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Sample records for inadequacy performance anxiety

  1. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  2. Stress and music performance anxiety

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    Simoens, Veerle

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stress, as well as accompanying changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect cognitive processes, including memory. In professional musicians occupational stress and music performance anxiety (MPA) are a major source of concern during a musical career, whereas a boost is to a certain extent necessary for a musical performance. ---------- A protocol was successfully designed to induce acute stress in healthy students while measuring electro-encephalography...

  3. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

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    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  4. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

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    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  5. Treatment of music performance anxiety via psychological approaches: a review of selected CBT and psychodynamic literature.

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    Nagel, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    Performance anxiety, or stage fright, is anxiety aroused about potential mishaps in performance that expose feared inadequacies before an audience and which evoke feelings of embarrassment and humilation. For affected musicians, performance anxiety can be emotionally devastating, as their career choice in music may be terminated or severely compromised. This paper focuses on the cognitive and psychodynamic literature about music performance anxiety, with the emphasis that for treatment "one size does not fit all." It reviews the factors underlying performance anxiety and those factors which can exacerbate the condition in musicians. The two major clinical treatment modalities within contemporary psychology, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic treatments, are reviewed. While there are more empirical studies of CBT in various populations in the literature, until recently there was an indifference to empirical research by psychodynamic investigators. However, meta-analyses show strong efficacy for psychodynamic psychotherapy (in various disorders, not specifically music performance anxiety), but also that the benefits of psychodynamic psychotherapy may endure longer and increase with time.

  6. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

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    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  7. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

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    Ana E. Barbar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Results: Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001, and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  8. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ana E; Crippa, José A; Osório, Flávia L

    2014-09-01

    To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001), and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  9. Correlation of Numerical Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

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    Michael Howard D. Morada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that most students had negative view towards mathematics and as a result, they also performed poorly.As such, it is imperative for every math teacher to understand the reasons behind this negative view to improve their student’s performance. This observation led the researcher to conduct a study on Correlation of Mathematics Performance and Anxiety of third and fourth year students for school year 2012-2013 across the different programs.This study determined the numerical anxiety level and mathematics performance of the respondents along age, gender and programs. The study revealed that students, regardless of age had passing performance. However, female and male students had fair and passing mathematics performance, respectively. Students from College of Business Education, Teacher Education and Computer Studies had fair performance while those from Marine Transportation, Criminal Justice Education and Engineering had passing performance. The study also revealed that students across different variables had moderate numerical anxiety level. Furthermore, it was found out that mathematics performance is significantly related to numerical anxiety. However, the relationship was inverse and small.

  10. Reducing Anxiety: Studio Strategies for Performing Salvation

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    Riley, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the causes and manifestations of performance anxiety and suggests methods for professors to combat it in the studio setting. The topics of mentoring, physical and mental relaxation, dietary health, and imaging are explored. Primary source material is referred to throughout the article, so readers can easily…

  11. The role of anxiety in golf putting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Ian; MacNamara, Aine; Shafat, Amir; Dunphy, Orla; Murphy, Sinead; O'Connor, Kenneth; Ryan, Tara; Waldron, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed INTRODUCTION: Anxiety???s influence on performance continues to be one of the main research interests for sport psychologists (Hanin, 2000). It is apparent, though, that there is a lack of empirical research characterising the multi-disciplinary effect of anxiety on sports performance. The current study aimed to ascertain biomechanical (accuracy, movement variability) and psychological (anxiety) markers to determine how anxiety affects golf putting. METHOD: 22 healthy s...

  12. Coping with Mathematics Anxiety: Stress Management and Academic Performance.

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    Sime, Wesley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to Introductory Statistics college students. A high mathematics anxiety was associated with lower performance on a statistics examination. Classroom stress-coping intervention reduced anxiety and physiological stress responses, but did not improve academic performance. (Author/KS)

  13. Levels of Music Performance Anxiety and Test Anxiety of Turkish Prospective Music Teachers in Piano Exams

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    Guven, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety of prospective music teachers (N = 129) during piano exams and to examine the effects of peer and self-assessments on anxiety and exam achievement of individuals with high performance and test anxiety (n = 5). Female students were more anxious compared to males, students of the fourth class…

  14. Hyperventilation in anticipatory music performance anxiety.

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    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Hildebrandt, Horst; Arial, Marc; Wild, Pascal; Gomez, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Self-report studies have shown an association between music performance anxiety (MPA) and hyperventilation complaints. However, hyperventilation was never assessed physiologically in MPA. This study investigated the self-reported affective experience, self-reported physiological symptoms, and cardiorespiratory variables including partial pressure of end-tidal CO(2) (Petco(2)), which is an indicator for hyperventilation, in 67 music students before a private and a public performance. The response coherence between these response domains was also investigated. From the private to the public session, the intensity of all self-report variables increased (all p values .10). Petco(2) showed a unique response pattern reflected by an MPA-by-session interaction (p .17). These findings show for the first time how respiration is stimulated before a public performance in music students with different MPA levels. The hypothesis of a hyperventilation tendency in high-performance-anxious musicians is supported. The response coherence between physiological symptoms and physiological activation is weak.

  15. Anxiety and performance in elite non-professional athletes.

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    Hannon, B; Fitzgerald, P

    2006-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the main motivators with regards to performance of individuals in any given task, including sporting endeavours. Our study sought to assess state anxiety levels in elite non-professional sportsmen, and to investigate if anxiety correlated with sporting performance, the IDA-Q (irritability, depression & anxiety questionnaire) was used to assess 3 mental state variables in an inter-county hurling team as well as a matched non-sporting control group, and performance was judged by completion of a standard task in 2 different settings: a non-pressurised one and a highly pressurised setting. Subjects had significantly higher anxiety scores on the IDA-Q than the controls (p = 0.019). There were no significant differences and controls in the depression and irritability scales. There was a significantly negative correlation between anxiety scores and performance on the IDA-Q; spearman r = -0.57. High anxiety levels impair sporting performance.

  16. Yoga reduces performance anxiety in adolescent musicians.

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    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany; Shorter, Stephanie M; Reinhardt, Kristen M; Cope, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age. This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and

  17. Anxiety as It Pertains to EFL Writing Ability and Performance

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    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted to find (a) the impact of anxiety on EFL learners' writing performance, and (b) the relationship between anxiety and foreign language writing ability. 137 (N = 137) EFL learners took the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), and a writing task on a…

  18. Temporal dynamics of cognitive performance and anxiety across older adulthood.

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    Petkus, Andrew J; Reynolds, Chandra A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Kremen, William S; Gatz, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive decline and anxiety symptoms commonly co-occur in later life, but the temporal order of changes on these two attributes is unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if greater anxiety leads to subsequent declines in cognitive performance or if worse cognitive performance leads to increased anxiety. In this study, we sought to elucidate the temporal dynamics between anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance across old age-that is, the extent to which level and change in one variable influence subsequent changes in a second variable. We examined data from 721 nondemented participants from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Participants completed as many as eight assessments of cognitive performance and anxiety over a 26-year period. Bivariate dual-change score models were fit to examine the dynamic association between anxiety and cognitive performance. Bidirectional associations between anxiety and cognitive performance were found among measures of processing speed, attention, and memory but not visuospatial abilities. Higher anxiety was associated with greater declines in processing speed over the duration of 6 years and worsening attention over a span of 3 years. The reverse direction was also significant in that slower processing speed, worse attention, and poorer nonverbal and working memory performance were associated with larger increases in anxiety 3 years later. These findings highlight that in cognitively intact older adults, the association between anxiety and worse cognitive performance is bidirectional and complex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

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    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  20. Treatment and prevention of music performance anxiety.

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    Spahn, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) regularly occurs when musicians present themselves before an audience in performance situations, and thus, it plays an important role in the careers of professional musicians. MPA is expressed on the emotional and physical level, as well as on the levels of thinking and behavior, and extends along a continuum of varying severity. Its performance-impairing, afflicting form is considered to be a specific type of social phobia, which requires therapy. There are different psychological theories, which contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of MPA and provide basic principles for the various treatment approaches. Current "best practice," in our clinical experience, is a personal- and problem-oriented approach within a multimodal therapy model, including the range of psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral therapies, body-oriented methods, and mental techniques. In order to avoid severe MPA, prevention in the field of music pedagogic is very important. Thus, the concepts of dealing positively with MPA should be implemented very early into the instrumental and vocal education of musicians. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Study of the Relationship between Mothers' Anxiety with the Mathematical Performance and Students' Anxiety

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    Sepideh Moradpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.

  2. Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Brown, Franklin C; Westerveld, Michael; Langfitt, John T; Hamberger, Marla; Hamid, Hamada; Shinnar, Shlomo; Sperling, Michael R; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William; Tracy, Joseph; Masur, David; Bazil, Carl W; Spencer, Susan S

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was poorer for those with high versus low levels of anxiety but was not found to be related to the TLE side. The verbal memory score on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for patients with left-sided TLE than for patients with right-sided TLE with low anxiety levels but equally impaired for those with high anxiety levels. These results suggest that we can place more confidence in the ability of verbal memory tests like the CVLT to lateralize to left-sided TLE for those with low anxiety levels, but that verbal memory will be less likely to produce lateralizing information for those with high anxiety levels. This suggests that more caution is needed when interpreting verbal memory tests for those with high anxiety levels. These results indicated that RCFT performance was significantly affected by anxiety and did not lateralize to either side, regardless of anxiety levels. This study adds to the existing literature which suggests that drawing-based visual memory tests do not lateralize among patients with TLE, regardless of anxiety levels. © 2013.

  3. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

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    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  4. Competitive state anxiety and performance in young female rhythmic gymnasts.

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    Tsopani, Despoina; Dallas, George; Skordilis, Emmanouil K

    2011-04-01

    The study was designed to examine the competitive state anxiety and self-confidence of rhythmic gymnasts participating in the Greek national competition. 86 participants, ages 11 and 12 years, completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, 1 hr. before competition. The athletes, classified by performance (high and low performance) and participation in the finals (finalists and nonfinalists), responded to the three subscales: Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, and Self-confidence. Analyses indicated differences in Self-confidence between high versus low performance groups and finalists versus nonfinalists. No significant differences were found on Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety. In a regression analysis, Self-confidence was the only significant predictor of performance for this sample. Implications refer to the development of strategies to enhance self-confidence in order to improve the gymnast's performance during competition.

  5. Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Franklin C.; Westerveld, Michael; Langfitt, John T.; Hamberger, Marla; Hamid, Hamada; Shinnar, Shlomo; Sperling, Michael R.; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William; Tracy, Joseph; Masur, David; Bazil, Carl W.; Spencer, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 temporal lobe epilepsy patients from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was lower for those with high versus low level of anxiety, but was not found to be related to side of TLE. Verbal memory on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for left than right TLE patients with low anxiety, ...

  6. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students.

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    Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-09-01

    Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.

  7. NUTRIENT AND FOOD INADEQUACIES AMONG ATHLETES: GENDER COMPARISONS

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    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Santos do; Villa-Nova, Tiago Marcel Santos; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Nascimento, Vitor Teixeira; Mendes-Netto, Raquel Simões

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the dietary intake between male and female athletes. The study included 80 high performance athletes, including 43 male and 37 female. The athletes dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-hour recall. Both groups showed a low caloric intake. Men were more inadequate in protein and saturated fat intake. Both groups showed a high inadequacy in vitamin A, E, D and calcium intake. Women had a higher inadequacy in vitamin B12, B3, magnesium, fo...

  8. The Effects of Humor on Test Anxiety and Test Performance

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    Tali, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Testing in an academic setting provokes anxiety in all students in higher education, particularly nursing students. When students experience high levels of anxiety, the resulting decline in test performance often does not represent an accurate assessment of students' academic achievement. This quantitative, experimental study examined the effects…

  9. The effect of virtual audiences on music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Castle-Green, Teresa Anne

    2015-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is experienced by a large number of musicians throughout their careers. In many cases this anxiety can have debilitating consequences for the performer preventing them from delivering a performance to the standard they are capable of. Very little research has been conducted within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) into the ways in which technology can assist musicians with learning to manage their MPA. This paper builds on the limited body of resear...

  10. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

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    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Competing Under Pressure : State Anxiety, Sports Performance and Assessment

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    Lundqvist, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Elevated levels of anxiety are a common response to stressful competitive sports situations, are known to moderate athletic performance and are referred to as an unpleasant emotional state associated with perceptions of situational threat. The empirical studies in this dissertation considered primarily psychometric, methodological and conceptual issues of relevance for the study of anxiety and sports performance. In Study I, athletes were followed across a full competitive season to explore p...

  12. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

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    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  13. Anxiety, depression and perceived sporting performance among professional cricket players.

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    Sahni, M; Bhogal, G

    2017-05-10

    Mental health in sport is a hard-hitting topic that is frequently the subject of news coverage and increasingly a theme for avid research. Some suggest that cricketers, participating in a game unique in its statistical analysis of individual performance, prolonged periods of play away from home and extended solitary game time to reflect on errors, may be especially prone to developing depression. This hypothesis is supported by a higher rate of suicide among male Test cricketers when compared with the UK male general population. 1 METHODS: This study ascertained rates of anxiety and depression by screening professional cricket players using the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). It also investigate whether professional cricket players perceive stress and anxiety to be beneficial to their sporting performance. 21 male professional cricketers were included in this anonymous questionnaire based study. Six players had a positive depression screen, five scoring mild and one scoring moderate. Additionally, six players had a positive anxiety screen, four scoring mild and two ?players within the moderate range. Fifteen players thought pre-match stress and anxiety was beneficial to their sporting performance. Of these, nine thought slight, five thought fair and one thought considerable levels were optimal. Undiagnosed anxiety and depression may exist in professional cricket teams and as such better screening is required. The majority of players feel some level of stress and tension are beneficial for their performance, with a slight amount being the most common perceived optimum.

  14. Music performance anxiety and occupational stress amongst opera chorus artists and their relationship with state and trait anxiety and perfectionism.

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    Kenny, Dianna T; Davis, Pamela; Oates, Jenni

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the inter-relationships among state and trait anxiety, occupational stress, perfectionism, aspiration, and music performance anxiety in a group of elite operatic chorus artists employed full-time by a national opera company. The chorus artists reported higher trait anxiety, higher occupational role concerns, and higher occupational personal strain than normative samples. Higher scores on personal resources were associated with the higher scores on trait anxiety. It appears that these resources were used adaptively to manage anxiety. High trait anxiety was also associated with high personal strain in the work environment. Anxiety was not related to occupational roles or issues related to the physical environment or working conditions. These results suggest that while trait anxiety and music performance anxiety were closely associated, occupational stress makes a separate contribution to the quality of working life experienced by elite choral artists.

  15. Interactions of emotion and anxiety on visual working memory performance.

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    Berggren, Nick; Curtis, Hannah M; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-08-01

    It is a widely observed finding that emotion and anxiety interact; highly stressed or anxious individuals show robust attentional biases towards external negative information. More generally, research has suggested that exposure to threatening stimuli, as well as the experience of acute stress, also may impair top-down attentional control and working memory. In the current study, we investigated how the influence of emotion and anxiety may interact to influence working memory performance. Participants were required to encode the orientation of four simple shapes, eight, or four shapes while filtering out four other irrelevant shapes from memory. Before memory displays, an irrelevant neutral or fearful face cue also was presented. Memory performance was found to interact with self-reported state anxiety and cue valence; on neutral cue trials, state anxiety was negatively correlated with performance. This effect was absent following a fear cue. In addition, filtering efficiency was negatively associated with state anxiety solely following a fear cue. Our findings suggest that state anxiety's influence to visual working memory can be strongly modulated by external signals to threat. Most crucially, rather than anxious individuals having greater difficulty rejecting external threatening information, we observed that external threat may in its own right generally impair filtering efficiency in anxious individuals.

  16. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Devine, Amy; Hill, Francesca; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13). We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance. Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety). Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety. There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  17. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Hill, Francesca; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. Method We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8–9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11–13). We conducted latent profile analysis of students’ anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance. Results Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety). Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety. Conclusions There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one’s anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance. PMID:28350857

  18. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Carey

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance.We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13. We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance.Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety. Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety.There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  19. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  20. Effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance. Sixty-eight (68) volunteer male and female students who were randomly selected from different academic faculties at the University of Lagos participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 32 years, with body weights ...

  1. The Impact of Competitive Trait Anxiety on Collegiate Powerlifting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Urbina, Leslie J; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Judge, Lani M; Leitzelar, Brianna M; Pearson, David R; Holtzclaw, Kara A; Bellar, David M

    2016-09-01

    Judge, LW, Urbina, LJ, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Judge, LM, Leitzelar, BM, Pearson, DR, Holtzclaw, KA, and Bellar, DM. The impact of competitive trait anxiety on collegiate powerlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2399-2405, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between competitive trait anxiety measures and powerlifting (PL) performance. Thirty-six collegiate powerlifters on club teams from 3 universities were recruited during a competition (men = 26, women = 10; age = 19.9 ± 1.5 years; height = 172.5 ± 8.6 cm; weight = 81.4 ± 21.0 kg). The athletes were distributed across weight classes for collegiate PL (47.6 kg: 1; 51.7 kg: 1; 54.9 kg: 1; 59.8 kg: 3; 67.1 kg: 2; 74.8 kg: 7; 82.1 kg: 4; 89.8 kg: 9; 99.8 kg: 5; super heavyweight: 3). A survey containing questions about PL performance history and the 15-item Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) were administered to the participants before competing. The SCAT total was negatively correlated (r = -0.397; p = 0.02) to the athletes' percentage of best total achieved in the competition (actual performance total/best comp total × 100). Of the individual lifts, the SCAT score was negatively correlated to the personal best for bench press (r = -0.368; p = 0.03) and deadlift (r = -0.317, p = 0.05), but did not significantly correlate for squat (r = -0.182, p = 0.27). These results indicate a negative correlation between the SCAT score and athletes' personal best totals in PL. Increased SCAT scores were associated with decreased personal best PL totals. The results suggest that competitive trait anxiety may have negatively impacted performance and that some PL athletes may benefit from interventions aimed at decreasing anxiety before and during performance.

  2. DEVELOPING OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE ANXIETY SCALE: VALIDITY - RELIABILITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning  individual instrument performance anxiety of the students  who are getting instrument training  in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students  who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and  the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him

  3. The interrelationship between performance anxiety and efficiency of solo music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the influence of performance anxiety on efficiency of solo music performance. Internal (self-contempt, positive self-evaluation and external criteria (musical rewards, successful solo performances, successful auditions of efficiency of solo music performance were taken into consideration. The research was grounded on studies from the field of sports psychology and on the few studies that were carried out in the field of psychology of music. The research was conducted on 94 students of Music Academy, grouped by gender and field of study (instrumentalists, solo vocalists and composers vs. students of music teaching. The symptoms of performance anxiety were measured by a part of the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire, and efficiency of solo music performance by the Efficiency of Music Performance Questionnaire. Both questionnaires were developed for the purpose of the study. The results reveal the interrelationship between the internal criteria of efficiency in solo music performance and performance anxiety. On the other hand, only trends of correlation were established between performance anxiety and the external criteria of solo music performance. The research findings imply the important role of cognition as a mediator between performance anxiety and performance efficiency.

  4. Electrocortical Evidence of Enhanced Performance Monitoring in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Frosio, Kristen E; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Mills, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    Self-focused attention is thought to be a key feature of social anxiety disorder. Yet few studies have used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether socially anxious individuals display greater monitoring of their performance and attention to their errors. Similarly, only a few studies have used ERPs to examine how social anxiety is related to processing of performance feedback. Individuals with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of social anxiety completed a trial-and-error learning task. Self-focus was manipulated using false heart-rate feedback during a random subset of trials. Performance feedback was given using emotional and neutral faces in a positive context (correct=happy face; incorrect=neutral face) and negative context (correct=neutral face; incorrect=disgust face) in order to investigate biased interpretation and attention to feedback. Socially anxious subjects displayed enhanced amplitude of the ERN and CRN, suggesting greater response monitoring, and enhanced Pe amplitude, suggesting greater processing of errors relative to the low social anxiety group. No group differences were observed with respect to feedback processing. Before learning stimulus-response mappings in the negative context, the FRN was larger for self-focus compared to standard trials and marginally larger for socially anxious subjects compared to controls. These findings support cognitive models and suggest avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Paechter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men. Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in

  6. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  7. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  8. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  9. Get excited: reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood

    2014-06-01

    Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared with those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mind-set (as opposed to a threat mind-set), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, H

    1990-03-01

    The analysis is a study of the nature of anxiety in human experience. The author reviews the work of theologian Paul Tillich and psychologist Rollo May and clarifies the role of anxiety in life. The article reflects the need for a basic religious affirmation as one faces the anxiety of life which comes from the many threats to human existence.

  11. Effects of mental practice on performance are moderated by cognitive anxiety as measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvari, H

    1996-12-01

    45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a cognitive rehearsal of the task, whereas the latter did not. None practiced the task physically before being tested. Analysis of variance showed that both errors and performance time interacted significantly with Mental Practice versus Control group scores and scores on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Among subjects who practiced mentally, those scoring low on cognitive anxiety performed significantly better than subjects who scored high. Further, the relationship between test scores of cognitive anxiety and performance for the total sample was analysed by different curvilinear regression models. The cubic model fitted the data better and accounted for a greater percent of variance on error performance explained by anxiety test scores (R = .39) than the linear correlation (r = .25). This cubic model formed a polynomial relationship between cognitive anxiety test scores and error in performance.

  12. Perceived Performance Anxiety in Advanced Musicians Specializing in Different Musical Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Welch, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to…

  13. Anxiety and performance : perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul RD

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance (Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans, 2012) and provide a critical review of

  14. Feeling safe but appearing anxious: Differential effects of alcohol on anxiety and social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stephan; Cooper, Ruth; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2017-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  16. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  17. Cognitive-evaluative features of childhood social anxiety in a performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Kühl, Sigrid; Bender, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    Using an experimental design, we analysed differences in the occurrence of cognitive-evaluative distortions and performance deficits across children with social anxiety disorder, with subclinical anxiety and without any anxiety symptoms. Twenty-one children with full syndrome social phobia, 18 children with partial syndrome social phobia and 20 children without any symptoms of social phobia were compared with respect to their degree of anxiety, negative thinking and task performance during two social-evaluative tasks. In addition, self-ratings of task performance, performance estimations for other children and objective behavioural ratings by two independent observers were obtained. Children with social anxiety disorder and subclinical social anxiety showed higher degrees of experienced anxiety and negative thinking than healthy control children. There was no group difference in respect to actual task performance. Findings are discussed with regard to the continuum assumption of childhood social anxiety disorder and the need of well-adapted early interventions. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Test Anxiety KidsHealth / For Teens / Test Anxiety What's in this ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  19. Hyperventilation complaints in music performance anxiety among classical music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina; Danuser, Brigitta; Hildebrandt, Horst; Arial, Marc; Gomez, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of respiration and hyperventilation in anxiety disorders, research on breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation is rare in the field of music performance anxiety (MPA, also known as stage fright). The only comparable study in this area reported a positive correlation between negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints during performance. The goals of this study were (a) to extend these previous findings to the period before performance, (b) to test whether a positive correlation also exists between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem, (c) to investigate instrument-specific symptom reporting, and (d) to confirm gender differences in negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints reported in other studies. We assessed 169 university students of classical music with a questionnaire comprising: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for negative feelings of MPA, the Nijmegen Questionnaire for hyperventilation complaints, and a single item for the experience of stage fright as a problem. We found a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA before performance and a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem. Wind musicians/singers reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms than other musicians. Furthermore, women scored significantly higher on hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA. These results further the findings of previous reports by suggesting that breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation may play a role in MPA prior to going on stage. Experimental studies are needed to confirm whether hyperventilation complaints associated with negative feelings of MPA manifest themselves at the physiological level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations among Social Anxiety, Eye Contact Avoidance, State Anxiety, and Perception of Interaction Performance during a Live Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Zibulsky, Devin A; Srivastav, Akanksha; Weeks, Justin W

    2016-01-01

    There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked. Participants included undergraduate women who conversed with same-sex confederates. Results indicated that trait social anxiety was inversely related to eye contact duration and frequency averaged across the four minutes, and positively related to state social anxiety and negative self-ratings. In addition, greater anticipatory state anxiety was associated with reduced eye contact throughout the first minute of the conversation. Eye contact was not related to post-task state anxiety or self-perception of poor performance; although, trends emerged in which these relations may be positive for HSA individuals. The current findings provide enhanced support for the notion that eye contact avoidance is an important feature of social anxiety.

  1. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Bailey, Sean P.; Harari, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored mathematics anxiety in a longitudinal sample of 113 children followed from second to third grade. We examined how mathematics anxiety related to different types of mathematical performance concurrently and longitudinally and whether the relations between mathematics anxiety and mathematical performance differed as a function of…

  2. The Contribution of Memory and Anxiety to the Math Performance of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa L.; Li, Huijun; Proctor, Briley

    2010-01-01

    The impact of memory and anxiety on math performance was analyzed in a sample of 115 college undergraduates, all of whom had a diagnosed learning disability. The direct effects of memory and anxiety on math performance were first examined, followed by an examination of whether anxiety moderates the relationship between memory and math. Both memory…

  3. Training with anxiety has a positive effect on expert perceptual-motor performance under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Pijpers, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether training with anxiety can prevent choking in experts performing perceptual-motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 17 expert basketball players practised free throws over a 5-week period with or without induced anxiety. Only after training with anxiety did performance

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  5. Physical activity helps to control music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sérgio F; Marocolo, Moacir; Corrêa, Elisangela N V; Morato, Gledys S G; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety (MPA) in college music students. Levels of MPA, as measured with the Kenny MPA Inventory, and a survey about the physical activity habits were obtained from 87 students of music. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores (p<0.05) than non-active ones, independent of gender. We conclude that there is an association between physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue.

  6. Performance, Mood, and Anxiety During a Climb of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Heikki M; Tuomisto, Martti T

    2017-12-01

    Karinen, Heikki M., and Martti T. Tuomisto. Performance, mood, and anxiety during a climb of Mount Everest. High Alt Med Biol. 18:400-410, 2017. Various studies have shown the deleterious effects of high-altitude hypoxia on visual, motor, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional function and also in intelligence tests, reaction time, speech comprehension, hand steadiness, visual contrast discrimination, and word association tests. Because optimal cognitive abilities may be crucial for mountain climbers' safety, this study was intended to evaluate the changes in cognitive performance, mood, and anxiety during an Everest expedition lasting almost 3 months. A set of physiological (Lake Louise score, oxygen saturation), cognitive (Colorado perceptual speed [CPS] test, number comparison [NC] test), and emotional measurements (Profile of Mood States, anxiety responses, psychological inflexibility) were collected from nine climbers on a partly unsupported Mount Everest expedition at various time points during the course of the expedition at Everest Base Camp (EBC). For confidence intervals we used 95% simultaneous Bonferroni corrected interval (BCI) for the differences. During this expedition, the estimates of trait anxiety decreased 13% toward the end of expedition after successful summiting (p = 0.004). Simultaneously, fatigue appeared to diminish and the CPS speed results improved 13%. Most expedition members suffered mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness during the first days in the EBC, but this did not affect the speed or the number of mistakes made in the CPS or NC tests. In CPS test the differences between pretest and the physically most demanding period (EBC4, BCI: 0.01, 4.43) and between EBC1 and EBC4 (BCI: 0.57, 4.99), between EBC2 and EBC4 (BCI: 0.45, 4.88), and between EBC3 and EBC4 (BCI: 1.12, 5.55) were significant, showing ever improving results during the expedition. The most important finding in this study was that well-motivated and trained, self

  7. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Kristjan; Raudsepp, Lennart

    2004-04-01

    This study considered the influence of competitive anxiety and self-confidence state responses upon athletic performance. 66 male beach volleyball players completed the translated and modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. Players' performance was scored from the video records using a standard rating scales. Correlations indicated scores on Direction subscale of modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Self-confidence were moderately positively (r=.27 to .51) correlated with different skill components and sum of skill components of beach volleyball. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that, as anticipated, directional perceptions of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence were significant predictors of beach volleyball performance but accounted for only 42% of variance. Original Intensity subscales of somatic and cognitive anxiety did not predict performance. Findings support the notion that direction of anxiety responses must be taken into consideration when examining anxiety-performance association in sport.

  8. Perceived Control of Anxiety and Its Relationship to Self-Confidence and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, Sheldon; Connaughton, Declan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated elite and subelite swimmers' retrospective perceptions and causal beliefs about the link between anxiety symptoms and performance and the underlying mechanisms involved. Interview data indicated that perceived control was the moderating factor in the directional interpretation of anxiety and not the experience of anxiety symptoms…

  9. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Dracopoulos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxiety only yielded a positive correlation with performance in the case of classroom learners. There were no significant differences across learning environments on any measures. These observations are discussed in light of the role computer technologies now play in our society as well as the merging of socio-demographic profiles between classroom and distance learners. Our data suggest that comparisons of profiles between classroom and distance learners may not be an issue worth investigating anymore in language studies, at least in developed countries.

