences attract a significant number of researchers, industrialists and students, as well as government representatives, who are interested in the recent advances in concurrent engineering research and applications. Concurrent Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Product Development in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment: Proceedings of the 19th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering contains papers accepted, peer reviewed and presented at the annual conference held at the University of Applied Sciences in Trier, Germany, from 3rd-7th of September 2012. This covers a wide range of cutting-edge topics including: •Systems Engineering and Innovation •Design for Sustainability •Knowledge Engineering and Management •Managing pro...
Full Text Available In this paper I shall argue that radical epistemic delinking has a key role in liberation from the Colonial Matrix of Power as well as the change in the existing global power relations which are based in the colonialism and maintained through exploitation, expropriation and construction of the (racial Other. Those power relations render certain bodies and spaces as (epistemologically irrelevant. In order to discuss possible models of struggle against such condition, firstly I have addressed the relation between de-colonial theories and postcolonial studies, arguing that decolonial positions are both historicising and re-politicising the postcolonial theory. In my central argument I have focused on the epistemic delinking and political implications of decolonial turn. With reference to Grada Killomba I have argued for the struggle against epistemic violence through decolonising knowledge. Decolonising knowledge requires delinking form Eurocentric model of knowledge production and radical dismantling the existing hierarchies among different knowledge. It requires recognition of the ‘Other epistemologies’ and ‘Other knowledge’ as well as liberation from Western disciplinary and methodological limitations. One of the main goals of decolonial project is deinking from the Colonial Matrix of Power. However, delinking is not required only in the areas of economy and politics but also in the field of epistemology. Article received: June 15, 2017; Article accepted: June 26, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Stojnić, Aneta. "Power, Knowledge, and Epistemic Delinking." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 105-111. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.218
Hooff, B. van den; Elving, W.; Meeuwsen, J.M.; Dumoulin, C.
In this chapter of the book ‘Communities and Technologies’ (M. Huysman et al. (eds.), Kluwer 2003) the contribution of ICT to knowledge sharing in communities of practice is investigated. A theoretical model is built that identifies the possible influence of ICT on the extent to which knowledge is
Kellert, Stephen H
What happens to scientific knowledge when researchers outside the natural sciences bring elements of the latest trend across disciplinary boundaries for their own purposes? Researchers in fields from anthropology to family therapy and traffic planning employ the concepts, methods, and results of chaos theory to harness the disciplinary prestige of the natural sciences, to motivate methodological change or conceptual reorganization within their home discipline, and to justify public policies and aesthetic judgments.Using the recent explosion in the use (and abuse) of chaos theory, Borrowed Knowledge and the Challenge of Learning across Disciplines examines the relationship between science and other disciplines as well as the place of scientific knowledge within our broader culture. Stephen H. Kellert's detailed investigation of the myriad uses of chaos theory reveals serious problems that can arise in the interchange between science and other knowledge-making pursuits, as well as opportunities for constructive...
The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...
Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....
Nagle, Christina M; Wilson, Louise F; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Miura, Kyoko; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M
Objectives To estimate the number and proportion of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to consumption deficits in fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with inadequate intake of fruit and non-starchy vegetables (oral cavity, pharynx, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach, larynx); inadequate intake of fruit (lung); and insufficient intake of fibre (colorectum). We used standard formulae incorporating prevalence of exposure (1995 National Nutrition Survey) and relative risks from independent studies. Results Overall, 1,555 (1.4% of all) and 311 (0.3% of all) cancers were attributable to inadequate intakes of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. A further 2,609 colorectal cancers (18% of colorectal) were attributable to insufficient fibre intake. If Australians increased their fibre intake by eating the recommended daily intakes of fruit and vegetables, an estimated 1,293 (8.8%) colorectal cancers could be prevented. Conclusions One in six colorectal cancer cases was attributable to inadequate intake of dietary fibre and about 1,800 cancers at other sites were attributable to insufficient fruit and non-starchy vegetable consumption. Implications Increasing the proportion of Australians who consume the recommended intake of fruit, vegetables and fibre could prevent up to 4% of all cancers. PMID:26437726
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions will SSA terminate an agreement with an EN due to inadequate performance? 411.321 Section 411.321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Networks § 411.321 Under...
Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of Taiwanese patients was consistent with the overall study results, which showed that exenatide BID is superior to placebo for improving glycemic control in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes who experienced inadequate glycemic control when using oral antidiabetic therapy.
Kempers, Marlies J. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; van Rijn, Rick R.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Smit, Bert J.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas
Context: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH-C) in neonates born to mothers with inadequately treated Graves' disease usually needs T-4 supplementation. The thyroid and its regulatory system have not yet been extensively studied after T-4 withdrawal, until we observed disintegrated thyroid glands
Ettema, Esmee M.; Zittema, Debbie; Kuipers, Johanna; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vart, Priya; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.
