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Sample records for inactive luminal disease

  1. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  2. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  4. Selected luminal mucosal complications of adult celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hugh J FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Celiac disease is a gluten-dependent intestinal disorder that appears to be associated with several clinical conditions. Some involve the luminal mucosa of the stomach and intestinal tract and may, occasionally, complicate the course of celiac disease. Collagenous colitis has been associated with celiac disease and may lead to chronic diarrhea. Conversely, some of these clinical disorders that involve the luminal mucosa of the stomach and intestine may represent the initial clinical presentation of celiac disease. These disorders should be considered in patients with celiac disease who develop recurrent or refractory symptoms despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Detection of collagenous disorders that affect the luminal mucosa of the stomach or intestinal tract may result in recognition of underlying celiac disease.Keywords: celiac disease, collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, collagenous colitis, gluten-free diet

  5. Surgery for luminal Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) require surgery. Indications for surgery include failure of medical treatment, bowel obstruction, fistula or abscess formation. The most common surgical procedure is resection. In jejunoileal CD, strictureplasty is an accepted surgical technique that relieves the obstructive symptoms, while preserving intestinal length and avoiding the development of short bowel syndrome. However, the role of strictureplasty in duodenal and colonic diseases remains controversial. In extensive colitis, after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA), the recurrence rates and functional outcomes are reasonable. For patients with extensive colitis and rectal involvement, total colectomy and end-ileostomy is safe and effective; however, a few patients can have subsequent IRA, and half of the patients will require proctectomy later. Proctocolectomy is associated with a high incidence of delayed perineal wound healing, but it carries a low recurrence rate. Patients undergoing proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had poor functional outcomes and high failure rates. Laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a minimal invasive procedure. Patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery have a more rapid recovery of bowel function and a shorter hospital stay. The morbidity also is lower, and the rate of disease recurrence is similar compared with open procedures. PMID:24415860

  6. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  7. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  8. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with luminal Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziech, M. L. W.; Lavini, C.; Caan, M. W. A.; Nio, C. Y.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; Bipat, S.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Nederveen, A. J.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively assess dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI as compared to conventional sequences in patients with luminal Crohn's disease. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease undergoing MRI and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month had DCE-MRI (3T) during intravenous contrast injection of

  10. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  11. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...

  12. Gastroparesis in patients with inactive Crohn's disease: a case series

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    Oyen Wim JG

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have described patients with foregut dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this case series was to evaluate clinical characteristics of 5 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and symptoms and signs of upper gut dysmotility. Case presentations We describe a series of four patients with Crohn's disease and one with indeterminate colitis who presented with severe symptoms and signs of gastroparesis. We reviewed medical records of all cases. Gastric emptying of a solid meal was assessed by scintigraphy. Small bowel enteroclysis, gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies were performed to estimate the activity of the disease and to exclude organic obstruction. None of the patients had any signs of active inflammation or stricture. All of the patients had markedly delayed gastric emptying with a mean t 1/2 of 234 minutes (range 110–380 minutes; normal values 54–94 minutes. Conclusion Clinicians should consider impaired gastric emptying when evaluating patients with Crohn's disease and severe symptoms of upper gut dysmotility, which cannot be attributed to active inflammation or organic obstruction of the digestive tract. Symptoms in these patients are refractory to various therapeutic interventions including tube feeding and gastric surgery.

  13. Increased levels of specific leukocyte- and platelet-derived substances during normal anti-tetanus antibody synthesis in patients with inactive Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mortensen, T; Holten-Andersen, M

    2001-01-01

    /ml were inoculated with 1 ml (6 Lf units) of tetanus toxoid vaccine. The anti-tetanus antibody levels were determined in serum obtained before inoculation and after 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), histamine......BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is considered a consequence of inappropriate upregulation of immune reactions evoked by the intestinal microflora or luminal antigens. Since the intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to tetanus toxoid we studied the antibody response to tetanus toxoid booster...... immunization in patients with Crohn disease and the subsequent release of various inflammatory mediators and growth factors in blood. METHODS: Ten patients with inactive disease and no concurrent medication and 12 age-and gender-matched healthy volunteers with anti-tetanus antibody levels less than 0.1 IU...

  14. Increased levels of specific leukocyte- and platelet-derived substances during normal anti-tetanus antibody synthesis in patients with inactive Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mortensen, T; Holten-Andersen, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is considered a consequence of inappropriate upregulation of immune reactions evoked by the intestinal microflora or luminal antigens. Since the intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to tetanus toxoid we studied the antibody response to tetanus toxoid booster...... immunization in patients with Crohn disease and the subsequent release of various inflammatory mediators and growth factors in blood. METHODS: Ten patients with inactive disease and no concurrent medication and 12 age-and gender-matched healthy volunteers with anti-tetanus antibody levels less than 0.1 IU....../ml were inoculated with 1 ml (6 Lf units) of tetanus toxoid vaccine. The anti-tetanus antibody levels were determined in serum obtained before inoculation and after 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), histamine...

  15. Analysis of Published Criteria for Clinically Inactive Disease in a Large Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Shows That Skin Disease Is Underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Beverley; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Arnold, Katie; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Nistala, Kiran

    2015-09-01

    The Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) recently published criteria for classification of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) as having clinically inactive disease. The criteria require that at least 3 of 4 conditions be met, i.e., creatine kinase level ≤150 units/liter, Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale score ≥48, Manual Muscle Testing in 8 muscles score ≥78, and physician's global assessment of overall disease activity (PGA) ≤0.2. The present study was undertaken to test these criteria in a UK cohort of patients with juvenile DM. We assessed 1,114 patient visits for the 4 items in the PRINTO criteria for clinically inactive disease. Each visit was analyzed to determine whether skin disease was present. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) for juvenile DM was determined in 59 patients. At 307 of the 1,114 visits, clinically inactive disease was achieved based on the 3 muscle criteria (but with a PGA of >0.2); rash was present at 65.8% of these visits and nailfold capillary abnormalities at 35.2%. When PGA ≤0.2 was one of the 3 criteria that were met, the frequency of skin signs was significantly lower (rash in 23.1% and nailfold capillary abnormalities in 8.7%). If PGA was considered an essential criterion for clinically inactive disease (P-CID), patients with active skin disease were less likely to be categorized as having clinically inactive disease (a median DAS skin score of 0 [of a possible maximum of 9] in visits where the PGA was ≤0.2, versus a median DAS skin score of 4 in patients meeting the 3 muscle criteria [with a PGA of >0.2]; P < 0.001). Use of the P-CID led to improvements in the positive predictive value and the positive likelihood ratio (85.4% and 11.0, respectively, compared to 72.9% and 5.1 with the current criteria). There was a high frequency of skin disease among patients with juvenile DM who did not meet the PGA criterion for inactive disease but met the other 3 criteria. Incorporating PGA as

  16. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

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    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  17. Grading luminal Crohn's disease: Which MRI features are considered as important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziech, M.L.W.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; Laghi, A.; Lauenstein, T.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used for disease activity grading in small bowel Crohn's disease. It is not known which imaging features are essential for grading. For further insight, we solicited the opinion of expert radiologists. Methods: A questionnaire about the grading of Crohn's disease was sent to 36 radiologists who had published on MRI grading of Crohn's disease between January 2006 and January 2010. Radiologists were asked which MRI protocol they used, how they graded luminal Crohn's disease, which features they used, how important they considered those features for grading, and which reference standards they used. Results: Twenty-four radiologists responded (66%). They used different protocols and features; most frequently T2-weighted sequences (79%) and contrast enhanced fat saturated T1-weighted sequences (83%). MR-enterography was more often used than MR-enteroclysis (88% versus 33%). Features most frequently considered important for grading were bowel wall thickness (79% of radiologists), the presence of an abscess (75%), T1 enhancement (75%), and T1 stratification (46%). Reference standards differed; most commonly (ileo-) colonoscopy (88%) or surgery (75%) were used. Conclusions: Bowel wall thickness, abscess, T1 enhancement and T1 stratification are most often used for grading. Because of difference in grading, there is need for an international consensus on MRI grading of Crohn's disease.

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with luminal Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziech, M.L.W.; Lavini, C.; Caan, M.W.A.; Nio, C.Y.; Stokkers, P.C.F.; Bipat, S.; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively assess dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI as compared to conventional sequences in patients with luminal Crohn's disease. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease undergoing MRI and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month had DCE-MRI (3T) during intravenous contrast injection of gadobutrol, single shot fast spin echo sequence and 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo sequence, a dynamic coronal 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient were performed before and after gadobutrol. Maximum enhancement (ME) and initial slope of increase (ISI) were calculated for four colon segments (ascending colon + coecum, transverse colon, descending colon + sigmoid, rectum) and (neo)terminal ileum. C-reactive protein (CRP), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), per patient and per segment Crohn's disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS) and disease duration were determined. Mean values of the (DCE-)MRI parameters in each segment from each patient were compared between four disease activity groups (normal mucosa, non-ulcerative lesions, mild ulcerative and severe ulcerative disease) with Mann–Whitney test with Bonferroni adjustment. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for continuous variables. Results: Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 37 years; 23 females, median CDEIS 4.4). ME and ISI correlated weakly with segmental CDEIS (r = 0.485 and r = 0.206) and ME per patient correlated moderately with CDEIS (r = 0.551). ME was significantly higher in segments with mild (0.378) or severe (0.388) ulcerative disease compared to normal mucosa (0.304) (p < 0.001). No ulcerations were identified at conventional sequences. ME correlated with disease duration in diseased segments (r = 0.492), not with CDAI and CRP. Conclusions: DCE-MRI can be used as a method for detecting Crohn's disease ulcerative lesions.

  19. Obesity, physical inactivity, and colonic diverticular disease requiring hospitalization in women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, Fredrik; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle factors other than dietary fiber intake and risk for colonic diverticular disease have only been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and physical inactivity and diverticular disease in a population-based cohort of women. This was a prospective population-based cohort study. In all, 36,592 women, born 1914-1948, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort were followed 1997-2009. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), physical activity, diet, smoking, and other lifestyle factors were collected at baseline through questionnaires. Cases of diverticular disease were identified from the Swedish Patient and Death Registers. Relative risks (RRs) of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (or being the cause of death) according to BMI and physical activity were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. The multivariable models were adjusted for age; intake of dietary fiber; diabetes; hypertension; use of acetylsalicylate acid, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, or steroid medication; alcohol consumption; smoking; and educational level. During 12 years, 626 cases of incident diverticular disease requiring hospitalization were found. Two women were registered in the National Death Register only. In multivariable analysis, women with BMI 25-29.99 had 29% increased risk (RR=1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.54) and obese women (BMI≥30) had 33% (1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.72) increased risk of diverticular disease compared to women with BMI 20-24.99. Exercise ≤30 min/day increased the risk for disease with 42% (1.42; 95% CI: 1.18-1.69) compared with exercise >30 min/day in multivariable analysis. Ninety-eight subjects were hospitalized due to complications; perforation or abscess. Women with BMI≥30 had a twofold (RR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.73; P=0.028) increased risk for complicated disease. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among women increase diverticular disease requiring

  20. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  1. Luminal lactate in acute pancreatitis - validation and relation to disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pynnönen, Lauri; Minkkinen, Minna; Räty, Sari

    2012-01-01

    and systemic inflammation. In acute pancreatitis (AP) bacterial translocation is considered as the key event leading to infection of necrotic pancreatic tissue and high severity of illness. METHODS: We used rectal luminal equilibration dialysis for the measurement of gut luminal lactate in 30 consecutive...... patients admitted to hospital due to acute pancreatitis to test the hypothesis that a single measurement of rectal luminal lactate predicts the severity of acute pancreatitis, the length of hospital stay, the need of intensive care and ultimately, mortality. We also tested the physiological validity...... the physiological validity of the method. Rectal luminal lactate at the hospital admission was not associated with the first day or the highest SOFA score, CRP level, hospital length of stay, length of stay in intensive care or mortality. In this cohort of unselected consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis we...