  10. Association between temporomandibular disorders and music performance anxiety in violinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, M I T; Jorge, A I L

    2016-10-01

    Professional violin playing has been associated with a predisposition to develop temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There are a number of risk factors, including physical trauma from the playing posture and the presence of parafunctional habits. Music performance anxiety (MPA) may also be a factor, as it has been associated with playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). To evaluate a possible association between the presence of TMD and the level of MPA in violin players. An observational study using a written questionnaire that retrieved data related to TMD symptoms (Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire), MPA level (Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory, K-MPAI), instrument practice time, chinrest type, sex and age. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Ninety-three professional or semi-professional violinists performing in and around Lisbon, Portugal, completed the questionnaire (73% response rate). TMD was present in 50 violinists (58%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of TMD and high MPA levels (P < 0.001) and the most anxious violinists were six times (95% confidence interval 2.51-15.33; P < 0.001) more likely to report TMD symptoms when compared with the least anxious players. Violin players had a high prevalence of reported TMD symptoms, which was significantly associated with high MPA levels. It may therefore be necessary to address psychological and physical factors simultaneously in musicians who do not improve with physical therapy alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Performance Anxiety at English PBL Groups Among Taiwanese Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  12. Performance anxiety at English PBL groups among Taiwanese medical students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-03-01

    Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  13. Music performance anxiety: New insights from young musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret S. Osborne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA is a relatively neglected psychological phenomenon that rarely appears in mainstream psychological journals or textbooks. To date, this field of inquiry has focused primarily on professional and amateur adult musicians or college level music students. With the exception of a small number of recent additions to the literature, there have been few studies examining the experience of MPA in younger musicians. In this paper, we review our work on MPA in general, and summarize our recent work with young musicians. We argue that the experience of MPA may begin early in a musical career and that the characteristics of this experience are qualitatively similar to those experienced by adult musicians. There are therefore compelling reasons to address MPA early and to take a strong preventive focus on a condition that to date shows persistence over time and only modest response to available treatments.

  14. Reducing anxiety and enhancing physical performance by using an advanced version of EMDR: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of this pilot study was to investigate an advanced version of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for reducing anxiety. Fifty participants were asked at two times of measurement (T1 and T2 with a rest of 4 weeks) to generate anxiety via the recall of autobiographical memories according to their anxiety. Furthermore, the participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group, and the experimental group received an intervention of 1-2 h with the advanced version of EMDR in order to their anxiety 2 weeks after T1. At T1 as well as T2, we measured the intensity of participants' anxiety with a Likert scale (LS) and collected participants' state (temporary) and trait (chronic) anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, we measured participants' physical performance in a test for the finger musculature under the induction of their anxiety. The results showed that participant's ratings of their perceived intensity of anxiety (measured by a 9-point LS) and the state and trait anxiety decreased significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group from T1 to T2. Moreover, the physical performance under the induction of participants' anxiety increased significantly in the experimental group from T1 to T2 and there were no significant changes in the control group. The study could show that the advanced version of EMDR is an appropriate method to reduce anxiety.

  15. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwei Yao; Yongliang Yang; Xiang Xie; Wenxin Xu; Xiushi Ding

    2013-01-01

    Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and f...

  16. Performance anxiety experiences of professional ballet dancers: the importance of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M

    2010-01-01

    Performance anxiety research abounds in sport psychology, yet has been relatively sparse in dance. The present study explores ballet dancers' experiences of performance anxiety in relation to: 1. symptom type, intensity, and directional interpretation; 2. experience level (including company rank); and 3. self-confidence and psychological skills. Fifteen elite ballet dancers representing all ranks in one company were interviewed, and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Results revealed that cognitive anxiety was more dominant than somatic anxiety, and was unanimously interpreted as debilitative to performance. Somatic anxiety was more likely to be interpreted as facilitative, with the majority of dancers recognizing that a certain amount of anxiety could be beneficial to performance. Principal dancers suffered from higher intensities of performance anxiety than corps de ballet members. Feeling out of control emerged as a major theme in both the experience of anxiety and its interpretation. As a result, prevention or handling of anxiety symptoms may be accomplished by helping dancers to feel in control. Dancers may benefit from education about anxiety symptoms and their interpretation, in addition to psychological skills training incorporating cognitive restructuring strategies and problem-focussed coping to help increase their feelings of being in control.

  17. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  18. Musical Performance Anxiety and the Relationship between Learning Styles and the Instrument and Singing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahal, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between musical performance anxiety, learning styles, and the field of instrument and solo singing music teacher candidates. Musical performance anxiety has been investigated at various musical events, such as performance during exams, singing and playing on stage, or in front of judges for an…

  19. The Relations among Mathematics Anxiety, Gender, and Standardized Test Performance

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    Anis, Yasmeen; Krause, Jeremy A.; Blum, Emily N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety typically involves apprehension toward activities that require computation, which can lead to complications in every-day-life activities (Ashcraft, 2002). Mathematics anxiety also has become accepted as an issue associated with academic success for both children and adults (Ashcraft, 2002; Ashcraft & Moore, 2009; Beilock,…

  20. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  1. Music Performance Anxiety in Instrumental Music Students: A Multiple Case Study of Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is a sometimes debilitating condition affecting many young musicians as they perform in testing or concert settings. These students may consult their teachers to seek aid in overcoming their anxiety. The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate the strategies and methods utilized by middle and high…

  2. Global and Local Evaluations of Public Speaking Performance in Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest versus the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n = 43) or low (n = 47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self and experimenter assessments again after three days, in addition to a measure of post-event processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the high social anxiety group rated their performance more negatively than the low social anxiety group did. Moreover, the high social anxiety group’s ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the low social anxiety group’s ratings. As expected, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. PMID:22035989

  3. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A Necka; H Moriah Sokolowski; Ian M Lyons

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  4. Processing efficiency theory in children: working memory as a mediator between trait anxiety and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A

    2008-10-01

    Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.

  5. Neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced anxiety on working memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dunger, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Many theories addressing the complex anxiety-cognition interaction are built upon the notion that working memory is vulnerable to the effects of anxiety. However, most research has utilised studies of trait anxiety which does not allow direct inferences to be made between affect and cognitive performance, or exclude confounds such as pre-existing individual differences. As a result, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced sta...

  6. Virtual Reality Exposure Training for Musicians: Its Effect on Performance Anxiety and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Josiane; Dubé, Francis; Provencher, Martin D; Moreno Sala, Maria T

    2015-09-01

    Music performance anxiety affects numerous musicians, with many of them reporting impairment of performance due to this problem. This exploratory study investigated the effects of virtual reality exposure training on students with music performance anxiety. Seventeen music students were randomly assigned to a control group (n=8) or a virtual training group (n=9). Participants were asked to play a musical piece by memory in two separate recitals within a 3-week interval. Anxiety was then measured with the Personal Report of Confidence as a Performer Scale and the S-Anxiety scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Between pre- and post-tests, the virtual training group took part in virtual reality exposure training consisting of six 1-hour long sessions of virtual exposure. The results indicate a significant decrease in performance anxiety for musicians in the treatment group for those with a high level of state anxiety, for those with a high level of trait anxiety, for women, and for musicians with high immersive tendencies. Finally, between the pre- and post-tests, we observed a significant increase in performance quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group.

  7. The Relationship between Coaches' and Athletes' Competitive Anxiety,and their Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Mahmoodreza; Atarodi, Alireza; Rohani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches' and athletes' competitive anxiety, and their performance. This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches' anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches' anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes' competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. None.

  8. Post-Event Processing and Memory Bias for Performance Feedback in Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite predictions following from cognitive theories of anxiety, evidence for memory biases in social anxiety has been mixed. This study extends previous research by using stimuli relevant to participants’ concerns and allowing time for post-event processing. Participants high (n = 42) or low (n = 39) in social anxiety symptoms gave speeches and received standardized feedback on their and a confederate’s performance. Participants then took recognition and recall tests for the feedback immediately after it was given and after a two-day delay. Results showed no recall biases. However, the hypothesized recognition biases were found: the high social anxiety group remembered the confederate’s feedback more positively than their own, remembered their negative feedback as worse than the low group, and diminished positive feedback over time. Moreover, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety and memory for negative feedback. Results suggest that biased recognition of social feedback is linked to social anxiety. PMID:20399601

  9. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p academic performance (β = .38; p academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.

  10. Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…

  11. Effects of Aromatherapy on Test Anxiety and Performance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Jocelyn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety is a complex, multidimensional construct composed of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that have been shown to negatively affect test performance. Furthermore, test anxiety is a pervasive problem in modern society largely related to the evaluative nature of educational programs, therefore meriting study of its nature,…

  12. Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Listening Performance: Conceptualizations and Causal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian

    2013-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to explore the possible causal relations between foreign language (English) listening anxiety and English listening performance. Three hundred participants learning English as a foreign language (FL) completed the foreign language listening anxiety scale (FLLAS) and IELTS test twice with an interval of…

  13. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  14. Music Performance Anxiety: An Overview of Technological Advances in Therapy, Psychopharmacology & Bio-Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, John

    Incidence of anxiety among musicians has been investigated mostly among classical players and music students. This paper determines that any intervention requires a comprehensive understanding of the primary problem. The presentation of music performance anxiety varies from individual to individual with many possible sources of origin as well as…

  15. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  16. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  17. The chicken or the egg? The direction of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eCarey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory, or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model. The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory, in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  18. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szücs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory), in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  19. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  20. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  1. Attentional Control Buffers the Effect of Public Speaking Anxiety on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety.

  2. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, panxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, pcognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  3. Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacob J; Lounsbury, John W

    2011-01-01

    To examine the Big Five personality traits and performance anxiety in relation to marching arts satisfaction. Data were collected from 278 instrumentalists (i.e., brass players and percussionists) and color guard performers (e.g., dancers) representing six world class drum and bugle corps. PARTICIPANTS completed three measures: the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory was used to measure the Big Five personality factors: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness; the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire - used to assess somatic and cognitive symptoms of performance anxiety; and the Marching Arts Satisfaction - used to assess for the physical, social, and contextual environments of drum and bugle corps. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed concurrent relationships between the Big Five and performance anxiety with satisfaction. A linear combination of the Big Five traits and Performance Anxiety accounted for 36% of the total variance in satisfaction, with Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Performance Anxiety contributing significant unique variance. The findings of the present study suggest that performers who are extraverted, conscientious, and effective at managing general stress - and performance stress in particular - find a greater sense of satisfaction with their participation in world class drum and bugle corps.

  4. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  5. Neural Correlates of Choking Under Pressure: Athletes High in Sports Anxiety Monitor Errors More When Performance Is Being Evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Maruo, Yuya; Meyer, Alexandria; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between performance-related anxiety and the neural response to errors. Using the sport anxiety scale, we selected university athletes high in sports anxiety and low in sports anxiety. The two groups performed a spatial Stroop task while their performance was being evaluated by an experimenter and also during a control (i.e., no evaluation) condition. The error-related negativity was significantly larger during the evaluation than control condition among athletes who reported high performance-related anxiety. These results suggest that performance evaluation may make errors particularly aversive or salient for individuals who fail to perform well under pressure.

  6. Effects of a motivational climate inntervention for coaches on young athletes' sport performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-02-01

    The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes'cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.

  7. Anxiety and verbal memory performance in APOE-4 carriers and noncarriers aged 50 years and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Ashley R; Miller, Karen J; Pollard, Karen; Kim, Jeanne; Kravitz, Jena; Small, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Aims The current study sought to explore the relationship between state and trait anxiety and delayed verbal memory performance in APOE-4 carriers and noncarriers who were aged 50 years and above. Materials & methods The study was a retrospective analysis of 267 participants aged 50 years and above who had completed genetic testing for APOE status, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that included three delayed verbal memory measures (Wechsler Memory Scale – 3rd Edition, Logical Memory and Verbal Pairs subtests and the Buschke Selective Reminding Test). Results An inverse relationship was found between state anxiety and delayed verbal memory performance. No difference in level of anxiety was found between APOE-4 carriers versus noncarriers. Conclusion State anxiety, but not trait anxiety, was found to have an inverse relationship with delayed verbal memory performance. For example, as self-reported state anxiety increased, delayed verbal memory scores decreased. This relationship did not appear to be influenced by the presence or absence of the APOE-4 allele. PMID:22905036

  8. When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (ΔR(2) .07, p .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (β = -.35, p < .05) and positively related to test performance in those with high WMC (β = .49, p < .01). The results of this study suggest that WMC moderates the relationship between anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The influence of gate start position on physical performance and anxiety perception in expert BMX athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Martinent, Guillaume; Levêque, Lucie; MacIntyre, Tadhg; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2018-02-01

    The critical importance of the start phase in bicycle motocross (BMX) racing is increasingly acknowledged. Past experiments underlined that the internal lane of the starting gate provides a strong positional advantage. However, how lane position affects start performance and cognitive and somatic state anxiety remains unexplored. We examined the start performance and anxiety responses of youth national-level BMX riders in both experimental and ecological contexts. We used contextualization motor imagery routines to evaluate start performance and state anxiety from the internal and external lanes. Cycle ergometer measures revealed a better start performance from the external lane, but we did not record any lane effect on actual gate start times. Both somatic and cognitive anxiety scores were higher before racing from the internal compared to the external lane. Finally, state anxiety (i.e., somatic anxiety, worry and concentration disruptions) negatively predicted the start performance. Present findings provide original insights on psychological factors involved in BMX start performance, and might contribute to fruitful coping interventions and training programmes in sports overlapping the framework of "handicap races" taking the specific form of positional advantages/disadvantages at the start (e.g., ski/snowboard cross, athletics, swimming, motorsports, etc.).

  10. An exploration of pre-performance routines, self-efficacy, anxiety and performance in semi-professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Jonathan; Cotterill, Stewart T; Hill, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Whilst much research has suggested a positive link between pre-performance routines (PPRs) and performance, the specific mechanisms of the process have yet to be understood fully. It has been suggested that the PPR may influence performance through lowering the athlete's anxiety, and/or increasing their self-efficacy, but to date this has not specifically been explored in detail. As a result the aim of the current study was to explore the impact of specific individualised PPRs on performance, anxiety and self-efficacy in semi-professional soccer players. Participants were 20 male semi-professional soccer players (M = 19.45, SD = 2.81) recruited from clubs in England. Adopting a repeated measure design, players were tested on performance, anxiety, and self-efficacy pre- and post a 7-day intervention period in which the participants learnt a new PPR. The data were analysed using factorial mixed measures analysis of variance (ANOVAs), with the results revealing a significant difference in somatic anxiety for the experimental group and a decrease in performance for the control group. The study provides further support for the suggestion that the PPR can enhance performance by reducing experiences of anxiety prior to performance.

  11. Perceived control of anxiety and its relationship to self-confidence and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, Sheldon; Connaughton, Declan

    2002-03-01

    This study examined performers' retrospective explanations of the relationship between anxiety symptoms, self-confidence, and performance. Interviews were used to determine how the presence of symptoms and the accompanying directional interpretation affected performance in six elite and six subelite swimmers. Causal networks revealed that perceived control was the moderatingfactor in the directional interpretation of anxiety and not the experience of anxiety symptoms alone. Symptoms perceived to be under control were interpreted to have facilitative consequences for performance; however, symptoms not under control were viewed as debilitative. Increases or decreases in self-confidence wereperceived to improve or lower performance. Findings reveal how cognitive and somatic information was processed, what strategies were adopted, and how this series of events related to performance.

  12. Effects of Self-Handicapping Strategies on Anxiety Before Athletic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Coudevylle , Guillaume ,; Martin Ginis , Kathleen; Famose , Jean-Pierre; Gernigon , Christophe

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of the present experiment was to examine whether the use of self-handicapping strategies influences participants' anxiety levels before athletic performance. Seventy-one competitive basketball players participated in the study. A repeated measures design was used, such that state cognitive and somatic anxiety intensity and direction were measured before and after participants were given the opportunity to self-handicap. Overall, participants reported their ...

  13. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety : An investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  14. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety - social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  15. A further test of the inverted-U hypothesis relating achievement anxiety and academic test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, S C; Costello, C T; Korabik, K

    1975-01-01

    The assumption that the inverted-U hypothesis, which shows performance as a function of activation level, mediates the relationship between achievement anxiety and academic test performance was tested by comparing Achievement Anxiety Test scores of 75 male and female college students with a self-report measure of activation taken prior to a classroom examination. Results supported the predicted relationship between achievement anxiety reaction type and academic performance (rho less than .05), but only partially supported the inverted-U hypothesis posited to account for this relationship. Results were further interpreted as suggesting that examinees experience two general types of arousal in the testing situationōne type that enhances performance and one that impedes performance. Further implications of the results were discussed.

  16. Are Dieting and Dietary Inadequacy a Second Hit in the Association with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Laven, Joop S E; Labee, Chantal T; Louwers, Yvonne V; Willemsen, Sten P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the diet is of increasing importance for the development and maturation of the ovarian follicles. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) healthy dietary interventions improve the clinical spectrum. We hypothesized that dieting and diet inadequacy in the reproductive life course is associated with impaired programming of ovarian follicles and contributes to the severity of the PCOS phenotype. To determine associations between the use of a self-initiated diet and diet inadequacy and the severity of the PCOS phenotype, we performed an explorative nested case control study embedded in a periconception cohort of 1,251 patients visiting the preconception outpatient clinic. 218 patients with PCOS and 799 subfertile controls were selected from the cohort and self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were obtained. The Preconception Dietary Risk Score (PDR score), based on the Dutch dietary guidelines, was used to determine diet inadequacy in all women. The PDR score was negatively associated to cobalamin, serum and red blood cell folate and positively to tHcy. PCOS patients (19.9%), in particular the hyperandrogenic (HA) phenotype (22.5%) reported more often the use of a self-initiated diet than controls (13.1%; p = 0.023). The use of an inadequate diet was also significantly higher in PCOS than in controls (PDR score 3.7 vs 3.5; p = 0.017) and every point increase was associated with a more than 1.3 fold higher risk of the HA phenotype (adjusted OR 1.351, 95% CI 1.09-1.68). Diet inadequacy was independently associated with the anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) concentration (β 0.084; p = 0.044; 95% CI 0.002 to 0.165) and free androgen index (β 0.128; p = 0.013; 95% CI 0.028 to 0.229) in PCOS patients. The use of a self-initiated diet and diet inadequacy is associated with PCOS, in particular with the severe HA phenotype. This novel finding substantiated by the association between diet inadequacy and AMH needs further

  17. Are Dieting and Dietary Inadequacy a Second Hit in the Association with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Huijgen

    Full Text Available The composition of the diet is of increasing importance for the development and maturation of the ovarian follicles. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS healthy dietary interventions improve the clinical spectrum. We hypothesized that dieting and diet inadequacy in the reproductive life course is associated with impaired programming of ovarian follicles and contributes to the severity of the PCOS phenotype.To determine associations between the use of a self-initiated diet and diet inadequacy and the severity of the PCOS phenotype, we performed an explorative nested case control study embedded in a periconception cohort of 1,251 patients visiting the preconception outpatient clinic. 218 patients with PCOS and 799 subfertile controls were selected from the cohort and self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were obtained. The Preconception Dietary Risk Score (PDR score, based on the Dutch dietary guidelines, was used to determine diet inadequacy in all women. The PDR score was negatively associated to cobalamin, serum and red blood cell folate and positively to tHcy. PCOS patients (19.9%, in particular the hyperandrogenic (HA phenotype (22.5% reported more often the use of a self-initiated diet than controls (13.1%; p = 0.023. The use of an inadequate diet was also significantly higher in PCOS than in controls (PDR score 3.7 vs 3.5; p = 0.017 and every point increase was associated with a more than 1.3 fold higher risk of the HA phenotype (adjusted OR 1.351, 95% CI 1.09-1.68. Diet inadequacy was independently associated with the anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH concentration (β 0.084; p = 0.044; 95% CI 0.002 to 0.165 and free androgen index (β 0.128; p = 0.013; 95% CI 0.028 to 0.229 in PCOS patients.The use of a self-initiated diet and diet inadequacy is associated with PCOS, in particular with the severe HA phenotype. This novel finding substantiated by the association between diet inadequacy and AMH needs

  18. Exploratory Study on the Impact of Information on Performance Psychology on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian Music Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of information on psychology of music on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian students of music performance, both undergraduate and graduate, and cross information on their levels of stress and anxiety. It includes an investigation on curricular programs of Brazilian public universities based on previous investigation by the authors (RAY; et al, 2011. The main goals: 1 to investigate how much information Brazilian music performance students has access to access during their courses; and 2 to identify potential indicators of the impact this information may have on the levels of stress and anxiety in the performances of these students; Methodology:  Students from six Brazilian public universities were requested to fill out three forms: the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI; the Inventory of Stress Symptoms LIPP and an additional form that investigated the participants routine for preparation to performance. Results: information on music performance psychology is only presented privately at teacher’s discretion. As compulsory classes have not been included in the curriculum, it was not possible to infer results on this subject. More than half of the participants (51,72% don’t present stress condition. Almost half of them (48,27% have some level of stress. All participants fit within some level of anxiety.

  19. The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance of Students in Vital Statistics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test anxiety is a common phenomenon among students and is one of the problems of educational system. The present study was conducted to investigate the test anxiety in vital statistics course and its association with academic performance of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This study was descriptive-analytical and the study sample included the students studying in nursing and midwifery, paramedicine and health faculties that had taken vital statistics course and were selected through census method. Sarason questionnaire was used to analyze the test anxiety. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated no significant correlation between test anxiety and score of vital statistics course.

  20. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Police arrest and self-defence skills: performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.

  2. Arousal, anxiety, and performance: a reexamination of the Inverted-U hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Shawn M; Landers, Daniel M

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, the traditional Inverted-U hypothesis had been the primary model used by sport psychologists to describe the arousal-performance relationship. However, many sport psychology researchers have challenged this relationship, and the current trend is a shift toward a more "multidimensional" view of arousal-anxiety and its effects on performance. In the current study, 104 college-age participants performed a simple response time task while riding a bicycle ergometer. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight arousal groups (between 20 and 90% of heart rate reserve) and were told they were competing for a cash prize. Prior to the task, the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to assess the influence of cognitive and somatic anxiety. As hypothesized, regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic trend for arousal and reaction time. This accounted for 13.2% of the variance, F change (1, 101) = 15.10, p performance beyond that accounted for by the nonsignificant linear trend. As predicted by the Inverted-U hypothesis, optimal performance on the simple task was seen at 60 and 70% of maximum arousal. Furthermore, for the simple task used in this study, only somatic anxiety as measured by the SAS accounted for significant variance in performance beyond that accounted for by arousal alone. These findings support predictions of the Inverted-U hypothesis and raise doubts about the utility theories that rely on differentiation of cognitive and somatic anxiety to predict performance on simple tasks that are not cognitively loaded.

  3. Global and local evaluations of public speaking performance in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Meghan W; Teachman, Bethany A

    2011-12-01

    Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest vs. the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n=43) or low (n=47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self-assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self- and experimenter assessments again after 3 days, in addition to a measure of postevent processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the High SA group rated their performance more negatively than the Low SA group. Moreover, the High SA group's ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the Low SA group's ratings. As expected, postevent processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facial Recognition of Happiness Is Impaired in Musicians with High Music Performance Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alini Daniéli Viana Sabino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMusic performance anxiety (MPA can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER between musicians with high and low MPA.Methods150 amateur and professional musicians with different musical backgrounds were assessed in respect to their level of MPA and completed a dynamic FER task. The outcomes investigated were accuracy, response time, emotional intensity, and response bias.ResultsMusicians with high MPA were less accurate in the recognition of happiness (p = 0.04; d = 0.34, had increased response bias toward fear (p = 0.03, and increased response time to facial emotions as a whole (p = 0.02; d = 0.39.ConclusionMusicians with high MPA displayed FER deficits that were independent of general anxiety levels and possibly of general cognitive capacity. These deficits may favor the maintenance and exacerbation of experiences of anxiety during public performance, since cues of approval, satisfaction, and encouragement are not adequately recognized.

  6. Facial Recognition of Happiness Is Impaired in Musicians with High Music Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Alini Daniéli Viana; Camargo, Cristielli M; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Osório, Flávia L

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA. 150 amateur and professional musicians with different musical backgrounds were assessed in respect to their level of MPA and completed a dynamic FER task. The outcomes investigated were accuracy, response time, emotional intensity, and response bias. Musicians with high MPA were less accurate in the recognition of happiness ( p  = 0.04; d  = 0.34), had increased response bias toward fear ( p  = 0.03), and increased response time to facial emotions as a whole ( p  = 0.02; d  = 0.39). Musicians with high MPA displayed FER deficits that were independent of general anxiety levels and possibly of general cognitive capacity. These deficits may favor the maintenance and exacerbation of experiences of anxiety during public performance, since cues of approval, satisfaction, and encouragement are not adequately recognized.

  7. The association of anxiety, depression, and worry symptoms on cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, Alyssa; Calamia, Matthew; Greening, Steven; Roye, Scott

    2017-12-20

    Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between the cognitive aspects of anxiety (e.g. worry) and cognitive decline in older adults. The current study examined the association between anxiety, depressive, and worry symptoms on cognitive performance. Participants were 156 older adults enrolled in the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample Study (NKI-RS).  Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to determine the unique associations of anxiety, depressive, and worry symptoms on cognitive performance as measured by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (Penn CNB), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Worry symptoms were a significant predictor of Penn CNB social cognition, complex cognition, executive function, and episodic memory performance as well as RAVLT immediate and short-delay recall, but not of D-KEFS performance or RAVLT long-delay recall. In contrast, anxiety and depressive symptoms had few unique associations with cognitive performance. Given that worry symptoms have a negative impact on many aspects of neurocognitive performance, they may have utility in predicting and preventing cognitive decline in older adults.

  8. Effects of Cognitive Interventions on Sports Anxiety and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M.; Woolfolk, Robert L.

    Oxendine (1970) hypothesized that the arousal-performance relationship varies across tasks, such that gross motor activities will require high arousal for optimal performance while fine motor activities will be facilitated by low arousal, but adversely affected by high arousal. Although the effects of preparatory arousal on strength performance…

  9. Music Performance Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms and Coping Strategies for Flute Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Sinico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the causes, symptoms and coping strategies used by undergraduate flute students from three universalities in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety (MPA during jury recitals. The data collection and analysis procedures used were similar to a study by Siw Nielsen (1999, i.e., recital participant behavioral observation and verbal reports using semi-structured interviews. Both procedures were recorded in audio and video. As a result, the study highlights sixteen causes, nineteen symptoms, and eighteen strategies used by flute students to cope with MPA. Anxiety among the participants was constantly present to a greater or lesser degree. Its main cause was the repertoire for solo flute; nervousness was the symptom most reported by the participants; and positive self-talk was the most used coping strategy. The research concluded that, since anxiety is an inherent emotion in performing music, musicians must use a broad range of strategies—before and during the performance—to thoroughly deal with the causes and symptoms of anxiety. The article also highlights the importance of music professors in knowing the causes of MPA and its symptoms so that they can plan a strategy consistent with the needs of their students that will help them cope with the negative effects of anxiety.

  10. Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T

    2008-12-01

    The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.

  11. Attachment anxiety benefits from security priming: Evidence from working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ahu; Harma, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the attachment dimensions (anxious vs. avoidance) and the cognitive performance of individuals, specifically whether the attachment dimensions would predict the working memory (WM) performance. In the n-back task, reflecting the WM capacity, both attachment related and non-attachment related words were used. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups that received either the secure or the neutral subliminal priming. In the secure priming condition, the aim was to induce sense of security by presenting secure attachment words prior to the n-back task performance. In neutral priming condition, neutral words that did not elicit sense of security were presented. Structural equation modeling revealed divergent patterns for attachment anxiety and avoidance dimensions under the different priming conditions. In neutral priming condition, WM performance declined in terms of capacity in the n-back task for individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. However in the secure priming condition, WM performance was boosted in the n-back task for individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. In other words, the subliminal priming of the security led to increased WM capacity of individuals who rated higher levels of attachment anxiety. This effect, however, was not observed for higher levels of attachment avoidance. Results are discussed along the lines of hyperactivation and deactivation strategies of the attachment system.

  12. Emotion and affect in mental imagery: Do fear and anxiety manipulate mental rotation performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eKaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of fear as a basic emotion on mental rotation performance. We expected that the emotional arousal evoked by fearful stimuli presented prior to each mental rotation trial would enhance mental rotation performance. Regarding the influence of anxiety, high anxious participants are supposed to show slower responses and higher error rates in this specific visuo-spatial ability. Furthermore, with respect to the embodied cognition viewpoint we wanted to investigate if the influence of fear on mental rotation performance is the same for egocentric and object-based transformations. Results show that fear enhances mental rotation performance, expressed by a higher mental rotation speed. Interestingly, this influence is stimulus-specific: it is restricted to egocentric transformations. Both observation of emotional stimuli and egocentric strategies are associated with left hemisphere activation which could explain a stronger influence on this type of transformation during observation. Another possible notion is the conceptual link between visuo-spatial perspective taking and empathy based on the co-activation of parietal areas. Stronger responses in egocentric transformations could result from this specific link. Regarding the influence of anxiety, participants with high scores on the trait-anxiety scale showed poor results in both reaction time and mental rotation speed. Findings of impoverished recruitment of prefrontal attentional control in patients with high scores in trait anxiety could be the explanation for this reduced performance.