Background: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). Some studies have suggested that inadequate arginine vasopressin (AVP) increase could play a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension. However, AVP levels during HD and its relation to hypotension has
van't Hoog, Anna H.; Marston, Barbara J.; Ayisi, John G.; Agaya, Janet A.; Muhenje, Odylia; Odeny, Lazarus O.; Hongo, John; Laserson, Kayla F.; Borgdorff, Martien W.
The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a
Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.
Background: In many industrialized western countries non-western women constitute a substantial part of the prenatal care client population. In The Netherlands, these women have also been shown to be more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Explanatory factors for this include, among
Potgieter, Marietjie; Malatje, Esther; Gaigher, Estelle; Venter, Elsie
This study investigated the use of performance-confidence relationships to signal the presence of alternative conceptions and inadequate problem-solving skills in mechanics. A group of 33 students entering physics at a South African university participated in the project. The test instrument consisted of 20 items derived from existing standardised…
Roselaine Machado Albernaz
Full Text Available This essay approaches the Mathematics teacher forming process from his/her experiences in the school system and the set of knowledge that hashistorical, philosophical and politically constituted him/her. This set of knowledge not only comprises academic knowledge, but also involves the subjective effects of knowledge it incorporates. Starting from a tale, the character, called ‘researcher-teacher’, conducts the text throughout questions about the forming processes of teachers of such a particular subject as Mathematics. The character seems to have an “interrogative something” which is peculiar to us, teachers, concerned about our disciplinary field. Having the objective of problematize the formation and knowledge of our character, her ways of being, thinking and perceiving, we intend to question, with and through her, the new requirements that have been demanded towards Mathematics teachers and the set of knowledge that constitute her, the way she is, her way of acting and taking position in the school universe. The proposed essay seeks for an articulation between the fields of Art, Philosophy, Science and Education. It speaks about the intriguing school world, but not least, the ways we think to treat the forming process of Mathematics teachers from a set of logical, subjective and sensitive knowledge. Key words: Forming process of teachers; mathematics; aesthetic experience; philosophy of difference.
Lynch, Irene T
vitamin D intakes in adult renal-transplant patients are in many cases inadequate.
Dyke, Jon M. Van
The specific obligation to provide restitution and compensation when nuclear activities cause injuries has been recognized repeatedly and is now certainly part of customary international law. But problems remain regarding how to measure damages, how to implement the duty to repair the injuries, and what specific obligations exist to protect neighboring states from transboundary pollution. Although some treaties exist governing liability for harm resulting from nuclear accidents, they are not adequate to protect victims and have not been widely ratified. The failure to require nuclear operators to prepare for damage that may result from accidents constitutes a subsidy to the nuclear industry and makes it difficult to compare the real costs of nuclear energy with the costs of other energy sources. This survey of settled norms and unresolved issues demonstrates that further work is needed to develop a comprehensive and authoritative regime to govern harm from nuclear activities. Although it is clear that both the operators of nuclear facilities and the states that have jurisdiction over them would be responsible to provide restitution and compensation for such harm under a strict liability regime, the types of injuries that must be compensated and the range of damages that must be covered remain subjects of controversy. Although the underlying customary international law principles (the no-harm principle and the polluter-pays principle) are clear, the actual treaties that have been drafted are inadequate and they have not been widely ratified. Victims of damage from nuclear activities would have difficulty finding a neutral tribunal in which to bring their claims and would face procedural obstacles including caps on liabilities and inappropriately short statutes of limitations as well as difficulties regarding proof of damages. The failure to develop a proper regime that would ensure full restitution and compensation for harm resulting from nuclear facilities
Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial antimicrobial therapy (AB is an important determinant of clinical outcome in patients with severe infections as pneumonia, however well-conducted studies regarding prognostic impact of inadequate initial AB in patients who are not undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV are lacking. In this study we aimed to identify the risk factors for inadequate initial AB and to determine its subsequent impact on outcomes in both ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP. Methods We retrospectively studied the accuracy of initial AB in patients with pneumonia in a university hospital in Turkey. A total of 218 patients with HAP and 130 patients with VAP were included. For each patient clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for risk factor analysis. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test. Results Sixty six percent of patients in VAP group and 41.3% of patients in HAP group received inadequate initial AB. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB in HAP patients were; late-onset HAP (OR = 2.35 (95% CI, 1.05-5.22; p = 0.037 and APACHE II score at onset of HAP (OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12; p = 0.018. In VAP patients; antibiotic usage in the previous three months (OR = 3.16 (95% CI, 1.27-7.81; p = 0.013 and admission to a surgical unit (OR = 2.9 (95% CI, 1.17-7.19; p = 0.022 were found to be independent risk factors for inadequate initial AB. No statistically significant difference in crude hospital mortality and 28-day mortality was observed between the treatment groups in both VAP and HAP. However we showed a significant increase in length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged clinical resolution in the inadequate AB group in both VAP and HAP. Conclusion Our data