  2. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  3. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  4. Health impacts of the built environment: within-urban variability in physical inactivity, air pollution, and ischemic heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Physical inactivity and exposure to air pollution are important risk factors for death and disease globally. The built environment may influence exposures to these risk factors in different ways and thus differentially affect the health of urban populations. We investigated the built environment's association with air pollution and physical inactivity, and estimated attributable health risks. We used a regional travel survey to estimate within-urban variability in physical inactivity and home-based air pollution exposure [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3)] for 30,007 individuals in southern California. We then estimated the resulting risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) using literature-derived dose-response values. Using a cross-sectional approach, we compared estimated IHD mortality risks among neighborhoods based on "walkability" scores. The proportion of physically active individuals was higher in high- versus low-walkability neighborhoods (24.9% vs. 12.5%); however, only a small proportion of the population was physically active, and between-neighborhood variability in estimated IHD mortality attributable to physical inactivity was modest (7 fewer IHD deaths/100,000/year in high- vs. low-walkability neighborhoods). Between-neighborhood differences in estimated IHD mortality from air pollution were comparable in magnitude (9 more IHD deaths/100,000/year for PM2.5 and 3 fewer IHD deaths for O3 in high- vs. low-walkability neighborhoods), suggesting that population health benefits from increased physical activity in high-walkability neighborhoods may be offset by adverse effects of air pollution exposure. Currently, planning efforts mainly focus on increasing physical activity through neighborhood design. Our results suggest that differences in population health impacts among neighborhoods are similar in magnitude for air pollution and physical activity. Thus, physical activity and exposure to

  5. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  6. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990-2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990-2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states.

  7. Comparison of clinical outcomes between luminal invasive ductal carcinoma and luminal invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yayoi; Ishiguro, Junko; Kotani, Haruru; Hisada, Tomoka; Ichikawa, Mari; Gondo, Naomi; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Kondo, Naoto; Hattori, Masaya; Sawaki, Masataka; Fujita, Takashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Hiroji

    2016-03-25

    The pathological and clinical features of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) differ from those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Several studies have indicated that patients with ILC have a better prognosis than those with ductal carcinoma. However, no previous study has considered the molecular subtypes and histological subtypes of ILC. We compared prognosis between IDC and classical, luminal type ILC and developed prognostic factors for early breast cancer patients with classical luminal ILC. Four thousand one hundred ten breast cancer patients were treated at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital from 2003 to 2012. We identified 1,661 cases with luminal IDC and 105 cases with luminal classical ILC. We examined baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and prognostic factors of luminal ILC. The prognosis of luminal ILC was significantly worse than that of luminal IDC. The rates of 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 91.9% and 88.4% for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC, respectively (P = 0.008). The rates of 5-year overall survival (OS) were 97.6% and 93.1% for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC respectively (P = 0.030). Although we analyzed prognosis according to stratification by tumor size, luminal ILC tended to have worse DFS than luminal IDC in the large tumor group. In addition, although our analysis was performed according to matching lymph node status, luminal ILC had a significantly worse DFS and OS than luminal IDC in node-positive patients. Survival curves showed that the prognosis for ILC became worse than IDC over time. Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was an important factor related to higher risk of recurrence of luminal type breast cancer, even when tumor size, lymph node status and histological grade were considered. Luminal ILC had worse outcomes than luminal IDC. Consequently, different treatment approaches should be used for luminal ILC than for luminal IDC.

  8. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Jae; Jang, Sun Young; Lim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2015-08-01

    To investigate associations between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) activity/severity in chronic-stage GO and compare the performance of two newly-developed TRAb assays (third-generation TSH-binding inhibition immunoglobulin [TBII] assay versus Mc4 thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin [TSI] bioassay). This study is a retrospective review of medical charts and blood tests from Korean GO patients who first visited the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from January 2008 to December 2011, were diagnosed with GO and Graves' hyperthyroidism, and were followed up for ≥18 months. Third-generation M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI assays were performed in the chronic-inactive GO patients in whom euthyroidism status was restored. Patients' GO activity/severity clinical activity scores (CAS), and modified NOSPECS scores were examined for a correlation with TRAb assays. Fifty patients (mean age, 41.3 years; 41 females) were analyzed. The mean duration of Graves' hyperthyroidism symptom was 63 months (range, 18 to 401 months) and that of GO was 46 months (range, 18 to 240 months). All patients had been treated previously with anti-thyroid drugs for a median period of 52.3 months, and two patients underwent either radioiodine therapy or total thyroidectomy. Mean CAS and NOSPECS scores were 0.5 ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 4.8 ± 3.1, respectively. Mean M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI values were 7.5 ± 10.2 IL/L and 325.9 ± 210.1 specimen-to-reference control ratio. TSI was significantly correlated with NOSPECS score (R = 0.479, p 0.05), because GO inflammatory activity subsided in the chronic stages of GO. In chronic-inactive GO after euthyroid restoration, GO activity score did not associate with serum levels of TRAb or TBII. However, levels of the functional antibody Mc4-TSI did correlate with GO severity. Therefore, the TSI bioassay is a clinically relevant measure of disease

  9. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  10. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  11. Irisin, a Link among Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Inactivity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Arias-Loste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD mirrors the outbreak of obesity in western countries, highlighting the connection between these two conditions. Nevertheless, there is currently no specific pharmacotherapy for its treatment. Accepted management begins with weight loss and exercise. Moreover, exercise can provide metabolic benefits independently of weight loss. It is known how long-term aerobic training produces improvements in hepatic triglycerides, visceral adipose tissue and free fatty acids, even if there is no weight reduction. A recent study from Boström et al. unravels a potential molecular mechanism that may explain how exercise, independently of weight loss, can potentially improve metabolic parameters through a new messenger system (irisin linking muscle and fat tissue. Irisin has been proposed to act as a hormone on subcutaneous white fat cells increasing energy expenditure by means of a program of brown-fat-like development. Moreover, it was also shown that irisin plasma concentration was higher in people who exercise, suggesting a molecular mechanism by which exercise may improve metabolism. The present systematic review is based on the possibility that irisin might represent a hypothetical connection between NAFLD pathogenesis and disease progression.

  12. How common is clinically inactive disease in a prospective cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis? The importance of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop-Worrall, Stephanie J W; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Baildam, Eileen; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce; Foster, Helen; Ioannou, Yiannis; McErlane, Flora; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2017-08-01

    Many criteria for clinically inactive disease (CID) and minimal disease activity (MDA) have been proposed for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is not known to what degree each of these criteria overlap within a single patient cohort. This study aimed to compare the frequency of MDA and CID across different criteria in a cohort of children with JIA at 1 year following presentation. The Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study recruits children at initial presentation to paediatric or adolescent rheumatology in seven UK centres. Children recruited between October 2001 and December 2013 were included. The proportions of children with CID and MDA at 1 year were calculated using four investigator-defined and eight published composite criteria. Missing data were accounted for using multiple imputation under different assumptions. In a cohort of 1415 children and adolescents, 67% patients had no active joints at 1 year. Between 48% and 61% achieved MDA and between 25% and 38% achieved CID using published criteria. Overlap between criteria varied. Of 922 patients in MDA by either the original composite criteria, Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) or clinical JADAS cut-offs, 68% were classified as in MDA by all 3 criteria. Similarly, 44% of 633 children with CID defined by either Wallace's preliminary criteria or the JADAS cut-off were in CID according to both criteria. In a large JIA prospective inception cohort, a majority of patients have evidence of persistent disease activity after 1 year. Published criteria to capture MDA and CID do not always identify the same groups of patients. This has significant implications when defining and applying treat-to-target strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Long term outcomes following achievement of clinically inactive disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the importance of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop-Worrall, Stephanie Jw; Verstappen, Suzanne Mm; McDonagh, Janet E; Baildam, Eileen; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce; Foster, Helen; Ioannou, Yiannis; McErlane, Flora; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, W; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2018-04-12

    Potential targets for treat-to-target strategies in JIA are minimal disease activity (MDA) and clinically inactive disease (CID). Short and long-term outcomes following achievement of MDA and CID on the cJADAS10 and CID on Wallace's preliminary criteria were compared. Children recruited to the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study, a UK multicentre inception cohort, were selected if recruited prior to January 2011 and diagnosed with oligoarthritis or rheumatoid factor negative or positive polyarthritis. At one year following diagnosis, children were assessed for MDA on the cJADAS10 and CID on both Wallace's preliminary criteria and the cJADAS10. Associations were tested between these disease states and i) functional ability, ii) absence of limited joints, iii) psychosocial health and v) pain at one year and annually to five years. Of 832 children, 70% were female and the majority had oligoarthritis (68%). At one year, 21% had achieved CID according to both definitions, 7% on Wallace's preliminary criteria only, 16% on cJADAS10 only and 56% on neither. Only 10% of children in the entire cohort achieved MDA without also having CID. Achieving either early CID state was associated with greater absence of limited joints. However, only CID on cJADAS10 was associated with improved functional ability and psychosocial health. Achieving CID was superior to MDA in terms of short and long-term pain and the absence of limited joints. CID on the cJADAS10 may be a preferable treatment target to CID on Wallace's preliminary criteria in terms of both feasibility of application and long-term outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  15. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  16. Comparison of clinical outcomes between luminal invasive ductal carcinoma and luminal invasive lobular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yayoi; Ishiguro, Junko; Kotani, Haruru; Hisada, Tomoka; Ichikawa, Mari; Gondo, Naomi; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Kondo, Naoto; Hattori, Masaya; Sawaki, Masataka; Fujita, Takashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Hiroji

    2016-01-01

    The pathological and clinical features of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) differ from those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Several studies have indicated that patients with ILC have a better prognosis than those with ductal carcinoma. However, no previous study has considered the molecular subtypes and histological subtypes of ILC. We compared prognosis between IDC and classical, luminal type ILC and developed prognostic factors for early breast cancer patients with classical luminal ILC. Four thousand one hundred ten breast cancer patients were treated at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital from 2003 to 2012. We identified 1,661 cases with luminal IDC and 105 cases with luminal classical ILC. We examined baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and prognostic factors of luminal ILC. The prognosis of luminal ILC was significantly worse than that of luminal IDC. The rates of 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 91.9 % and 88.4 % for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC, respectively (P = 0.008). The rates of 5-year overall survival (OS) were 97.6 % and 93.1 % for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC respectively (P = 0.030). Although we analyzed prognosis according to stratification by tumor size, luminal ILC tended to have worse DFS than luminal IDC in the large tumor group. In addition, although our analysis was performed according to matching lymph node status, luminal ILC had a significantly worse DFS and OS than luminal IDC in node-positive patients. Survival curves showed that the prognosis for ILC became worse than IDC over time. Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was an important factor related to higher risk of recurrence of luminal type breast cancer, even when tumor size, lymph node status and histological grade were considered. Luminal ILC had worse outcomes than luminal IDC. Consequently, different treatment approaches should be used for luminal ILC than for luminal IDC. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885

  17. Ocular toxoplasmosis: evaluation of lacrimal - specific secretory IgA levels in both patients with active and inactive phases of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lynch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis can result in recurrent uveitis. Studies have shown that a correlation between active ocular toxoplasmosis and the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA (SIgA in tears. This study compares anti-T. gondii SIgA levels in patients' tears during the acute and inactive phases of toxoplasmic uveitis. Twenty-nine positive tear specific SIgA for T. gondii patients with acute toxoplasmic uveitis were selected and were followed-up for at least two years, when the anti-T. gondii SIgA tears levels were determined. Specific SIgA for T. gondii was negative in 22 patients (75.86% and positive in seven patients (24.13% of whom six (85.7% were followed over three years. Average SIgA levels during the acute phase are 1.54 and decrease significantly to 0.72 (p = 0.0001 during the inactive phase of disease. Because anti-T. gondii SIgA in the tear is negative in 75.86% of patients after the acute phase of infection, T. gondii SIgA levels may be used as a complementary diagnostic marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  18. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  19. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  20. obesity a disease of inactivity?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a nutritional disorder, and the result of a positive energy bal- ance and ... nutritional status, adipose tissue stores and state of training. This feedback control .... For each 'i, mind treadmill time, 1.5 k. Higherbaseline activity levels . . . of ,. Women who“quit~~"smo increased activity gain weight than those who quit smoking. 1'.