  13. Performance anxiety and academic success level examination of students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gürşen Otacıoğlu, Sena

    2016-01-01

    Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306). Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004) a...

  14. Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)…

  15. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  16. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  17. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  18. Somatic Complaints in Children with Anxiety Disorders and Their Unique Prediction of Poorer Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Lourea-Waddell, Brittany; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine somatic complaints in children with anxiety disorders compared to non-anxious control children and whether somatic complaints predict poorer academic performance. The sample consisted of 108 children and adolescents (aged 8-14 years) assessed by a structured diagnostic interview: 69 with a principal (i.e., most…

  19. Mathematics Motivation, Anxiety, and Performance in Female Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariapooran, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss can be a major detriment to academic achievement among students. The present comparative study examines the differences in mathematics motivation, anxiety, and performance in female students with hearing loss and their hearing peers. A total of 63 female students with hearing loss (deaf and hard-of-hearing) and 63 hearing female…

  20. Adaptive Appraisals of Anxiety Moderate the Association between Cortisol Reactivity and Performance in Salary Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ilona; Mor, Shira; Morris, Michael W.; Crum, Alia J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stress can be harmful in high-stakes contexts such as negotiations. However, few studies actually measure stress physiologically during negotiations, nor do studies offer interventions to combat the potential negative effects of heightened physiological responses in negotiation contexts. In the current research, we offer evidence that the negative effects of cortisol increases on negotiation performance can be reduced through a reappraisal of anxiety manipulation. We experimentally induced adaptive appraisals by randomly assigning 97 male and female participants to receive either instructions to appraise their anxiety as beneficial to the negotiation or no specific instructions on how to appraise the situation. We also measured participants’ cortisol responses prior to and following the negotiation. Results revealed that cortisol increases were positively related to negotiation performance for participants who were told to view anxiety as beneficial, and not detrimental, for negotiation performance (appraisal condition). In contrast, cortisol increases were negatively related to negotiation performance for participants given no instructions on appraising their anxiety (control condition). These findings offer a means through which to combat the potentially deleterious effects of heightened cortisol reactivity on negotiation outcomes. PMID:27992484

  1. Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Anxiety, Performance and Personal Outcomes of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktag, Isil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the computer self-efficacy, performance outcome, personal outcome, and affect and anxiety level of physical education teachers. Influence of teaching experience, computer usage and participation of seminars or in-service programs on computer self-efficacy level were determined. The subjects of this study…

  2. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory, and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria C; Caviola, Sara; De Agostini, Ruggero; Perin, Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) has been defined as "a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations." Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM) also plays an important part in such anxious feelings. The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA) and low math anxiety (LMA). Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information) than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  3. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara ePassolunghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety (MA has been defined as a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations. Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM also plays an important part in such anxious feelings.The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA and low math anxiety (LMA. Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  4. Performance Anxiety and Academic Success Level Examination of Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena GÜRŞEN OTACIOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306. Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004 and adopted to Turkish in order to measure “music performance anxiety level” were used in study. Research data, frequency percentage (% of variables (f and (ss values given for M.P.A inventory, “one-way analysis of variance”, independent (unrelated group t-test, M.W.U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. At the end of the research it was determined that there was negative relation between “musical performance anxiety” and “academic success” levels.

  5. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    the causal relationship between these constructs. Knowledge from such studies is important in order to improve the understanding of why SAD is such a disabling disorder, both educationally and interpersonally, and could assist in the planning and evaluation of psychotherapeutic treatment. Read More: http...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  6. Mood and Performance Anxiety in High School Basketball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Steffen J; Winner, Rachel K; McCutchan, Holly; Beaudoin, Christina C; Judge, Lawrence W; Jones, Lani M; Leitzelar, Brianna; Hoover, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Participation in competitive sport may impact psychological measures, such as mood and performance anxiety, which in turn may impact enjoyment, adherence, continued participation, and so on. This study assessed the feasibility - in terms of process, resources, management, and potential scientific value- of measuring the effect of varying competitive challenges upon the mood and performance anxiety measures of high school athletes. The participants (n=12) consisted of the boys' varsity basketball team at a high school in a rural Midwestern community. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess mood and the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) to assess performance anxiety, respectively. Survey administration occurred at baseline and prior to games designated as non-conference , conference , and state tournament . A-priori feasibility measures were achieved in this prospective design. Significant correlations on the subscale measures were found on the POMS and SAS-2 administered before the four conditions in this study; Chronbach's alpha ranged from 0.54-0.94 across conditions for POMS subscales, and Chronbach's alpha ranged from 0.73-0.97 across all conditions for SAS-2 subscales, respectively. Significant differences were found across conditions in the POMS subscale confusion [ F (3,33) = 5.71, p = 0.01] and in the SAS-2 subscale worry [ F (3,33) = 6.13, p =0.01]. These preliminary findings suggest that the competitive conditions in this study significantly affected some measures of mood and performance anxiety in high school basketball players. These findings warrant further investigation, as well as suggest coaches could gather such information from their players, ultimately aiding in player development and team performance.

  7. Anxiety and Depression in Academic Performance: An Exploration of the Mediating Factors of Worry and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Norgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are linked to lower academic performance. It is proposed that academic performance is reduced in young people with high levels of anxiety or depression as a function of increased test-specific worry that impinges on working memory central executive processes. Participants were typically developing children (12 to…

  8. Police arrest and self-defence skills: Performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were

  9. Second Language Writing Anxiety, Computer Anxiety, and Performance in a Classroom versus a Web-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracopoulos, Effie; Pichette, François

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that involved distance learning. Contrary to previous…

  10. Imagery-Based Interventions for Music Performance Anxiety: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Katherine; Moscovitch, David A

    2016-12-01

    Many musicians experience debilitating music performance anxiety (MPA). Outside music performance, imagery-based interventions have been incorporated into treatment protocols to help individuals, including athletes and those with social anxiety, manage heightened levels of anxiety in order to excel in performance-based domains. Despite the frequent use of mental imagery in MPA interventions and its importance as a mental rehearsal technique for musicians, no existing reviews have examined the literature on imagery-based interventions for MPA. The primary aim of this review was to analyze the existing MPA literature in order to summarize what is known about the efficacy and mechanisms of pre-performance mental imagery exercises. A literature search yielded eight studies that used imagery-based interventions for MPA, in both student and professional musicians, which included three dissertations and five peer-reviewed journal articles. In extant MPA treatment research, pre-performance imagery is often used in conjunction with other techniques in order to alleviate anxiety. Arousal imagery refers to imagining one's state of arousal during performance and has been incorporated into MPA interventions in various ways that guide musicians to anticipate the heightened arousal that accompanies performance, predominantly through imagery-based relaxation techniques. However, methodological limitations make it impossible to determine whether imagery is itself an active ingredient of treatment that underlies symptom changes, or whether relaxation imagery is the most effective use of pre-performance imagery for all musicians. There is much need for future well-controlled studies to examine whether and how imagery affects MPA independent of the other therapy components and techniques with which it is commonly combined.

  11. Predictive validity of a three-dimensional model of performance anxiety in the context of tae-kwon-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Nuan Kara; Hardy, Lew; Woodman, Tim

    2011-02-01

    We tested the predictive validity of the recently validated three-dimensional model of performance anxiety (Chang, Hardy, & Markland, 2009) with elite tae-kwon-do competitors (N = 99). This conceptual framework emphasized the adaptive potential of anxiety by including a regulatory dimension (reflected by perceived control) along with the intensity-oriented dimensions of cognitive and physiological anxiety. Anxiety was assessed 30 min before a competitive contest using the Three-Factor Anxiety Inventory. Competitors rated their performance on a tae-kwon-do-specific performance scale within 30 min after completion of their contest. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed initial support for the predictive validity of the three-dimensional performance anxiety model. The regulatory dimension of anxiety (perceived control) revealed significant main and interactive effects on performance. This dimension appeared to be adaptive, as performance was better under high than low perceived control, and best vs. worst performance was associated with highest vs. lowest perceived control, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of the regulatory dimension of anxiety.

  12. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch Performed During Cataract Surgery on Anxiety and Patient Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the ef­fect of therapeutic touch (TT on anxiety and patient satis­faction when performed during a cataract surgery. Methods: A randomized controlled trial sample consisted of 114 individuals, 57 in the intervention group and 57 controls, who were hospitalized for cataract surgery and who conformed to the study criteria. Prior to the study approval was obtained from the ethics committee and informed consent was given by the patients. Data was collected using a personal information form, a visual analogue scale (VAS to measure anxiety, the Spielberg State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Care Scale (NSNCS. During the surgery, patients in the intervention group received a 15-minute session of TT. Results: In the intervention group, patients’ mean VAS anxiety score after TT was 3.56±1.85, while that of the control group in the 15th minute of the operation was 8,88±1,50. It was found that anxiety levels were reduced in the intervention group after TT compared with the con­trol group, and that vital signs were affected positively. NSNCS scores of patients in the intervention group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: It was observed that TT applied during sur­gery reduced anxiety, affected vital signs positively and increased patent satisfaction. The application of TT dur­ing surgery is recommended. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 52-62

  13. The fourth dimension: A motoric perspective on the anxiety-performance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Howie J; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on raising concern that anxiety-performance relationship theory has insufficiently catered for motoric issues during, primarily, closed and self-paced skill execution (e.g., long jump and javelin throw). Following a review of current theory, we address the under-consideration of motoric issues by extending the three-dimensional model put forward by Cheng, Hardy, and Markland (2009) ('Toward a three-dimensional conceptualization of performance anxiety: Rationale and initial measurement development, Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 10 , 271-278). This fourth dimension, termed skill establishment , comprises the level and consistency of movement automaticity together with a performer's confidence in this specific process, as providing a degree of robustness against negative anxiety effects. To exemplify this motoric influence, we then offer insight regarding current theories' misrepresentation that a self-focus of attention toward an already well-learned skill always leads to a negative performance effect. In doing so, we draw upon applied literature to distinguish between positive and negative self-foci and suggest that on what and how a performer directs their attention is crucial to the interaction with skill establishment and, therefore, performance. Finally, implications for skill acquisition research are provided. Accordingly, we suggest a positive potential flow from applied/translational to fundamental/theory-generating research in sport which can serve to freshen and usefully redirect investigation into this long-considered but still insufficiently understood concept.

  14. Association between quality of life and anxiety, depression, physical activity and physical performance in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients often have impaired quality of life (QOL, anxiety, depression, and reduced daily physical activity (DPA and physical performance. The contributions of these latter factors to reduced QOL in MHD are poorly understood. We examined the association of QOL with anxiety, depression, DPA, and physical performance. Methods: Seventy-two relatively healthy adult MHD patients, vintage ≥6 months, and 39 normals of similar age range and gender distribution were studied. QOL was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF. Anxiety and depression were each evaluated with two questionnaires. DPA and physical performance were assessed with a physical activity monitor, Human Activity Profile, and 6-minute walk, sit-to-stand, and stair-climbing tests. Results: Most KDQOL components were reduced in MHD patients versus normals. KDQOL components in patients were commonly inversely correlated with measures of anxiety and depression (P < 0.05 and were more reduced in patients with both anxiety and depression. KDQOL was often impaired in patients with either anxiety or depression. However, most KDQOL scores did not differ between patients and normals without anxiety or depression. DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical performance often correlated with KDQOL scores in adjusted models, but after further adjustment for anxiety and depression, DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical performance correlated less frequently with KDQOL scores. This reduction in significant correlations after adjustment for anxiety and depression was particularly pronounced for the association between KDQOL and DPA. Conclusion: In relatively healthy MHD patients, KDQOL scores are usually decreased in those with anxiety and/or depression but are usually normal in those without anxiety or depression. Lower DPA in MHD patients with reduced KDQOL scores often appears to be associated with anxiety and

  15. [The inadequacy of official classification of work accidents in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2018-02-19

    Traditionally, work accidents in Brazil have been categorized in government documents and legal and academic texts as typical work accidents and commuting accidents. Given the increase in urban violence and the increasingly precarious work conditions in recent decades, this article addresses the conceptual inadequacy of this classification and its implications for the underestimation of work accidents in the country. An alternative classification is presented as an example and a contribution to the discussion on the improvement of statistics on work-related injuries in Brazil.

  16. Better Cognitive Performance Is Associated With the Combination of High Trait Mindfulness and Low Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Jaiswal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several ways in which cognitive and neurophysiological parameters have been consistently used to explain the variability in cognitive ability between people. However, little has been done to explore how such cognitive abilities are influenced by differences in personality traits. Dispositional mindfulness and anxiety are two inversely linked traits that have been independently attributed to a range of cognitive functions. The current study investigated these two traits in combination along with measures of the attentional network, cognitive inhibition, and visual working memory (VWM capacity. A total of 392 prospective participants were screened to select two experimental groups each of 30 healthy young adults, with one having high mindfulness and low anxiety (HMLA and the second having low mindfulness and high anxiety (LMHA. The groups performed an attentional network task, a color Stroop task, and a change detection test of VWM capacity. Results showed that the HMLA group was more accurate than the LMHA group on the Stroop and change detection tasks. Additionally, the HMLA group was more sensitive in detecting changes and had a higher WMC than the LMHA group. This research adds to the literature that has investigated mindfulness and anxiety independently with a comprehensive investigation of the effects of these two traits in conjunction on executive function.

  17. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hahn

    Full Text Available During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter.A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors.Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment.Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  18. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henry; Kropp, Peter; Kirschstein, Timo; Rücker, Gernot; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter. A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors. Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment. Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  19. Turning workplace anger and anxiety into peak performance. Strategies for enhancing employee health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, D

    2001-08-01

    Traditional corporate approaches toward anger and anxiety in the workplace have ignored or exacerbated the problem. Human emotions are not only essential for job performance, they are a free resource that can be harnessed in ethical ways to enhance job productivity. Most of the causes and costs of workplace anger and anxiety can be prevented. In an ideal workplace, employees are internally motivated and self regulating because they are hired with care, placed in jobs serving them as well as the company, and supported with the required resources to accomplish their jobs. When companies treat employees with dignity and make efforts to empower them, employee self confidence and performance grows. Occupational and environmental health nurses are in positions to alter dysfunctional aspects of corporate culture while simultaneously working with individual employees who are angry or anxious. Successful companies are those that nurture their workers while achieving their mission. They treat employees with dignity and respect while challenging them to reach their full potential.

  20. Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahdooz Fariba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years. Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25, iron (OR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90, and zinc (OR = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94. A high percentage of women (>60%, regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

  1. Separate and Combined Effects of Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring in the Treatment of Musical Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Gladys Acevedo; Horan, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Music students with reactive and adaptive anxieties participated in a musical performance anxiety reduction program. Cue-controlled relaxation (CCR) and cognitive restructuring (CR) were examined separately and in combination in comparison with a standard treatment control condition. The CCR and CR treatments were each effective in reducing state…

  2. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

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    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  3. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study

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    Rafaela Behs Jarros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Methods: Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe. All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. Results: No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11. Conclusions: Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  4. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Toazza, Rudineia; Becker, Natália; Agranonik, Marilyn; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls) selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe). All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11). Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  5. Determinants of Work Performance in Workers with Depression and Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Ivana Ivandic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person’s life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP. In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211 and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Chile in 2015. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for all workers with anxiety or depression. Results differed with level of disability. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and discrimination were determinants of WP for persons with mild to moderate disability, while hindering aspects of the workplace and dwelling, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for persons with severe disability. Our results emphasize the need for a broader understanding of determinants of WP and the requirement for an integrative approach in developing both universal and specific strategies that go beyond workplace settings.

  6. A BRIEF NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE IN SCUBA DIVING IN ADOLESCENTS: A FIELD STUDY.

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    Steinberg, Fabian; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance of young individuals (N = 44; 16.9 yr., SD = 1.2) participating in an introductory scuba diving activity. The question was whether the well-known negative correlation between anxiety and scuba diving performance found for experienced and middle-aged scuba divers will be observed in young participants in their first dive experience. Diving instructors rated standardized scuba diving skills that were correlated with individual state and trait anxiety. There was no relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance, neither for state nor for trait anxiety. This non-significant correlation between anxiety and performance was in contrast to recent findings observed for experienced divers or those who participated at a scuba diving training program. Considering the differences in methodological design between this study and recent investigations, further research is needed to reveal possible relations between anxiety, scuba diving performance, and panic behavior in beginner-level youth or adults.

  7. The relationship between dorsolateral prefrontal activation and speech performance-based social anxiety using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Kuster, Anootnara T; Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Matteucci, Alyssa; Herbert, James D

    2017-06-01

    Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a promising new technology that has demonstrated utility in the study of normal human cognition. We utilized fNIR spectroscopy to examine the effect of social anxiety and performance on hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Socially phobic participants and non-clinical participants with varying levels of social anxiety completed a public speaking task in front of a small virtual audience while the DLPFC was being monitored by the fNIR device. The relationship between anxiety and both blood volume (BV) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly as a function of speech performance, such that individuals with low social anxiety who performed well showed an increase in DLPFC activation relative to those who did not perform well. This result suggests that effortful thinking and/or efficient top-down inhibitory control may have been required to complete an impromptu speech task with good performance. In contrast, good performers who were highly socially anxious showed lower DLPFC activation relative to good performers who were low in social anxiety, suggesting autopilot thinking or less-effortful thinking. In poor performers, slight increases in DLPFC activation were observed from low to highly anxious individuals, which may reflect a shift from effortless thinking to heightened self-focused attention. Heightened self-focused attention, poor inhibitory control resulting in excessive fear or anxiety, or low motivation may lower performance. These results suggest that there can be different underlying mechanisms in the brain that affect the level of speech performance in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety. This study highlights the utility of the fNIR device in the assessment of changes in DLPFC in response to exposure to realistic phobic stimuli, and further supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  8. Exploring the role of the DSM-5 performance-only specifier in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

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    Fuentes-Rodriguez, Gema; Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Garcia-Trujillo, Veronica

    2018-03-23

    The DSM-5 social anxiety disorder section has recently added the performance-only specifier for individuals whose anxiety is limited to speaking or performing in public. The impact of the DSM-5 performance-only specifier remains a neglected area. The sample comprised 44 healthy controls and 50 adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of SAD (20% met criteria for the performance-only specifier). Findings revealed that adolescents with the specifier had a later age of onset; lower levels of depression, social anxiety symptomatology and clinical severity; and a lesser degree of comorbidity relative to adolescents with SAD but excluding the performance-only specifier. Specifiers only evidenced higher (cognitive) social anxiety symptomatology compared to healthy controls. Results of this study also suggested that the performance-only specifier may correspond to a mild form of social anxiety disorder. Data also revealed that SAD exists on a continuum of severity among healthy controls, specifier participants, and those with both interactional and performance fears, which is consistent with a dimensional structure for SAD. Finally, findings suggested a unique comorbid pattern for specifiers and those adolescents with SAD but excluding the performance-only specifier. The implications of these findings for the etiology, assessment, classification, and treatment of social anxiety in youth are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of anxiety-inducing distraction on cognitive performance: a combined brain imaging and personality investigation.

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    Ekaterina Denkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous investigations revealed that the impact of task-irrelevant emotional distraction on ongoing goal-oriented cognitive processing is linked to opposite patterns of activation in emotional and perceptual vs. cognitive control/executive brain regions. However, little is known about the role of individual variations in these responses. The present study investigated the effect of trait anxiety on the neural responses mediating the impact of transient anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distraction on cognitive performance, and on the neural correlates of coping with such distraction. We investigated whether activity in the brain regions sensitive to emotional distraction would show dissociable patterns of co-variation with measures indexing individual variations in trait anxiety and cognitive performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Event-related fMRI data, recorded while healthy female participants performed a delayed-response working memory (WM task with distraction, were investigated in conjunction with behavioural measures that assessed individual variations in both trait anxiety and WM performance. Consistent with increased sensitivity to emotional cues in high anxiety, specific perceptual areas (fusiform gyrus--FG exhibited increased activity that was positively correlated with trait anxiety and negatively correlated with WM performance, whereas specific executive regions (right lateral prefrontal cortex--PFC exhibited decreased activity that was negatively correlated with trait anxiety. The study also identified a role of the medial and left lateral PFC in coping with distraction, as opposed to reflecting a detrimental impact of emotional distraction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide initial evidence concerning the neural mechanisms sensitive to individual variations in trait anxiety and WM performance, which dissociate the detrimental impact of emotion distraction and the engagement of mechanisms to cope with

  10. Performance Anxiety Disorder: Developing a Proposal for an Inventory, According to the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Rationale

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    George Varvatsoulias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial aims at the presentation of a proposal regarding an inventory about performance anxiety disorder in a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT framework. It provides some initial understanding as to that condition and how CBT could assist in the consideration of it counter to social anxiety disorder. At first, there is an introduction to performance anxiety in line to social anxiety/phobia and some questionnaires that have been developed which include performance anxiety as an element of social anxiety/phobia. Then, I am presenting the proposal, both in view to the rationale for that and the construction of an inventory with items drawn from elements that performance anxiety is related with, such as uneasiness about worry, self-focus issues of perfectionism and internal/external shame ideas. The statements in the inventory refer to hypothetical examples in life so inventory to be easily responded to, when administered to participants. This proposal closes with the conclusion that the questionnaire will be pilot-studied in the future by the author so the feasibility of it and/or possible changes to be considered when empirically studied.

  11. REMARKS ON THE PROFESSIONAL INADEQUACY IN THE LIGHT OF ARTICLE 61 LETTER D OF LABOR CODE

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    Monica Gheorghe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The herein study aims to clarify some confusions, that appear during the application and interpretation of the Labor code’s provisions regarding the dismissal for being professionally unfit established by Article 61 letter d of Labor Code. In the absence of an express definition of this notion in the Labor Code, the jurisprudence has shaped some landmarks regarding the professional inadequacy. In order to enclose this concept it is necessary to draw up an analysis of the norms regarding the conclusion of the individual employment contract by verifying the employee's personal and professional skills as well as those regarding the dismissal for being professionally unfit. In order to establish the professional inadequacy, obviously, one must also bear in mind the employee’s job description, which is necessary to be related with the employee’s individual professional performance objectives, as they are unilaterally determined by the employer. The second goal of this research concerns the procedure of professional assessment of the employee, the analysis having as objectives the ascertainment of the legal document that must embody this procedure, the way to conduct the procedure and the consequences brought by this professional assessment.

  12. A population study comparing screening performance of prototypes for depression and anxiety with standard scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be

  13. [Prevalence of performing and prescribing physical exercise in patients diagnosed with anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Martínez, Bibiana; Olaya Velázquez, Inés; Gómez Castro, María José

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical exercise practice in patients diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression. Cross-sectional, observational study. Sabugo and la Magdalena primary care centers in Avilés. Patients aged 18 to 75 years diagnosed with anxiety and/or depression, consumers of psychoactive drugs in the three months previous to the realization of the study. We selected 376 patients by simple random sampling stratified by health center, making them a telephone survey. Age, sex, physical exercise realization, type and duration of exercise, diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression, exercise prescription, prescriber health personnel and use of psychotropic medication. 294 participants (78.19% of selected) with a mean age of 55.33 years (55.32±12.53 SD) and 78.2% were female. 60.9% were diagnosed with anxiety, 59.5% with depression and 20.4% both diagnoses. 62.9% used antidepressants, benzodiazepines 76.9% and 39.79% both treatments. 58.5% (95%CI: 52.70-64.31) performed exercise of which 44.77% did it 3-5 times/week. The mean duration was 1.24h each time (95%CI: 0.53-1.96). The physical exercise was prescribed to the 59.18% (95%CI: 53.39-64.97); 90.23% by the family physician, 63.22% primary care nurse, 17.24% psychiatrist and 5.17% psychologist. The adherence to the prescription was 59.77% (95%CI: 52.20-67.34). The percentage of anxious and/or depressed patients who practiced exercise is similar to the general population but should be higher. The exercise prescription by health personnel is insufficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing of Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety Scale: ValidityReliability Study

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    Esra DALKIRAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is intended to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a onedimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.

  15. Predicting Anxiety Among Patients In LPU Clinical Dispensary During Dental Treatment: Towards Student’s Clinical Performance Enhancement

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    Maribel D. Mayuga-Barrion

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the respondents’ profile in terms of age, gender, frequency of dental visit, and type of patient whether dental phobic or not; to determine the dental anxiety of patients in LPU dental dispensary; to identify the causes and severity of anxiety of the patients in LPU dental dispensary; to determine if there is a significant difference between the respondents’ demographic profile and their level of anxiety; and lastly, to propose a program that will help the patients cope with dental anxiety and a program that will enhance the students’ clinical performance. The study used the descriptive research design with the combination of content analysis of documents and related materials. Results showed that majority of the respondents belonged to age range of 14-18 years old range whereas for gender or sex, majority who avail of the clinic’s services are males. This is because women are more afraid than men in terms of dental problems. Further, younger people are more afraid than older ones. The weighted mean distribution of the level of anxiety showed that the level of anxiety of patients varies on moderately to not anxious. Feeling or experiencing pain during dental treatment ranked first followed by the fear or worry of not working the proposed treatment and thirdly, the dentist is in a hurry while treating also made the patients moderately anxious. Overall, the level of anxiety of patients is moderately anxious. Probing to asses gum disease, dislike the numb feeling and injection were the top three causes of dental anxiety. Only type of patient shows significant difference, thus the null hypothesis of no significant difference on the level of anxiety when grouped according to profile variables is rejected. This means that the level of anxiety of both phobic and not phobic differs.

  16. The effects of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence on components of performance during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, G; Pates, J

    1999-05-01

    This study considered the influence of competitive anxiety and self-confidence state responses upon components of performance. Basketball players (n = 12) were trained to self-report their cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence as a single response on several occasions immediately before going on court to play. Performance was video-recorded and aspects of performance that could be characterized as requiring either largely anaerobic power (height jumped) or working memory (successful passes and assists) were measured. Intra-individual performance scores were computed from these measures and the data from seven matches were subjected to regression analyses and then hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that, as anticipated, somatic anxiety positively predicted performance that involved anaerobic demands. Self-confidence, and not cognitive anxiety, was the main predictor of performance scores with working memory demands. It would appear that different competitive state responses exert differential effects upon aspects of actual performance. Identifying these differences will be valuable in recommending intervention strategies designed to facilitate performance.

  17. Long term treadmill exercise performed to chronic social isolated rats regulate anxiety behavior without improving learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Ozge Selin; Sahin, Leyla; Tamer, Lulufer

    2018-05-01

    The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. Social isolation protocol was applied during 14 days by placing rat in a cage one by one. Rats were exercised during 5 days, days were chosen randomly for overall 4 weeks (20, 30, 50, 60 min respectively). Finally, learning performance was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Anxiety behavior was evaluated by Open field and elevated plus maze test. At the end of learning and behavior tests, the rats were decapitated to collect blood samples via intracardiac puncture and corticosterone analysis was performed with ELISA method. Animal weights and water consumption did not change significantly but food intake differed among groups. Corticosterone level did not change between groups. The frequency of entering to the target quadrant increased in exercised rat significantly. However, there was no difference in learning and memory in rats. Treadmill exercise reduced anxiety behavior significantly. Taken together these findings may point out that, long term treadmill exercise did not change learning and memory but reduced anxiety level of rat without changing corticosterone level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematolahi, Pouya; Mehrabani, Mitra; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral rosemary on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students. In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, the 68 participating students randomly received 500 mg rosemary and placebo twice daily for one month. Prospective and retrospective memory performance, depression, anxiety and sleep quality of the students were measured using Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory at baseline and after one month. The scores of all the scales and subscales except the sleep latency and sleep duration components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory were significantly decreased in the rosemary group in comparison with the control group after one month. Rosemary as a traditional herb could be used to boost prospective and retrospective memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve sleep quality in university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study.

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    Clarke, Samuel; Horeczko, Timothy; Cotton, Dale; Bair, Aaron

    2014-07-27

    High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants - and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting - remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents' self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 - 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 - 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 - 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 - 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P = 0.02). Simulation is associated with physiologic stress, and heart rate elevation alone

  20. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhongshe; Liu, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the students gen...

  1. Pre-simulation orientation for medical trainees: An approach to decrease anxiety and improve confidence and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommer, Cassidy; Sullivan, Sarah; Campbell, Krystle; Ahola, Zachary; Agarwal, Suresh; O'Rourke, Ann; Jung, Hee Soo; Gibson, Angela; Leverson, Glen; Liepert, Amy E

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the effect of basic orientation to the simulation environment on anxiety, confidence, and clinical decision making. Twenty-four graduating medical students participated in a two-week surgery preparatory curriculum, including three simulations. Baseline anxiety was assessed pre-course. Scenarios were completed on day 2 and day 9. Prior to the first simulation, participants were randomly divided into two groups. Only one group received a pre-simulation orientation. Before the second simulation, all students received the same orientation. Learner anxiety was reported immediately preceding and following each simulation. Confidence was assessed post-simulation. Performance was evaluated by surgical faculty. The oriented group experienced decreased anxiety following the first simulation (p = 0.003); the control group did not. Compared to the control group, the oriented group reported less anxiety and greater confidence and received higher performance scores following all three simulations (all p simulation orientation reduces anxiety while increasing confidence and improving performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social performance deficits in social anxiety disorder: reality during conversation and biased perception during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncken, Marisol J; Bögels, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive models emphasize that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are mainly characterized by biased perception of their social performance. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence showing that SAD patients suffer from actual deficits in social interaction. To unravel what characterizes SAD patients the most, underestimation of social performance (defined as the discrepancy between self-perceived and observer-perceived social performance), or actual (observer-perceived) social performance, 48 patients with SAD and 27 normal control participants were observed during a speech and conversation. Consistent with the cognitive model of SAD, patients with SAD underestimated their social performance relative to control participants during the two interactions, but primarily during the speech. Actual social performance deficits were clearly apparent in the conversation but not in the speech. In conclusion, interactions that pull for more interpersonal skills, like a conversation, elicit more actual social performance deficits whereas, situations with a performance character, like a speech, bring about more cognitive distortions in patients with SAD.