Piskin, Nihal; Aydemir, Hande; Oztoprak, Nefise; Akduman, Deniz; Comert, Fusun; Kokturk, Furuzan; Celebi, Guven
Initial antimicrobial therapy (AB) is an important determinant of clinical outcome in patients with severe infections as pneumonia, however well-conducted studies regarding prognostic impact of inadequate initial AB in patients who are not undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) are lacking. In this study we aimed to identify the risk factors for inadequate initial AB and to determine its subsequent impact on outcomes in both ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). We retrospectively studied the accuracy of initial AB in patients with pneumonia in a university hospital in Turkey. A total of 218 patients with HAP and 130 patients with VAP were included. For each patient clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for risk factor analysis. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test. Sixty six percent of patients in VAP group and 41.3% of patients in HAP group received inadequate initial AB. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB in HAP patients were; late-onset HAP (OR = 2.35 (95% CI, 1.05-5.22; p = 0.037) and APACHE II score at onset of HAP (OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12); p = 0.018). In VAP patients; antibiotic usage in the previous three months (OR = 3.16 (95% CI, 1.27-7.81); p = 0.013) and admission to a surgical unit (OR = 2.9 (95% CI, 1.17-7.19); p = 0.022) were found to be independent risk factors for inadequate initial AB. No statistically significant difference in crude hospital mortality and 28-day mortality was observed between the treatment groups in both VAP and HAP. However we showed a significant increase in length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged clinical resolution in the inadequate AB group in both VAP and HAP. Our data suggests that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB
Sørensen, Ole Henning
The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.
Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...
Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, D.
actions to reduce harm have not been thwarted by inadequate science (though there examples of that) but mainly by two sets of societal barriers: opposition from corporate and political interests that benefit from the status quo, and specific economic, social, and cultural barriers to the use of knowledge...... in justifying timely actions. The latter include in intransparent and inadequate evaluations of the science; weak but politically effective argumentation; market prices that do not reflect full costs of production and use of hazardous products; inadequate reporting by the media; and limited awareness...... and engagement of the public. In this paper, we analyse these latter barriers to getting knowledge into action and illustrate some ways and means by which science and precautionary measures, including regulations, market based instruments, and increased awareness and engagement of the public, could be designed...
LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M.
This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socio-economic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care. PMID:22588827
Hendricks, Vincent Fella
Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...
Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine
For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....
Nurses must assume a leadership role in confronting inequitable access to health care. This imperative is realizable through contributions to the knowledge of the discipline, reflecting on the profession's mandate for social justice and elimination of health inequities, as well as embracing the diversity of nursing's fundamental patterns of knowing. Emancipatory knowing involves critically examining social, political, and institutional structures to uncover social injustices and inequities and disrupt the status quo, as well as asking critical questions. Postcolonial theory, aligned with these foundational principles, can be used to answer such critical questions, thus contributing to the advancement of disciplinary knowledge.
Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel
The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...
There is limited literature on attitude and knowledge of medical students towards ECT from Asian and African countries.[11-14] A prior study from India reported less favorable attitudes among medical students towards ECT. The undergraduate medical curriculum in India has been criticized for inadequately preparing ...
Results also showed significant relationships between discussing sexual issues with( parents, educators, peers and no-one) and knowledge of some STI symptoms like foul smell (p=0.021), blisters on the penis (p=0.033) and clear vaginal discharge (p=0.021). These results indicate that learners have poor and inadequate ...
The mean score for the RPKAQ was 65.5% (standard deviation (SD) ±8.6). Only 14.45% of the physiotherapists scored ... Gender, ethnicity (defined by home language), academic training and clinical experience did not contribute significantly to overall pain knowledge. Conclusion. There is an inadequate level of pain ...
Background. Exposure to competitive football is increasing among male youth football players in Nigeria. However, medical support to abate the impact of injuries appears inadequate and there is limited literature to show whether youth football players are knowledgeable about, and practise effective measures for injury ...
Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.
Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The
Objective: Inadequate knowledge and expertise are major contributing factors to poor pain management in the cancer patient. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of formal teaching on pain management on the current practice of the resident surgeons at the University College Hospital (UCH). Ibadan. Method: ...