  1. Paul Callaghan luminous moments

    CERN Document Server

    Callaghan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa

  2. Binocular combination of luminance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2017-11-01

    We develop and test a new two-dimensional model for binocular combination of the two eyes' luminance profiles. For first-order stimuli, the model assumes that one eye's luminance profile first goes through a luminance compressor, receives gain-control and gain-enhancement from the other eye, and then linearly combines the other eye's output profile. For second-order stimuli, rectification is added in the signal path of the model before the binocular combination site. Both the total contrast and luminance energies, weighted sums over both the space and spatial-frequency domains, were used in the interocular gain-control, while only the total contrast energy was used in the interocular gain-enhancement. To challenge the model, we performed a binocular brightness matching experiment over a large range of background and target luminances. The target stimulus was a dichoptic disc with a sharp edge that has an increment or decrement luminance from its background. The disk's interocular luminance ratio varied from trial to trial. To refine the model we tested three luminance compressors, five nested binocular combination models (including the Ding-Sperling and the DSKL models), and examined the presence or absence of total luminance energy in the model. We found that (1) installing a luminance compressor, either a logarithmic luminance function or luminance gain-control, (2) including both contrast and luminance energies, and (3) adding interocular gain-enhancement (the DSKL model) to a combined model significantly improved its performance. The combined model provides a systematic account of binocular luminance summation over a large range of luminance input levels. It gives a unified explanation of Fechner's paradox observed on a dark background, and a winner-take-all phenomenon observed on a light background. To further test the model, we conducted two additional experiments: luminance summation of discs with asymmetric contour information (Experiment 2), similar to

  3. Cisplatin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (ABC) and persistent jaundice despite optimal stenting: Effective intervention in patients with luminal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, Angela; Benafif, Sarah; Ross, Paul; Bridgewater, John; Valle, Juan W

    2015-09-01

    The advanced biliary tract cancer (ABC)-02 study established cisplatin and gemcitabine (CisGem) as a reference 1(st)-line regimen for patients with advanced/metastatic biliary tract cancer; patients with bilirubin ⩾ 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) were excluded and there are few extant data for systemic treatment in the context of elevated bilirubin. Patients with ABC, receiving CisGem with a baseline bilirubin of ⩾ 1.5 × ULN were eligible for this retrospective analysis; response, toxicity and survival data were collected. Thirty-three patients of 545 screened; median age 59 years, range 23-79; 58% male, 58% with metastases (79% in the liver) of performance status (PS) 0 (33%), 1 (64%) or 2 (3%) were eligible. The median baseline bilirubin was 55 μmol/L (range 32-286); due to biliary tract obstruction (BTO, 76%) or liver metastases (LM, 24%). Toxicity was comparable to the ABC-02 study; bilirubin normalised in 64% during chemotherapy/follow-up. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4-9.0) and median overall survival (OS) 9.5 months (95% CI: 5.7-12.8). Patients with BTO had a longer PFS and OS than those with LM (7.0 versus 2.6 months; p = 0.1633 and 9.8 versus 4.4 months, hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; p = 0.465, respectively); not statistically significant (due to small sample size). Normalisation of bilirubin and completion of eight CisGem cycles were associated with longer OS (11.4 versus 2.9 months, HR 0.49; p = 0.08 and 15.2 versus 5.4 months, HR 0.12 p < 0.001, respectively). No difference in OS was shown between the bilirubin percentiles (for either PFS or OS). For PS 0-1 patients with ABC and high bilirubin due to luminal disease despite optimal stenting CisGem can be used safely with results similar to those in patients with normal bilirubin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  5. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  7. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  8. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  9. How effective is community physical activity promotion in areas of deprivation for inactive adults with cardiovascular disease risk and/or mental health concerns? Study protocol for a pragmatic observational evaluation of the 'Active Herts' physical activity programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Neil; Jones, Andy; Bain, Lucy; Chater, Angel

    2017-11-25

    There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition. This evaluation will follow a mixed-methods longitudinal (baseline, and 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) design. Pragmatic considerations mean delivery of the programme differs by locality. In two areas programme users will receive a behaviour change technique booklet, regular consultations, a booster phone call, motivational text messages and signposting to 12 weeks of exercise classes. In another two areas programme users will also receive 12 weeks of free tailored exercise classes, with optional exercise 'buddies' available. An outcome evaluation will assess changes in physical activity as the primary outcome, and sporting participation, sitting, well-being, psychological capability and reflective motivation as secondary outcomes. A process evaluation will explore the views of stakeholders, delivery staff and programme leads. Economic evaluation will examine the programme costs against the benefits gained in terms of reduced risk of morbidity. This study was been approved by the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of East Anglia. Informed written consent will be obtained from programme users in the evaluation. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences, and shared through the study website and local community outlets. ClinicalTrials.gov ID number: NCT03153098. © Article

  10. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  11. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.

    Direct ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals variable chromospheric structures and mass motions. Spectroscopy also demonstrates the changes of wind opacity, speeds, and mass loss in luminous stars. Cool stars have complex chromospheres that need to be considered in construction of stellar atmospheric models and subsequent spectral analyses.

  12. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  13. Salmonella transiently reside in luminal neutrophils in the inflamed gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Loetscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enteric pathogens need to grow efficiently in the gut lumen in order to cause disease and ensure transmission. The interior of the gut forms a complex environment comprising the mucosal surface area and the inner gut lumen with epithelial cell debris and food particles. Recruitment of neutrophils to the intestinal lumen is a hallmark of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections in humans. Here, we analyzed the interaction of gut luminal neutrophils with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm in a mouse colitis model. RESULTS: Upon S. Tm(wt infection, neutrophils transmigrate across the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. We detected a majority of pathogens associated with luminal neutrophils 20 hours after infection. Neutrophils are viable and actively engulf S. Tm, as demonstrated by live microscopy. Using S. Tm mutant strains defective in tissue invasion we show that pathogens are mostly taken up in the gut lumen at the epithelial barrier by luminal neutrophils. In these luminal neutrophils, S. Tm induces expression of genes typically required for its intracellular lifestyle such as siderophore production iroBCDE and the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. This shows that S. Tm at least transiently survives and responds to engulfment by gut luminal neutrophils. Gentamicin protection experiments suggest that the life-span of luminal neutrophils is limited and that S. Tm is subsequently released into the gut lumen. This "fast cycling" through the intracellular compartment of gut luminal neutrophils would explain the high fraction of TTSS-2 and iroBCDE expressing intra- and extracellular bacteria in the lumen of the infected gut. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, live neutrophils recruited during acute S. Tm colitis engulf pathogens in the gut lumen and may thus actively engage in shaping the environment of pathogens and commensals in the inflamed gut.

  14. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  15. Physical inactivity associated with the risk of non-communicable diseases in Japanese working mothers with young children: A cross-sectional study in Nagano city, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Shinjo, Tokiko; Maruyama-Nagao, Asako; Nakaniida, Atsuko; Kadoya, Haruka; Shibata, Marika; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity helps to prevent the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, childbearing generally reduces parents' level of physical activity, particularly in mothers. Therefore, mothers with young children generally have lower levels of physical activity and have a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine this risk in Japanese working mothers with young children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursery schools in Nagano city, Japan. All mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding abnormal findings at their proximate annual medical examination, and were asked to record their normal physical activity. A total of 182 mothers completed the questionnaires, and 36 reported having abnormal findings (ABN group). Mothers in the ABN group were significantly older than those without abnormal findings (NOR; P=0.043). No significant differences in physical activity were observed between the two groups; however, mothers in the ABN group spent a significantly longer time sitting than those in the NOR group (P=0.028). Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, mothers in the ABN group had a significantly higher educational background (P=0.040) and a higher annual family income (Pmothers held full-time jobs (55.9 vs. 36.0%; P=0.005). Full-time working mothers typically had a significantly higher family income (Pmothers in part-time and other work. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that sedentary lifestyles, namely the amount of time spent sitting, may increase the risk of Japanese working mothers with young children developing non-communicable diseases.

  16. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  17. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  18. Luminal concentrations of L- and D-lactate in the rectum may relate to severity of disease and outcome in septic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Vibeke Renée Lind; Reiter, Nanna; Perner, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the condition of the large bowel in patients with sepsis. We have previously demonstrated increased concentrations of L-lactate in the rectal lumen in patients with abdominal septic shock. The present study was undertaken to assess the concentrations of L- and D......-lactate in rectal lumen and plasma in septic patients including the possible relation to site of infection, severity of disease, and outcome....

  19. Effects of dietary live and heat-inactive baker's yeast on growth, gut health, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia under high rearing density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Huang, Lu; Hu, Jun; Tacon, Philippe; He, Suxu; Li, Zhimin; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Zhi; Xu, Li; Yang, Yalin; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of baker's yeast as probiotics was evaluated in Nile tilapia reared at high density. Juvenile tilapia were distributed to tanks at high density (436 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet (CK) or diets supplemented with live (LY) or heat-inactivated yeast (HIY). Another group of fish reared at low density (218 fish/m(3)) and fed with basal diet was also included (LowCK). After 8 weeks of feeding, growth, feed utilization, gut microvilli morphology, digestive enzymes, and expressions of hsp70 and inflammation-related cytokines in the intestine were assessed. Intestinal microbiota was investigated using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila to evaluate disease resistance. High rearing density significantly decreased the growth, feed utilization, microvilli length, and disease resistance of fish (CK versus LowCK). Moreover, the intestinal hsp70 expression was increased in fish reared at high density, supporting a stress condition. Compared to CK group, supplementation of live yeast significantly increased gut microvilli length and trypsin activity, decreased intestinal hsp70 expression, and enhanced resistance of fish against A. hydrophila (reflected by reduced intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity 24 h post infection). The gut microbiota was not markedly influenced by either rearing density or yeast supplementation. Heat-inactivated yeast (HIY) didn't display the beneficial effects observed in LY except an increase in gut trypsin activity, suggesting the importance of yeast viability and thus secretory metabolites of yeast. In conclusion, live baker's yeast may alleviate the negative effects induced by crowding stress, and has the potential to be used as probiotics for tilapia reared at high density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David

    2014-01-01

    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  1. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  2. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  3. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  4. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  5. Luminous Efficiency Functions at Higher Intensities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrington, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation...

  6. Self-luminous lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccoy, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    An elongated light-diffusive body having a trapezoidal crosssection encapsulates an axially elongated self-luminous light source. The body has a wide base, a narrow base, and slanted sides between the bases. Opening to its narrow base, the body has a longitudinal slot in which the light source fits. A substantially total reflector extends around the slanted sides and the narrow base, including the exposed portion of the light source, to reflect all the light toward the wide base. Distribution of the light emitted from the tube is changed as it leaves the wide base by a partially transmissive coating on the portion of the wide base through which light rays from the tube pass normal to the wide base

  7. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  8. Effect of polyculture of shrimp with fish on luminous bacterial growth in grow-out pond water and sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution of marine luminous bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal and the effect of polyculture of shrimp with fish to reduce luminous bacteria. Methods: Luminous bacterial counts were enumerated by spread plating on seawater complex agar from shrimp grow-out pond water and pond sediment samples of West Bengal, India. Results: About 31.16% and 51.44% of pond sediment and pond water samples respectively had detectable levels of luminous bacteria. It was noticed that in normal ponds a shift happened in bacterial profile of water from the day of flooding up to 60 d, with the dominance of luminous bacteria among vibrios, reaching counts 10 4 cells/mL or more. While in diseased ponds, luminous bacterial abundance within the ponds was noticed in the first 6 weeks of culture. Marked reduction in luminous bacterial counts of water and sediment was observed through out the culture period in polyculture ponds compared to monoculture ponds. There was no incidence of white spot syndrome viral disease and luminous vibriosis in both controlled and experimental ponds. Conclusions: The results suggest vigilant monitoring of ponds for luminous bacteria abundance and polyculture of shrimp with fish in ecofriendly sustainable aquaculture can reduce the impact of shrimp disease outbreak.