  3. Children's Achievement Strategies and Test Performance: The Role of Time Pressure, Evaluation Anxiety, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, James A.; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1986-01-01

    Examines how test anxiety affects children in certain evaluation situations and focuses on developing more valid and effective measurement procedures in school achievement testings. Third and fourth graders were divided into three anxiety groups and tested under time and no time pressures. Anxiety level, time pressure, and sex affected…

  4. Anxiety-performance relationships in climbing: a process-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, J.R.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Holsheimer, F.; Bakker, F.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Two experiments were conducted to investigate manifestations of anxiety at the subjective, physiological, and behavioural level of analysis. Design: In Experiment 1 we investigated the manifestations of state anxiety at the first two levels by comparing low- and high-anxiety conditions

  5. Music performance anxiety: a critical review of etiological aspects, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BEATRIZ BURIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music performance anxiety (MPA is understood as a sub-type of social anxiety and is characterised by fears of a musical presentation. Objective To carry out a critical literature review on clinical and etiological aspects, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment of MPA. Methods Electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Lilacs as well as specific periodicals were used based on the key-words symptoms, diagnosis, aetiology, perceived causes, coping strategies and treatment. Results MPA is highly prevalent among musicians (> 16%, regardless of culture and formation. Cognitive, behavioural and physiological factors are associated with the aetiology of MPA, including biological and psychological predispositions. In addition, one should highlight factors related to the individual, aspects related to tasks and musical situation as perceived causes and/or predictor variables of MPA. As for the coping strategies, one can also highlight the use of breathing/relaxing techniques, increased musical practice, use of homeopathy and substances without medical prescription. Discussion MPA is impacting in the musician’s life. Despite the increasing interest in its study, it is necessary to better understand this complex phenomenon, mainly in the therapeutic context, in addition to the publicising and offering of services for prevention and treatment of MPA.

  6. Cognition and performance: anxiety, mood and perceived exertion among Ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David; Chinnasamy, Camilla; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Noakes, Timothy; Micklewright, Dominic

    2011-11-01

    The authors examined the changing patterns of mood before and after an Ironman triathlon, and the relationships between expected performance outcomes, perception of effort and pacing. Twelve participants in the 2008 Ironman Austria triathlon competition were studied before, during and after the event. Each participant completed measures of mood, anxiety and perceived exertion, while pacing was calculated from official race timings at various points on the course. Positive correlations were found between distance covered and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during each of the individual disciplines, and also between RPE and the percentage of overall race time completed (r=0.826, panxiety was higher before the race compared with baseline measures. RPE followed a linear progression of RPE during each discipline followed by a re-setting of the perception of effort at the start of the next discipline. The increase in RPE for the entire event followed a linear increase. The linear decline in run pace is consistent with a recent model in which expected RPE is used to modulate pacing. Anxiety and mood responses of participants in this study indicate that the emotional response of athletes before and after ultra-endurance exercise is closely aligned with their conscious thoughts.

  7. PROVIDING ENGLISH LANGUAGE INPUT: DECREASING STUDENTS’ ANXIETY IN READING COMPREHENSION PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Yohana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary condition for successful in second or foreign language learning is providing an adequate environment. It is as a medium of increasing the students’ language exposure in order to be able to success in acquiring second or foreign language profciency. This study was designed to propose the adequate English language input that can decrease the students’ anxiety in reading comprehension performance. Of the four skills, somehow reading can be regarded as especially important because reading is assumed to be the central means for learning new information. Some students, however, still encounter many problems in reading. It is because of their anxiety when they are reading. Providing and creating an interesting-contextual reading material and gratifed teachers can make out this problem which occurs mostly in Indonesian’s classrooms. It revealed that the younger learners of English there do not received adequate amount of the target language input in their learning of English. Hence, it suggested the adoption of extensive reading programs as the most effective means in the creation of an input-rich environment in EFL learning contexts. Besides they also give suggestion to book writers and publisher to provide myriad books that appropriate and readable for their students.

  8. The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2003-06-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 48) investigated two relationships in competitive sport: (1) state cognitive anxiety with performance and (2) state self-confidence with performance. The cognitive anxiety mean effect size was r = -0.10 (P cognitive anxiety mean effect size. The moderator variables for the cognitive anxiety-performance relationship were sex and standard of competition. The mean effect size for men (r = -0.22) was significantly greater than the mean effect size for women (r = -0.03). The mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = -0.27) was significantly greater than that for comparatively low-standard competition (r = -0.06). The significant moderator variables for the self-confidence-performance relationship were sex, standard of competition and measurement. The mean effect size for men (r = 0.29) was significantly greater than that for women (r = 0.04) and the mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = 0.33) was significantly greater than that for low-standard competition (r = 0.16). The mean effect size derived from studies employing the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (r = 0.19) was significantly smaller than the mean effect size derived from studies using other measures of self-confidence (r = 0.38). Measurement issues are discussed and future research directions are offered in light of the results.

  9. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  10. The Effects of High- and Low-Anxiety Training on the Anticipation Judgments of Elite Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, David; Ford, Paul R; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of high- versus low-anxiety conditions during video-based training of anticipation judgments using international-level badminton players facing serves and the transfer to high-anxiety and field-based conditions. Players were assigned to a high-anxiety training (HA), low-anxiety training (LA) or control group (CON) in a pretraining-posttest design. In the pre- and posttest, players anticipated serves from video and on court under high- and low-anxiety conditions. In the video-based high-anxiety pretest, anticipation response accuracy was lower and final fixations shorter when compared with the low-anxiety pretest. In the low-anxiety posttest, HA and LA demonstrated greater accuracy of judgments and longer final fixations compared with pretest and CON. In the high-anxiety posttest, HA maintained accuracy when compared with the low-anxiety posttest, whereas LA had lower accuracy. In the on-court posttest, the training groups demonstrated greater accuracy of judgments compared with the pretest and CON.

  11. Performance of the Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, H; Lyons, K M; Armfield, J M; Thomson, W M

    2017-12-01

    The Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C) was introduced to overcome the theoretical and practical shortcomings of previously developed dental fear measures. This new scale has not been tested on population samples other than in its country of origin, Australia. The aim of this study was to validate the IDAF-4C in a different cultural setting and to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of dental anxiety. A cross sectional study of a representative New Zealand adult population sample was undertaken. The questionnaire was mailed to 523 randomly-selected participants. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, oral and general health care, and dental anxiety using both the IDAF-4C and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). The response rate was 51.8%. The factor structure of the IDAF-4C was confirmed. The prevalence estimates for high dental anxiety and fear were 18.6% using the DAS and 13.0% using the IDAF-4C. Mean scores for the IDAF-4C and DAS were higher among episodic dental visitors and those without a recent dental visit. The performance of the IDAF-4C in this New Zealand community sample supports its use for dental anxiety measurement. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  12. The Applications of Mindfulness with Students of Secondary School: Results on the Academic Performance, Self-concept and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Gallego, José

    The aim of the present research is to verify the impact of a mindfulness programme on the levels academic performance, self-concept and anxiety, of a group of students in Year 1 at secondary school. The statistical analyses carried out on the variables studied showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group with regard to the control group in all the variables analysed. In the experimental group we can observe a significant increase of academic performance as well as an improvement in all the self-concept dimensions, and a significant decrease in anxiety states and traits. The importance and usefulness of mindfulness techniques in the educative system is discussed.

  13. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  14. Music performance anxiety in young musicians: comparison of playing classical or popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark; Spahn, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) is an issue frequently experienced by musicians. It occurs not only in experienced musicians but also in children and adolescents. Furthermore, most research on MPA has been done with musicians who specialized in classical music. This study investigated the development of MPA across the ages in young musicians focusing on the classical and popular genres. In a cross-sectional survey, 239 students at German music schools, aged between 7 and 20 yrs, were asked about their perceived MPA and musical background. The data were analyzed according to musical genre and age. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the influences of musical experiences on MPA. The analyses yielded high levels of MPA for classical musicians between 7 and 16 yrs, which was reduced in older students; for popular musicians, low MPA was seen in the younger (7-11 yrs) and high MPA in the older (16+ yrs) musicians. MPA was influenced by gender and the number of performances in the classical music group and only by gender and age in the popular music group. The results showed clear different trends for the development of MPA between musical genres that should be taken into account for educational aspects in musical training.

  15. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  16. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Alice M; Osborne, Margaret S; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomized to a cognitive behavioral (CB) group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualization techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at 2-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  17. Social anxiety is characterized by biased learning about performance and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Leonie; Schneider, Rebecca; Ashar, Yoni K; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Landy, Lauren; Moscovitch, David A; Wager, Tor D; Arch, Joanna J

    2017-12-01

    People learn about their self from social information, and recent work suggests that healthy adults show a positive bias for learning self-related information. In contrast, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by a negative view of the self, yet what causes and maintains this negative self-view is not well understood. Here the authors use a novel experimental paradigm and computational model to test the hypothesis that biased social learning regarding self-evaluation and self-feelings represents a core feature that distinguishes adults with SAD from healthy controls. Twenty-one adults with SAD and 35 healthy controls (HCs) performed a speech in front of 3 judges. They subsequently evaluated themselves and received performance feedback from the judges and then rated how they felt about themselves and the judges. Affective updating (i.e., change in feelings about the self over time, in response to feedback from the judges) was modeled using an adapted Rescorla-Wagner learning model. HCs demonstrated a positivity bias in affective updating, which was absent in SAD. Further, self-performance ratings revealed group differences in learning from positive feedback-a difference that endured at an average of 1 year follow up. These findings demonstrate the presence and long-term endurance of positively biased social learning about the self among healthy adults, a bias that is absent or reversed among socially anxious adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An Investigation of Music Teacher Candidates' Performance Anxiety Levels in Piano Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2018-01-01

    Examination anxiety in piano education, one of the important courses in music education, can negatively affect both success in examinations and the education of students. This study aimed to determine the anxiety levels of students in the music education departments of universities in western Turkey regarding their piano examinations and their…

  19. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  20. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  1. Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is related to diet but not to adiposity or insulin resistance. Ikram Bezrati, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Moncef Feki, Anis Chaouachi, Naziha Kaabachi ...

  2. Effects of qigong on performance-related anxiety and physiological stress functions in transverse flute music schoolchildren: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Claudia Maria; Goncalves, Mario; Machado, Jorge; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Tobias; Froeschen, Petra; Greten, Henry J

    2012-08-01

    Based on individual cases of treatment, we were interested in whether the effects of a special kind of qigong, the "White Ball" exercises, can be objectified by physically measurable parameters and psychological scores. We performed a preliminary prospective controlled interventional study with the waiting list design. In the qigong group eight children were included. They received specific qigong lessons of the "White Ball" qigong over seven weeks, twice a week, for 30 min with a waiting list design and instructions to perform the same exercises at home daily. In the control group eight children were included in a waiting list design with no qigong instruction. Subjective perception of anxiety was measured by the Portuguese version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale adapted for children. In addition, salivary cortisol, heart rate variability, blood pressure, surface electromyography of the trapezius muscle and reaction time were measured at the beginning and the end of the study prior to the regular public auditions. In comparison to the changes in the control group, the qigong group scored significantly lower in heart rate. Otherwise the groups did not differ significantly; however, the effect size was large for salivary cortisol, surface electromyography of the trapezius muscle and blood pressure. There were relevant reductions of subjective perception of anxiety, salivary cortisol levels and heart rate. The heart rate of performing schoolchildren can be potentially reduced by "White Ball" exercises. Based on a sample of 8/8, positive tendencies were also observed for anxiety and blood pressure. The next steps of objectifying possible qigong effects are to increase the sample size, to study young people in other situations arousing anxiety, to develop an appropriate control intervention, to solve the problem of blinding and double blinding, to find additional parameters that may be influenced by the "White Ball" qigong, and to compare the qigong effects

  3. Two ways related to performance in elite sport: the path of self-confidence and competitive anxiety and the path of group cohesion and group goal-clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    A model tested among 136 Norwegian Olympic-level athletes yielded two paths related to performance. The first path indicated that self-confidence, modeled as an antecedent of competitive anxiety, is negatively correlated with anxiety. Competitive anxiety in turn is negatively correlated with performance. The second path indicated that group cohesion is positively correlated with group goal-clarity, which in turn is positively correlated with performance. Competitive anxiety mediates the relation between self-confidence and performance, whereas group goal-clarity mediates the relation between group cohesion and performance. Results from multiple regression analyses supported the model in the total sample and among individual sport athletes organized in training groups (n = 100). Among team sport athletes (n = 36), personality and group measures are more strongly intercorrelated than among individual sport athletes, and the relation with performance is more complex for the former group. The interaction of self-confidence and competitive anxiety is related to performance among team sport athletes.

  4. The Effects of Dynamic Assessment Procedures on Raven Matrices Performance, Visual Search Behavior, Test Anxiety and Test Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Hans-Jorg; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic assessment procedures involving either verbalization or elaborated feedback lead to higher levels of Ravens Matrices performance, modified visual search behaviors, reduced test anxiety, and reduced negative orientations to the testing situation in third graders. Results are interpreted on offering construct validation to the assessment…

  5. An Investigation of Chinese University EFL Learner's Foreign Language Reading Anxiety, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongshe; Liu, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language…

  6. Assessing Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Cognitive Failures as Related to Mathematics Anxiety and Performance in Undergraduate Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Odogwu, Helen N.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated mathematics cognitive failures as related to mathematics anxiety, gender and performance in calculus among 450 preservice teachers from four public universities in the South West geo-political zone of Nigeria using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of the descriptive survey design. Data collected were…

  7. Effects of Anxiety, a Cognitive Secondary Task, and Expertise on Gaze Behavior and Performance in a Far Aiming Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies focused on investigating the separate effects of anxiety, cognitive load, and expertise on perceptual-motor performance, but the combined effects of these factors have not been studied yet. The objective of the current study was to investigate these factors in

  8. Effects of anxiety, a cognitive secondary task, and expertise on gaze behavior and performance in a far aiming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective : Previous studies focused on investigating the separate effects of anxiety, cognitive load, and expertise on perceptual-motor performance, but the combined effects of these factors have not been studied yet. The objective of the current study was to investigate these factors in

  9. Math Anxiety and Math Performance in Children: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Math Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia-Galiano, M. José; Martín-Puga, M. Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible…

  10. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  11. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  12. Effects of state anxiety on performance using a task-switching paradigm: an investigation of attentional control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakshan, Nazanin; Smyth, Sinéad; Eysenck, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Low- and high-anxious participants performed arithmetical tasks under task-switching or nontask-switching conditions. These tasks were low or high in complexity. The task on each trial was either explicitly cued or not cued. We assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition, and would be greater with high-complexity tasks than with low-complexity ones. We also assumed that demands on attentional control would be greater when cues were absent rather than present. According to attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), anxiety impairs attentional control processes required to shift attention optimally within and between tasks. We predicted that there would be greater negative effects of high state anxiety in the task-switching condition than in the nontask-switching condition. Our theoretical predictions were supported, suggesting that state anxiety reduces attentional control.

  13. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshe Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.

  14. Effects of Coach and Parent Training on Performance Anxiety in Young Athletes: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Smoll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 year old boys and girls participating in community-based basketball programs, and their effects were compared with a matched control condition. Multilevel analyses revealed significant Time x Condition interactions on all three subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 and on a total anxiety score. Athletes in the intervention condition decreased in cognitive and somatic anxiety scores on the SAS-2, whereas athletes in the control condition exhibited increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety. Results suggest the potential efficacy of brief, economical interventions in enhancing the psychosocial impact of the youth sport environment.

  15. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory, and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Passolunghi, Maria C.; Caviola, Sara; De Agostini, Ruggero; Perin, Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) has been defined as “a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations.” Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM) also play...

  16. The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: an investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.

  17. Is Group Polling Better? An Investigation of the Effect of Individual and Group Polling Strategies on Students' Academic Performance, Anxiety, and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ariel Yu-Zhen; Yeh, Katherine Pin-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polling technologies (clickers or tablets) integrated with strategies (individual or group) on students' academic performance, anxiety, and attention. The participants were 34 students enrolled in an educational research methodology course. The anxiety scale, pre- and in-class quizzes,…

  18. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  19. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA.

  20. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

  1. Human Patient Simulations: Evaluation of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety in Clinical Skills Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onovo, Grace N.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between self-efficacy (self-confidence) and anxiety levels, and the use of Human Patient Simulations (HPS) as a teaching-learning strategy, has not been sufficiently studied in the area of clinical nursing education. Despite the evidence in the literature indicating that HPS increases self-efficacy/self-confidence and decreases…

  2. Matter over mind: a randomised-controlled trial of single-session biofeedback training on performance anxiety and heart rate variability in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Wells

    Full Text Available Musical performance is a skilled activity performed under intense pressure, thus is often a profound source of anxiety. In other contexts, anxiety and its concomitant symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal have been successfully ameliorated with HRV biofeedback (HRV BF, a technique involving slow breathing which augments autonomic and emotional regulatory capacity.This randomised-controlled study explored the impact of a single 30-minute session of HRV BF on anxiety in response to a highly stressful music performance.A total of 46 trained musicians participated in this study and were randomly allocated to a slow breathing with or without biofeedback or no-treatment control group. A 3 Group×2 Time mixed experimental design was employed to compare the effect of group before and after intervention on performance anxiety (STAI-S and frequency domain measures of HRV.Slow breathing groups (n=30 showed significantly greater improvements in high frequency (HF and LF/HF ratio measures of HRV relative to control (n=15 during 5 minute recordings of performance anticipation following the intervention (effect size: η(2 =0.122 and η(2 =0.116, respectively. The addition of biofeedback to a slow breathing protocol did not produce differential results. While intervention groups did not exhibit an overall reduction in self-reported anxiety, participants with high baseline anxiety who received the intervention (n=15 displayed greater reductions in self-reported state anxiety relative to those in the control condition (n=7 (r=0.379.These findings indicate that a single session of slow breathing, regardless of biofeedback, is sufficient for controlling physiological arousal in anticipation of psychosocial stress associated with music performance and that slow breathing is particularly helpful for musicians with high levels of anxiety. Future research is needed to further examine the effects of HRV BF as a low-cost, non-pharmacological treatment for

  3. Association of Anxiety-Related Polymorphisms with Sports Performance in Chilean Long Distance Triathletes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Sanhueza, Tomás Zambrano, Carlos Bahamondes-Avila, Luis A. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192 unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11 with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders.

  4. Association of Anxiety-Related Polymorphisms with Sports Performance in Chilean Long Distance Triathletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Jorge A; Zambrano, Tomás; Bahamondes-Avila, Carlos; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-12-01

    Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety ( 5HTT , CRH2R , ACE , NK1R , 5HT1AR and CRF-BP ) on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192) unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms ( 5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11) with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders.

  5. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Smith, Nickolas C; Holmes, Paul S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory (PET) and the conscious processing hypothesis (CPH) regarding effort's role in influencing the effects of anxiety on a golf putting task. Mid-handicap golfers made a series of putts to target holes under two counterbalanced conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The effort exerted on each putting task was assessed though self-report, psychophysiological (heart rate variability) and behavioural (pre-putt time and glances at the target) measures. Performance was assessed by putting error. Results were generally more supportive of the predictions of PET rather than the CPH as performance was maintained for some performers despite increased state anxiety and a reduction in processing efficiency. The findings of this study support previous research suggesting that both theories offer useful theoretical frameworks for examining the relationship between anxiety and performance in sport.

  6. Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is related to diet but not to adiposity or insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Bezrati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in children and adolescents worldwide. The present study was undertaken to assess the vitamin D status in active children living in a sunny climate and to identify the main determinants of the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 225 children aged 7–15 years practicing sports in a football academy. Anthropometric measures were performed to calculate body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and maturity status. A nutritional enquiry was performed including 3-day food records and food frequency questionnaire. Plasma 25-OHD and insulin were assessed by immunoenzymatic methods ensuring categorization of vitamin D status and calculation of insulin sensitivity/resistance indexes. A logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors for vitamin D inadequacy. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD<12 µg/L was observed in 40.9% of children and insufficiency (12<25-OHD<20 µg/L was observed in 44% of children. In a multivariate analysis, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were associated with a lower dietary intake of vitamin D, proteins, milk, red meat, fish, and eggs. However, no significant relationship was observed with maturation status, adiposity, or insulin resistance. Conclusions: Tunisian children and adolescents are exposed to a high risk of vitamin D inadequacy despite living in a sunny climate. Circulating 25-OHD concentrations are related to the intake of vitamin D food sources but not to maturation status or body composition. Ensuring sufficient and safe sun exposure and adequate vitamin D intake may prevent vitamin D inadequacy in children from sunny environments.

  7. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy

  8. The Inadequacy of Academic Environment Contributes to Inadequate Teaching and Learning Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quasim, Shahla; Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at the inadequacy of academic environment as an indicator contributing to the inadequate teaching and learning situation in Pakistan. The main focus is to look into the low proficiency of students in the subject of English at secondary school level. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed from the literature concerned and The…

  9. Are dieting and dietary inadequacy a second hit in the association with polycystic ovary syndrome severity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Otte-Huijgen (Nicole); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); C.T. Labee (Chantal T.); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground The composition of the diet is of increasing importance for the development and maturation of the ovarian follicles. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) healthy dietary interventions improve the clinical spectrum. We hypothesized that dieting and diet inadequacy in the

  10. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  11. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…

  12. Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Naqvi, Faizan; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwer; Shakeel, Hina; Perveen, Tahira

    2015-06-01

    It is observed that memories are more strengthened in a stressful condition. Studies have also demonstrated an association between stressful events and the onset of depression and anxiety. Considering the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of curcumin in various experimental approaches, we appraised the beneficial effects of this herb on acute immobilization stress-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Rats in test group were administrated with curcumin (200mg/kg/day), dissolved in neutral oil, for 1 week. Both control and curcumin-treated rats were divided into unstressed and stressed groups. Rats in the stressed group were subjected to immobilization stress for 2h. After stress, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests. Immobilization stress induced an anxiogenic behavior in rats subjected to elevated plus maze test (EPM). Locomotor activity was also significantly increased following the acute immobilization stress. Pre-administration of curcumin prevented the stress-induced behavioral deficits. Highest memory performance was observed in stressed rats that were pre-treated with curcumin in Morris water maze (MWM). Brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were also estimated. Present study suggests a role of antioxidant enzymes in the attenuation of acute stress induced anxiety by curcumin. The findings therefore suggest that supplementation of curcumin may be beneficial in the treatment of acute stress induced anxiety and enhancement of memory function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A false sense of security: safety behaviors erode objective speech performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa, Karen; Paulitzki, Jeffrey R; Ierullo, Maria D; Chiang, Brenda; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E; Moscovitch, David A

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, 55 participants with a diagnosis of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), 23 participants with a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder other than SAD with no comorbid SAD, and 50 healthy controls completed a speech task as well as self-reported measures of safety behavior use. Speeches were videotaped and coded for global and specific indicators of performance by two raters who were blind to participants' diagnostic status. Results suggested that the objective performance of people with SAD was poorer than that of both control groups, who did not differ from each other. Moreover, self-reported use of safety behaviors during the speech strongly mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and observers' performance ratings. These results are consistent with contemporary cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal models of SAD and suggest that socially anxious individuals' performance skills may be undermined by the use of safety behaviors. These data provide further support for recommendations from previous studies that the elimination of safety behaviors ought to be a priority in cognitive behavioral therapy for SAD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  15. Predictors of anxiety in centenarians: health, economic factors, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Oscar; Teixeira, Laetitia; Araújo, Lia; Afonso, Rosa Marina; Pachana, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Centenarians' psychological well-being is presently of great interest in psychogeriatric research but little is known about factors that specifically account for the presence of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms in this age group. This study examined the presence of anxiety and its predictors in a sample of centenarians and aims to contribute to a better understanding of anxiety determinants in extreme old age. We examined how socio-demographic, health, functional, and social factors contribute to the presence of clinically significant anxiety symptoms in centenarians recruited from two Portuguese centenarian studies. The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory - Short Form (GAI-SF) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. A total of 97 centenarians (mean age 101.1 years; SD = 1.5 years; range = 100-108) with no/minor cognitive impairment were included. Clinically significant anxiety symptoms (GAI-SF ≥3) were present in 45.4% (n = 44) of the sample. Main predictive factors included worse health perception, higher number of medical conditions, financial concerns related to medical expenses (income inadequacy) and loneliness. Results suggest that along with health status (subjective and objective), income inadequacy related to medical expenses and feeling lonely may predispose centenarians to clinically significant anxiety and be important to their overall well-being. Further research is needed on the repercussions of clinical anxiety in centenarians' quality of life and on co-morbid conditions (e.g. depression) at such advanced ages.

  16. The effect of pitch, rhythm, and familiarity on working memory and anxiety as measured by digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and quantitatively evaluate the effects of pitch and rhythm of unfamiliar and familiar melodies on working memory and anxiety as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 60) listened to 6 treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits. The digits were paired with (a) a familiar melody and pitch only, (b) a familiar melody and rhythm only, (c) a familiar melody with both pitch and rhythm, (d) an unfamiliar melody with pitch only, (e) an unfamiliar melody with rhythm only, and (f) an unfamiliar melody with both pitch and rhythm. The 6 different treatments were counterbalanced using a Latin square design in an attempt to control for order effects. Participants rated their state anxiety on a Likert-type scale before, midway through, and after the digits test. No statistically significant order, learning, or practice effects were found. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across musical element conditions and groups. Results indicated that music majors outperformed nonmusic majors on the digit recall task. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from pitch only and both pitch and rhythm conditions the least accurately. Graphic analysis of treatment as a function of sequential position indicated digit recall was best during conditions of primacy and recency. No main effects were found for the familiarity condition. Additionally, no main effects or interactions were found for the anxiety variable. The results of this study are congruent with existing working memory and music literature suggesting that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall, music majors outperform non-music majors, and recall accuracy is best in positions of primacy and recency. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for

  17. Effects of between-person differences and within-person changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression on older age cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, E J; Dykiert, D; Allerhand, M; Starr, J M; Deary, I J

    2017-10-17

    Anxiety and depression are both important correlates of cognitive function. However, longitudinal studies investigating how they covary with cognition within the same individual are scarce. We aimed to simultaneously estimate associations of between-person differences and within-person variability in anxiety and depression with cognitive performance in a sample of non-demented older people. Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study, a population-based narrow-age sample (mean age at wave 1 = 79 years, n = 535), were examined on five occasions across 13 years. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and cognitive performance was assessed with tests of reasoning, logical memory, and letter fluency. Data were analyzed using two-level linear mixed-effects models with within-person centering. Divergent patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. For anxiety, between-person differences were more influential; people who scored higher on HADS anxiety relative to other same-aged individuals demonstrated poorer cognitive performance on average. For depression, on the other hand, time-varying within-person differences were more important; scoring higher than usual on HADS depression was associated with poorer cognitive performance relative to the average level for that participant. Adjusting for gender, childhood mental ability, emotional stability, and disease burden attenuated these associations. The results from this study highlight the importance of addressing both between- and within-person effects of negative mood and suggest that anxiety and depression affect cognitive function in different ways. The current findings have implications for assessment and treatment of older age cognitive deficits.

  18. Impact of high and low anxiety on cognitive performance in a modified hole board test in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Roedel, Angelika; Binder, Elke; Holsboer, Florian

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between behavioural dimensions and cognitive performance in the inbred mouse strains C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which have previously been found to differ in cognitive performance and emotionality. Because it has never been evaluated whether cognitive performance and emotional behaviour are interrelated in these strains, we analysed various behavioural dimensions and cognitive functions in parallel using the modified hole board test. We could show that naive BL6 and DBA mice distinctly differed in terms of anxiety-related behaviour. Principal component analysis on the phenotyping data showed that anxiety-related behaviour was described by identical parameters and was not correlated to locomotion in the two strains. During cognitive testing, DBA mice habituated faster and performed better than BL6 mice. Principal component analysis indicated a close correlation between anxiety-related behaviour and cognitive performance in DBA mice, being associated with a highly successful cognitive performance. In BL6 mice, cognition was correlated to general exploration. This correlation turned out to be less successful in performing the modified hole board test. Our findings support the idea that high anxiety may interact with specific cognitive processing, thus offering a promising animal model for future preclinical research on the interaction of anxiety and cognition.