Background: Research activity is an important component of postgraduate training in medical institutions. However, only a few residents of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital were able to publish research papers. Lack of funding and time, poor infrastructure, belief about research, and inadequate research knowledge and ...
Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...
Walker, Alexander Muir
Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.
In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....
Kruse, J.; Lehto, N.; Riklund, K.; Tegner, Y.; Engström, Å.
Introduction: Interns' experiences communicating with and writing referrals to hospital radiology departments are important for patient safety, image quality, and decision-making in the diagnostic process. Understanding roles within the department and in the diagnostic process is important for communication. This study aimed to describe interns' experiences communicating with and writing referrals to their hospital's radiology department. Method: A qualitative study design was used. Data was collected from focus discussions with ten interns in three focus groups in Northern Sweden during 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results: One theme, “a feeling of being scrutinized and lacking control”, was identified in the final categories. The interns experienced that the radiology department placed high demands on them and desired more diagnostic skills training, resources and feedback. The interns suggested the following improvements: enhanced dialogue and feedback, improved education, handy guidelines, and practice writing referrals. Conclusion: Interns need more feedback from, and dialogue with, members of the Department of Radiology. They also need more knowledge of referral guidelines, appropriateness criteria and more practice to develop their knowledge and skill for writing referrals. They describe feelings of inadequate support and feel scrutinized in demanding work conditions and need more collaboration. They also need more time and more control of radiology outcomes, and they are eager to learn. - Highlights: • Interns' experiences of writing referrals are important in the diagnostic process. • Communication between referents and radiology staff influences patient safety. • Medical interns experience insufficient diagnostic skills. • Interns need more feedback from, and dialogue with radiology staff. • The learning process could benefit from knowledge of the referrers perspective.
The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...
2. A lot of constraints such as poor attitude to research by lecturers, falsification of research data, plagiarism, error in reporting research results, use of obsolete literature, inadequate books, journals, periodicals, unwillingness of the respondents in giving information to the researchers are some of the challenges contending ...
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A
Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p < 0.05). Corporal punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote positive nonviolent methods of child
Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Glinec, Y.; Gauduel, Y.A.
High-energy laser interaction with matter (gaseous and solid targets) provides electric fields going beyond the limit of one tera-volt per meter (1 TV = 10 12 V) and permit efficient acceleration of particles in the relativistic regime, typically with MeV energy. Exceptional properties of these new particle sources (shortness, charge, emittance) may conjecture trans-disciplinary researches such as physics' accelerators, pre-thermal reactivity in soft matter, radiobiology and radiotherapy, imaging. The challenge of high-energy femto-chemistry is broached in the framework of water, 'the life's solvent'. (authors)
This article reviews literature on Multi-Disciplinary Work (MDW) for children and young people in need of special support, as defined by the Danish Social Services Act. The focus is on frontline workers’ everyday encounters with each other. The author reviews all significant Danish publications...... the last 30 years, this literature review reveals a lack of research publications. Even though the literature review advocates that the quality of existing Danish research literature is varying, it also demonstrates that there are several good sources which can be used when writing theoretically about MDW...
Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz; Marino, Regina Luisa de Freitas; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues
Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6-16 years) and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18). Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder.
The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...
The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....
Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Steluti, Josiane; Verly, Eliseu; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara
To assess Fe intake, calculate the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake and identify food contributors to Fe intake during 2003 and 2008 in a population-based study, reflecting before and after the mandatory fortification of flour with Fe. Two cross-sectional population-based studies conducted in 2003 and 2008. Dietary intake was evaluated by 24 h recall and the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) was used to estimate within-person variance and prevalence of inadequate Fe intake. The statistical analysis was conducted considering the complex survey design. São Paulo, Brazil. Adolescents, adults and elderly adults of both sexes, interviewed in 2003 (n 2386) and 2008 (n 1661). The Fe intake mean increased in all populations in the post-fortification period. A reduction of over 90 % was observed in the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake among men for all age groups analysed. When evaluating women, despite the substantial reduction (over 63 %), prevalence of inadequate Fe intake remained high (34 %) in those aged 19-50 years. Major food contributors to Fe intake before fortification were beans, beef, vegetables and dairy. There was an alteration in the contributors in the post-fortification period, with bread, beef, beans and biscuits as main contributors. The mandatory fortification with Fe significantly furthered the reduction in the prevalence of inadequacy, except among women of reproductive age, and changed the main contributors to this nutrient in the studied population. Therefore, monitoring of Fe addition in flour is essential to assess compliance to the fortified flour policy and to guarantee a safe Fe intake for all the population.