  9. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  10. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  11. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  12. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  13. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  14. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  15. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  17. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  18. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  19. Study on the Influence Factors of the Luminous Intensity of the Long Afterglow Luminous Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the time afterglow luminous powder, enhancement the brightness of luminous paint, this study explore affect long afterglow energy storage luminous paints brightness of the main factors. Luminous paints were prepared with rare earth aluminate long afterglow luminescent powder, first is luminous powder surface modification, then investigate the influence of light emitting powder content, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, nano alumina and other fillers on the luminescent properties of the paints. It was concluded that the water resistance of the luminescent powder is better and the brightness can be improved after the modification of anhydrous alcohol. The addition of nano-alumina can improve the brightness of the system, and can effectively enhance the hardness of the paints. In the paints, the two kinds of components of carbonate and titanium dioxide have little effect on the luminescent brightness of the painting.

  20. Physical Inactivity and Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kokkinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.

  1. Endoscopic visualization of luminal organ and great vessels with three dimensional CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Amemiya, Ryuta; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Thirty cases examined by three dimensional CT scanner (3DCT) are reported. The observation of inner view using 3DCT were performed in 12 large vessels with vascular disorder, 10 pulmonary bronchi with lung cancer and 8 common bile ducts involved obstructive disease. In order to visualize interface of the lumen, a new software, which was developed by HITACHI MEDICO Inc., was used. In all cases but one the inner view of the luminal organ was clearly demonstrated as 3D images and it was possible to judge some changes of luminal interface involved by the diseases. The 3DCT endoscopic image might be useful as a new endoscopic technique without fiberscopy. (author)

  2. Dense gas in luminous infrared galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, W. A.; Henkel, C.; Loenen, A. F.; Baudry, A.; Wiklind, T.

    Aims. Molecules that trace the high-density regions of the interstellar medium have been observed in (ultra-) luminous (far-) infrared galaxies, in order to initiate multiple-molecule multiple-transition studies to evaluate the physical and chemical environment of the nuclear medium and its response

  3. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  4. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  5. DACH1: its role as a classifier of long term good prognosis in luminal breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond G Powe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptor (ER positive (luminal tumours account for the largest proportion of females with breast cancer. Theirs is a heterogeneous disease presenting clinical challenges in managing their treatment. Three main biological luminal groups have been identified but clinically these can be distilled into two prognostic groups in which Luminal A are accorded good prognosis and Luminal B correlate with poor prognosis. Further biomarkers are needed to attain classification consensus. Machine learning approaches like Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used for classification and identification of biomarkers in breast cancer using high throughput data. In this study, we have used an artificial neural network (ANN approach to identify DACH1 as a candidate luminal marker and its role in predicting clinical outcome in breast cancer is assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A reiterative ANN approach incorporating a network inferencing algorithm was used to identify ER-associated biomarkers in a publically available cDNA microarray dataset. DACH1 was identified in having a strong influence on ER associated markers and a positive association with ER. Its clinical relevance in predicting breast cancer specific survival was investigated by statistically assessing protein expression levels after immunohistochemistry in a series of unselected breast cancers, formatted as a tissue microarray. RESULTS: Strong nuclear DACH1 staining is more prevalent in tubular and lobular breast cancer. Its expression correlated with ER-alpha positive tumours expressing PgR, epithelial cytokeratins (CK18/19 and 'luminal-like' markers of good prognosis including FOXA1 and RERG (p<0.05. DACH1 is increased in patients showing longer cancer specific survival and disease free interval and reduced metastasis formation (p<0.001. Nuclear DACH1 showed a negative association with markers of aggressive growth and poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Nuclear DACH1 expression

  6. Fusion of visible and near-infrared images based on luminance estimation by weighted luminance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhun; Cheng, Feiyan; Shi, Junsheng; Huang, Xiaoqiao

    2018-01-01

    In a low-light scene, capturing color images needs to be at a high-gain setting or a long-exposure setting to avoid a visible flash. However, such these setting will lead to color images with serious noise or motion blur. Several methods have been proposed to improve a noise-color image through an invisible near infrared flash image. A novel method is that the luminance component and the chroma component of the improved color image are estimated from different image sources [1]. The luminance component is estimated mainly from the NIR image via a spectral estimation, and the chroma component is estimated from the noise-color image by denoising. However, it is challenging to estimate the luminance component. This novel method to estimate the luminance component needs to generate the learning data pairs, and the processes and algorithm are complex. It is difficult to achieve practical application. In order to reduce the complexity of the luminance estimation, an improved luminance estimation algorithm is presented in this paper, which is to weight the NIR image and the denoised-color image and the weighted coefficients are based on the mean value and standard deviation of both images. Experimental results show that the same fusion effect at aspect of color fidelity and texture quality is achieved, compared the proposed method with the novel method, however, the algorithm is more simple and practical.

  7. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  8. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  9. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  10. Perceived luminance depends on temporal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M; Jacobson, John E; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2004-04-22

    Brightness--the perception of an object's luminance--arises from complex and poorly understood interactions at several levels of processing. It is well known that the brightness of an object depends on its spatial context, which can include perceptual organization, scene interpretation, three-dimensional interpretation, shadows, and other high-level percepts. Here we present a new class of illusion in which temporal relations with spatially neighbouring objects can modulate a target object's brightness. When compared with a nearby patch of constant luminance, a brief flash appears brighter with increasing onset asynchrony. Simultaneous contrast, retinal effects, masking, apparent motion and attentional effects cannot account for this illusory enhancement of brightness. This temporal context effect indicates that two parallel streams--one adapting and one non-adapting--encode brightness in the visual cortex.

  11. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Lukash, V. S.; Stepanov, S. A.; Yangyang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  12. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A., E-mail: stepanovsa@tpu.ru; Yangyang, Ju [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lukash, V. S. [JSC Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, 99a Krasnoarmeyskaja St., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  13. Evolution of luminous IRAS sources - CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Neff, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents optical imaging of a sample of 64 luminous IRAS galaxies which cover a wide range of IRAS spectra and luminosity and also include a range of optical types. The objects are almost all in current or recent tidal interaction. The connections between the strength and age of the interaction, the IR spectrum and luminosity, and the optical colors, and other properties of the galaxies are discussed. The principal result is that the powerful IR sources with steep IR spectra are stronger and dynamically younger interacting systems, while the flat IR spectrum objects are older. Star formation, dust obscuration, and the timescales for nuclear activity compared with IR and tidal events are discussed, and a self-consistent evolution scenario connecting the luminous IR sources is described. 21 refs

  14. Modelling the luminous efficacy of solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada; Soler, A.; Robledo, L. [Universidad de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Fisic a e Instalaciones Aplicadas

    2000-07-01

    The global and diffuse luminous efficacy models proposed in Muneer (1995), Muneer and Kinghorn (1997), have been tested with experimental data obtained in Madrid. When the models with local coefficients are statistically assessed with local data, global illuminance L{sub g} is estimated with an acceptable accuracy, but diffuse illuminance L{sub d} is overestimated for L{sub d} higher than about 25 klux. (author)

  15. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  16. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  17. Effect of childbirth on the course of Crohn's disease; results from a retrospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Lisette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women with Crohn's disease needs proper counselling about the effect of pregnancy and childbirth on their disease. However, Literature about the effect of childbirth on Crohn's disease is limited. This study examined the effect of childbirth on the course of Crohn's disease and especially perianal Crohn's disease. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study which was performed in a tertiary level referral hospital in the Netherlands. From the IBD database, female patients aged 18-80 years in 2004 were selected. Data analysis took place in the years 2005 and 2006. Eventually, 114 women with at least one pregnancy after the diagnosis of Crohn's disease were eligible for the study. Differences between groups were analyzed using Wilcoxon Mann Whitney tests and Chi-square analysis with 2 × 2 or 2 × 3 contingency tables. Two-tailed values were used and p values Results 21/114 women (18% had active luminal disease prior to pregnancy, with significantly more pregnancy related complications compared to women with inactive luminal disease (Odds ratio 2.8; 95% CI 1.0 - 7.4. Caesarean section rate was relatively high (37/114, 32%, especially in patients with perianal disease prior to pregnancy compared to women without perianal disease (Odds ratio 4.6; 95% CI 1.8 - 11.4. Disease progression after childbirth was more frequent in patients with active luminal disease prior to pregnancy compared to inactive luminal disease (Odds ratio 9.7; 95% CI 2.1 - 44.3. Progression of perianal disease seems less frequent after vaginal delivery compared with caesarean section, in both women with prior perianal disease (18% vs. 31%, NS and without prior perianal disease (5% vs 14%, NS. There were no more fistula-related complications after childbirth in women with an episiotomy or second degree tear. Conclusion A relatively high rate of caesarean sections was observed in women with Crohn's disease, especially in women with perianal disease

  18. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  19. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  20. The histone chaperone HJURP is a new independent prognostic marker for luminal A breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Rocío; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Berger, Frédérique; Rehman, Haniya; Martel, Elise; Corpet, Armelle; de Koning, Leanne; Vassias, Isabelle; Wilson, Laurence O W; Meseure, Didier; Reyal, Fabien; Savignoni, Alexia; Asselain, Bernard; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different molecular subtypes that have varying responses to therapy. An ongoing challenge in breast cancer research is to distinguish high-risk patients from good prognosis patients. This is particularly difficult in the low-grade, ER-positive luminal A tumors, where robust diagnostic tools to aid clinical treatment decisions are lacking. Recent data implicating chromatin regulators in cancer initiation and progression offers a promising avenue to develop new tools to help guide clinical decisions. Here we exploit a published transcriptome dataset and an independent validation cohort to correlate the mRNA expression of selected chromatin regulators with respect to the four intrinsic breast cancer molecular subtypes. We then perform univariate and multivariate analyses to compare the prognostic value of a panel of chromatin regulators to Ki67, a currently utilized proliferation marker. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed a gene cluster containing several histone chaperones and histone variants highly-expressed in the proliferative subtypes (basal-like, HER2-positive, luminal B) but not in the luminal A subtype. Several chromatin regulators, including the histone chaperones CAF-1 (subunits p150 and p60), ASF1b, and HJURP, and the centromeric histone variant CENP-A, associated with local and metastatic relapse and poor patient outcome. Importantly, we find that HJURP can discriminate favorable and unfavorable outcome within the luminal A subtype, outperforming the currently utilized proliferation marker Ki67, as an independent prognostic marker for luminal A patients. The integration of chromatin regulators as clinical biomarkers, in particular the histone chaperone HJURP, will help guide patient substratification and treatment options for low-risk luminal A breast carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN METASTASIZING IN PATIENTS WITH LUMINAL SUBTYPE OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Balkanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than half of female patients with breast cancer are diagnosed with a  luminal subtype of the disease; however, specific characteristics of its metastases to the brain have been not well studied, unlike those of HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes. Aim: A  comparative analysis of characteristics of metastatic brain lesions in patients with luminal breast cancer. Materials and methods: The time from surgery for breast cancer to the first recurrence and to metastatic brain lesions (assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI imaging was measured in 41 patients with luminal subtype of breast cancer (median age, 49.5±9.6  years, depending on a  diameter of the primary tumor and numbers of involved axillary lymph nodes. Results: The time interval to occurrence of brain metastases in luminal subtype of breast cancer is not associated with the size of the tumor. If≥4  axillary lymph nodes are involved (N2–3, brain metastases are identified much earlier (p<0.05 than in patients with N0–1 (34.5±23.9 months and 62.7±50 months, respectively. Neither the size nor the involvement of axillary lymph nodes has any impact on the rates of metastatic lesion to the brain during the first recurrence. Conclusion: Brain metastases occur at a much shorter time in those patients of luminal subtype of breast cancer who have metastases in≥4  axillary lymph nodes. Brain metastases develop in 50% of patients with the first recurrence of the luminal subtype of breast cancer.