  19. Nursing students experienced personal inadequacy, vulnerability and transformation during their patient care encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring nursing students' experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit. DESIGN: The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were followed and a meta-synthesis was conducted. DATA SOURCES......; and clinical learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: We meta-synthesized that: Nursing students experienced personal inadequacy, vulnerability and a transformation during their patient care encounter....

  20. Dietary diversity scores: an indicator of micronutrient inadequacy instead of obesity for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Yu, Kai; Tan, Shengjie; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhao, Ai; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-05-12

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the well-being of both adults and children. Dietary diversity score (DDS) is a useful evaluation index with a relatively well-developed guideline by FAO. It's meaningful to assess and predict inadequate micronutrient intakes using DDS in Chinese children, after ruling out the risk of obesity coming with more dietary diversity. Data for evaluation were extracted from the Nutrition Study of Preschool Children and School Children, which is a cross-sectional study covering 8 cities of China, including 1694 children in kindergartens and primary schools. This study applied DDS to Chinese children to test the validity for micronutrient inadequacy, and then explored the relationship between dietary diversity and obesity. It reveals that dietary diversity varied with age and place of residence; the older ones and the ones living in rural areas tend to have poorer dietary diversity. Another discovery is that DDS is positively correlated with indicators of micronutrient adequacy, with a score of 6-8 indicating the lowest risk of micronutrient inadequacy in different groups of children. In our study population, dietary diversity is not related with obesity. Dietary diversity score is a valid indicator to evaluate micronutrient inadequacy in Chinese children, though there is still room for improvement of the method. Besides, the relationship between increase of dietary diversity and risk of obesity should be treated circumspectly.

  1. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  2. [Social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used.

  3. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships.

  4. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  5. Pre-Service Music Teachers' Piano Performance Self-Efficacy Belief Inversely Related to Musical Performance Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Hatice Onuray

    2015-01-01

    Many factors affect piano performance, including students' self-confidence and self-efficacy about playing an instrument. This study assessed piano performance self-efficacy beliefs in pre-service music teachers studying at the music education department of education faculty of Uludag University to a certain relationships between the strength of…

  6. Adaptive Working Memory Training Reduces the Negative Impact of Anxiety on Competitive Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Smith, Tim J; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-12-01

    Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training. Measures of WM capacity as well as performance and objective gaze indices of attentional control in a tennis volley task were assessed in low- and high-pressure posttraining conditions. Results revealed significant benefits of training on WM capacity, quiet eye offset, and tennis performance in the high-pressure condition. Our results confirm and extend previous findings supporting the transfer of cognitive training benefits to objective measures of sports performance under pressure.

  7. Inadequacy of vitamins and minerals among high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzid, Karim; Baali, Abdellatif; Vimard, Patrice; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; López, Pilar Montero

    2014-08-01

    To assess micronutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained pupils. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods commonly eaten in Morocco. The prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of individuals with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins B12, A and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, ascorbic acid, iodine, Ca, Mg and P; below the Adequate Intake (AI) level for pantothenic acid, biotin, Na and K; and using the probability approach for Fe. Data were adjusted for intra-individual variation with exclusion of under-reporters. Ouarzazate, a semi-urban region situated on the southern slopes of the High Atlas with little industrial development but an important tourism sector. A self-selected sample of 312 pupils aged 15-19 years from the five public high schools. After exclusion of under-reporters, 293 remained for analysis. The highest proportions of below-EAR/AI intakes were seen for pantothenic acid (girls 85·1 %, boys 78·0 %), biotin (boys 83·1 %, girls 79·4 %), thiamin (boys 66·9 %), folate (girls 93·1 %, boys 74·6 %), iodine (boys 94·9 %, girls 88·0 %) and Ca (girls 83·4 %, boys 74·6 %). Na intake was generally in excess whereas K intake was below the AI level. In general, girls had better-quality diets than boys, who appeared to consume more 'empty calories'. Our findings suggest that in this population of Moroccan adolescents, nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies. To provide reliable and precise estimates of nutrient intakes, an update of Moroccan food composition databases is urgently needed. We recommend that national authorities address these issues.

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Music Performance Anxiety: A Pilot Study with Student Vocalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos, David G; Heinrichs, Glenn A; Towle, Philip; Duffy, Kiera; Grand, Sebastian M; Morgan, Matthew C; Smith, Jonathan D; Kalkus, Evan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a treatment for music performance anxiety (MPA) in an uncontrolled pilot design. ACT is a newer, "third-wave" therapy that differs from previous MPA treatments, because its goal is not to reduce symptoms of MPA. Rather, ACT aims to enhance psychological flexibility in the presence of unwanted symptoms through the promotion of six core processes collectively known as the ACT "Hexaflex." A small group of student vocalists ( N = 7) from an elite choral college were recruited using objective criteria for evaluating MPA. Participants received 12 ACT sessions, and their baseline functioning served as a pre-treatment control. Treatment consisted of an orientation to ACT, identifying experientially avoidant behaviors, facilitation of Hexaflex processes, group performances in which valued behaviors were practiced in front of one another, meditations, homework, and completion of self-report measures before, during, and after treatment (at a 1- and 3-month follow-up). Improvements were observed in participants' cognitive defusion, acceptance of MPA symptoms, and psychological flexibility at post-treatment and follow-ups. Students also appeared to improve their performance quality and reduce their shame over having MPA. These results add to existing research suggesting ACT is a promising intervention for MPA, while also highlighting how vocal students may be less impaired by physical MPA symptoms.

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Music Performance Anxiety: A Pilot Study with Student Vocalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Juncos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT as a treatment for music performance anxiety (MPA in an uncontrolled pilot design. ACT is a newer, “third-wave” therapy that differs from previous MPA treatments, because its goal is not to reduce symptoms of MPA. Rather, ACT aims to enhance psychological flexibility in the presence of unwanted symptoms through the promotion of six core processes collectively known as the ACT “Hexaflex.” A small group of student vocalists (N = 7 from an elite choral college were recruited using objective criteria for evaluating MPA. Participants received 12 ACT sessions, and their baseline functioning served as a pre-treatment control. Treatment consisted of an orientation to ACT, identifying experientially avoidant behaviors, facilitation of Hexaflex processes, group performances in which valued behaviors were practiced in front of one another, meditations, homework, and completion of self-report measures before, during, and after treatment (at a 1- and 3-month follow-up. Improvements were observed in participants' cognitive defusion, acceptance of MPA symptoms, and psychological flexibility at post-treatment and follow-ups. Students also appeared to improve their performance quality and reduce their shame over having MPA. These results add to existing research suggesting ACT is a promising intervention for MPA, while also highlighting how vocal students may be less impaired by physical MPA symptoms.

  10. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance in bipolar II disorder with or without comorbid anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs), the most common comorbid illnesses with bipolar disorder (BP) has been reported to associate with dopamine system. Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and the distribution of the ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 alleles in the Han Chinese general population is relatively equal. The association between dopamine metabolic enzymes and cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II disorder (BP-II) comorbid with AD is unclear. This study proposed to explore the role of ALDH2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance between BP-II comorbid with or without AD. One hundred ninety-seven BP-II patients with and without a comorbid AD were recruited and compared with 130 healthy controls (HCs). A polymerase chain reaction and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and study participants underwent neuropsychological tests. An interaction between AD comorbidity and the ALDH2 polymorphisms was found in different domain of cognitive dysfunction in the BP-II patients. The ALDH2 polymorphisms might have different effects on the neuropsychological performance of BP-II patients with and without comorbid AD.

  11. A Quick and Easy Strategy to Reduce Test Anxiety and Enhance Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The negative thoughts that anxious children experience while sitting for an exam consume working memory resources at the cost of resources for performing on the exam. In a randomized field experiment (N=117) with primary school students, we investigated the hypothesis that stimulating students to

  12. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  13. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.

  14. Performance in anxiety and spatial memory tests following bilateral vestibular loss in the rat and effects of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiwen; Cheung, Irene; Smith, Paul F

    2012-11-01

    Vestibular dysfunction in humans is associated with anxiety and cognitive disorders. However, various animal studies of the effects of vestibular loss have yielded conflicting results, from reduced anxiety to increased anxiety, depending on the particular model of vestibular dysfunction and the anxiety test used. In this study we revisited the question of whether rats with surgical bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) exhibit changes in anxiety-related behaviour by testing them in the open field maze (OFM), elevated plus maze (EPM) and elevated T maze (ETM) in the presence of a non-sedating anxiolytic drug, buspirone, or an anxiogenic drug, FG-7142. We also tested the animals in a spatial T maze (STM) in order to evaluate their cognitive function under the same set of conditions. We found that BVD animals exhibited increased locomotor activity (P≤0.003), reduced supported and unsupported rearing (P≤0.02 and P≤0.000, respectively) and reduced thigmotaxis (P≤0.000) in the OFM, which for the most part the drugs did not modify. By contrast, there were no significant differences between BVD and sham control animals in the EPM and the BVD animals exhibited a marginally longer escape latency in the ETM (P≤0.03), with no change in avoidance latency. In the STM, the BVD animals demonstrated a large and significant decrease in accuracy compared to the sham control animals (P≤0.000), which was not affected by drug treatment. These results have replicated previous findings regarding increased locomotor activity, reduced rearing and thigmotaxis in the OFM, and impaired performance in the STM. However, they failed to replicate some previous results obtained using the EPM and ETM. Overall, they do not support the hypothesis that BVD animals exhibit increased anxiety-like behaviour and suggest that the cognitive deficits may be independent of the emotional effects of vestibular loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background:?Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual?s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performan...

  16. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Helping Kids Cope With Stress Helping Kids Handle Worry Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress Anxiety Disorders Special Needs Factsheet Social Phobia Special Needs Factsheet Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) ...

  17. Anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women of other races and ethnicities. 7 What causes anxiety disorders? Researchers think anxiety disorders are caused by a ... Asnaani, A… .Hofmann, S.G. (2011). Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness . Journal of Psychiatric ...

  18. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  19. Inadequacy and indebtedness: no-fee psychotherapy in county training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geistwhite, R

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the fee arrangement has significant influence on the psychotherapeutic process even when there is no fee. Given the large number of psychiatrists who receive at least some part of their training in the public system, understanding the no-fee arrangement is vital to the psychodynamic training of future psychiatrists. Following a brief overview of the meaning of money and the fee arrangement, various scenarios are considered under the headings of "inadequacy" and "indebtedness. "Although similar dynamics may be present in other public and private settings, attention is given to the county training program, with the intent to assist psychiatry residents and supervisors in their awareness and understanding of the psychodynamics of psychotherapy without fee.

  20. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Copyright

  1. Anxiety mediates the effect of acute stress on working memory performance when cortisol levels are high: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J; Kliebenstein, Alexa; Bachand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is an aversive emotional state characterized by perceived uncontrollability and hypervigilance to threat that can frequently cause disruptions in higher-order cognitive processes like working memory. The attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that anxiety negatively affects the working memory system. This study tested the association between anxiety and working memory after the addition of stress and measured the glucocorticoid, cortisol. To better understand this relationship, we utilized a moderated mediation model. Undergraduate students from a public university (N = 103) self-reported their anxiety levels. Participants first completed a short-term memory test. During and after a forehead cold pressor task (stress vs. control procedure) participants completed a working memory test. Salivary cortisol was taken at baseline and after the last working memory test. Overall, acute stress had no effect on working memory. However, we found that anxiety levels mediated the influence of condition (stressed vs. control) on working memory, but only among those individuals who had high cortisol levels after exposure to acute stress, supporting a moderated mediation model. These results imply that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was necessary for working memory impairment in anxious individuals. These results provide support for the ACT.

  2. Ansiedade e desempenho: um estudo com uma equipe infantil de voleibol feminino Anxiety and performance: a study of an infant female volleyball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi Noriko Sonoo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a 'ansiedade traço' e 'ansiedade estado' e sua relação com o desempenho pré-competitivo e competitivo no voleibol. O caso estudado foi uma equipe de voleibol feminina infantil. Utilizou-se como instrumentos de medida os protocolos CSAI-II e o SCAT. A coleta de dados ocorreu nos locais de treinamento e durante os Jogos Colegiais 2005. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se estatística descritiva e o teste "t" de Student. Os resultados indicaram: 'ansiedade traço' pré-competitiva e competitiva sem diferenças significativas, porém na 'ansiedade estado' observou-se diferença significativa (P=0,05 para o componente cognitivo. Verificou-se um equilíbrio entre os componentes da 'ansiedade estado' na fase preparatória pelas vitórias em todos os jogos, o que se mostrou diferente na fase competitiva, onde a equipe sofreu duas derrotas. Conclui-se que a ansiedade pode afetar o desempenho das atletas na situação competitiva nesta modalidade e categoria estudada.The objective of this study was to analyze trait anxiety and state anxiety and their relation with pre-competitive and competitive performance in volleyball. The case studied was a infantile female volleyball team. The measure instruments used were the CSAI-II and SCAT protocols. Data collection occurred in training stations and during High School games 2005. Data analysis was performed through descriptive statistics and Student's "t" test. The results indicated: pre-competitive and competitive trait anxiety with no significant differences, however in relation to state anxiety a significant difference was observed (P=0,05 in the cognitive component. A balance was verified between state anxiety components in preparation phase because of the winnings in all games, fact that was different in the competitive phase, where the team lost two times. It is concluded that anxiety can affect athletes' performance in competitive situation in the modality and

  3. The Effects of Computer-Mediated Communication Anxiety on Student Perceptions of Instructor Behaviors, Perceived Learning, and Quiz Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Kevin A.; Harris, Christina J.; Buckner, Marjorie M.; Frisby, Brandi; Limperos, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    Online environments increasingly serve as contexts for learning. Hence, it is important to understand how student characteristics, such as student computer-mediated communication anxiety (CMCA) affects learning outcomes in mediated classrooms. To better understand how student CMCA may influence student online learning experiences, we tested a…

  4. [Anxiety in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautex, S; Toni, V; Bossert, P; Hilleret, H; Ducloux, D; Forestier, J; Cabotte, E; Philippin, Y; Guisado, H; Vogt-Ferrier, N

    2006-11-01

    In palliative care, the intensity and duration of anxiety as well as its consequences on the patient's daily activities can significantly decrease his quality of life. Anxiety that does not incapacitate the patient to the point of his being unable to communicate or perform his usual activities does not necessarily require drug treatment. The non pharmacological treatments of anxiety are presented in some detail. Prescription of anxiolytic drugs in renal or hepatic failure, as well as when oral intake or venous access are difficult, is briefly discussed.

  5. Anxiety and Related Factors in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon JG Asmundson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often encounter patients who present with both chronic pain and elevated levels of anxiety. In some cases, the source of the anxiety is vague and diffuse. For others, there is an identifiable precipitating object, event or situation. For example, some patients with chronic pain are able to attribute their anxiety to the possibility of not regaining lost functional abilities, financial difficulties, feelings of social inadequacy, or uncertainty about the meaning and consequences of pain. The association between chronic pain and anxiety may not be particularly surprising when one considers that, in the acute phase, both pain and target-oriented anxiety (or fear motivate actions that serve to minimize the threat and maximize the likelihood of successful escape. As well, their neurobiology, while distinct, interacts in the reticular system (1. Evaluations of the association between chronic pain and fear-relevant constructs were initiated in the 1960s and 1970s (2,3. It has only been of late, however, that theorists and researchers have begun to focus their attention on delineating the precise nature of the relationship and its specific implications for the assessment and management of pain.

  6. Sudanese library anxiety construct

    OpenAIRE

    Abusin, K.A.; Zainab, A.N.; Abdul Karim, Noor Harun

    2011-01-01

    Library anxiety is manifested in the form of negative feelings, fear, stress, distress, confusion and has debilitating effects on students’ academic performance, which makes it a serious phenomenon for investigation. This study explores library anxiety amongst Sudanese university students and identifies factors that contribute to this phenomenon. The factors were identified using the diary approach collected from 51 third year undergraduate students who were taking the research method course ...

  7. Conceptual Inadequacy of the Shore and Johnson Axioms for Wide Classes of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino Tsallis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is by now well known that the Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann-Shannon logarithmic entropic functional (\\(S_{BG}\\ is inadequate for wide classes of strongly correlated systems: see for instance the 2001 Brukner and Zeilinger's {\\it Conceptual inadequacy of the Shannon information in quantum measurements}, among many other systems exhibiting various forms of complexity. On the other hand, the Shannon and Khinchin axioms uniquely mandate the BG form \\(S_{BG}=-k\\sum_i p_i \\ln p_i\\; the Shore and Johnson axioms follow the same path. Many natural, artificial and social systems have been satisfactorily approached with nonadditive entropies such as the \\(S_q=k \\frac{1-\\sum_i p_i^q}{q-1}\\ one (\\(q \\in {\\cal R}; \\,S_1=S_{BG}\\, basis of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Consistently, the Shannon 1948 and Khinchine 1953 uniqueness theorems have already been generalized in the literature, by Santos 1997 and Abe 2000 respectively, in order to uniquely mandate \\(S_q\\. We argue here that the same remains to be done with the Shore and Johnson 1980 axioms. We arrive to this conclusion by analyzing specific classes of strongly correlated complex systems that await such generalization.

  8. Inadequacies of Belgium nuclear emergency plans: lessons from the Fukushima catastrophe have not been learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Josset, Mylene

    2015-01-01

    After having outlined that some Belgium regional authorities made some statements showing that they did not learn lessons neither from the Chernobyl catastrophe, nor from the Fukushima accident, this report aims at examining whether Belgium is well prepared to face a severe nuclear accident occurring within its borders or in neighbouring countries, whether all hypotheses have actually been taken into account, and whether existing emergency plans are realistic. After a presentation of Belgium's situation regarding nuclear plants (Belgium plants and neighbouring French plants), the report presents the content and organisation of the nuclear emergency plan for the Belgium territory at the national, provincial and municipal levels. While outlining inadequacies and weaknesses of the Belgium plan regarding the addressed issues, it discusses the main lessons learned from the Fukushima accident in terms of emergency planning areas, of population sheltering, of iodine-based prophylaxis, of population evacuation, of food supply, of tools (measurement instruments) and human resources, and of public information. In the next parts, the report addresses and discusses trans-border issues, and the commitment of stakeholders

  9. Evaluation of Glucose Dehydrogenase and Pyrroloquinoline Quinine (pqq) Mutagenesis that Renders Functional Inadequacies in Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Sohail, Younas; Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

    2015-08-01

    The rhizospheric zone abutting plant roots usually clutches a wealth of microbes. In the recent past, enormous genetic resources have been excavated with potential applications in host plant interaction and ancillary aspects. Two Pseudomonas strains were isolated and identified through 16S rRNA and rpoD sequence analyses as P. fluorescens QAU67 and P. putida QAU90. Initial biochemical characterization and their root-colonizing traits indicated their potential role in plant growth promotion. Such aerobic systems, involved in gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization, essentially require the pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ)- dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the genome. The PCR screening and amplification of GDH and PQQ and subsequent induction of mutagenesis characterized their possible role as antioxidants as well as in growth promotion, as probed in vitro in lettuce and in vivo in rice, bean, and tomato plants. The results showed significant differences (p plant height, fresh weight, and dry weight, etc., deciphering a clear and in fact complementary role of GDH and PQQ in plant growth promotion. Our study not only provides direct evidence of the in vivo role of GDH and PQQ in host plants but also reveals their functional inadequacy in the event of mutation at either of these loci.

  10. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C.

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  11. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  12. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  13. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dread of what's about to happen or what might happen. While fear is the emotion we feel in the presence ... feel overwhelmed, tongue-tied, or unable to do what they need to ... amounts of anxiety, fear, nervousness, worry, or dread. Anxiety that is too ...

  14. Predicting athletic performance with self-confidence and somatic and cognitive anxiety as a function of motor and physiological requirements in six sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research.

  15. The Role of Executive Functioning and Technological Anxiety (FOMO in College Course Performance as Mediated by Technology Usage and Multitasking Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Rosen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how technology use impacts academic performance. A proposed model postulated that academic performance could be predicted by a cognitive independent variable-executive functioning problems-and an affective independent variable-technological anxiety or FOMO (fear of missing out-mediated by how students choose to use technology. An unobtrusive smartphone application called “Instant Quantified Self” monitored daily smartphone unlocks and daily minutes of use. Other mediators included self-reported smartphone use, self-observed studying attention, self-reported multitasking preference, and a classroom digital metacognition tool that assessed the student’s ability to understand the ramifications of technology use in the classroom that is not relevant to the learning process. Two hundred sixteen participants collected an average of 56 days of “Instant” application data, demonstrating that their smartphone was unlocked more than 60 times a day for three to four minutes each time for a total of 220 daily minutes of use. Results indicated that executive functioning problems predicted academic course performance mediated by studying attention and a single classroom digital metacognition subscale concerning availability of strategies of when to use mobile phones during lectures. FOMO predicted performance directly as well as mediated by a second classroom digital metacognition concerning attitudes toward mobile phone use during lectures. Implications for college students and professors include increasing metacognition about technology use in the classroom and taking “tech breaks” to reduce technology anxiety.

  16. Reading Anxiety in L1: Reviewing the Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Luciane R.; Giacomoni, Claudia Hofheinz; Julio-Costa, Annelise; Oliveira, Susani; Zbornik, John; Haase, Vitor G.; Salles, Jerusa F.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated levels of anxiety have been associated with students' poor academic performance. Research on domain-specific anxiety patterns in reading has demonstrated that reading anxiety is associated with, yet distinctive from, general anxiety. Reading anxiety is an unpleasant emotional reaction experienced by students when reading; it is a specific…

  17. Reconstructive Surgery for Severe Penile Inadequacy: Phalloplasty with a Free Radial Forearm Flap or a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lumen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Severe penile inadequacy in adolescents is rare. Phallic reconstruction to treat this devastating condition is a major challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Phallic reconstruction using the free radial forearm flap (RFF or the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF has been routinely used in female-to-male transsexuals. Recently we started to use these techniques in the treatment of severe penile inadequacy. Methods. Eleven males (age 15 to 42 years were treated with a phallic reconstruction. The RFF is our method of choice; the ALTF is an alternative when a free flap is contraindicated or less desired by the patient. The RFF was used in 7 patients, the ALTF in 4 patients. Mean followup was 25 months (range: 4–49 months. Aesthetic and functional results were evaluated. Results. There were no complications related to the flap. Aesthetic results were judged as “good” in 9 patients and “moderate” in 2 patients. Sensitivity in the RFF was superior compared to the ALTF. Four patients developed urinary complications (stricture and/or fistula. Six patients underwent erectile implant surgery. In 2 patients the erectile implant had to be removed due to infection or erosion. Conclusion. In case of severe penile inadequacy due to whatever condition, a phalloplasty is the preferred treatment nowadays. The free radial forearm flap is still the method of choice. The anterolateral thigh flap can be a good alternative, especially when free flaps are contraindicated, but sensitivity is markedly inferior in these flaps.

  18. Vitamin and mineral inadequacy in the French population: estimation and application for the optimization of food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touvier, Mathilde; Lioret, Sandrine; Vanrullen, Isabelle; Boclé, Jean-Christophe; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Berta, Jean-Louis; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2006-11-01

    The objective was to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake in a representative sample of the French population, which to our knowledge, had never been done before, and to use this concept to optimize efficiency and safety of food fortification. The INCA survey collected food intake data using a 7-day record, for 2373 subjects (4-92 years). The prevalence of inadequacy for calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins C, A, B6, and B12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and folate was estimated by the proportion of subjects with intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). We also calculated daily consumption of 44 food groups by age and gender. This paper shows how the combination of both data sets, i.e., inadequacy and food consumption data, allows a preliminary screening of potential food vehicles in order to optimize fortification. The prevalence of inadequacy was particularly high for the following groups: for calcium, females aged 10-19 years (73.5%) or aged 55-90 years (67.8%), and males aged 15-19 years (62.4%) or aged 65-92 years (65.4%); for magnesium, males aged 15-92 years (71.7%) and females aged 10-90 years (82.5%); for iron, females aged 15-54 years (71.1%); and for vitamin C, females aged 15-54 years (66.2%). Two examples are provided to illustrate the proposed method for the optimization of fortification.

  19. Comparing the Performance of Five Brain Systems and mood changes (Anxiety and Depression with the Level of Estrogen in Postmenopausal and Premenopausal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asgari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most critical stages of women’s lives is menopause. It is caused by permanent cessation of ovarian function and decreased of estrogen level. Menopause has numerous side effects (Physical and psychological. Recent neurophysiological data suggest that the function of central nervous system may be susceptible to modulation by estrogen. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the five important parts (prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, limbic system, basal ganglia and temporal cortex of the brain and mood changes (anxiety and depression with the level of estrogen in postmenopausal and premenopausal women in Isfahan. Methods: In the present descriptive study 200 women (100 postmenopausal women 45 to 65 years old and 100 women, premenopausal 20 to 40 years old were selected by sequentially available from health centers of Motahari, Sajjad and Amin Askariyeh Hospital. The research instrument was a brain systems questionnaire of 101 questions (Brain systems with 89/0 reliability to evaluate five important system functions in the brain (prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, limbic system, basal ganglia and temporal lobe and Beck Depression Inventory with reliability of 93 / 0 and anxiety with reliability 92/0 to assess depression and anxiety. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (MANOVA MANOVA analysis. Results: significant differences were found in five brain system functions (prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, limbic system, basal ganglia and temporal cortex and levels of estrogen and anxiety of two the groups of postmenopausal and premenopausal women (P0/001.         Conclusion: It seems that in addition to the role of estrogen in the female reproductive system, it also has an impact on the nervous system and its various parts. Following the reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, the modulation of brain functions is

  20. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  1. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  2. Induced-anxiety differentially disrupts working memory in generalized anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Lieberman, Lynne; Grillon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is characterized by a bias towards threatening information, anxious apprehension, and disrupted concentration. Previous research in healthy subjects suggests that working memory (WM) is disrupted by induced anxiety, but that increased task-demand reduces anxiety and WM is preserved. However, it is unknown if patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can similarly normalize their performance on difficult WM tasks while reducing their anxiety. Increased threat-related ...

  3. The effect of improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on reducing pianists' music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two music therapy approaches, improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on ameliorating the symptoms of music performance anxiety (MPA) among student pianists. Thirty female college pianists (N = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) improvised music-assisted desensitization group (n = 15), or (b) music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and imagery group (n = 15). All participants received 6 weekly music therapy sessions according to their assigned group. Two lab performances were provided; one before and one after the 6 music therapy sessions, as the performance stimuli for MPA. All participants completed pretest and posttest measures that included four types of visual analogue scales (MPA, stress, tension, and comfort), the state portion of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Music Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (MPAQ) developed by Lehrer, Goldman, and Strommen (1990). Participants' finger temperatures were also measured. When results of the music-assisted PMR and imagery condition were compared from pretest to posttest, statistically significant differences occurred in 6 out of the 7 measures-MPA, tension, comfort, STAI, MPAQ, and finger temperature, indicating that the music-assisted PMR and imagery treatment was very successful in reducing MPA. For the improvisation-assisted desensitization condition, the statistically significant decreases in tension and STAI, with increases in finger temperature indicated that this approach was effective in managing MPA to some extent. When the difference scores for the two approaches were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two approaches for any of the seven measures. Therefore, no one treatment condition appeared more effective than the other. Although statistically significant differences were not found between

  4. Genre Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alacovska, Ana

    2015-01-01

    of genre-gender discursive, historical and cultural crossover, we obtain a holistic view of the complexities of the psycho-biographical gender dynamics of media work. To this end, I trace the ways in which the andocentric genre of travel writing (a genre based on a masculine ideology) causes professional...... anxiety and constrains female travel writers’ biographical identity work. By treating genres as mediators of work experiences and practices, I elucidate how contemporary female travel writers experience and cope with genre-induced anxiety....

  5. [Anxiety and cognition disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, C S

    1998-01-01

    Anxious subjects present attentional disorders that are manifest with an increased bias towards threatening contents stimuli. In tasks derived from the Stroop task (such as emotional Stroop, a variant of the classic Stroop task) congruence between anxious themes or manifestations and stimuli content induces information processing changes leading to a slowness of response speed. In this case, results are similar to those obtained in signal detection tasks either when information is visually or auditorily presented. In anxious subjects an inconscious activation provoked by anxiogenic words is observed. Because such activation is independent from the semantic content of the words, an emotional priming has been hypothesized. Berck formulated an hypervigilance theory according to which anxiety provokes a selective distractibility regarding non pertinent stimuli. Such attentional selectivity would be responsible of a cognitive vulnerability in anxious subjects. State but not trait anxiety induces working memory performances deficit. On the bases of Baddeley's working memory framework, Eysenck proposed that anxiety uses part of the limited attentional capacity, placing the subject in a dual task situation. In that, he has to cope with pertinent information and anxiety generated information. If anxiety leads to better performance in simple tasks by recruiting motivational capacities, in tasks with high information content, anxious subjects performances are impaired. Changes in the long-term memory do not seem to fit with the theoretical models based on cognitive impairment observed in patients suffering from depressive states. Anxious subjects presented a memory bias towards anxiogenic information in implicit memory tasks. But experimental data are still too searce to describe implicit performance of anxious subjects and more systematic studies are therefore needed.