Kim, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Hoon
Presurgical prosthetic treatment planning is critical for the success of the implant prosthesis. Inadequate treatment plan, due to insufficient discussion between prosthodontist, and surgeon, may result in poor prognosis. A 26-year-old male patient was referred for prosthodontic treatment after implant was placed in the area of teeth #17, 16, 22, 25 and 27, without adequate discussion nor the treatment planning between oral surgeon and prosthodontist. It was found that the patient had two hop...
Ben-Ami, Ido; Stern, Sharon; Vaknin, Zvi; Smorgick, Noam; Schneider, David; Halperin, Reuvit
The objective was to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for inadequate cervical dilation following insertion of a single set of laminaria in women scheduled for dilation & evacuation (D&E) at 14-24 weeks' gestation. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of women who underwent pregnancy termination by D&E at 14-24 weeks' gestation between January 2003 and December 2013. All cases in which the surgical procedure was cancelled due to failure to achieve adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria inadequate cervical dilation were included. The control group was women who underwent D&E following adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria, and were matched according to gestational week in a ratio of 1:3. The overall dilation failure rate was 3.2%, with 4.0% among the induced-abortion patients and 1.5% among the patients with fetal demise (p=.002). Patients who had inadequate cervical dilation had lower rates of gravidity (p=.002) and previous spontaneous vaginal delivery (plaminaria insertion, namely, previous cesarean section (p=.002) and previous cervical procedure (plaminaria. Women who are scheduled for D&E, and in whom one of these risk factors exists, might benefit from additional interventions to achieve better cervical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kolhatkar, Shilpa; Cabanilla, Leyvee; Bhola, Monish
The purpose of this report is to provide a brief literature review of the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE) procedure and to present a case utilizing this technique. Implant placement in the posterior maxillary region is often compromised due to anatomic limitations. In clinical situations where there is inadequate vertical bone dimension, the BAOSFE technique can be employed to increase bone height and allow placement of implants with an appropriate length dimension. A case of a 60-year-old female with inadequate vertical bone dimension in the area of an extracted #13 is presented. The BAOSFE technique was performed which facilitated the placement of a 3.75 X 13 mm implant. Anatomic limitations such as inadequate vertical bone dimension in the posterior maxillary region may result in placement of shorter implants. Sinus floor elevation (SFE) procedures using a crestal approach such as the BAOSFE, in certain selected cases, can effectively and predictably increase bone height. The BAOSFE technique is an excellent procedure that can overcome limitations associated with the posterior maxillary region.
Fowler, Patrick J; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Landsverk, John; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate housing that threaten out-of-home placement among families under investigation by child welfare. Data came from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of child welfare-involved families. Child protective services caseworkers as well as caregivers provided information on families whose child remained in the home after initial investigation (N = 3,867). Multilevel latent class analyses tested the presence of inadequately housed subgroups using 4 housing problem indicators at baseline. Logistic regressions assessed convergent and predictive validity. A two class latent solution best fit the data. Findings indicated that inadequate housing contributed to risk for out-of-home placement in approximately 16 % of intact families under investigation by child protective services. These families were 4 times more likely to need housing services 12 months later. Federal legislation emphasizes integration of social services as necessary to end homelessness. This study demonstrates overlap across public agencies. Enhanced coordination of child welfare and housing services facilitates interventions to prevent and mitigate homelessness.
Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L
, fatigue, fear, anger, strain, bad conscience, and perceived discrimination. The patients assessed the treatment regimen they had been taught as fair, but still the majority reported inadequate compliance and problems in relation to compliance, especially regarding dietary restrictions. The educational...... programme was evaluated by the patients as useful and satisfying. Actual illness-related knowledge, skills and compliance were not closely associated, suggesting that knowledge itself is an insufficient precondition to appropriate management of the illness. Social class and other social environment factors...
Uhlenwinkel, Anke; Béneker, Tine; Bladh, Gabriel; Tani, Sirpa; Lambert, David
The small-scale research presented in this paper was conducted as part of the GeoCapabilities project. Though originating in the Anglophone world, the project attempts to address the purposes and values of geography education internationally. Using the idea of "powerful disciplinary knowledge" the project asks what geography has to offer…
A successful internship experience can provide invaluable learning experiences connecting students' classroom knowledge to professional "know-how" in the field. Over the past three decades, post-secondary internship programs have flourished, generating considerable research literature from a variety of disciplinary perspectives; however,…
Hospital, the Leopold Café, the Chabad center, the Trident-Oberoi Hotel , and the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel . The attacks combined armed assaults...Neurosurgery at John’s Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, saw a growth in cross-disciplinary teams in the healthcare industry to help resolve complex...disciplinary teams. McDonough utilized questionnaires mailed to 776 users of cross-disciplinary teams in product development that included a range of
Tania Milena Daza-Márquez
Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.