  2. Effects of absolute luminance and luminance contrast on visual search in low mesopic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mathew; Godde, Ben; Olk, Bettina

    2018-03-26

    Diverse adaptive visual processing mechanisms allow us to complete visual search tasks in a wide visual photopic range (>0.6 cd/m 2 ). Whether search strategies or mechanisms known from this range extend below, in the mesopic and scotopic luminance spectra (search in more complex-feature and conjunction-search paradigms. The results verify the previously reported deficiency windows defined by an interaction of base luminance and luminance contrast for more complex visual-search tasks. Based on significant regression analyses, a more precise definition of the magnitude of contribution of different contrast parameters. Characterized feature search patterns had approximately a 2.5:1 ratio of contribution from the Michelson contrast property relative to Weber contrast, whereas the ratio was approximately 1:1 in a serial-search condition. The results implicate near-complete magnocellular isolation in a visual-search paradigm that has yet to be demonstrated. Our analyses provide a new method of characterizing visual search and the first insight in its underlying mechanisms in luminance environments in the low mesopic and scotopic spectra.

  3. LLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Koss, M.; Ricci, C.; Lutz, D.; Riffel, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Genzel, R.; Hicks, E. H.; Lin, M.-Y.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Riffel, R. A.; Schartmann, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Saintonge, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Treister, E.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using new Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope spectroscopy of the CO 2→1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous (Lbol = 1043-44.5 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), corrected for nuclear emission using multicomponent spectral energy distribution fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star formation rates, molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1-3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion discs.

  4. SURVEY OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA THROUGH LUMINOUS TRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Andrade Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for forest-based raw materials for energy, construction, paper pulp and the pressure to comply with legal requirements concerning environmental legislation, for example, the replacement of the permanent preservation area, legal reserve and recovery of degraded area, leads to encourage the production of healthy seedlings in a health status to do not compromise their future production. The present study aimed to survey the entomofauna population using the “Luiz de Queiroz” model of luminous trap, with white and red fluorescent lamps. The experiment was conducted at the nursery “Flora Sinop” in Sinop – MT. The survey was conducted weekly between the months of April to July 2010, totaling 4 months sand, 32 samples collected. The orders Hemiptera and Coleoptera showed the highest number of individuals captured, either in attraction with white or red light. It was captured 10.089 individuals, 9.339 collected under the influence of white light, representing 92,56%, and 750 with red light, only 7,44% of the total. The white light luminous trap possessed greater efficiency in the attraction of insects when compared with the red light trap.

  5. Distribution and Identification of Luminous Bacteria from the Sargasso Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Orndorff, S. A.; Colwell, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri and Lucibacterium harveyi constituted 75 of the 83 luminous bacteria isolated from Sargasso Sea surface waters. Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium phosphoreum constituted the remainder of the isolates. Luminescent bacteria were recovered at concentrations of 1 to 63 cells per 100 ml from water samples collected at depths of 160 to 320 m. Two water samples collected at the thermocline yielded larger numbers of viable, aerobic heterotrophic and luminous bacteria. Lumin...

  6. Prognostic Significance of Progesterone Receptor–Positive Tumor Cells Within Immunohistochemically Defined Luminal A Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U.; Martín, Miguel; Parker, Joel S.; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Tyldesley, Scott; Gelmon, Karen; Bernard, Philip S.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Current immunohistochemical (IHC)-based definitions of luminal A and B breast cancers are imperfect when compared with multigene expression-based assays. In this study, we sought to improve the IHC subtyping by examining the pathologic and gene expression characteristics of genomically defined luminal A and B subtypes. Patients and Methods Gene expression and pathologic features were collected from primary tumors across five independent cohorts: British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tamoxifen-treated only, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama 9906 trial, BCCA no systemic treatment cohort, PAM50 microarray training data set, and a combined publicly available microarray data set. Optimal cutoffs of percentage of progesterone receptor (PR) –positive tumor cells to predict survival were derived and independently tested. Multivariable Cox models were used to test the prognostic significance. Results Clinicopathologic comparisons among luminal A and B subtypes consistently identified higher rates of PR positivity, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity, and histologic grade 1 in luminal A tumors. Quantitative PR gene and protein expression were also found to be significantly higher in luminal A tumors. An empiric cutoff of more than 20% of PR-positive tumor cells was statistically chosen and proved significant for predicting survival differences within IHC-defined luminal A tumors independently of endocrine therapy administration. Finally, no additional prognostic value within hormonal receptor (HR) –positive/HER2-negative disease was observed with the use of the IHC4 score when intrinsic IHC-based subtypes were used that included the more than 20% PR-positive tumor cells and vice versa. Conclusion Semiquantitative IHC expression of PR adds prognostic value within the current IHC-based luminal A definition by improving the identification of good outcome breast cancers. The new proposed IHC-based definition of luminal A

  7. Consenso em reumatologia pediátrica: parte I - definição dos critérios de doença inativa e remissão em artrite idiopática juvenil/artrite reumatóide juvenil Consensus in pediatric rheumatology: part I - criteria definition of inactive disease and remission in juvenile idiopathic arthritis / juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Machado

    2005-02-01

    provided the basis for the development of a consensus conference using the nominal group technique (NGT to reach consensus on questions not solvable by the questionnaire format. One hundred and thirty PR from 34 countries responded the Delphi questionnaires and 20 PR from 9 countries attended a 2-day consensus conference. RESULTS: Consensus results were: criteria for inactive disease should include: 1 no active arthritis; 2 no fever, rash, serositis, splenomegaly, or generalised lymphadenopathy attributable to JIA/JRA; 3 no active uveitis; 4 normal ESR or CRP (if both are tested, both must be normal; 5 a physician's global assessment of disease activity rated at the best score possible and indicating no disease activity. CONCLUSIONS: According to consensus vote, 6 continuous months of inactive disease are necessary before classifying a patient as in remission on medication; 12 months off medication while maintaining inactive disease are necessary to classify a patient as in remission off medication. The criteria for in remission off medications should predict with 95% accuracy that a patient has a 20% probability of disease relapse within the next 5 years.

  8. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  9. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  10. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  11. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  12. Covariation of Color and Luminance Facilitate Object Individuation in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient and reliable…

  13. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  14. Identification and validation of oncologic miRNA biomarkers for luminal A-like breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailbhe M McDermott

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a common disease with distinct tumor subtypes phenotypically characterized by ER and HER2/neu receptor status. MiRNAs play regulatory roles in tumor initiation and progression, and altered miRNA expression has been demonstrated in a variety of cancer states presenting the potential for exploitation as cancer biomarkers. Blood provides an excellent medium for biomarker discovery. This study investigated systemic miRNAs differentially expressed in Luminal A-like (ER+PR+HER2/neu- breast cancer and their effectiveness as oncologic biomarkers in the clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples were prospectively collected from patients with Luminal A-like breast cancer (n = 54 and controls (n = 56. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and subjected to microarray analysis (n = 10 Luminal A-like; n = 10 Control. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by artificial neural network (ANN data-mining algorithms. Expression of specific miRNAs was validated by RQ-PCR (n = 44 Luminal A; n = 46 Control and potential relationships between circulating miRNA levels and clinicopathological features of breast cancer were investigated. RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 76 differentially expressed miRNAs. ANN revealed 10 miRNAs for further analysis (miR-19b, miR-29a, miR-93, miR-181a, miR-182, miR-223, miR-301a, miR-423-5p, miR-486-5 and miR-652. The biomarker potential of 4 miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-181a, miR-223 and miR-652 was confirmed by RQ-PCR, with significantly reduced expression in blood of women with Luminal A-like breast tumors compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.009 and 0.004 respectively. Binary logistic regression confirmed that combination of 3 of these miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-181a and miR-652 could reliably differentiate between cancers and controls with an AUC of 0.80. CONCLUSION: This study provides insight into the underlying molecular portrait of Luminal A-like breast

  15. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  16. A Practical Device for Measuring the Luminance Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Kruisselbrink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various applications in building lighting such as automated daylight systems, dynamic lighting control systems, lighting simulations, and glare analyzes can be optimized using information on the actual luminance distributions of the surroundings. Currently, commercially available luminance distribution measurement devices are often not suitable for these kind of applications or simply too expensive for broad application. This paper describes the development of a practical and autonomous luminance distribution measurement device based on a credit card-sized single-board computer and a camera system. The luminance distribution was determined by capturing High Dynamic Range images and translating the RGB information to the CIE XYZ color space. The High Dynamic Range technology was essential to accurately capture the data needed to calculate the luminance distribution because it allows to capture luminance ranges occurring in real scenarios. The measurement results were represented in accordance with established methods in the field of daylighting. Measurements showed that the accuracy of the luminance distribution measurement device ranged from 5% to 20% (worst case which was deemed acceptable for practical measurements and broad applications in the building realm.

  17. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  18. Calibrating photometric redshifts of luminous red galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Budavari, Tamas; Schlegel, David J.; Bridges, Terry; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the construction of a photometric redshift catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), emphasizing the principal steps necessary for constructing such a catalogue: (i) photometrically selecting the sample, (ii) measuring photometric redshifts and their error distributions, and (iii) estimating the true redshift distribution. We compare two photometric redshift algorithms for these data and find that they give comparable results. Calibrating against the SDSS and SDSS–2dF (Two Degree Field) spectroscopic surveys, we find that the photometric redshift accuracy is σ~ 0.03 for redshifts less than 0.55 and worsens at higher redshift (~ 0.06 for z < 0.7). These errors are caused by photometric scatter, as well as systematic errors in the templates, filter curves and photometric zero-points. We also parametrize the photometric redshift error distribution with a sum of Gaussians and use this model to deconvolve the errors from the measured photometric redshift distribution to estimate the true redshift distribution. We pay special attention to the stability of this deconvolution, regularizing the method with a prior on the smoothness of the true redshift distribution. The methods that we develop are applicable to general photometric redshift surveys.

  19. The distribution of matter around luminous galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.C.; Laflamme, R.; Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H.

    1996-06-01

    The authors discuss the dynamical implications of a measure proposed by Jim Peebles which is the cosmic mass density of material within some fixed distance of a luminous galaxy. If all the matter in the Universe were strongly correlated with galaxies, then this measure rises rapidly to the standard cosmic mass density as expressed in the parameter{Omega}. With numerical simulations they show that in both standard and low-mass CDM models only half of the mass of the Universe lies within a megaparsec or so of a galaxy of luminosity of roughly L{sub *} or brighter. The implications of this clustering property are considerable for conventional mass measures which treat galaxies as point particles. They explore two such measures, based on the Least Action Method and the Cosmic Virial Theorem. In the former case, the method is not likely to work on scales of a typical intergalaxy spacing; however, it may perform nicely in estimating the mass of an isolated set of galaxy groups or poor clusters. In the case of the Cosmic Virial Theorem, they find that having a large fraction of the mass in the Universe located at some distance from galaxies brings in potentially severe problems of bias which can introduce large uncertainties in the estimation of {Omega}.