  6. Negative post-event processing and decreased self-appraisals of performance following social stress in childhood social anxiety: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Julian; Krämer, Martina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2011-11-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) assume that following social evaluative stress, individuals with SP engage into dysfunctional post-event processing (PEP), a detailed negative review of the past event. While previous research has already shown, that children with high levels of social fears suffer from more frequent negative PEP, it remains unclear how stable PEP is across time in this age group and whether it leads to degraded self-appraisals of performance. Therefore in the present study we exposed a group of high (HSA) and low socially anxious children (LSA; both n = 20), aged 10-12 years, to a social evaluative situation and assessed negative and positive PEP as well as self-rated performance at 2.5 h and one week after the task. Our results revealed that HSA children reported more negative PEP than LSA children, independent of levels of depression. Moreover, negative PEP was related to measures of social anxiety and performance ratings within the tasks. Only the performance ratings in HSA children worsened over the course of the following week and were related to more negative PEP. Thus, these results speak for the high clinical relevance dysfunctional PEP may have for the maintenance of social fears already in childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  8. Trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. One hundred sixty-five adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the Dark and Bright Sides of Anxiety: A Theory of Workplace Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bonnie Hayden; McCarthy, Julie M

    2018-01-22

    Researchers have uncovered inconsistent relations between anxiety and performance. Although the prominent view is a "dark side," where anxiety has a negative relation with performance, a "bright side" of anxiety has also been suggested. We reconcile past findings by presenting a comprehensive multilevel, multiprocess model of workplace anxiety called the theory of workplace anxiety (TWA). This model highlights the processes and conditions through which workplace anxiety may lead to debilitative and facilitative job performance and includes 19 theoretical propositions. Drawing on past theories of anxiety, resource depletion, cognitive-motivational processing, and performance, we uncover the debilitative and facilitative nature of dispositional and situational workplace anxiety by positioning emotional exhaustion, self-regulatory processing, and cognitive interference as distinct contrasting processes underlying the relationship between workplace anxiety and job performance. Extending our theoretical model, we pinpoint motivation, ability, and emotional intelligence as critical conditions that shape when workplace anxiety will debilitate and facilitate job performance. We also identify the unique employee, job, and situational characteristics that serve as antecedents of dispositional and situational workplace anxiety. The TWA offers a nuanced perspective on workplace anxiety and serves as a foundation for future work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-08-11

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). In addition to the traditional measures from this test we have extracted raw data and analysed time series using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Fifty patients fulfilled criteria for ADHD, while 49 did not, and were given other psychiatric diagnoses (clinical controls). When compared to the clinical controls the ADHD patients had more omission and commission errors, and higher reaction time variability. Analyses of response times showed higher values for skewness in the ADHD patients, and lower values for sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Among the ADHD patients 59 % fulfilled criteria for a cyclothymic temperament, and this group had higher reaction time variability and lower scores on complexity than the group without this temperament. The CPT-II is a useful instrument in the assessment of ADHD in adult patients. Additional information from this test was obtained by analyzing response times using linear and non-linear methods, and this showed that ADHD patients with a cyclothymic temperament were different from those without this temperament.

  11. Preoperative Anxiety and Its Influence on Patient and Surgeon Satisfaction in Patients Receiving Dental Implant Surgeries Performed Under Intravenous Conscious Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovaira, Maite; Herrero Babiloni, Alberto; Jovaní, María; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; González-Lemonnier, Sandra; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship of age, sex, and type and duration of the surgery with preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing dental implant surgeries under intravenous conscious sedation, and to assess preoperative anxiety association with the postoperative satisfaction of both the patient and surgeon. This prospective study included 180 patients receiving dental implant surgeries under intravenous conscious sedation by means of midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol. Preoperative anxiety (Corah Dental Anxiety Scale), number of implants, duration of surgery, surgeon satisfaction (evaluated as three categories: patient too awake and nervous, adequate sedation, or patient too asleep), and patient satisfaction (classified as five levels: agreeable, neither agreeable nor disagreeable, slightly uncomfortable, unpleasant, traumatic) were recorded. All 180 patients completed the study, and 72.2% of them experienced moderate or high levels of anxiety. The mean Corah scale score was 9.2 ± 3.5. Anxiety was significantly higher among men but showed no relation to age. A significant relationship was found between patient anxiety and the number of implants: those patients who received eight or more implants, with a duration of surgery longer than 60 minutes, had lower anxiety. Surgeon satisfaction was adequate in 90% of the cases. Patients evaluated the procedure as agreeable in 34.4% of cases, neither agreeable nor disagreeable in 26.7%, slightly uncomfortable in 29.4%, unpleasant in 7.8%, and traumatic in 1.7%. High anxiety levels were related with poor patient satisfaction but not with surgeon satisfaction. Preoperative anxiety was moderate or high in two-thirds of patients undergoing dental implant surgeries, having a negative influence on patient satisfaction, but not affecting surgeon satisfaction. Additionally, the intravenous conscious sedation technique was considered a satisfactory technique by the surgeon to control anxiety.

  12. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  13. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Training with mild anxiety may prevent choking under higher levels of anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Pijpers, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether training with mild levels of anxiety helps in maintaining performance under higher levels of anxiety. Methods: Novices practiced dart throwing while they were hanging low on a climbing wall either with or without mild anxiety. After training,

  15. Interaction of Induced Anxiety and Verbal Working Memory: Influence of Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilam; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may…

  16. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  17. Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P; Beaton, G H; Lein, D

    1993-09-01

    Vitamin intakes of 255 toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) were estimated from food consumption recorded during 1 y at sites in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Mean intakes were compared with requirements standards by using a probability approach to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes. There were predicted inadequacies for vitamin A (32%) and riboflavin (20%) in Egypt, vitamins A (68%) and C (63%) and riboflavin (52%) in Mexico, and vitamin B-12 (44%) in Kenya. Vitamin E was inadequate in all diets, but in relation to polyunsaturated fatty acids only the intake in Mexico was low. No diet provided the recommended amount of vitamin D, but its dietary requirement is uncertain. Correlations among nutrient intakes suggest factors that may contribute to reported associations of consumption of animal products with improved growth or development among these children: provision of vitamin B-12 and available minerals, displacement of fiber and phytate-rich energy sources, and increased energy density.

  18. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  19. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  20. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  1. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  2. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  3. A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, India; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Battaglia, Marco; Achim, Amélie M

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d = -1.13) and emotion recognition (d = -1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d = -0.53 to d = -1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Career Teachers' Sense of Professional Agency in the Classroom: Associations with Turnover Intentions and Perceived Inadequacy in Teacher-Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The…

  5. [An evaluation of anxiety and depression symptoms in fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emanuella Barros; Quintans Junior, Lucindo José; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, José Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was, respectively, 50% and 86% for individuals with fibromyalgia, and the mean trait-anxiety score was 59.38. An association was observed between trait and state anxiety. Anxiety and depression were frequent symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. However, anxiety appeared as a secondary symptom to depression, appearing in a more severe form, and, therefore, this comorbidity should be more valued and studied.

  6. RECOGNITION AND DEALING WITH ATHLETES’ ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2009-01-01

    The work analizes the impact of excitement, anxiety and stress on athletes. The most common causes of anxiety have been reviewed (increased muscle tension, difficul- ties in movement coordination, differences in attention and concentration levels) and so have the co-factors on the road from excitement to performance: character, the comple- xity of the task, and the presence of an audience. The most important strategies of recog- nition of, and dealing with, anxiety are thus proposed: identifi...

  7. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  8. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  9. Delivery care and the inadequacy of the obstetric care network in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Katharina Rohr

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: this study aims to evaluate parturition distribution of live-born children within the First Health Regional Administration (GERES I in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil in 2012. Methods: live Birth Certificates were used to evaluate displacements between pregnant women's residential municipalities and birth localities. Flux maps were constructed to represent pregnant women transferred to Recife, and the estimated number of live-borns with high-risk and regular births was calculated for each municipality. Results: in 2012, only 50% of the births of live babies in the GERES I took place at the original residential municipality of the mother. In Recife, the number of childbirths was 1.5 times greater than expected for this year, with 56% representing non-residents. Eleven municipalities of the GERES I have maternity hospitals, however, none of these responded to the expected number of regular risk births. Conclusions: this disruption of the obstetric network leads to the disrespecting of women's right to know beforehand the place of childbirth and to create bonds with it. Municipalities perform fewer childbirths than expected, resulting in unnecessary transfers and the overloading of maternity hospitals in Recife.

  10. Anxiety: an evolutionary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, M; Brilot, B; Nettle, D

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other ...

  11. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  12. Anxiety in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, D P H; House, A

    2000-01-01

    Anxiety is common in cancer patient populations, and must often initially be recognized and managed by cancer care professionals. This article reviews the recent oncology and mental health literature on anxiety. The aim is to help those involved in cancer patient care who are not specialists in mental health to understand the nature of anxiety, and discriminate morbid from normal anxiety. We review recent research into the association of anxiety with events during diagnosis and management of ...

  13. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, ...

  14. Teachers Awareness of Students' Anxiety in Math Classroom: Teachers' Treatment VS Students' Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Yanuarto, Wanda Nugroho

    2016-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that pr...

  15. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  16. RECOGNITION AND DEALING WITH ATHLETES’ ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work analizes the impact of excitement, anxiety and stress on athletes. The most common causes of anxiety have been reviewed (increased muscle tension, difficul- ties in movement coordination, differences in attention and concentration levels and so have the co-factors on the road from excitement to performance: character, the comple- xity of the task, and the presence of an audience. The most important strategies of recog- nition of, and dealing with, anxiety are thus proposed: identification the optimum combi- nation of emotions, recongition of personal and situation-caused factors, recognition of athletes’ anxiety symptoms, individual training strategy and developing self confidence

  17. Effect of Test Anxiety, Locus of Control, and Use of Information Retrieval Aids on Academic and Predicted Performance of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Sally Lechlitner; And Others

    Parallel studies, by Sally L. Lusk at the University of Michigan, and by Linda Petty at Hampton Institute (Virginia), tested the hypothesis that students with a high amount of test anxiety would derive the greatest benefit from using information retrieval aids in the form of notecards during an examination. Also examined was the relationship…

  18. Project- versus Lecture-Based Courses: Assessing the Role of Course Structure on Perceived Utility, Anxiety, Academic Performance, and Satisfaction in the Undergraduate Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenking, Bridget; Dodd, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that undergraduate research methods students doubt the utility of course content and experience math and research anxiety. Research also suggests involving students in hands-on, applied research activities, although empirical data on the scope and nature of these activities are lacking. This study compared academic…

  19. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  20. Sport-related anxiety: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety.

  1. Anxiety, Learning, and Memory: A Reconceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Michael W.

    1979-01-01

    From a review of empirical research, a new theoretical synthesis of anxiety's effect on learning and memory is proposed: anxiety always reduces processing effectiveness, by generating task-irrelevant processing activities, but this will not impair performance efficiency if sufficient compensatory effort is expended. (SJL)

  2. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

  3. Effect of anxiety on cortical cerebral blood flow and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Skolnick, B.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 Flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance

  4. Inadequacy and Indebtedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geistwhite, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the fee arrangement has significant influence on the psychotherapeutic process even when there is no fee. Given the large number of psychiatrists who receive at least some part of their training in the public system, understanding the no-fee arrangement is vital to the psychodynamic training of future psychiatrists. Following a brief overview of the meaning of money and the fee arrangement, various scenarios are considered under the headings of “inadequacy” and “indebtedness.” Although similar dynamics may be present in other public and private settings, attention is given to the county training program, with the intent to assist psychiatry residents and supervisors in their awareness and understanding of the psychodynamics of psychotherapy without fee. PMID:10896739

  5. Inadequacies of Dogmatic Realism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Exner, Philip J

    1996-01-01

    ... This dichotomy between America's innate political Idealism and its operational pragmatism has plagued U S foreign policy since it emerged as a world power at the turn of the century and has often...

  6. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  7. Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, S J; Gibson, P R

    2013-08-01

    Life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only recognised treatment for coeliac disease (CD). The present study aimed to determine the nutritional adequacy of the 'no detectable gluten' diet. Seven-day prospective food intake was assessed in 55 patients who were adherent to a GFD for more than 2 years and in 50 newly-diagnosed age- and sex-matched patients (18-71 years, 24% male) studied prospectively over 12 months on GFD. Historical precoeliac intake was also assessed in the latter group. Intake was compared with Australian Nutritional Recommendations and the Australian population data. Nutritional intake was similar between groups. Of macronutrients, only starch intake fell over 12 months (26% to 23%, P = 0.04). Fibre intake was inadequate for all except in diet-experienced men. More than one in 10 of both newly-diagnosed and experienced women had inadequate thiamin, folate, vitamin A, magnesium, calcium and iron intakes. More than one in 10 newly-diagnosed men had inadequate thiamin, folate, magnesium, calcium and zinc intakes. Inadequate intake did not relate to nutrient density of the GFD. Inadequacies of folate, calcium, iron and zinc occurred more frequently than in the Australian population. The frequency of inadequacies was similar pre- and post-diagnosis, except for thiamin and vitamin A, where inadequacies were more common after GFD implementation. Dietary intake patterns at 12 months on a GFD are similar to longer-term intake. Dietary inadequacies are common and may relate to habitual poor food choices in addition to inherent deficiencies in the GFD. Dietary education should also address the achievement of adequate micronutrient intake. Fortification of GF foods also need to be considered. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Gender differences in test anxiety and their impact on higher education students' academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Peña, María Isabel; Suárez Pellicioni, Macarena; Bono Cabré, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Test anxiety has detrimental effects on the academic performance of many university students. Moreover, female students usually report higher levels of test anxiety than do their male peers. The present study examined gender differences in test, trait, and math anxiety among university students, as well as differences in their academic achievement. Participants were 168 students from the University of Barcelona, all of whom completed measures of test anxiety, math anxiety, and trait anxiety. ...

  9. "We don't have the infrastructure to support them at home": How health system inadequacies impact on long-term care admissions of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Nora-Ann; Humphries, Niamh; Hickey, Anne; Doyle, Frank

    2017-12-01

    The influence of healthcare system factors on long-term care admissions has received relatively little attention. We address this by examining how inadequacies in the healthcare system impact on long-term care admissions of people with dementia. This is done in the context of the Irish healthcare system. Thirty-eight qualitative in-depth interviews with healthcare professionals and family carers were conducted. Interviews focused on participants' perceptions of the main factors which influence admission to long-term care. Interviews were analysed thematically. The findings suggest that long-term care admissions of people with dementia may be affected by inadequacies in the healthcare system in three ways. Firstly, participants regarded the economic crisis in Ireland to have exacerbated the under-resourcing of community care services. These services were also reported to be inequitable. Consequently, the effectiveness of community care was seen to be limited. Secondly, such limits in community care appear to increase acute hospital admissions. Finally, admission of people with dementia to acute hospitals was believed to accelerate the journey towards long-term care. Inadequacies in the healthcare system are reported to have a substantial impact on the threshold for long-term care admissions. The findings indicate that we cannot fully understand the factors that predict long-term care admission of people with dementia without accounting for healthcare system factors on the continuation of homecare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Caregiver anxiety due to interstage feeding concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Dempster, Robert; Allen, Robin; Miller-Tate, Holly; Dickson, Gabrielle; Fichtner, Samantha; Principe, Alex J; Fonseca, Rachel; Nicholson, Lisa; Cua, Clifford L

    2015-01-01

    Improved weight gain during the interstage (IS) period has been shown to improve overall outcomes in patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP). This emphasis on nutrition may have untoward effects, such as increasing anxiety/stress levels in caregivers, who are already known to be at risk for increased anxiety/stress levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate anxiety/stress levels of caregivers as it pertains to feeding during the IS period and to determine if certain characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress scores. Caregivers of children with SVP who completed the IS period, defined as the time between the first and second cardiac surgeries, were recruited. Baseline demographics were obtained. Anxiety/stress levels were measured via eight questions using a 0- to 10-point scale. Correlations were performed between demographic variables and anxiety/stress level scores. Fifty-six surveys were completed (39 males, 27 females) on 43 children. Fourteen children required tube feeds during the IS period. There were significant correlations between anxiety/stress scores and caregiver's gender, caregiver's age, caregiver's level of education, percent of time a caregiver spent feeding the child, if caregivers were taking medications for anxiety, and if the child was seen in the emergency room during the IS period. There were no correlation of anxiety/stress scores with caregiver's race, child's underlying cardiac diagnosis, age of child, route of feeding during the IS period, birth order of the child or number of children in the family, relationship status, or distance from the hospital. In general, caregivers of children with SVP experience anxiety/stress during the IS period specifically due to feeding concerns. Certain intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress levels. Future studies are needed to determine how to minimize anxiety/stress levels during this stressful time period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  11. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sports performance. In essence, anxiety is a psychological and physical state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive and behavioral components. The root meaning of the word anxiety is to vex or trouble; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness ...

  12. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety is made up of mental and physiological components. Researchers have indicated that there is a relationship between anxiety and performance. Present paper tries to investigate the level of anxiety between student players of different games, football volleyball and basketball representing different universities at ...

  13. Changes in state anxiety prior to competition | Mabweazara | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown that competitive anxiety can negatively affect athletic performance. Psychological interventions must be used in the pre-competition period to prevent the debilitative effects of state anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal changes in state anxiety in the period leading up to ...

  14. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... to test their independence. To get over separation anxiety, children need to: Feel safe in their home. Trust ...

  15. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms are ...

  16. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  17. AN EVALUATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Emanuella Barros dos; Quintans Junior, Lucindo Jose; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, Jose Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the S...

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  19. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  20. The relation between public speaking anxiety and social anxiety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöte, Anke W; Kint, Marcia J W; Miers, Anne C; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2009-04-01

    This article reviewed the literature on public speaking anxiety in the context of social phobia subtyping. In total, 18 empirical studies on subtype issues related to public speaking anxiety were analyzed. Results of the reviewed studies are discussed in relation to their research method, that is, whether it focused on qualitative or quantitative aspects of subtype differences and whether it used a clinical or community sample. Evidence supported the premise that public speaking anxiety is a distinct subtype, qualitatively and quantitatively different from other subtypes of social phobia. The significance of this finding for social phobia studies using speech tasks to assess participants' state anxiety and behavioral performance is discussed.

  1. Competitive anxiety in young athletes: differentiating somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbard, Joel R; Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P

    2009-03-01

    The age-appropriate Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming, & Grossbard, 2006) was used to assess levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety among male and female youth sport participants. Confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of 9-14 year old athletes (N=1038) supported the viability of a three-factor model of anxiety involving somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption previously demonstrated in high school and college samples. Tests for factorial invariance revealed that the three-factor model was an equally good fit for 9-11 year olds and 12-14 year olds, and for both males and females. Gender and age were modestly related to anxiety scores. Worry about performing poorly was highest in girls and in older athletes, whereas boys reported higher levels of concentration disruption in competitive sport situations. Implications for emotional perception and for the study of competitive anxiety in young athletes are discussed.

  2. Mathematics anxiety: what have we learned in 60 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eDowker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of 'number anxiety' was introduced by Dreger & Aiken (1957, and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned.

  3. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of...

  4. Balance deficit enhances anxiety and balance training decreases anxiety in vestibular mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Shahar; Gordon, Carlos; Avraham, Karen B; Mintz, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of anxiety disorders by either pharmacological or behavioral means is applied with the intention to directly target the limbic system or high brain centers that down-regulate limbic activity. In spite of intense and long treatment, remission is not achieved in many patients, suggesting that their pathophysiology is not addressed by either of the above treatments. An alternative pathophysiology may be a disordered vestibular system, which may be studied in the context of comorbidity of balance and anxiety disorders. Here we studied whether mutant vestibular Headbanger (Hdb) mice demonstrate elevated anxiety and whether physical treatment of balance alleviates the behavioral symptoms of anxiety. Hdb and wildtype (Wt) mice were raised in either balance training or standard cages and were subjected repeatedly at 1-3 months of age to balance and anxiety-related tests. Results demonstrated progressive deterioration of balance performance and parallel elevation of anxiety in untrained Hdb as compared to untrained Wt mice. Training significantly improved balance performance of Hdb mice and in parallel, decreased the level of anxiety compared to untrained Hdb mice. These findings confirm that vestibular pathophysiology may be causally related to development of anxiety and suggest that in some clinical cases of anxiety, the appropriate treatment is physical rehabilitation of balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The nature of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, H G

    1998-01-01

    The essential feature of social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a fear of scrutiny by other people in social or performance situations. The level of anxiety experienced by the person with social anxiety disorder is excessive, and results in substantial impairment in the sufferer's social, family, and professional life. Three distinct subtypes of the disorder have been identified: generalized social anxiety disorder, in which the individual fears a multitude of social situations; nongeneralized social anxiety disorder, in which only 2 or 3 situations are feared; and public-speaking phobia. Results from a number of studies suggest that these subtypes of social anxiety disorder may represent distinct clinical syndromes, with the generalized subtype producing the most severe disability. Despite the prevalence of social anxiety disorder and the disability it causes, this condition remains underdiagnosed, and thus undertreated, by clinicians. This review discusses the barriers that prevent people who have this disorder from seeking help, and the steps that clinicians can take to aid their recognition and treatment of the disorder. It is only by effective diagnosis and treatment that the burden of social anxiety disorder will be lifted, allowing patients to resume a normal life.

  6. Maternal stress during pregnancy causes sex-specific alterations in offspring memory performance, social interactions, indices of anxiety, and body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Neeley, Eric W.; Berger, Ralph; Leonard, Sherry; Adams, Catherine E.; Stevens, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) impairs memory function; however, it is not clear whether PS-induced memory deficits are specific to spatial memory, or whether memory is more generally compromised by PS. Here we sought to distinguish between these possibilities by assessing spatial, recognition and contextual memory function in PS and nonstressed (NS) rodents. We also measured anxiety-related and social behaviors to determine whether our unpredictable PS paradigm generates a behavioral phenotype comparable to previous studies. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to daily random stress during the last gestational week and behavior tested in adulthood. In males but not females, PS decreased memory for novel objects and novel spatial locations, and facilitated memory for novel object/context pairings. In the elevated zero maze, PS increased anxiety-related behavior only in females. Social behaviors also varied with sex and PS condition. Females showed more anogenital sniffing regardless of stress condition. In contrast, prenatal stress eliminated a male-biased sex difference in nonspecific bodily sniffing by decreasing sniffing in males, and increasing sniffing in females. Finally, PS males but not females gained significantly more weight across adulthood than did NS controls. In summary, these data indicate that PS differentially impacts males and females resulting in sex-specific adult behavioral and bodily phenotypes. PMID:21334352

  7. Anticipatory Processing, Maladaptive Attentional Focus, and Postevent Processing for Interactional and Performance Situations: Treatment Response and Relationships With Symptom Change for Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Quincy J J; Gregory, Bree; McLellan, Lauren F; Kangas, Maria; Abbott, Maree J; Carpenter, Leigh; McEvoy, Peter M; Peters, Lorna; Rapee, Ronald M

    2017-09-01

    Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task. Across both tasks, the three cognitive process variables demonstrated decreases from pre- to posttreatment. Within the same task, a slower rate of decrease in a specific cognitive process variable from pre- to posttreatment was predicted from higher pretreatment levels of either one or both of the other cognitive process variables. Additionally, higher levels of pretreatment conversation-related anticipatory processing and maladaptive attentional focus predicted a slower rate of decrease in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Results are consistent with cognitive models of SAD and have important implications for enhancing existing treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of a clinical skills refresher course on the clinical performance, anxiety and self-efficacy of the final year undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Houser, Marian L; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Kermanshahi, Seyedeh Sosan Nouri; Torabi, Sedigheh

    2017-11-01

    Although the final year of nursing undergraduate programs that focus on clinical education are planned to prepare nursing students to better transition to the real world of health care service; evidence has shown that this program is not sufficient to reach this end goal. This controlled trial study was to investigate the effectiveness of a basic clinical skills refresher course for nursing students before entering the internship program. The sample consisted of 160 undergraduate nursing students assigned into two groups. The intervention was a three-day refresher course directed by nurse instructors for intervention group focused on 10 basic nursing procedures in the clinical skill lab. The control group did not receive any intervention. The students' anxiety, clinical self- efficacy and clinical skills practice were measured before and after intervention in both groups. The results indicated that the students who took part in the refresher course experienced lower anxiety levels, higher levels of clinical self-efficacy, and have better clinical skills during their internships. The undergraduate nursing curriculum can be strengthened by the basic clinical skills refresher course. This refresher course can bridge the theory - practice gap and provide a better transition from the student to nurse role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New’ Performance Measures: Determinants of Their Use and Their Impact on Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the extent to which Dutch organizations use ‘new’ performance measures to deal with the perceived inadequacies of traditional accounting performance measures. In addition, the determinants of the use of these ‘new’ performance measures are documented; finally, the

  10. Neurocognitive Correlates of Apathy and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bogdanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is associated with various nonmotor symptoms including neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relation between apathy, anxiety, side of onset of motor symptoms, and cognition in PD. We hypothesized that PD patients would show different neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive profiles depending on the side of onset. 22 nondemented PD patients (11 right-side onset (RPD with predominant left-hemisphere pathology, and 11 LPD and 22 matched healthy controls (NC were administered rating scales assessing apathy and anxiety, and a series of neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher anxiety level than NC. There was a significant association between apathy, anxiety, and disease duration. In LPD, apathy but not anxiety was associated with performance on nonverbally mediated executive function and visuospatial measures, whereas, in RPD, anxiety but not apathy correlated with performance on verbally mediated tasks. Our findings demonstrated a differential association of apathy and anxiety to cognition in PD.

  11. Anxiety and Death Anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…

  12. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  14. Generalised anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Christopher K; Millichamp, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, ...

  15. Sleep and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staner, Luc

    2003-09-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-autonomic nervous system may play major roles in the arousal response to stress. It has been suggested that these systems may be particularly vulnerable to prolonged or repeated stress, further leading to a dysfunctional arousal state and pathological anxiety states, Polysomnographic studies documented limited alteration of sleep in anxiety disorders. There is some indication for alteration in sleep maintenance in generalized anxiety disorder and for both sleep initiation and maintenance in panic disorder; no clear picture emerges for obsessive-compulsive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Finally, an unequivocal sleep architecture profile that could specifically relate to a particular anxiety disorder could not be evidenced; in contrast, conflicting results are often found for the same disorder. Discrepancies between studies could have been related to illness severity, diagnostic comorbidity, and duration of illness. A brief treatment approach for each anxiety disorder is also suggested with a special focus on sleep.

  16. [The role of regular physical activity in the prevention and intervention of symptoms of anxiety and anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna; Stauder, Adrienne

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness, but are not uniform, many clinical diagnoses include the symptoms of anxiety. That is the reason why there are relatively small numbers of population surveys and randomized-controlled trials which have examined the relationship between exercise and the various anxiety symptoms/ disorders. In our review we summarize meta-analytic studies, epidemiological surveys and randomized controlled studies which examine the role of regular physical activity in the prevention and treatment of subclinical anxiety/anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. The meta-analytic studies and randomized-controlled trials examining the relationship between subclinical anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms demonstrated small to moderate effect of exercise in the decrease of anxiety symptoms, especially for moderate-intensity exercise. This relationship was confirmed for both acute and chronic exercise, for state and trait anxiety in different sex, age and state of health groups. In the case of the anxiety disorders based on reviewed studies, we can conclude that there is a potential association between decreased symptoms of anxiety and exercise. The regular, moderate-intensity exercise can reduce and alleviate the symptoms of anxiety - at least in panic, agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorders. The reviewed studies have been highlighted the fact, that exercise can be effective in psychiatric practice as an alternative or adjuvant therapy. Physically healthy people with anxiety symptoms, or patients with anxiety disorders can perform exercise, there are no contraindications. Although based on previous studies, we cannot assume that the relationship is causal, but we cannot ignore the evidences that are already available.

  17. The effects of relaxing music for anxiety control on competitive sport anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave; Polman, Remco; Taylor, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of relaxing music for anxiety control on measures of competitive state anxiety and the performance of a simple motor skill. Seventy-two undergraduate students volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were informed that they would be required to partake in a sport competition, possibly with an audience present, and possibly whilst being filmed. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions, listening to relaxing music for anxiety control, listening to non-relaxing music or a no music control. During the 10-minute intervention period, measures of anxiety (CSAI-2R, subjective relaxation and HR) were taken on three occasions (baseline, pre-intervention and post-intervention). Repeated measures MANOVA showed that all three interventions provoked significant reductions in competitive state anxiety. Condition had no impact upon any of the DVs. These results suggest that listening to relaxing music for anxiety control was no more effective at reducing competitive state anxiety than non-relaxing music or a period of silence. ES, mean difference and 90% CI data did however provide some support for the application of relaxing music for anxiety control. There were no between-condition differences in motor task performance.

  18. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  19. Attentional networks and visuospatial working memory capacity in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety. They then performed an attentional network test and a change detection task to measure visuospatial WMC. Orienting network and visuospatial WMC were positively correlated with social anxiety. A multiple regression analysis showed significant positive associations of alerting, orienting, and visuospatial WMC with social anxiety. Alerting, orienting networks, and high visuospatial WMC for non-emotional stimuli may predict degree of social anxiety.