The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci
Doran, Kelly M; McCormack, Ryan P; Johns, Eileen L; Carr, Brendan G; Smith, Silas W; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Lee, David C
Hurricane Sandy struck New York City on October 29, 2012, causing not only a large amount of physical damage, but also straining people's health and disrupting health care services throughout the city. In prior research, we determined that emergency department (ED) visits from the most vulnerable hurricane evacuation flood zones in New York City increased after Hurricane Sandy for several medical diagnoses, but also for the diagnosis of homelessness. In the current study, we aimed to further explore this increase in ED visits for homelessness after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. We performed an observational before-and-after study using an all-payer claims database of ED visits in New York City to compare the demographic characteristics, insurance status, geographic distribution, and health conditions of ED patients with a primary or secondary ICD-9 diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing in the first week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall versus the baseline weekly average in 2012 prior to Hurricane Sandy. We found statistically significant increases in ED visits for diagnosis codes of homelessness or inadequate housing in the week after Hurricane Sandy's landfall. Those accessing the ED for homelessness or inadequate housing were more often elderly and insured by Medicare after versus before the hurricane. Secondary diagnoses among those with a primary ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing also differed after versus before Hurricane Sandy. These observed differences in the demographic, insurance, and co-existing diagnosis profiles of those with an ED diagnosis of homelessness or inadequate housing before and after Hurricane Sandy suggest that a new population cohort-potentially including those who had lost their homes as a result of storm damage-was accessing the ED for homelessness or other housing issues after the hurricane. Emergency departments may serve important public health and disaster response roles after a hurricane, particularly for
Hartig Alissa J.
Full Text Available International mobility among graduate students of law presents unique challenges for the teaching and learning of Legal English. Master of Laws (LL.M. students, for example, often bring both prior legal training and professional experience from their home jurisdiction to their graduate studies abroad. Taking a closer look at the experience of these students as they engage with genres associated with another legal system provides insight into broader issues of intersections between language and content in English for Legal Purposes. This article draws on case studies of four LL.M students from China and Saudi Arabia, a civil law jurisdiction and an Islamic law jurisdiction, respectively, as they learn to read and write common law genres in the United States. Considering students’ experiences with these texts, the article outlines a potential framework for understanding the role of disciplinary concepts in second language legal literacy development. Specifically, the article elaborates a tentative taxonomy for disciplinary concepts that distinguishes between discourse-relevant concepts and discourse-structuring concepts in considering the interaction between language and content in ESP and CLIL for law.
Du Xueming; Xu Jianhui; Lang Jianhua; Tian Xiurong; Dong Wei
Objective: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the combined multi-disciplinary techniques with 125 I seeds to treat the malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods: 18 cases:of malignant obstructive jaundice were divided into 2 groups. A group with ERBD technique followed by CT-guided interstitial 125 I seeds implantation, B group with 125 I seeds implantation during the operation and gallbladder-intestine anastomosis later on. After 2 months amelioration (CR, PR,SD, PD) of the obstructive jaundice was observed with inspection of liver functions. Results: All cases were ameliorated with 44% patients in group A and 56% patients in group B, showing no significant statistical difference (P>0.05); and the liver functions were also relieved in both groups with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusion: Multi-disciplinary techniques combined with 125 I seeds implantation is effective in the management of the malignant obstructive jaundice. No significant difference for relief and liver function were found between CT-guided and during operation interstitial 125 I seeds implantations, but it seems more quickly relief or recovery was achieved in the latter. (authors)
Full Text Available Interdisciplinary cooperation and collaboration have proven to be desirable yet difficult goals to achieve in social science research. The nuanced differences among the domains, frameworks, assumptions, and methods of the various fields of study that comprise such research often hinder attempts to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue that is both meaningful and productive. We show that demography, economics, political science, and sociology are a few of the fields at the vanguard of the interdisciplinary frontier that emerged following the Second World War. In light of the challenges that these fields (along with the natural sciences face in initiating and sustaining interdisciplinary dialogue, we aim to accomplish several tasks. First, we seek to describe the theoretical and epistemological linkages among the cores of these four social-science disciplines. Second, we explore systems theory as a potential foundation for interdisciplinary unity. Third, we extrapolate the implications of the systems approach to encompass the study of human populations from multiple disciplinary perspectives. In this vein, we also seek to characterize key features of human populations, parse their functions in various disciplinary contexts, and prospectively identify challenges in data interpretation and analysis that will likely emerge in practice. The ultimate goals of this study are to delineate a set of methodological standards with which to guide interdisciplinary inquiry in the social and natural sciences, and consider how we might implement these standards in the construction of a world-historical data archive.