  20. St Gallen 2015 subtyping of luminal breast cancers: impact of different Ki67-based proliferation assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Cornelia M; van Diest, Paul J; Decker, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Ki67 has been proposed as prognostic proliferation marker in luminal breast cancer (BC), but little is known on the influence of Ki67 assessment methods on subtyping into luminal A- and B-like tumors. Our aim was to study the influence of different Ki67-labeling index (Ki67-LI) assessment methods on the proportion of BCs classified as luminal A-like. 280 early BCs were subtyped according to the St Gallen 2015 definitions into 71 % luminal (HER2 negative), 6 % luminal B-like (HER2 positive), 13 % triple negative, 1 % HER2 positive (nonluminal), and 9 % special type. Digitized whole slides were counted manually on the screen. We used nine defined counting methods to assess the Ki67-LI (including the International Ki67 in Breast Cancer Working Group recommendations), and compared the resulting medians and the proportions of cancers classified as luminal A-like according to the formerly used cut-off Ki67-LI medians than those measuring an average proliferation (27.45 % vs 16.96 %, p Ki67-LI were found when assessing 1020 compared to counting 100, 200, 300 cells (17.65 vs 33 %, vs 28 %, vs 24.33 %, respectively; p Ki67-LI cut-off cancers varied between 13 and 44 %. The proportion of BCs classified as luminal A-like is highly influenced by the Ki67-LI assessment method. As a consequence, the selection of a specific Ki67-LI assessment method may have a direct effect on the proportion of patients considered having low-risk disease and thus influence therapeutic decision making. This calls for a standardized assessment method.

  1. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  2. High fat diet promotes prostatic basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate epithelial hyperplasia originated from basal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Li; Xin, Li

    2016-05-01

    Recent lineage tracing studies showed that the prostate basal and luminal cells in adult mice are two independent lineages under the physiological condition, but basal cells are capable of generating luminal progenies during bacterial infection-induced prostatitis. Because acute bacterial infection in human prostate tissues is relatively rare, the disease relevance of the bacterial infection-induced basal-to-luminal differentiation is uncertain. Herein we employ a high fat diet-induced sterile prostate inflammation model to determine whether basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by inflammation irrespective of the underlying etiologies. A K14-CreER model and a fluorescent report line are utilized to specifically label basal cells with the green fluorescent protein. We show that high fat diet promotes immune cell infiltration into the prostate tissues and basal-to-luminal differentiation. Increased cell proliferation accompanies basal-to-luminal differentiation, suggesting a concurrent regulation of basal cell proliferation and differentiation. This study demonstrates that basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by different types of prostate inflammation evolved with distinct etiologies. Finally, high fat diet also accelerates initiation and progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that are originated from basal cells with loss-of-function of the tumor suppressor Pten. Because prostate cancer originated from basal cells tends to be invasive, our study also provides an alternative explanation for the association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  4. Study on the luminous characteristics of a natural ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Liu, Guorong

    2018-02-01

    According to the optical images of the whole process of a natural ball lightning recorded by two slit-less spectrographs in the Qinghai plateau of China, the simulated observation experiment on the luminous intensity of the spherical light source was carried out. The luminous intensity and the optical power of the natural ball lightning in the wavelength range of 400-690 nm were estimated based on the experimental data and the Lambert-Beer Law. The results show that the maximum luminous intensity was about 1.24 × 105 cd in the initial stage of the natural ball lightning, and the maximum luminous intensity and the maximum optical power in most time of its life were about 5.9 × 104 cd and 4.2 × 103 W, respectively.

  5. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    the water column with temperatures lower than 25 degrees C. Bacterial luminescence in all the seawater samples was very low indicating energy conservation mechanism in free living luminous procaryotes. In contrast, a 10000 fold higher bacterial luminescence...

  6. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Petric, A. O. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, D. B., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  7. Sex, beauty, and the relative luminance of facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consistent luminance difference between the darker regions of the eyes and mouth and the lighter regions that surround them forms a pattern unique to faces. One of the more consistent uses of cosmetics to make the female face more attractive is to darken the eyes and mouth relative to the surrounding skin. The hypothesis that the size of the luminance difference between the eyes and mouth and the rest of the face affects the attractiveness of male and female faces differently was tested in four experiments in which attractiveness ratings were obtained for images of faces in which the luminance difference between the eyes and mouth and the rest of the face had been manipulated. Female faces were found to be more attractive when this luminance difference was increased than when it was decreased, and the opposite was found for male faces. An interpretation consistent with these results is that the luminance difference between the eyes and mouth and the rest of the face is naturally greater in women than men. In this case increasing or decreasing the luminance difference will make a face more feminine or masculine, respectively, and hence, more or less attractive depending on the sex of the face. Implications for the causes of cosmetics usage are discussed.

  8. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  9. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  10. Advancing Our Understanding of the Etiologies and Mutational Landscapes of Basal-Like, Luminal A, and Luminal B Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    specimens from all TN and ER+ cases will be centrally reviewed at the Porter Lab and all tumors will be tested for markers enabling us to identify the...we only sent physician notification letters when we could not find selected tumor marker results or address and phone information for participants...landscapes of basal-like, luminal A, and luminal B tumors . Our original goal was to recruit about 2,700 women in Western Washington who have been

  11. The luminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Herter, Terry; Haynes, Martha P.; Beichman, C. A.; Gautier, T. N. Iii

    1995-01-01

    We present broad-band J, H, and K images and K-band spectroscopy of the luminous starburst galaxy UGC 8387. The images show a disturbed morphology, tidal tails, and a single elognated nucleus. Near infrared color maps constructed from the images reveal that the nucleus region is highly reddened. Strong emission from the central 3 arcseconds in the 2.166 micrometer Brackett gamma, 2.122 micrometer H2 v = 1-0 S(1), and 2.058 micrometer He I lines is present in the K-band spectrum. From the Brackett gamma and published radio fluxes, we find an optical depth toward the nucleus of tau(sub V) approximately 24. The CO band heads produce strong absorption in the spectral region long-ward of 2.3 micrometers. We measure a 'raw' CO index of 0.17 +/- 0.02 mag, consistent with a population of K2 supergiants of K4 giants. The nuclear colors, however, are not consistent with an obscured population of evolved stars. Instead, the red colors are best explained by an obscured mixture of stellar and warm dust emission. The amount of dust emission predicted by the near-infrared colors exceeds that expected from comparisons to galactic H II regions. After correcting the spectrum of UGC 8387 for dust emission and extinction, we obtain a CO index of greater than or equal to 0.25 mag. This value suggests the stellar component of the 2.2 micrometer light is dominated by young supergiants. The infrared excess, L(sub IR)/L(sub Ly alpha) derived for UGC 8387 is lower than that observed in galactic H II regions and M82. This implies that either the lower or upper mass cutoff of the initial mass function must be higher than those of local star-forming regions and M82. The intense nuclear starburst in this galaxy is presumably the result of merger activity; and we estimate the starburst age to be at least a few times 10(exp 7) yr.

  12. Study of lumineers' interfaces by means of optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Borges, Erica; Fernandes Cassimiro-Silva, Patrícia; Osório Fernandes, Luana; Leônidas Gomes, Anderson Stevens

    2015-06-01

    OCT has been used to evaluate dental materials, and is employed here to evaluate lumineers for the first time. Lumineers are used as esthetical indirect restoration, and after wearing and aging, several undesirable features such as gaps, bubbles and mismatch can appear in which would only be seen by invasive analysis. The OCT (spectral domain SD-OCT, 930nm central wavelength) was used to evaluate noninvasively the lumineer- cement-tooth interface. We analyzed 20 specimens of lumineers-teeth that were prepared in bovine teeth and randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=5) with two different cementation techniques and two different types of cementing agent (RelyX U200 and RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE, with the adhesive recommended by the manufacture). The lumineers were made of lithium disilicate and obtained using a vacuum injection technique. The analysis was performed by using 2D and 3D OCT images, obtained before and after cementing and the thermal cycling process to simulate thermal stress in a oral cavity. Initial measurements showed that the SD-OCT was able to see through the 500μm thick lumineer, as delivered by the fabricant, and internal stress was observed. Failures were found in the cementing process and also after ageing simulation by thermal cycling. The adhesive failures as bubbles, gaps and degradation of the cementation line are the natural precursors of other defects reported by several studies of clinical follow-up (detachments, fractures and cracks). Bubble dimensions ranging from 146 μm to 1427 μm were measured and the OCT was validated as an investigative and precise tool for evaluation of the lumineer-cement-tooth.

  13. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  14. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  15. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  16. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  17. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-04

    formed and how they influence subsequent structure formation. In these notes we will leave the discussion of feedback to lecture notes by Ferrara & Salvaterra and by Madau & Haardt in this same book and focus only on the aspects of the formation of the first objects. The advent of cosmological numerical hydrodynamics in particular allow a fresh new look at these questions. Hence, these notes will touch on aspects of theoretical cosmology to chemistry, computer science, hydrodynamics and atomic physics. For further reading and more references on the subject we refer the reader to other relevant reviews such as Barkana & Loeb 2001, and more recently Ciardi & Ferrara 2004, Glover 2004 and Bromm & Larson 2004. In these notes, we try to give a brief introduction to only the most relevant aspects. We will start with a brief overview of the relevant cosmological concepts in section 2, followed by a discussion of the properties of primordial material (with particular emphasis to its cooling and its chemistry) in section 3. We will then review the technique and the results of numerical simulations in sections 4 and 5: the former will deal with detailed 3D simulations of the formation of gaseous clouds which are likely to transform into luminous objects, while the latter will examine results (mostly from 1D codes) about the modalities of such transformation. Finally, in section 6 we will critically discuss the results of the previous sections, examining their consequences and comparing them to our present knowledge of the universe.

  18. Closing the mind's eye: incoming luminance signals disrupt visual imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sherwood

    Full Text Available Mental imagery has been associated with many cognitive functions, both high and low-level. Despite recent scientific advances, the contextual and environmental conditions that most affect the mechanisms of visual imagery remain unclear. It has been previously shown that the greater the level of background luminance the weaker the effect of imagery on subsequent perception. However, in these experiments it was unclear whether the luminance was affecting imagery generation or storage of a memory trace. Here, we report that background luminance can attenuate both mental imagery generation and imagery storage during an unrelated cognitive task. However, imagery generation was more sensitive to the degree of luminance. In addition, we show that these findings were not due to differential dark adaptation. These results suggest that afferent visual signals can interfere with both the formation and priming-memory effects associated with visual imagery. It follows that background luminance may be a valuable tool for investigating imagery and its role in various cognitive and sensory processes.

  19. Association of proteasomal activity with metastasis in luminal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashova, E. E.; Fesik, E. A.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Chimotrypsin-like (ChTL) and caspase-like (CL) proteasomal activities were investigated in different variants of the tumor progression of luminal breast cancer. Patients with primary luminal breast cancer (n = 123) in stage T1-3N0-2M0 who had not received neoadjuvant treatment were included in this study. Proteasome ChTL and CL activities were determined in the samples of tumor and adjacent tissues. The coefficients of chymotrypsin-like (kChTL) and caspase-like (kCL) proteasome activity were also calculated as the ratio of the corresponding activity in the tumor tissue to activity in the adjacent tissue. ChTL, CL, kChTL and kCL in the tissues of luminal A and B breast cancer with lymphogenic metastasis were compared, and their association with hematogenous metastasis was evaluated. On the one hand, CL activity of proteasomes increased in luminal A breast cancer with extensive lymphogenic metastasis (N2), on the other hand it decreased in the luminal B subtype of cancer. The ratio of proteasomal activity in the tumor and adjacent tissues plays a significant role in the hematogenic pathway of breast cancer progression and is associated with poor metastatic-free survival.