  20. Mathematics Anxiety: What Have We Learned in 60 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowker, Ann; Sarkar, Amar; Looi, Chung Yen

    2016-01-01

    The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of “number anxiety” was introduced by Dreger and Aiken (1957), and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age, and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned. PMID:27199789

  1. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  2. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAD - children; Anxiety disorder - children ... The cause of GAD is unknown. Genes may play a role. Children with family members who have an anxiety disorder also may be more likely to have one. Stress may be a factor in developing GAD. Things ...

  3. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...

  4. Anxiety in family practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases – latest version) criteria may already be daunting, but to complicate matters further, anxiety disorders sel- dom present in isolation. Furthermore anxiety may be the presenting symp- tom of another psychiatric disorder or of a physical illness, for example, the presenting complaint of a patient with a major depressive ...

  5. Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, rates of social anxiety disorder(SAD or social phobia range from 3% to 16% in the generalpopulation.[1,2]Social phobia and specific phobias have an earlier ageof onset than other anxiety disorders.

  6. Anxiety and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, David J

    2015-09-01

    The DSM-5 process, and the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, have had a considerable impact on the classification of anxiety disorders. Major changes included the reorganization of the chapter structure, individual groupings of disorders within each chapter from a life span viewpoint, and the use of specifiers. The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders does not include obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The chapter itself now reflects a developmental approach. The text of each disorder has been enhanced with short sections on development and course, risk and prognostic factors, etc. It is expected that the reformulation of anxiety disorders in DSM-5 will lead to greater precision in a variety of ways, as illustrated in the papers in this issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. In summary, these changes in the way we classify anxiety disorders reflect our best view on the clinical empirical data and should prove useful in the assessment of specific anxiety disorders.

  7. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  8. Exposure to low doses of 137cesium and nicotine during postnatal development modifies anxiety levels, learning, and spatial memory performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés, Montserrat; Heredia, Luis; Serra, Noemí; Domingo, José L; Linares, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development. In this study, we evaluated in mice the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ( 137 Cs) and Nic during neonatal brain development. On postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of C57BL/6J mice were subcutaneously exposed to 137-Cesium ( 137 Cs) (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or Nic (100 μg/ml). At the age of two months, neurobehavior of mice was assessed. Results showed that exposure to IR-alone or in combination with Nic-increased the anxiety-like of the animals without changing the activity levels. Moreover, exposure to IR impaired learning and spatial memory. However, Nic administration was able to reverse this effect, but only at the low dose of 137 Cs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  10. An investigation of anxiety about radiotherapy deploying the radiotherapy categorical anxiety scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Karasawa, Kumiko; Ito, Kana; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Izawa, Hiromi; Kawase, Eri; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the major methods for treating cancer, but many patients undergoing radiotherapy have deep concerns about receiving radiation treatment. This problem is not generally appreciated and has not been adequately studied. The objective of this investigation was to empirically investigate the anxieties that cancer patients feel towards radiotherapy by using questionnaires to classify and quantitatively measure their concerns. A preliminary interview to develop a questionnaire was carried out with 48 patients receiving radiotherapy to discover their anxieties about on-going treatments. Subsequently, a main study was performed using a questionnaire with 185 patients to classify their types of anxiety and to ascertain the reliability and validity of the responses. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out with a 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale. Three anxiety factors were abstracted by factor analysis: adverse effects of radiotherapy, environment of radiotherapy, and treatment effects of radiotherapy. Reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity were obtained. The adequacy of the three-factor model of anxiety concerning radiotherapy was confirmed. A 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale was formulated to quantitatively measure the specific types of anxiety among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Jensen, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... Skills); both courses were offered in multiple classes (with a total of 171 students in 2009 and 156 students in 2010). All classes in 2009 participated in the SSL stage of the Basic Surgical Skills course before performing live-animal surgery, and one class (28 students) in 2010 did not. Two validated...

  12. Academic Anxiety, Locus of Control, and Achievement in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Paul L.; Smith, Douglas U.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships among prior achievement, academic anxiety, locus of control, and performance in the first year of medical school were examined. Academic anxiety was found to be significantly related to first-year performance and when combined with a measure of prior achievement, resulted in a significant increase in prediction. (Author/MLW)

  13. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and ...

  14. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  15. STUDENTS OF ECONOMICS’ ANXIETY TOWARDS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Faritovna Kalganova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores language anxiety which has shown a substantially negative impact on performance. This paper reveals four related levels of language anxiety such as communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, level of language performance, and their correlations with macro and micro social variables like age, gender, bilingual environment.A total 103 male and female English-language learners of the Economic faculty, Federal Kazan University, completed two questionnaires: a background questionnaire and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale.The results showed that girls experience greater psychological discomfort in the process of foreign language learning; the greatest concern of students is language anxiety in test situations; first-year students as a whole are more susceptible to language anxiety.The task of a teacher is to create a favorable psychological climate in the classroom of a foreign language in order to removing barriers to development and a better perception of the subject matter.

  16. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C.; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to ...

  17. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Results Event-related potentials were rec...

  18. To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? A psychometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ≥4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ≥10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ≥4 and ≥10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829

  19. Explicit memory in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Roth, W.T.; Andrich, M.; Margraf, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study selective memory bias favoring anxiety-relevant materials in patients with anxiety disorders. In the 1st experiment, 32 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 30 with social phobia (speaking anxiety), and 31 control participants incidentally learned

  20. Generalized anxiety disorder (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry about 2 or more life circumstances for a period of 6 months or longer. Biological and genetic factors may combine with stress to produce psychological symptoms.

  1. Doxepin (Depression, Anxiety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxepin is used to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain ...

  2. Gratitude lessens death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rosanna W L; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether a brief gratitude induction could reduce death anxiety. 83 Chinese older adults (mean age = 62.7, SD = 7.13) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: gratitude, hassle, and neutral, in which they wrote different types of life events before responding to measures of death anxiety and affect. Participants in the gratitude induction reported lower death anxiety than the hassle and the neutral condition, whereas no difference was observed for the latter two conditions. There was no experimental effect on positive affect, and a significant effect on negative affect but which did not favor the gratitude condition. By reexamining life events with a thankful attitude, people may become less fearful of death due to a sense that life has been well-lived. Because gratitude can be induced using a very brief procedure, there are broad applications in clinical and health-care settings for the relief of death anxiety.

  3. Anxiety States In Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter C.

    1978-01-01

    The up-to-date prevention and management of anxiety states in childhood is discussed with particular reference to the different presentations of anxiety and the ways in which preventive measures may be used. Anxiety creating developmental lag, mimicking other conditions, and appearing in very specific forms is mentioned. Techniques for handling are introduced together with some suggestions on the responsibility of the family doctor in this whole area of psychological medicine. In this article, the child is seen as part of a family setting; the effect of disturbances in the family constellation resulting in anxiety for the child is described. Some suggestions for ways in which the physician may be involved in patient and parent education are put forward. PMID:21301539

  4. Neurotic nucleus and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, A F; Hall, V; Stout, D

    1991-11-01

    Undergraduate university students (N = 103) participated in a study of the relationship between test anxiety and the variables of trait anxiety, self-esteem, locus of control, mental ability, and gender. Results indicated bivariate associations between total test anxiety and the other measures except for mental ability. Further analyses revealed independent relationships between the "worry" component of test anxiety and the variables of trait anxiety, internality, chance, and mental ability. We also found independent associations between the "emotionality" aspect of test anxiety and the measures of trait anxiety and chance.

  5. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-11-01

    Assessing anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a recent focus, and a number of studies have extensively investigated the validity of anxiety rating scales in PD. The present review aims to provide an overview of anxiety scales widely used and/or validated in PD, and to highlight recommendations for future research required in this area. A literature search was performed using terms such as Parkinson* disease, psychiatric, depress*, anxiety, assessment, scales, and valid* in PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Validation studies and reviews focussed on assessment of anxiety in PD were included. The literature search identified nine anxiety rating scales. The new Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS) showed good psychometric properties. Having a simple design appropriate for older adults and items focussed on cognitive anxiety, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) also appeared promising for use in PD. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) did not demonstrate satisfactory psychometric characteristics when used in PD, while other scales had limited or no evidence of validity or reliability to infer judgments. PAS and GAI are can be recommended for use in PD without dementia. Usefulness of these scales to assess anxiety in dementia should be examined in the future. Moreover, the complex symptomatology of anxiety relating to "off" PD medication states were not addressed in these scales. Further research is required to develop an anxiety scale tailored for PD.

  6. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Animal models of social anxiety disorder and their validity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João

    2014-09-26

    Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anxiety in clinical settings: constructing a scale for medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana Ramos; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique; Afonso, Rosa Marina

    2014-01-01

    The Scale of Anxiety in Clinical Setting (SACS) was constructed to assess the level of anxiety of medical students when exposed to the clinical setting and also to identify what situations are more likely to trigger higher levels of anxiety in that context. This instrument consists of 12 items and was constructed on the basis of the review of the literature on the topic of anxiety in clinical setting, and data from a focus group conducted with students between the 1st and the 5th year of the Medical course at University of Beira Interior (n = 10). The Scale of Anxiety in Clinical Setting psychometric properties were tested through a study with 557 medical students of four Portuguese universities, between the 1st and the 6th year. The Scale of Anxiety in Clinical Setting validation included the analysis of three key parameters: sensitivity, reliability and factorial validity, the last resulting in four factors: 'displeasure before invasive procedures', 'anxiety toward the sick', 'anxiety about performance' and 'anxiety toward the human dimension' with 70.6% of the variance explained. Total Scale of Anxiety in Clinical Setting shows a good internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.84) and a good discriminatory ability, presenting as a consistent and reliable instrument for the assessment of anxiety in medical students when exposed to the clinical setting. The Scale of Anxiety in Clinical Setting evaluates the anxiety in medical students when exposed to the clinical setting and may be useful in the delineation of teaching strategies for the preparation of future doctors.

  9. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the

  10. Relationships between locus of control and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R P

    1979-12-01

    Reviews findings on the relationships between locus of control and anxiety and examines these relationships for three types of anxiety measures; general trait anxiety, situation specific trait anxiety, and state anxiety. In general, findings support the existence of meaningful relationships between greater externality and higher levels of both general trait anxiety and test anxiety. It was suggested that the relation between locus of control and state anxiety is a function of the situational context in which state anxiety is measured.

  11. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  12. Comparisons of Test Anxiety Level of Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test anxiety has been noted to be a common experience among students and has been found to have a debilitating effect on academic performance and general well-being of affected people. Despite the universality of the experience, the manifestation of test anxiety varies across some psychosocial and demographic ...

  13. Anxiety in the preoperative phase of awake brain tumor surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, Carla; Huenges Wajer, I.M.C.; Robe, Pierre; van Zandvoort, Martine

    OBJECTIVE: Awake surgery emerges as a standard of care for brain tumors located in or near eloquent areas. Levels of preoperative anxiety in patients are important, because anxiety can influence cognitive performance and participation, hence altering the outcome of the procedure. In this study we

  14. Anxiety in the preoperative phase of awake brain tumor surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, C.; Huenges Wajer, I.M.C.; Robe, Pierre; van Zandvoort, M.J.E.

    Objective Awake surgery emerges as a standard of care for brain tumors located in or near eloquent areas. Levels of preoperative anxiety in patients are important, because anxiety can influence cognitive performance and participation, hence altering the outcome of the procedure. In this study we

  15. Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…

  16. test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating ... unwholesome ways of life, as these will help reduce cheating tendencies during examinations. KEYWORDS:Test anxiety; Attitude ... performance in examination is encouraging, then it indicates that the ...

  17. Treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews of randomized controlled studies. Anxiety disorders should be treated with psychological therapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be regarded as the psychotherapy with the highest level of evidence. First-line drugs are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for routine use. Other treatment options include pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, buspirone, moclobemide, and others. After remission, medications should be continued for 6 to 12 months. When developing a treatment plan, efficacy, adverse effects, interactions, costs, and the preference of the patient should be considered.

  18. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  19. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the

  20. Relation of assertiveness and anxiety among Iranian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, T T; Aghajani, M; Baheiraei, A; Neiestanak, N S

    2010-12-01

    • The findings from the present study revealed that less than 30% of nursing and midwifery students have high assertiveness and only half of them have low anxiety. • Assertiveness and anxiety have negative correlations in nursing and midwifery students and affect the mental health and educational and occupational performance of the students. • Many factors such as years of education and working while studying influence the level of assertiveness in the students. • The anxiety in students had a significant relation with the father's level of education, family income, etc. The simultaneous existence of low assertiveness and high anxiety in nursing and midwifery students leads to the disruption of study performance. There exists little information concerning their assertiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation of assertiveness and anxiety in nursing and midwifery students. In this correlational, cross-sectional study, 173 nursing students (68 males and 105 females) and 77 midwifery students were recruited from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire including personal-social factors, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Assertion Inventory of Gambrill and Richey. More than half of the nursing and midwifery students (59.5% and 59.7%, respectively) had moderate assertiveness. Also, 43.3% and 36.4% of them had moderate and high levels of anxiety. Pearson correlation test revealed that assertiveness and anxiety had negative correlations in nursing (r=-0.51, P assertiveness and anxiety among the students. Considering the relation of assertiveness and anxiety and its effects on mental health and educational and occupational performance, students should be informed of the required skills for positive interaction with others and to increase assertiveness and decrease anxiety. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. The relationship between evaluative concerns and sport competition state anxiety among youth skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, S R; Martin, K A; Widmeyer, W N

    2000-05-01

    Thirty-four youth competitive skiers (mean age = 13.74 years) completed measures of social evaluative concern and competitive anxiety. Consistent with past research, regression analyses showed that cognitive anxiety was related to performance-specific evaluative concerns. However, contrary to current conceptualizations of sport competition anxiety, somatic anxiety was correlated with concerns about evaluation of other non-performance aspects of ski racing. Competitive skiers were most concerned about parents' and friends' evaluations of their performance, and other competitors' and friends' evaluations of their skiing in general. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory and management of sport competition state anxiety.

  2. Statistics Anxiety, State Anxiety during an Examination, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…

  3. The relationship between coaching behaviours and sport anxiety in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J; Côté, J; Hawes, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous research has identified the relationship between athlete sport anxiety and various sport outcomes (e.g., performance and dropout). For the majority of athletes involved in sport, the coach is an influential element of the competitive experience. Two hundred and twenty-eight athletes from 15 sports, completed the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). The predictive ability of athletes' perceived frequency of seven coaching behaviours (physical training, mental preparation, goal setting, technical skills, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport) on four forms of sport anxiety (total anxiety, somatic anxiety, concentration disruption and worry) was examined. Results indicate that negative personal rapport was a significant predictor of all measured forms of sport anxiety while competition strategies was a significant predictor for total anxiety, concentration disruption, and worry. Other behaviours were not significant. The findings suggest that negative rapport between coach and athlete is an important contributor to athlete anxiety. In addition, behaviours that the coach demonstrates relative to competition can be influential in reducing athlete anxiety.

  4. Study on Writing Anxiety among Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Jebreil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety.  Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of  anxiety  and try  to  make  the  atmosphere  of  class  as  stress-free  as possible  in  order  to  improve  students’ performance.

  5. Anxiety in the preoperative phase of awake brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruis, Carla; Wajer, Irene Huenges; Robe, Pierre; van Zandvoort, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Awake surgery emerges as a standard of care for brain tumors located in or near eloquent areas. Levels of preoperative anxiety in patients are important, because anxiety can influence cognitive performance and participation, hence altering the outcome of the procedure. In this study we analyzed the prevalence and potential clinical predictors of anxiety in the pre-operative phase of an awake brain tumor surgery. Seventy consecutive candidates for an awake brain tumor surgery were included. All patients received a neuropsychological pre-operative work-up. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administrated to investigate symptoms of anxiety. Demographic and medical data were extracted from patients' charts. Linear regression analyses, multiple regression analyses, t-tests for parametric and Mann-Whitney U tests for non-parametric data were used to analyze the relation between demographic and medical variables and pre-operative anxiety. Mean score on the anxiety scale of the HADS was 6.1 (SD=4.2, range 1-19) and 25% of the patients scored on or above the cut-off for anxiety symptoms (score >7). Women reported higher levels of anxiety than men (p<0.01). Furthermore, younger patient were more anxious than older patients (p<0.05). No other variables were significantly related to pre-operative anxiety. Merely, one in every four patients reported significant anxiety symptoms in the pre-operative phase. Besides gender and age, none of the other demographic or medical factors were significantly associated with the level of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening and Mitigation of Layperson Anxiety in Aerospace Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Robert A; Blue, Rebecca S; Vardiman, Johnené L; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    Anxiety may present challenges for commercial spaceflight operations, as little is known regarding the psychological effects of spaceflight on laypersons. A recent investigation evaluated measures of anxiety during centrifuge-simulated suborbital commercial spaceflight, highlighting the potential for severe anxiousness to interrupt spaceflight operations. To pave the way for future research, an extensive literature review identified existing knowledge that may contribute to formation of interventions for anxiety in commercial spaceflight. Useful literature was identified regarding anxiety from a variety of fields, including centrifugation, fear of flying, motion sickness, and military operations. Fear of flying is the most extensively studied area, with some supportive evidence from centrifugation studies. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) is as effective as actual training flight exposure (or analog exposure) in mitigation of flight-related anxiety. The addition of other modalities, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or biofeedback, to VRE improves desensitization compared to VRE alone. Motion sickness-susceptible individuals demonstrate higher trait anxiety than nonsusceptible individuals; for this reason, motion sickness susceptibility questionnaires may be useful measures to identify at-risk individuals. Some military studies indicate that psychiatric history and personality classification may have predictive value in future research. Medication countermeasures consisting of benzodiazepines may quell in-flight anxiety, but do not likely improve anxiety on repeat exposure. The scarce available literature addressing anxiety in unique environments indicates that training/repeated exposure may mitigate anxiety. Anxiety and personality indices may be helpful screening tools, while pharmaceuticals may be useful countermeasures when needed. Mulcahy RA, Blue RS, Vardiman JL, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Screening and mitigation of layperson anxiety in aerospace

  7. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Daanen, Hein A M; Gerritsma, Rens M; Hofland, Rianne M; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and high-anxiety condition. In both conditions, running was combined with dart throwing in the last minutes. Results showed that attention shifted away from task execution with elevated levels of anxiety. Furthermore, gait patterns were more conservative and oxygen uptake was higher with anxiety. In addition, performance and efficiency on the dart throwing task also decreased with anxiety. These findings are in line with attentional control theory and provide an indication that state anxiety not only affects aiming tasks but also tasks that rely heavily on the aerobic system. Moreover, findings indicate that when combined, running, aiming, and anxiety all compete for attention leading to suboptimal attentional control and possibly a decrease in performance.

  8. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1 the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2 foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3 both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS, intrinsic motivation (IntrinM, instrumental motivation (InstruM, fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1, and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.

  9. Academic Anxiety, Time-on-Task and Achievement: A Structural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Frank; And Others

    Considerable research has been conducted on the effect of anxiety on academic achievement. The most consistent finding is that high anxiety is associated with low performance, particularly at the elementary school level. To explain this situation, some researchers have hypothesized that anxiety debilitates students' attention span or time-on-task…

  10. The Influence of Anxiety upon Achievement in EFL by Japanese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pite, Dave

    This study investigated the relationships between language anxiety and achievement in oral English performance by Japanese students of English as a foreign language (EFL). Students' anxiety about situations requiring oral ability was measured using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, and compared statistically with a measure of their…

  11. Effects of anxiety on the execution of police arrest and self-defense skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Geerts, S.F.; Jansen, S.E.M.; Faber, G.S.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of anxiety on the execution of police officers' arrest and self-defense skills. Police officers (n=13) performed three tasks in which they kicked, blocked, or restrained an opponent who attacked them with a rubber knife (low anxiety, LA) or a shock knife (high anxiety,

  12. Self-Determined Motivation, Achievement Goals and Anxiety of Economic and Business Students in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Dorothea Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is a natural thing and can happen to everyone; it is a reaction to the inability to overcome problems or lack of security. However, excessive anxiety can impede one's function in life. Anxiety experienced by students can also hinder them in performing better. Setting goals that are difficult to achieve can cause students to experience…

  13. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  14. Information Anxiety and African-American Students in a Graduate Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopol, Patricia Fields

    2012-01-01

    Library anxiety has been cited as one factor affecting academic performance, but library use is only part of obtaining information for academic needs. This paper expands the concept of library anxiety to "information anxiety" by an examination of the information behavior of black graduate students when using a variety of information resources,…

  15. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  16. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fear response, causing increased anxiety in social situations. Environment. Social anxiety disorder may be a learned behavior — ... harder to treat if you wait. Keep a journal. Keeping track of your personal life can help ...

  17. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going ... feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...

  18. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  19. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  20. Anxiety and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Kokalj; Brigita Novak Šarotar

    2018-01-01

    In patients with coronary heart disease anxiety is often overlooked. Symptoms of anxiety are often similar to coronary heart disease symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety in general population and coronary heart disease patients is very high. While the underlying pathophysiology of the connection remains unclear, anxiety lowers the quality of life and is a factor for a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease.

  1. PERFORMATIVIDAD DE LA ANSIEDAD: ENCUENTROS MATERIALES ENTRE ROMA Y LAS COMUNIDADES LOCALES EN EL NOROESTE DE IBERIA (The Performativity of Anxiety: Material Encounters between Rome and Local Communities in Northwestern Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Corral

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza desde una aproximación performativa la formación de topografías emocionales en relación a los castros de la Segunda Edad del Hierro (siglos II-I a. C. en el noroeste de Iberia. En particular, explora cómo los individuos, al incardinarse con diversos tipos de formas y prácticas materiales e iconográficas, fueron afectados emocionalmente de un modo que ayudó a estructurar la realidad social de las comunidades locales. Al examinar la manera en que los individuos se relacionaron con este mundo material, podemos trazar la creación de una nueva estrategia sociomaterial de resistencia, que fue crucial para gestionar sentimientos tales como la ansiedad, consecuencia de la presencia de Roma en la región. ENGLISH: This paper analyzes the shaping of emotional topographies in connection with late Iron Age hillforts (2nd-1st centuries BC in Northwestern Iberia using a performative approach. In particular, it explores how, by engaging with various material and iconographic forms and practices, people were affected emotionally in ways that helped to structure the social reality of the local communities. By examining the manner in which people engaged with this material world, we can trace the creation of new sociomaterial strategies of resistance, which were crucial in managing anxieties caused by Roman presence in the region.

  2. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  3. Mobile Computer Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Patricia Brisotti

    2012-01-01

    As the basis of a society undergoes a fundamental change, such as progression from the industrial age to the knowledge/information age, the massive change affects every aspect of life. Change causes stress in individuals that often manifest itself as anxiety. Using an economic model of the endogenous growth, which includes technology as input,…

  4. SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Social phobia, also known as social anxiety disorder, is a highly prevalent disorder with significant morbidity. Patients with social phobia frequently develop co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as depression and substance abuse, and the disorder impacts significantly on social and occupational functioning.

  5. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  6. Social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray B; Stein, Dan J

    2008-03-29

    Our understanding of social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) has moved from rudimentary awareness that it is not merely shyness to a much more sophisticated appreciation of its prevalence, its chronic and pernicious nature, and its neurobiological underpinnings. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder; it has an early age of onset--by age 11 years in about 50% and by age 20 years in about 80% of individuals--and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness and substance abuse. Functional neuroimaging studies point to increased activity in amygdala and insula in patients with social anxiety disorder, and genetic studies are increasingly focusing on this and other (eg, personality trait neuroticism) core phenotypes to identify risk loci. A range of effective cognitive behavioural and pharmacological treatments for children and adults now exists; the challenges lie in optimum integration and dissemination of these treatments, and learning how to help the 30-40% of patients for whom treatment does not work.

  7. Migraine, Osmophobia, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio; Marques, Karine Sobral; Torres, Rinailda Cascia Santos; Leal, Kamila Nazare Ribas

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between osmophobia and the characteristics of patients and their headaches, among migraine patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who consecutively sought medical attendance in a primary care unit were asked about their headaches over the last 12 months. Those who had migraine were included. A semi-structured interview, the Headache Impact Test and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. 147 patients had migraine; 78 had osmophobia; 60 had significant anxiety symptoms; and 78 had significant depression symptoms. The mean age of these patients was 43.2 years (± 13.7); 91.2% were women. The mean length of time with complaints of headache was 13.8 years (± 12). Among the migraine patients, those with anxiety, more years of headache history, and phonophobia presented significantly more osmophobia (multivariate logistic regression). Osmophobia in migraine patients is associated with significant anxiety symptoms, length of headache history, and phonophobia. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Mental Health, Seniors, WomenTags: Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Anxiety, counseling, ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental ... Childbirth Women Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare ...

  9. Death Anxiety Scales: A Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Templer, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Presents dialog among David Lester, author of first critical survey of death anxiety measures, developer of scales, and researcher about suicide and fear of death; Donald Templer, Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) creator; and journal editor. Lester and Templer discuss origins, uses, results, limitations, and future of death anxiety scales and research on…

  10. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  11. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  12. Social Anxiety in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Guzin

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others. Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate. Social…

  13. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  14. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  15. ¡HOLA, Amigos! Toward Preventing Anxiety and Depression in Older Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Syed, Shariful; Perdomo-Johnson, Doris; Signorile, Joseph F

    2018-02-01

    Given the prevalence and morbidity of depression and anxiety in later life, the inadequacies of current treatment approaches for averting years living with disability, the disparities in access to the mental healthcare delivery system, and the workforce shortages to meet the mental health needs of older Latinos, development and testing of innovative strategies to prevent depression and anxiety are of great public health significance and have the potential to change practice. Although impediments to good depression and anxiety outcomes exist for all older adults, they are even more pronounced for older Latinos, who tend to have fewer socioeconomic resources. These factors underscore the need for prevention-based interventions that are effective, scalable, relevant, respectful, and specific to this population. The Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) program is a community health worker-led, multicomponent, health promotion intervention. The diverse needs and circumstances of older Latinos (highly sedentary, culture-specific health beliefs, service disparities) were incorporated into the design of HOLA to reduce risk factors and improve health-related outcomes associated with common mental disorders in this group. The authors describe HOLA (highlighted in this case example) and why health promotion interventions like HOLA may hold promise as effective, practical, and nonstigmatizing interventions for preventing common mental disorders in older Latinos who are at risk for developing these disorders. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-12-01

    A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical self-concept) and trait anxiety, as a general disposition to anxiety, influence experiences of anxiety as well as achievement in an examination. Participants were 284 undergraduate psychology students, 225 females and 59 males. Two weeks prior to the examination, participants completed a demographic questionnaire and measures of the STARS, the STAI, self-concept in mathematics, and interest in statistics. At the beginning of the statistics examination, students assessed their present state anxiety by the KUSTA scale. After 25 min, all examination participants gave another assessment of their anxiety at that moment. Students' examination scores were recorded. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the variables in a multivariate context. Statistics anxiety was the only variable related to state anxiety in the examination. Via state anxiety experienced before and during the examination, statistics anxiety had a negative influence on achievement. However, statistics anxiety also had a direct positive influence on achievement. This result may be explained by students' motivational goals in the specific educational setting. The results provide insight into the relationship between students' attitudes, dispositions, experiences of anxiety in the examination, and academic achievement, and give recommendations to instructors on how to support students prior to and in the examination. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Environmental Conservation Consciousness and Anxiety From the Persective of Personal Anxiety and Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    保坂, 稔

    2014-01-01

    The system of lifetime employment tends to collapse recently, the rise of anxiety reduces some kinds of aspirations. This paper analyzes the relation between environmental conservation consciousness and anxiety by using the data of 260 university students in Nagasaki. Then I find that the affirmative side which anxiety brings to environmental protection.

  18. Interventions for treating anxiety after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Peter; Campbell Burton, C Alexia; Holmes, John; Murray, Jenni; Gillespie, David; Lightbody, C Elizabeth; Watkins, Caroline L; Chun, Ho-Yan Y; Lewis, Sharon R

    2017-05-23

    Approximately 20% of stroke patients experience clinically significant levels of anxiety at some point after stroke. Physicians can treat these patients with antidepressants or other anxiety-reducing drugs, or both, or they can provide psychological therapy. This review looks at available evidence for these interventions. This is an update of the review first published in October 2011. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical, psychological, complementary, or alternative therapeutic interventions in treating stroke patients with anxiety disorders or symptoms. The secondary objective was to identify whether any of these interventions for anxiety had an effect on quality of life, disability, depression, social participation, caregiver burden, or risk of death. We searched the trials register of the Cochrane Stroke Group (January 2017). We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2017, Issue 1: searched January 2017); MEDLINE (1966 to January 2017) in Ovid; Embase (1980 to January 2017) in Ovid; the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1937 to January 2017) in EBSCO; and PsycINFO (1800 to January 2017) in Ovid. We conducted backward citation searches of reviews identified through database searches and forward citation searches of included studies. We contacted researchers known to be involved in related trials, and we searched clinical trials registers for ongoing studies. We included randomised trials including participants with a diagnosis of both stroke and anxiety for which treatment was intended to reduce anxiety. Two review authors independently screened and selected titles and abstracts for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We performed a narrative review. We planned to do a meta-analysis but were unable to do so as included studies were not sufficiently comparable. We included three trials (four

  19. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Davies, M. J.; Farooqi, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high ...... not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety....