Schucan Bird, Karen; Tripney, Janice
Within the systematic review process, the searching phase is critical to the final synthesis product, its use and value. Yet, relatively little is known about the utility of different search strategies for reviews of complex, inter-disciplinary evidence. This article used a recently completed programme of work on cultural and sporting engagement to conduct an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive search strategy. Ten different types of search source were evaluated, according to three dimensions: (i) effectiveness in identifying relevant studies; (ii) efficiency in identifying studies; and (iii) adding value by locating studies that were not identified by any other sources. The study found that general bibliographic databases and specialist databases ranked the highest on all three dimensions. Overall, websites and journals were the next most valuable types of source. For reviewers, these findings highlight that general and specialist databases should remain a core component of the comprehensive search strategy, supplemented with other types of sources that can efficiently identify unique or grey literature. For policy makers and other research commissioners, this study highlights the value of methodological analysis for improving the understanding of, and practice in, policy relevant, inter-disciplinary systematic reviews. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vacca, Raffaele; McCarty, Christopher; Conlon, Michael; Nelson, David R
This paper explores the application of network intervention strategies to the problem of assembling cross-disciplinary scientific teams in academic institutions. In a project supported by the University of Florida (UF) Clinical and Translational Science Institute, we used VIVO, a semantic-web research networking system, to extract the social network of scientific collaborations on publications and awarded grants across all UF colleges and departments. Drawing on the notion of network interventions, we designed an alteration program to add specific edges to the collaboration network, that is, to create specific collaborations between previously unconnected investigators. The missing collaborative links were identified by a number of network criteria to enhance desirable structural properties of individual positions or the network as a whole. We subsequently implemented an online survey (N = 103) that introduced the potential collaborators to each other through their VIVO profiles, and investigated their attitudes toward starting a project together. We discuss the design of the intervention program, the network criteria adopted, and preliminary survey results. The results provide insight into the feasibility of intervention programs on scientific collaboration networks, as well as suggestions on the implementation of such programs to assemble cross-disciplinary scientific teams in CTSA institutions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luke, Douglas A.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Dhand, Amar; Bell, Ryan A.; Moreland‐Russell, Sarah; Sarli, Cathy C.; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Abstract The importance of transdisciplinary collaboration is growing, though not much is known about how to measure collaboration patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present multiple ways of mapping and evaluating the growth of cross‐disciplinary partnerships over time. Social network analysis was used to examine the impact of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) on collaboration patterns. Grant submissions from 2007 through 2010 and publications from 2007 through 2011 of Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences (ICTS) members were examined. A Cohort Model examining the first‐year ICTS members demonstrated an overall increase in collaborations on grants and publications, as well as an increase in cross‐discipline collaboration as compared to within‐discipline. A Growth Model that included additional members over time demonstrated the same pattern for grant submissions, but a decrease in cross‐discipline collaboration as compared to within‐discipline collaboration for publications. ICTS members generally became more cross‐disciplinary in their collaborations during the CTSA. The exception of publications for the Growth Model may be due to the time lag between funding and publication, as well as pressure for younger scientists to publish in their own fields. Network analysis serves as a valuable tool for evaluating changes in scientific collaboration. PMID:25472908
Philip N. Eate
Full Text Available This article aims to explain why both the left wing extremist group Sekigun (Red Army and the new religious sect Aum Shinrikyo (The Supreme Truth of Aum adopted violent and deadly forms of disciplinary power in their pursuit of an idealistic society. The approach in this article differs from the existing literature in that it is mainly concerned with why both groups failed to provide a more preferable alternative to the existing state structure and finally internalised their violence, torturing their own members. Foucaultian theory will be utilised in order to analyse the role that hierarchy and hierarchical surveillance played in re-enforcing the harsh discipline and training methods used by both groups. In this approach this article will show that despite the efforts of both Sekigun and Aum Shinrikyo to create the antithesis to everything they rejected within Japanese society they each paradoxically reproduced and magnified within their own social organisations the least desirable societal traits of elitism, exclusivity and conformity using the most extreme disciplinary measures to do so.