  20. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  1. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  2. Structure of luminous clouds near evaporating hydrogen macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B.V.; Kostryukov, A.Yu.; Bakhareva, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    The experimentally observed spatial structure of a luminous cloud near the hydrogen macroparticle, evaporating in the tokamak plasma, is analyzed. The luminous cloud has the form of the plateau of constant intensity, extended in the direction of the magnetic field and surrounded by the exponentially falling wings. The cross-sectional dimension of the plateau is determined by the position of the ionization boundary of the atoms, flying out from the macroparticle surface. The plateau length corresponds approximately to the condition of the equality of the gas pressures in the luminous cloud and basic plasma. Accounting for the described structure is important for the correct evaluation of the signals of the alpha-particles diagnostics by the recharging atoms flows, depending on the cloud specific sizes [ru

  3. Distribution and identification of luminous bacteria from the sargasso sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, S A; Colwell, R R

    1980-05-01

    Vibrio fischeri and Lucibacterium harveyi constituted 75 of the 83 luminous bacteria isolated from Sargasso Sea surface waters. Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium phosphoreum constituted the remainder of the isolates. Luminescent bacteria were recovered at concentrations of 1 to 63 cells per 100 ml from water samples collected at depths of 160 to 320 m. Two water samples collected at the thermocline yielded larger numbers of viable, aerobic heterotrophic and luminous bacteria. Luminescent bacteria were not recovered from surface microlayer samples. The species distribution of the luminous bacteria reflected previously recognized growth patterns; i.e., L. harveyi and V. fischeri were predominant in the upper, warm waters (only one isolate of P. phosphoreum was obtained from surface tropical waters).

  4. Non-neuronal release of ACh plays a key role in secretory response to luminal propionate in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takaji; Inoue, Ryo; Matsumoto, Megumi; Yajima, Masako

    2011-02-15

    Colonic chloride secretion is induced by chemical stimuli via the enteric nervous reflex. We have previously demonstrated that propionate stimulates chloride secretion via sensory and cholinergic systems of the mucosa in rat distal colon. In this study, we demonstrate non-neuronal release of ACh in the secretory response to propionate using an Ussing chamber. Mucosa preparations from the colon, not including the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, were used. Luminal addition of propionate and serosal addition of ACh caused biphasic changes in short-circuit current (Isc). TTX (1 μm) had no effects, while atropine (10 μm) significantly inhibited the Isc response to propionate and abolished that to ACh. In response to luminal propionate stimulation, ACh was released into the serosal fluid. A linear relationship was observed between the maximal increase in Isc and the amounts of ACh released 5 min after propionate stimulation. This ACh release induced by propionate was not affected by atropine and bumetanide, although both drugs significantly reduced the Isc responses to propionate. Luminal addition of 3-chloropropionate, an inactive analogue of propionate, abolished both ACh release and Isc response produced by propionate. RT-PCR analysis indicated that isolated crypt cells from the distal colon expressed an enzyme of ACh synthesis (ChAT) and transporters of organic cation (OCTs), but not neuronal CHT1 and VAChT. The isolated crypt cells contained comparable amounts of ACh to the residual muscle tissues including nerve plexuses. In conclusion, the non-neuronal release of ACh from colonocytes coupled with propionate stimulation plays a key role in chloride secretion, via the paracrine action of ACh on muscarinic receptors of colonocytes.

  5. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  6. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eCoia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input colors compared to yellowish (-S cone input ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings.

  7. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Andrew J; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input) colors compared to yellowish (-S cone input) ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment) as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  9. Luminance improvement of red-emitting CaS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, K.; Toguchi, K.; Fuyama, M.; Tamura, K.; Abe, Y.; Ono, Y.A.; Yamamoto, H.

    1989-01-01

    Luminance of red-emitting CaS: Eu thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) cells is improved by increasing deposition rate through control of the electron beam current. Crystallinity and cathodoluminescence characteristics are investigated. Crystallinity was improved by increasing the deposition rate or the surface temperature of the evaporation sources; both the grain size and the fraction of the grains with the (111) direction normal to the substrate were increased. From the cathodoluminescence study it is suggested that with increase of the deposition rate the distribution of Eu 2 + ions became more uniform, causing an increase in luminance

  10. Halo Occupation Distribution Modeling of Clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zheng; Zehavi, Idit; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Jing, Y. P.

    2008-01-01

    We perform Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) modeling to interpret small-scale and intermediate-scale clustering of 35,000 luminous early-type galaxies and their cross-correlation with a reference imaging sample of normal L* galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The modeling results show that most of these luminous red galaxies (LRGs) are central galaxies residing in massive halos of typical mass M ~ a few times 10^13 to 10^14 Msun/h, while a few percent of them have to be satellites wit...

  11. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Luminous Bacteria Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryasheva, N.; Rozhko, T.; Alexandrova, M.; Vasyunkina, E.; Arkhipova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Marine luminous bacteria were used to monitor toxicity of alpha- (Am-241, U-235+238) and beta- (tritium) radionuclide solutions. Increase or inhibition of bacterial luminescence was observed under exposure to radionuclides. Radiation toxicity of Am and chemical toxicity of U were demonstrated. Effects of U were similar to those of stable heavy metals: sensitivity was about 10-5 M. Sensitivity of the bacteria to Am-241 was 300 Bq/L (10 -11 M). Inhibition of bacterial growth was observed under exposure to Am-241 and tritium. Role of peroxides and electron transfer processes in the effects of radionuclides on luminous bacteria is discussed.

  12. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  13. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    ) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical......The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time...

  14. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  15. Dystrophin Is Required for Proper Functioning of Luminance and Red-Green Cone Opponent Mechanisms in the Human Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Martins, Cristiane Maria Gomes; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Tsai, Tina; Damico, Francisco Max; da Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; de Cassia, Rita; Pavanello, M; Lourenço, Naila Cristina Vilaça; de Cerqueira, Antonia Maria Pereira; Zatz, Mayana; Kremers, Jan; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-07-01

    Visual information is processed in parallel pathways in the visual system. Parallel processing begins at the synapse between the photoreceptors and their postreceptoral neurons in the human retina. The integrity of this first neural connection is vital for normal visual processing downstream. Of the numerous elements necessary for proper functioning of this synaptic contact, dystrophin proteins in the eye play an important role. Deficiency of muscle dystrophin causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disease that affects muscle function and leads to decreased life expectancy. In DMD patients, postreceptoral retinal mechanisms underlying scotopic and photopic vision and ON- and OFF-pathway responses are also altered. In this study, we recorded the electroretinogram (ERG) while preferentially activating the (red-green) opponent or the luminance pathway, and compared data from healthy participants (n = 16) with those of DMD patients (n = 10). The stimuli were heterochromatic sinusoidal modulations at a mean luminance of 200 cd/m2. The recordings allowed us also to analyze ON and OFF cone-driven retinal responses. We found significant differences in 12-Hz response amplitudes and phases between controls and DMD patients, with conditions with large luminance content resulting in larger response amplitudes in DMD patients compared to controls, whereas responses of DMD patients were smaller when pure chromatic modulation was given. The results suggest that dystrophin is required for the proper function of luminance and red-green cone opponent mechanisms in the human retina.

  16. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  17. Mechanical feedback in the molecular ISM of luminous IR galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loenen, A. F.; Spaans, M.; Baan, W. A.; Meijerink, R.

    Aims. Molecular emission lines originating in the nuclei of luminous infra-red galaxies are used to determine the physical properties of the nuclear ISM in these systems. Methods. A large observational database of molecular emission lines is compared with model predictions that include heating by UV

  18. OLED lightings with optical feedback for luminance difference compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D K; Park, J W

    2013-01-01

    We have employed an optical feedback circuit in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) lighting system to ensure uniform light output across large-area OLED lighting tiles. In a lighting system with several large-area OLED lighting tiles involved, the panel aging (luminance decrease) may appear differently in each, resulting in a falling-off in lighting quality. To tackle this, light output from each OLED tile is monitored by the optical feedback circuit that consists of a photodetector, I–V converter, 10-bit analogue–digital converter (ADC), and comparator. A photodetector mounted on a glass side generates a feedback signal (current) by detecting side-emitting OLED light. To monitor bottom-emitting output light by detecting side-emitting OLED light, a mapping table between the ADC value and the luminance of bottom emission has been established. If the ADC value is lower or higher than the reference one corresponding to the target luminance of OLED tiles, a micro controller unit adjusts the pulse width modulation used for the control of the power supplied to OLED tiles in such a way that the ADC value obtained from optical feedback is the same as the reference one. As a result, the target luminance of each individual OLED tile is kept unchanged. With the optical feedback circuit included in the lighting system, we have observed less than 2% difference in relative intensity of neighboring OLED tiles. (paper)

  19. Luminance compensation for AMOLED displays using integrated MIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygranenko, Yuri; Fernandes, Miguel; Louro, Paula; Vieira, Manuela

    2017-05-01

    Active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) are ideal for future TV applications due to their ability to faithfully reproduce real images. However, pixel luminance can be affected by instability of driver TFTs and aging effect in OLEDs. This paper reports on a pixel driver utilizing a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) sensor for luminance control of the OLED element. In the proposed pixel architecture for bottom-emission AMOLEDs, the embedded MIS sensor shares the same layer stack with back-channel etched a Si:H TFTs to maintain the fabrication simplicity. The pixel design for a large-area HD display is presented. The external electronics performs image processing to modify incoming video using correction parameters for each pixel in the backplane, and also sensor data processing to update the correction parameters. The luminance adjusting algorithm is based on realistic models for pixel circuit elements to predict the relation between the programming voltage and OLED luminance. SPICE modeling of the sensing part of the backplane is performed to demonstrate its feasibility. Details on the pixel circuit functionality including the sensing and programming operations are also discussed.

  20. Isolation and characterization of endometrial luminal epithelial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2349031310693, E-mail: ayoraheem1@yahoo.com. Abstract. In this study, we have described a simple method of isolating endometrial luminal epithelial (LE) and stromal (ST) cells using ovine uteri samples obtained from the abattoir. Endometrial lining were digested in trypsin, ...

  1. SN 2010U: A LUMINOUS NOVA IN NGC 4214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Prieto, Jose L.; Rosenfield, Philip; Williams, Benjamin; Murphy, Jeremiah; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gilbert, Karoline; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Khan, Rubab; Szczygiel, Dorota; Mogren, Karen; Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The luminosity, light curve, post-maximum spectrum, and lack of a progenitor on deep pre-outburst images suggest that SN 2010U was a luminous, fast nova. Its outburst magnitude is consistent with that for a fast nova using the maximum magnitude-rate of decline relationship for classical novae.

  2. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The Highly Luminous Type Ibn Supernova ASASSN-14ms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallely, P. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the highly luminous Type Ibn supernova ASASSN-14ms, which was discovered on UT 2014-12-26.61 at $m_V \\sim 16.5$. With a peak absolute $V$-band magnitude brighter than $-20.5$, a peak bolometric luminosity of $1.7 \\times 10^{44}$ e...

  4. Profile of a Growing Urban School: The Lumin Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This fairytale-come-true began with an idealistic public school teacher just out of college who lived in the neighborhood of her students. In stages, working with a community organizing group consisting mainly of concerned parents, Terry Ford founded what is now called Lumin Education, a network of campuses serving more than six hundred children…

  5. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet | Iputo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Diet is an area of major interest to those investigating the causes of cancer of the oesophagus in the Transkei. This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and intragastric pH. Setting and subjects. A dietary survey was co-ordinated with studies of gastric luminal ...

  6. A luminal flavoprotein in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer, Jan; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Johansson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) discriminates between native and nonnative proteins. The latter are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Whereas many cytosolic and membrane components of this system are known, only few luminal players have been id...

  7. Might dark matter not be concentric with luminous matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chongming; Lu Tan.