  20. Assessment of Anxiety Level of Emergency Health-care Workers by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Alrajeh, Osama Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Mohammed; Alhajri, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Dealing with emergency patients is considered to be a stressful situation to all health-care workers in the emergency department (ED). Prolonged stress predispose to physical and inconsequential psychiatric disturbances. Anxiety and depressive mode were found to be the most commonly experienced psychiatric manifestation among emergency health-care workers. The aim of this study is to screen and assess the severity of anxiety among health professionals working in ED. Cross-sectional study design was used. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-7 screening tool was used to assess for anxiety symptoms. GAD-7 is a validated self-report tool that comprises seven questions where each question is rated on a 3-point scale. Demographic data were collected from the study sample. The study sample consists of emergency physician, nurses, and other emergency medical services workers. Data analysis was performed using SAS version 9.2 software. Descriptive statistics, nonparametric comparison, and correlation were performed as part of data analysis. A total of 135 participants completed the questionnaire, of which, 66% of the participants were males. Occupational status of the respondents indicated that majority (35.6%) were physicians followed by 27.4% of emergency medical, and 27% of nurses. The results of this study indicated that 48% of the subjects were observed without an anxiety disorder. However, moderate to mild degrees of anxiety disorder was identified among 20.7% and 23.7% of the subjects, respectively. Severe anxiety disorder was found among 7.6% of the respondents. Emergency medical services workers were reported to have the highest GAD-7 score followed by physicians and nurses P = 0.039. Gender and older age group among health professionals were statistically significant correlated with higher GAD-7 score P = 0.028 and 0.048, respectively. There is no significant difference in GAD-7 score among health professional dealing with adult versus pediatrics patient. From this

  1. Shame as a predictor of post-event rumination in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Diana-Mirela; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2017-12-01

    Evidence shows that people with high social anxiety levels ruminate about distressing social events, which contributes to the maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the role of shame in maintaining post-event rumination (PER) following a negative social event (an impromptu speech with negative feedback) in a student sample (N = 104). Participants reported negative rumination related to the event one day and one week after the speech. PER measured one day after the speech was not associated with social anxiety symptoms and state anxiety. One week later, participants with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms experienced greater PER. State shame was the only significant predictor of PER in a regression equation that also included social anxiety symptoms, state anxiety and self-evaluation of performance. Possible explanations and implications are discussed in light of cognitive models of social anxiety.

  2. The Effect of Istighfar on State and Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Canan Karakaş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Istighfar (seeking forgiveness of Allah and tawbah (repentance are as old as at least the human history. Anxiety is also a need of human nature. Human develops the strategies to cope with challenges. One of them is religious coping. One of the religious coping ways is istighfar. Constantly performing istighfar may make easier to deal with anxiety. Thus, in this study, the state-trait anxiety scale was applied to the final year undergraduate students. The experimental and control groups of 20 persons were comprised of students with higher anxiety level. The experimental group was told to do istighfar 100 times per day during one month. In the end of this practice, a decrease was observed in the state-trait anxiety average of experimental group.

  3. Neurobiology of Memory and Anxiety: From Genes to Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of anxiety and memory represents an essential feature of CNS functioning. This paper reviews experimental data coming from neurogenetics, neurochemistry, and behavioral pharmacology (as well as parallel clinical findings) reflecting different mechanisms of memory-anxiety interplay, including brain neurochemistry, circuitry, pharmacology, neuroplasticity, genes, and gene-environment interactions. It emphasizes the complexity and nonlinearity of such interplay, illustrated by a survey of anxiety and learning/memory phenotypes in various genetically modified mouse models that exhibit either synergistic or reciprocal effects of the mutation on anxiety levels and memory performance. The paper also assesses the putative role of different neurotransmitter systems and neuropeptides in the regulation of memory processes and anxiety, and discusses the role of neural plasticity in these mechanisms. PMID:17502911

  4. Neurobiology of Memory and Anxiety: From Genes to Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan V. Kalueff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of anxiety and memory represents an essential feature of CNS functioning. This paper reviews experimental data coming from neurogenetics, neurochemistry, and behavioral pharmacology (as well as parallel clinical findings reflecting different mechanisms of memory-anxiety interplay, including brain neurochemistry, circuitry, pharmacology, neuroplasticity, genes, and gene-environment interactions. It emphasizes the complexity and nonlinearity of such interplay, illustrated by a survey of anxiety and learning/memory phenotypes in various genetically modified mouse models that exhibit either synergistic or reciprocal effects of the mutation on anxiety levels and memory performance. The paper also assesses the putative role of different neurotransmitter systems and neuropeptides in the regulation of memory processes and anxiety, and discusses the role of neural plasticity in these mechanisms.

  5. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  6. [Anxiety prevention among schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, C A; Conradt, J; Ederer, E M

    2004-09-01

    The FRIENDS programme is a prevention and early intervention programme, which teaches children strategies to cope with anxiety and challenging situations. This paper examines the social validity of the German version of the FRIENDS programme using data from a large-scale study on the prevention of anxiety disorders in schoolchildren, which is funded by the Dr. Karl-Wilder Stiftung. In this paper, data of 208 schoolchildren (aged 9 to 12 years) are used. Results show that the children and their parents were highly satisfied with the FRIENDS programme. Childrens attendance and completion of their homework assignments were very high. Both the children and their parents rated relaxation exercises and thinking helpful thoughts as being more useful for the children than other skills. Treatment acceptability correlated significantly with the childrens clinical outcome. The implications of our findings for future research are discussed.

  7. Relationship between Social Contract, Anxiety, Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the relationships in modern sport, coaches hold a degree of authority over their athletes and, by implication, operate to some degree as supervisors. Athletes are in the subordinate roles as employees are to employers. As in most employment relationships, there are times when athletes, like employees, find ...

  8. THE STRATEGIES TO COPE WITH EFL STUDENTS‟ SPEAKING ANXIETY IN CLASSROOM CONVERSATION: STUDENTS AND TEACHER PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Wati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with students‘ anxiety and the strategies to cope with those anxieties from the perspective of students and teacher. Anxiety is important area to be analyze because of: firstly, the research suggests that ―anxiety... may affect the quality of an individual‘s communication or willingness to communicate‖ (Young 1990:58, but also because it affects a large number of students in higher institutions (Campbell & Ortiz 1991:159. Secondly, Students with anxiety disorder exhibit a passive attitude in their studies such as lack of interest in learning, poor performance in exams, and do poorly on assignments. The third, A student with high anxiety can fall behind academically because he or she is distracted and has impaired verbal working memory skills when anxious (Hopko et al., 2005. The common anxiety among university students has been acknowledgement by students and educators. However, the study of anxiety is a real phenomena, the importance of study anxiety is particularly related to the sources of anxiety and how to handle them so that the students can involve the classroom communication smoothly and improve their performance and exam academically. That‘s why this study will reveal the students speaking anxiety in classroom conversation and how to cope with students‘ speaking anxiety based on students and teacher perspective. The result will be gathered from questionnaire to the students and interview to the English teachers.

  9. Determining factors of anxiety in patients at the preoperative stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail; Tahiri-Alaoui, Driss; Elrhazi, Karima; Boujraf, Said

    2011-04-01

    To estimate patient preoperative anxiety, and determine associated factors. Fifty surgical patients were investigated prospectively at the University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco between January and June 2008. Ethical Committee approval was obtained prior to conducting this study. A short version of the Hamilton scale was used. Descriptive statistics, student`s t-test, and ANOVA were performed to probe the sociodemographic impact factors on Hamilton scores. We investigated scores superior to 14 indicating a pathologic anxiety situation. A logistic regression was carried out by including all variables; the significant threshold was 0.15 in single variable analysis, and we retained a significant threshold of 0.05 in the final model. A significant decrease in anxiety from the preoperative to the postoperative stage was observed in all patients of merged surgery groups. Females had higher preoperational anxiety compared with males. A longer hospitalization stay and lower knowledge of patients regarding their pathologies were the main factors that increased the anxiety scores towards a pathological anxiety state. This applied to all patients, including higher education and prosperous social classes. Patient sociodemographic, psychological history, and surgery type have to be considered for identifying patients at risk for developing anxiety before and after surgery. Psychological support has to be established to avoid additional suffering of the patient from anxiety.

  10. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  11. Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Lam, L T; Jin, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers.

  12. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  13. The effects of methylphenidate and propranolol on the interplay between induced-anxiety and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Research documents a reciprocal impact of anxiety on working memory (WM), although its strength and direction depend on factors like task difficulty. A better understanding of these factors may generate insights into cognitive mechanisms of action involved in anxiety, culminating into treatment implications. By blocking the physiological effects of anxiety, propranolol might also block anxiety interference on WM. Conversely, by improving task-directed attention, methylphenidate might reduce anxiety, or, alternatively, by improving cognitive efficiency and free up processing resources to compute anxiety. To investigate the interplay between induced anxiety and WM, we pharmacologically manipulated either anxiety or cognition, using single doses of 40 mg propranolol (PRO), 20 mg methylphenidate (MPH), or placebo (PLA). In this double-blind parallel-group design study, 60 healthy volunteers (20/drug group) performed a verbal WM task under three loads, 1-, 2- and 3-back, and in two conditions, threat of shock and safety. Startle electromyography (EMG) was used to measure anxiety. Findings were twofold: (1) MPH blocked anxiety interference only on the 3-back WM performance, while PRO or PLA had no effects on anxiety-WM interference, and (2) drugs had no effects on anxiety, but, after controlling for baseline anxiety, MPH enhanced anxiety-potentiated startle during the 3-back task. These findings support that MPH-related improvement of cognitive efficiency permits anxiety to be processed and expressed. In conclusion, MPH may be a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms of interaction between anxiety and WM, particularly those under catecholaminergic control.

  14. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  15. Prevalence of enterovirus and hepatitis A virus in bivalve molluscs from Galicia (NW Spain): inadequacy of the EU standards of microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L; Area, E; Sánchez, G; Ribao, C; Torrado, I; Abad, X; Pintó, R M; Barja, J L; Bosch, A

    2002-03-25

    A study of the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) in shellfish from the northwestern coast of Spain, one of the most important mussel producers in the world, was carried out employing dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. In addition, bacterial contamination of the samples was evaluated by Escherichia coli (EC) counts, according to the European Union (EU) standards of shellfish microbiological quality. Shellfish samples included raft-cultured and wild mussels, as well as wild clams and cockles. Bacterial counts showed that the majority of samples (40.8%) could be classified as moderately polluted following the EU standards, and therefore should undergo depuration processes. However, differences in bacterial contamination were observed between cultured mussel and wild shellfish. Thus, percentage of clean samples (<230 EC/100 g shellfish) was clearly higher in cultured mussels (49.1%) than in wild mussels (22.8%) or clams and cockles (10.7%). HAV was detected in 27.4% and EV in 43.9% of the samples that were analyzed. Simultaneous detection of both viral types occurred in 14.1% of the samples. Statistical tests of dependence (chi-square test) showed no relationship either between viral and bacterial contamination, or between the presence of HAV and EV. Comparative analysis of hybridization and RT-PCR for viral detection yielded different results depending on the virus type that was studied, RT-PCR being effective for HAV but not for EV detection. The obtained results reinforce once again the inadequacy of bacteriological standards to assess viral contamination and suggest that although virological analysis of shellfish is possible by molecular techniques, interlaboratory standardization and validation studies are needed before the routine use in monitoring shellfish microbiological safety.

  16. Household food insecurity is associated with a higher burden of obesity and risk of dietary inadequacies among mothers in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Naja, Farah; Cheaib, Ruba; Hwalla, Nahla

    2017-06-12

    Mixed evidence exists with respect to the association between household food insecurity (HFIS) and obesity in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), particularly among women. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic correlates of HFIS and explores its association with dietary intake and odds of obesity among mothers in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of households (n = 378) in Beirut, Lebanon. Surveys were completed with mothers of children Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Dietary intake was assessed using the multiple pass 24-h recall method. Associations between HFIS (food vs food insecure) and socio-demographic characteristics were reported using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The odds of consuming food secure and food insecure households were explored. In addition, logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the association of HFIS with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and at-risk waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm) among mothers. HFIS was found among 50% of study sample and was inversely associated with household income and mother's educational level, even after adjusting for other socioeconomic variables (p food insecure households reported consuming significantly less dairy products, fruits, and nuts yet more breads and sweets; and they had higher odds of consuming food insecure mothers had 1.73 odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.02-2.92) compared to food secure mothers. High HFIS prevalence was reported among urban Lebanese households. Mothers from food insecure households had a high risk of dietary inadequacy and obesity. Adequate evidence-based public health strategies are needed to reduce the vulnerability of mothers to food insecurity in LMIC settings and alleviate their risk of a high burden of nutrient insecurity and obesity.

  17. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  18. Utility of recorded guided imagery and relaxing music in reducing patient pain and anxiety, and surgeon anxiety, during cutaneous surgical procedures: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus; Kim, Natalie A; Goyal, Amita; Swary, Jillian H; Brindise, Renata T; Iyengar, Sanjana; Pace, Natalie; West, Dennis P; Polavarapu, Mahesh; Yoo, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Guided imagery and music can reportedly reduce pain and anxiety during surgery, but no comparative study has been performed for cutaneous surgery to our knowledge. We sought to determine whether short-contact recorded guided imagery or relaxing music could reduce patient pain and anxiety, and surgeon anxiety, during cutaneous surgical procedures. Subjects were adults undergoing excisional surgery for basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Randomization was to guided imagery (n = 50), relaxing music (n = 54), or control group (n = 51). Primary outcomes were pain and anxiety measured using visual analog scale and 6-item short-form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Secondary outcomes were anxiety of surgeons measured by the 6-item short-form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and physical stress of patients conveyed by vital signs, respectively. There were no significant differences in subjects' pain, anxiety, blood pressure, and pulse rate across groups. In the recorded guided imagery and the relaxing music group, surgeon anxiety was significantly lower than in the control group. Patients could not be blinded. Short-contact recorded guided imagery and relaxing music appear not to reduce patient pain and anxiety during excisional procedures under local anesthetic. However, surgeon anxiety may be reduced when patients are listening to such recordings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  20. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824

  1. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chaieb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and gamma (40 Hz beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  2. The Impact of Monaural Beat Stimulation on Anxiety and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke C; Hoppe, Christian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Application of auditory beat stimulation has been speculated to provide a promising new tool with which to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and to enhance cognition. In spite of reportedly similar EEG effects of binaural and monaural beats, data on behavioral effects of monaural beats are still lacking. Therefore, we examined the impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety, mood and memory performance. We aimed to target states related to anxiety levels and general well-being, in addition to long-term and working memory processes, using monaural beats within the range of main cortical rhythms. Theta (6 Hz), alpha (10 Hz) and gamma (40 Hz) beat frequencies, as well as a control stimulus were applied to healthy participants for 5 min. After each stimulation period, participants were asked to evaluate their current mood state and to perform cognitive tasks examining long-term and working memory processes, in addition to a vigilance task. Monaural beat stimulation was found to reduce state anxiety. When evaluating responses for the individual beat frequencies, positive effects on state anxiety were observed for all monaural beat conditions compared to control stimulation. Our results indicate a role for monaural beat stimulation in modulating state anxiety and are in line with previous studies reporting anxiety-reducing effects of auditory beat stimulation.

  3. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  4. Differences in mathematics anxiety by sex, program, and education of university mathematics students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Arif

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to re-examine sex-related differences in mathematics anxiety and to investigate the effects of two different programs associated with mathematics education applied in Turkish universities on mathematics anxiety. Mathematics anxiety scores were assessed in 221 male and 142 female students, 238 in the education faculty and 125 in the science faculty. There were no sex-related mean differences for mathematics anxiety scores, and scores were not related to faculty program. The lower mean mathematics performance on the university entry examination of the students of science faculty may be associated with the mathematics anxiety.

  5. Dental anxiety and fear: relationship with oral health behavior in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzügüllü, Bulem; Gülşahi, Ayse; Celik, Cigdem; Bulut, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess fear and anxiety in dental patients. Five hundred patients were evaluated using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Fear Scale, along with a questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT)/Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) index. Statistic al analysis was performed (P dental anxiety (P dental fear (P dental anxiety or fear (P > .05). Female sex alone was a significant predictor of dental anxiety; female sex, adulthood, marriage, having children, and time passed since last visit to a clinician are significant predictors of fear.

  6. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline C. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.

  7. Sleep bruxism and anxiety level in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tomás de OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB. The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG and without bruxism (CG. Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children’s behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student’s t-test, p= 0.0136. Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children.

  8. Attachment and parenting in adult patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother's care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions.

  9. Anxiety and depression in migraine.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlen, J

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among people with migraine. To obtain a spectrum of migraine experience two potentially different samples were identified: over 600 patients attending migraine clinics and 87 migraine sufferers in the general population. International Headache Society criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of migraine. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and studies using th...

  10. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  11. Defensive pessimism: harnessing anxiety as motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, J K; Cantor, N

    1986-12-01

    In this article we discuss the strategies that people may use to cope with situations that are risky in that they present the possibility for failure and potential threats to self-esteem. Previous research has indicated that anxiety (Sarason, 1980) and explicitly set low expectations (Sherman, Skov, Hervitz, & Stock, 1981) may lead to performance deficits in these situations. Experiment 1 indicates, in contrast, that with a strategy called defensive pessimism (Norem & Cantor, 1986), individuals may sometimes use low expectations to cope with their anxiety so that it does not become debilitating. A second experiment further supports the contention that low expectations may help individuals negotiate risky situations by showing that interference with the defensive-pessimism strategy impairs performance. Subjects whose strategic construction of the situation was not interfered with do not show impaired performance. These data are interpreted as evidence that the effects of low expectations and high anxiety on performance may be mediated by the strategies individuals use when approaching risky situations.

  12. Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination Among Prelicensure Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nicole

    Test anxiety may cause nursing students to cope poorly with academic demands, affecting academic performance and attrition and leading to possible failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Test-anxious nursing students may engage academic procrastination as a coping mechanism. The Test Anxiety Inventory and the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students were administered to 202 prelicensure nursing students from diploma, associate, and baccalaureate nursing programs in southwestern Pennsylvania. Statistically significant correlations between test anxiety and academic procrastination were found. The majority of participants reported procrastinating most on weekly reading assignments. Students with higher grade point averages exhibited less academic procrastination.

  13. Predicting Risk-Mitigating Behaviors From Indecisiveness and Trait Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...

  14. HYPNOANXIETY AS AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPY TO REDUCE ANXIETY IN PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Jannah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety among primigravida mothers should be handled to avoid the risks during pregnancy. Hypnotherapy is considered to be a solution, however, there is limited studies to see its effect for anxiety, especially in primipara mothers. Objective: To examine the effect of hypnoanxiety on the level of anxiety in primigravida. Methods: This was a Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs with pretest-posttest design, conducted between September – October 2016 in the working area of the Health Center of Bergas Semarang, Indonesia. There were 40 respondents recruited using simple random sampling, which divided into intervention and control group. Hypnoanxiety was performed 8 times for 4 weeks. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS was used to measure anxiety in pregnant women. Data were analyzed using Mann Whitney test and Kruskal waliis test. Results: Findings showed that after four weeks intervention, there was a decrease of the level of anxiety in the intervention group, consisted of 25% of moderate anxiety, 40% of mild anxiety, and 35 % of respondents had no anxiety. The p-value was 0.005, which indicated that there was mean difference of anxiety level between intervention and control group. Conclusions: There was a significant effect of hypnoanxiety on the level of anxiety in pregnant women. It is suggested that hypnoanxiety could be one of the alternative therapies to reduce the anxiety among prenant women. This could be considered to be included in the standard of midwifery care in Indonesia.

  15. Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J; Biley, F C; Dolk, H

    2007-07-18

    Anxiety disorders are a common occurrence in today's society. There is interest from the community in the use of complementary therapies for anxiety disorders. This review examined the currently available evidence supporting the use of therapeutic touch in treating anxiety disorders. To examine the efficacy and adverse effects of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders. We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (search date 13/01/06), the Controlled Trials website and Dissertation Abstracts International. Searches of reference lists of retrieved papers were also carried out and experts in the field were contacted. Inclusion criteria included all published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing therapeutic touch with sham (mimic) TT, pharmacological therapy, psychological treatment, other treatment or no treatment /waiting list. The participants included adults with an anxiety disorder defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV),the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), validated diagnostic instruments, or other validated clinician or self-report instruments. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria. Further information was sought from trialists where papers contained insufficient information to make a decision about eligibility. No randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders were identified. Given the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and the current paucity of evidence on therapeutic touch in this population, there is a need for well conducted randomised controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders.

  16. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...

  17. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  18. Exploring mathematics anxiety and attitude: Mathematics students' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahri, Nurul Ashikin; Kamaruzaman, Wan Nur Farahdalila Wan; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative and correlational, survey methods were used to investigate the relationships among mathematical anxiety and attitude toward student's mathematics performance. Participants were 100 students volunteer to enroll in undergraduate Industrial Statistics, Decision Sciences and Business Mathematics at one of northern university in Malaysia. Survey data consisted of demographic items and Likert scale items. The collected data was analyzed by using the idea of correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between students' attitude and mathematics anxiety. Results also indicated that a substantial positive effect of students' attitude and mathematics anxiety in students' achievement. Further study can be conducted on how mathematical anxiety and attitude toward mathematics affects can be used to predict the students' performance in the class.

  19. Modeling Demonstrates That Folic Acid Fortification of Whole-Wheat Flour Could Reduce the Prevalence of Folate Inadequacy in Canadian Whole-Wheat Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yen-Ming; MacFarlane, Amanda J; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of white-wheat flour and selected other grain products has reduced the prevalence of neural tube defects in Canada; however, the fortification of whole-wheat flour is not permitted. The objective of this study was to model the impact of adding folic acid to whole-wheat flour on the folate intake distribution of Canadians. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and supplement intake data (n = 35,107) collected in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used to calculate the prevalence of folate inadequacy (POFI) and the proportion of folic acid intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). In model 1, folic acid was added to whole-wheat flour-containing foods in amounts comparable to those that are mandatory for white-wheat flour-containing foods. In model 2, a 50% overage of folic acid fortification was considered. Models 3 and 4 included assessment of folate intake distributions in adult whole-wheat consumers with or without a fortification overage. SIDE (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation; Department of Statistics and Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University) was used to estimate usual folate intakes. Mean folate intakes increased by ∼ 5% in all sex and age groups when whole-wheat foods were fortified (models 1 and 2; P flour-containing foods did not change the POFI or percentage of intakes above the UL in the general population, whether in supplement users or nonusers. Among whole-wheat consumers, the POFI was reduced by 10 percentage points after fortification of whole-wheat flour-containing foods (95% CIs did not overlap). The percentage of whole-wheat consumers with intakes above the UL did not change. Although folic acid fortification of whole-wheat flour-containing foods is unlikely to change the POFI or proportion of folic acid intakes above the UL in the general Canadian population, this fortification strategy may reduce the POFI in adult whole-wheat consumers. © 2015

  20. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meihua; Huang, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in Engl...

  1. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Cornwell, Brian R.; Letkiewicz, Allison M.; Arkin, Nicole E.; Grillon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM) experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock) has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function) devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back) while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion–cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated with anxiety

  2. The complex interaction between anxiety and cognition: Insight from spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Vytal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be distracting, disruptive, and incapacitating. Despite problems with empirical replication of this phenomenon, one fruitful avenue of study has emerged from working memory (WM experiments where a translational method of anxiety induction (risk of shock has been shown to disrupt spatial and verbal WM performance. Performance declines when resources (e.g., spatial attention, executive function devoted to goal-directed behaviors are consumed by anxiety. Importantly, it has been shown that anxiety-related impairments in verbal WM depend on task difficulty, suggesting that cognitive load may be an important consideration in the interaction between anxiety and cognition. Here we use both spatial and verbal WM paradigms to probe the effect of cognitive load on anxiety-induced WM impairment across task modality. Subjects performed a series of spatial and verbal n-back tasks of increasing difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back while they were safe or at risk for shock. Startle reflex was used to probe anxiety. Results demonstrate that induced-anxiety differentially impacts verbal and spatial WM, such that low and medium-load verbal WM is more susceptible to anxiety-related disruption relative to high-load, and spatial WM is disrupted regardless of task difficulty. Anxiety impacts both verbal and spatial processes, as described by correlations between anxiety and performance impairment, albeit the effect on spatial WM is consistent across load. Demanding WM tasks may exert top-down control over higher-order cortical resources engaged by anxious apprehension, however high-load spatial WM may continue to experience additional competition from anxiety-related changes in spatial attention, resulting in impaired performance. By describing this disruption across task modalities, these findings inform current theories of emotion-cognition interactions and may facilitate development of clinical interventions that seek to target cognitive impairments associated

  3. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number-Space Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  4. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number–Space Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number–space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. PMID:27683570

  5. How math anxiety relates to number-space associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Georges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioural evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  6. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Moriya

    Full Text Available Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  7. High Visual Working Memory Capacity in Trait Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions. PMID:22496783

  8. Anxiety Disorders: Types, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatable. If you think you have an anxiety disorder, talk to your doctor. Sometimes a physical evaluation is advisable to determine whether a person's anxiety is associated with a physical illness. If anxiety is diagnosed, the pattern of co- ...

  9. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  10. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  11. Library Anxiety of Teacher Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Attri, Poonam

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the library anxiety in Teacher Trainees and found it to be a prevalent phenomenon in students. The five dimensions of library anxiety, namely, barriers with staff, affective barriers, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, and mechanical barriers have been identified. The sample of the study constituted 58…

  12. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  13. A qualitative investigation of the temporal patterning of the precompetitive anxiety response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, Sheldon; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Young, Stuart G

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine retrospective perceptions and causal beliefs about temporal experiences of competitive anxiety and related symptoms in the lead up to competition. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 elite performers to examine the interaction of intensity, frequency and direction of symptoms associated with competitive anxiety before competition. Data analysis identified six causal networks that supported theoretical predictions suggesting that intensity of cognitive anxiety symptoms remained relatively stable in the lead up to competition, whereas somatic anxiety peaked sharply at the onset of performance. Frequency of anxiety symptoms increased as the competition approached and changes in interpretation of anxiety symptoms were also reported, with self-confidence identified as a moderating variable. The findings highlight the dynamic properties of the stress response and emphasize the need to consider the idiosyncratic nature of the level, frequency and interpretation of performers' precompetitive experiences.

  14. The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: the predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-01-30

    Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, F G; Parente, A; Del-Ben, C M; Guimarães, F S

    2003-04-01

    This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  17. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  18. A pilot study into the anxiety induced by various assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, G.; Jones, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the anxiety associated with various assessment methods undertaken by post-graduate students and to contextualise this with other life experiences. Method: Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory was anonymously completed prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) students undertaking assessments. The data were analysed as follows. The mean state and trait anxiety scores and standard deviations, associated with the assessment methods were calculated. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the state and trait anxiety scores recorded. Post hoc tests (Sidak) were then performed and finally an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) completed the analysis. Results: The seminar was the most anxiety provoking assessment method, followed by the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and the staged assessment, with the unseen written examination being the least anxiety provoking assessment. However, even the unseen written examination provoked more anxiety than elective surgery. There was a significant difference between the anxiety provoked by the aforementioned assessments only in the state anxiety scores, but not the trait anxiety scores (ANOVA). The significant differences were between both the OSCE and seminar and the unseen written examination, with the other differences not being significant as demonstrated by post hoc tests. ANCOVA, which controls for differences in the individual's trait score, also showed significant differences between the state anxiety scores between the OSCE and seminar and unseen written examinations. Conclusion: OSCEs and seminars are both significantly more anxiety provoking than unseen written examinations, but even unseen written examinations are more anxiety provoking than elective surgery. The anxiety provoking potential of assessments should not be underestimated

  19. Depression and anxiety in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Andrew S; Saunders, Erika F H; Craig, Timothy

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by edematous swelling attacks of the face, extremities, abdomen, genitalia, and upper airway. The potential for laryngeal swelling makes the disease life-threatening, and the swelling elsewhere contributes to the significant burden of illness. The increased risk for mental health disorders in HAE is due to the burden of disease and possibly associated activation of the immune system. To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in HAE patients and the most high-yield features of depression to target in a clinical encounter. Depression and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the 29 items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale along with the 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The sample size was 26 participants with a diagnosis of type 1 or 2 HAE drawn from a cohort of 60 adult patients. In addition, a literature search was performed regarding how immune modulation affects depression and anxiety. A total of 39% of participants were identified as experiencing depression of mild (50%), moderate (40%), or severe (10%) levels. Fifteen percent of participants displayed prominent anxiety, half of whom had mild anxiety, 25% moderate anxiety, and 25% severe anxiety. The literature on inflammation and depression suggests a possible link between HAE and depression. Our data and the literature support that depression and anxiety symptoms are common in patients with HAE and may be secondary to chronic disease burden, associated pathophysiologic features, or both. Treatment that addresses the psychosocial and mental health of HAE patients is critical for best practice. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.