Gonzalez Alcaide, Gregorio; Bolaños Pizarro, Maxima; Navarro Molina, Carolina; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurian, Juan Carlos
The analysis of productivity and disciplinary collaboration patterns for Spanish published scientific research in the field of Substance Abuse (2001-2005). From institutional affiliations we identified and quantified disciplinary participation in papers indexed in the IME/Indice Medico Español, ISOC/Indice Español de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, SCI-Expanded/Science Citation Index-Expanded and SSCI/Social Sciences Citation Index databases. A total of 31 disciplines and specialities were identified in ISOC, with 8.6% of documents in collaboration between them; 55 medical specialities were identified in IME, with 10.89% of documents in collaboration between them; and 62 specialities were identified in SCI-Expanded, with 41.68% of documents in collaboration between them. a) Substance Abuse, Psychology, Psychiatry, Epidemiology-Preventive Medicine and Public Health and Pharmacology are the disciplines and specialities that present the highest productivity. To these can be added, in papers published in foreign journals, specialities such as Biochemistry-Molecular Biology, Neurology and Neuroscience; b) Papers published in Spanish journals indexed in SCI-Expanded and in papers published in foreign journals present much higher collaboration indexes between disciplines and specialities; c) The main collaborations between specialities are those between Substance Abuse, Psychiatry and Psychology. To these can be added, in the case of journals indexed in SCI-Expanded, those between these specialities and Pharmacology, Neurology and Neuroscience.
The basic radiochemistry occupies an avant-garde place in inorganic chemistry. It covers a very vast multi-disciplinary field, important for about 40% of the periodic table. It allows understanding better the periodic classification and it is directly connected with various disciplines: metal physical chemistry, solid compounds, solutions, thermodynamics, etc. The applications are also multi-disciplinary, mainly in nuclear industries but also in analysis, geology, biochemistry, medicine, archaeology, astrophysics. This report is a short variant of the document delivered in 1988 for CNRS. It treats neither all the aspects of radiochemistry or the priorities in this field but points out the main directions of this discipline and the fields of research which should be studied in more details. The content is as follows: - Introduction; - I. Definition and radiochemistry's domain of action; - II. The actinides constitute a particularly interesting series of the periodic table; - III. Research on actinides to be developed; III.1 Metals; III.2 Solid compounds; III.3 Gas compounds; III.4 Chemistry in solution (water ions, oxidation degrees, thermodynamic properties, chemical species in solution, non-aqueous media, chemical kinetics, chemistry at the atom scale); IV. Other radioelements; IV.1 The trans-actinide elements; IV.2 The long-lived fission products; V. Radiochemical methods; VI. Study of the 4f and 5f elements is interesting from the point of view of physico-chemical theories; VII. The heavy elements are implied in the nuclear power production; VII.1 Reprocessing the nuclear fuels; VII.2 Waste management; VIII. Conclusions
Joubert, David; Archambault, Kyle; Brown, Greg
In spite of past and current efforts at implementing effective rehabilitative interventions in carceral settings, institutions of confinement are primarily concerned with the maintenance of order within their walls. The purpose of this paper is to better understand associations between inmates' developmental background and the experience of institutional discipline, to collect information on childhood maltreatment and disciplinary measures for a sample of Canadian prisoners. Information relative to socio-economic background, childhood maltreatment and experience of discipline while in custody was obtained using face-to-face interviews and institutional file review for a sample of 416 male and 106 female offenders in Canadian provincial institutions. Results from logistic regression analyses provided support for the association between childhood maltreatment and the experience of discipline, specifically in the form of increased monitoring from correctional staff. Furthermore, this association was found to be more pronounced for female offenders. The findings highlight the need to incorporate a developmental perspective to current understanding of the use of disciplinary interventions in a prison environment. Such an approach may allow for preventing the enactment of a cycle of coercion, with negative consequences for the inmates. This study is original in its use of latent variable analytic methods to uncover the structure underlying the construct of childhood maltreatment in adult offenders. In addition, it provides valuable data of interest to researchers, corrections personnel and policy makers on the possible links between earlier developmental experiences and adjustment to the prison environment.
Kłys, Małgorzata; Kowalski, Piotr
Problems of patient safety within the system of health care are defined by prescriptive and ethical regulations; a breach of such regulations is associated with entering a complex category of situations covered by the term "medical error" or "appropriateness of medical management". In order to minimize the sources of diagnostic errors, with the knowledge on such errors largely originating from medico-legal practice, numerous initiatives emerge, according to which monitoring of adverse events and subjecting such events to a profound discussion is the most important element of prevention. The problem discussed in the paper is illustrated by the case of a 13-year old boy, in whom opioid poisoning was mistakenly diagnosed instead of a neurological condition in consequence of the physician disregarding significant symptoms of the disease and accepting his subjective suspicion of poisoning. The erroneous diagnosis was further compounded by lack of verification of the preliminary diagnosis and failure to perform further laboratory diagnostic management addressing the neurological status of the patient. The presented case supports data from publications found in the literature on the subject that describe a high risk of diagnostics errors in neurological conditions; such errors are often committed by emergency physicians other than neurologists.