    1986-12-01

    In this paper, an idea on dark matter nonconcentric with luminous matter is proposed. This case could influence the rotation curve of galaxy differently in its different direction. Recently, Rubin and Ford's observation on rotation curve of Hickson 88a has been explained by means of the idea. Some possible observational predictions have also been given. (author)

  8. The Missing Luminous Blue Variables and the Bistability Jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.; Vink, J.S.; de Koter, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss an interesting feature of the distribution of luminous blue variables (LBVs) on the H-R diagram, and we propose a connection with the bistability jump seen in the winds of early-type supergiants. There appears to be a deficiency of quiescent LBVs on the S Doradus instability strip at

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM CLUSTERS CONTAINING LUMINOUS ARCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREIMER, TG; SANDERS, RH

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the luminous arcs seen in several clusters of galaxies are more distant galaxies imaged into a partial Einstein ring by the gravitational field of the intervening cluster. If the mass distribution in the cluster can be independently determined by the internal dynamics,

  10. Planktonic marine luminous bacteria: species distribution in the water column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E G; Greenberg, E P; Hastings, J W

    1980-02-01

    Luminous bacteria were isolated from oceanic water samples taken throughout the upper 1,000 m and ranged in density from 0.4 to 30 colony-forming units per 100 ml. Generally, two peaks in abundance were detected: one in the upper 100 m of the water column, which consisted primarily of Beneckea spp.; and a second between 250 and 1,000 m, which consisted almost entirely of Photobacterium phosphoreum. The population of P. phosphoreum remained relatively stable in abundance at one station that was visited three times over a period of 6 months. However, the abundance of luminous Beneckea spp. isolated from the upper waters fluctuated considerably; they were, as high as 30 colony-forming units per 100 ml in the spring and were not detected in the winter. Water samples from depths of 4,000 to 7,000 m contained less than 0.1 luminous colony-forming unit per 100 ml. The apparent vertical stratification of two taxa of oceanic luminous bacteria may reflect not only differences in physiology, but also depth-related, species-specific symbiotic associations.

  11. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  12. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  13. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  14. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  15. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  16. SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL SELECTIVITY OF LUMINANCE VISION IN REEF FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E Siebeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective – it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees or on the sum of long- and middle- wavelength sensitive cones (humans, but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. 16 freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their colour or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques. Three colours (‘bright green’, ‘dark green’ and ‘blue’ were used to create two sets of colour and two sets of pattern stimuli. The ‘bright green’ and ‘dark green’ were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the ‘dark green’ differed from ‘blue’ in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate ‘bright green’ from ‘dark green’ and ‘dark green’ from ‘blue’ stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from ‘dark green’ and ‘bright green’. However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from ‘blue’ and ‘dark green’ colours, i.e. the colours that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals.

  17. Distribution and species composition of planktonic luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    of luminous bacteria. Vibrio fischeri and V. harveyi dominated the species composition of luminous bacteria. Photobacterium leiognathi was only a minor component. A few strains of P. phosphoreum were also recovered during the collections from deeper waters...

  18. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  19. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  20. Ki67 expression and the effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy on luminal HER2-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Yoshiya; Arakawa, Atsushi; Tanabe, Masahiko; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Igari, Fumie; Senuma, Koji; Tokuda, Emi; Shimizu, Hideo; Kosaka, Taijiro; Saito, Mitsue

    2014-07-30

    Patients with luminal HER2-negative tumours have a favourable prognosis. However, there is a subpopulation in which poorer outcomes are obtained with endocrine therapy alone. This subpopulation is considered to benefit from chemotherapy. However, the significance of chemotherapy for those with luminal tumours has decreased due to recent changes in treatment strategies. Thus, it is often difficult to determine whether we should recommend chemotherapy to such patients in clinical practice. We investigated Ki67 expression, as a means of predicting the responses of luminal HER2-negative breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), in order to identify a subpopulation that would benefit from these treatments. We enrolled 114 luminal HER2-negative breast cancer patients undergoing surgery after NAC. Biomarkers were examined using biopsy specimens obtained prior to treatment, to avoid any chemotherapy-related effects. Chemotherapy effects were determined employing operative specimens and we defined pathological complete response (pCR) as invasive nest disappearance, based only on the primary breast tumour. We applied receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to data from our 114 patients, to investigate Ki67 expression as a predictor of pCR. The pCR rate was significantly higher for tumours with high Ki67 expression (p Ki67 cut-off value which distinguishes those with a pCR from other cases. Another dataset, comprised of 196 patients with a median 29-month observation period, was recruited for validation. Disease-free survival was found to be significantly (p Ki67 expression was higher than 35%. Our results raise the possibility of the luminal HER2-negative subpopulation with Ki67 expression higher than 35% benefiting from chemotherapy, as evidenced by improved survival.

  1. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  2. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  3. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  4. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  5. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  6. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  7. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  8. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  9. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  10. File list: His.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells mm9 Histone Breast Luminal cells SRX213395,SRX213418...,SRX213416 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells.bed ...

  11. Radiation exposure to dial painters from 3H luminous paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. The paper describes in-vitro solubilisation study of luminous paint in blood serum. Besides urine samples of luminous paint workers and air samples of two watch factories were analysed for 3 H. The results of these analysis are also presented. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or... DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exemptions § 30.19 Self-luminous products containing tritium... transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147...

  13. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells mm9 All antigens Breast Luminal cells SRX213395,SRX2...13418,SRX213398,SRX213416 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Brs.20.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: His.Brs.05.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity in older people with a history of hip fracture. Data were collected from 60- to 85-year-old (n = 78) community-dwelling people, 0.7-7.5 years after hip fracture. Physical activity was assessed with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). According to the YPAS summary index distribution, the participants were divided into the physically inactive and physically active groups. Musculoskeletal pain in the lower back, hip or knee region was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale. Pain was defined as severe pain if the subject rated the pain 66 mm or over (upper third of the scale) in at least one of the relevant body regions in the lower body. Thirty-three subjects (42%) experienced severe pain in the lower body, of whom 23 (70%) reported severe pain in the operated hip. Twenty-three patients (30%) used pain medication prescribed by a physician. The level of musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher in the physically inactive (62%) than in the physically active (31%) group (p = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that people with severe pain had over three times (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.30-9.39) the risk for physical inactivity compared to those with less or no pain. Multivariate adjustments for balance confidence, time since fracture, number of chronic diseases and type of surgery did not materially change the estimate (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.00-9.30). Pain is an important associated factor of physical inactivity in older people with a hip fracture history. Pain management may be important in restoring and sustaining the level of physical activity after hip fracture. Further prospective and experimental studies are, however, needed to explore the causality between pain and

  1. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin. PMID:24409391

  2. Luminance-dependent long-term chromatic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joris; Kale, Alex M; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    There is theoretical and empirical support for long-term adaptation of human vision to chromatic regularities in the environment. The current study investigates whether relationships of luminance and chromaticity in the natural environment could drive chromatic adaptation independently and differently for bright and dark colors. This is motivated by psychophysical evidence of systematic difference shifts in red-green chromatic sensitivities between contextually bright- versus dark-colored stimuli. For some broad classes of scene content, consistent shifts in chromaticity are found between high and low light levels within images. Especially in those images in which sky and terrain are juxtaposed, this shift has direction and magnitude consistent with the observed psychophysical shifts in the red-green balance between bright and dark colors. Taken together, these findings suggest that relative weighting of M- and L-cone signals could be adapted, in a luminance-dependent fashion, to regularities in the natural environment.

  3. Development and construction of a programmable generator of luminous impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahuc, P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction of an impulse generator, for light waves, designed to control the characteristics of a scintillator. In these detectors, a particle gives rise to the emission of a luminous signal, which must be transformed in an electrical signal. In the present work, photomultipliers are used as luminous-electrical signal converters. The principles of operation of a scintillator, of a scintillator connected with a photodiode, and of a scintillator connected with a photomultiplier are reviewed. The analysis of the performance and of the possibilies offered by the usual generators of light, show that more suitable solutions are required. The characteristics of the electroluminescent diodes, their performances, concerning light emission and power, are investigated. The principles, the operating conditions and the performances of a generator of light, applying electroluminescent diodes, are examined. The construction and the results obtained with a prototype are presented [fr

  4. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter t...

  6. Luminous Intensity Distribution Curve Effect on Luminaire Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Rudolf; Brejcha, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses a way to deploy a given number of point light sources in the interior to provide required illuminance levels and uniformity of the working plane by using a genetic algorithm. Furthermore a genetic algorithm has been used to generate a proper luminous intensity distribution curve of multiple luminaires to meet the given criteria for the reference plane of the model room for predefined luminaire positions.

  7. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths. - Highlights: • Urban sky glow is interpreted in terms of city emission function. • Luminance function in a suburban zone is linked to the City Pattern. • Single scattering approximation is applicable in modeling urban sky glow. • Information on aerosols represents valuable inputs to the retrieval procedure. • Sky glow patterns vary with light source distribution and spectral emission

  8. Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; McLin, Leon N; Rickman, J Michael; Manka, Michael A; Garcia, Paul V; Kinerk, Wesley T; Smith, Peter A

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000  cd·m -2 ). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600  μW·cm -2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.

  9. DETECTING EXOMOONS AROUND SELF-LUMINOUS GIANT EXOPLANETS THROUGH POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Sujan [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Marley, Mark S., E-mail: sujan@iiap.res.in, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Many of the directly imaged self-luminous gas-giant exoplanets have been found to have cloudy atmospheres. Scattering of the emergent thermal radiation from these planets by the dust grains in their atmospheres should locally give rise to significant linear polarization of the emitted radiation. However, the observable disk-averaged polarization should be zero if the planet is spherically symmetric. Rotation-induced oblateness may yield a net non-zero disk-averaged polarization if the planets have sufficiently high spin rotation velocity. On the other hand, when a large natural satellite or exomoon transits a planet with a cloudy atmosphere along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit should give rise to a net non-zero, time-resolved linear polarization signal. The peak amplitude of such time-dependent polarization may be detectable even for slowly rotating exoplanets. Therefore, we suggest that large exomoons around directly imaged self-luminous exoplanets may be detectable through time-resolved imaging polarimetry. Adopting detailed atmospheric models for several values of effective temperature and surface gravity that are appropriate for self-luminous exoplanets, we present the polarization profiles of these objects in the infrared during the transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contacts of the transit ingress/egress phase. The peak polarization is predicted to range between 0.1% and 0.3% in the infrared.

  10. Relationships between luminance and visual acuity in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavonius, C. R.; Robbins, D. O.

    1973-01-01

    1. The ability of rhesus monkeys to detect the gap in Landolt ring test-objects that were presented against background luminances between 5 × 10-5 cd/m2 and 5 × 103 cd/m2 was compared with similar human data. 2. At high luminance-levels the acuity of human observers is slightly better than that of rhesus, but rhesus have better acuity at scotopic luminance-levels. Both species have distinct photopic and scotopic acuity functions that cross at 6 × 10-3 cd/m2. 3. The threshold for light detection is estimated to be the same for both species when specified in quanta incident on the retina. 4. It is concluded that the receptor and neural mechanisms that mediate visual-acuity function similarly in rhesus and man, and that the differences in acuity that were measured in the two species may be attributed to optical rather than to physiological factors. PMID:4199366

  11. DETECTING EXOMOONS AROUND SELF-LUMINOUS GIANT EXOPLANETS THROUGH POLARIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sujan; Marley, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Many of the directly imaged self-luminous gas giant exoplanets have been found to have cloudy atmospheres. Scattering of the emergent thermal radiation from these planets by the dust grains in their atmospheres should locally give rise to significant linear polarization of the emitted radiation. However, the observable disk averaged polarization should be zero if the planet is spherically symmetric. Rotation-induced oblateness may yield a net non-zero disk averaged polarization if the planets have sufficiently high spin rotation velocity. On the other hand, when a large natural satellite or exomoon transits a planet with cloudy atmosphere along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit should give rise to a net non-zero, time resolved linear polarization signal. The peak amplitude of such time dependent polarization may be detectable even for slowly rotating exoplanets. Therefore, we suggest that large exomoons around directly imaged self-luminous exoplanets may be detectable through time resolved imaging polarimetry. Adopting detailed atmospheric models for several values of effective temperature and surface gravity which are appropriate for self-luminous exoplanets, we present the polarization profiles of these objects in the infrared during transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contacts of the transit ingress/egress phase. The peak polarization is predicted to range between 0.1 and 0.3 % in the infrared.

  12. Luminous blue variables and the fates of very massive stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-10-28

    Luminous blue variables (LBVs) had long been considered massive stars in transition to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase, so their identification as progenitors of some peculiar supernovae (SNe) was surprising. More recently, environment statistics of LBVs show that most of them cannot be in transition to the WR phase after all, because LBVs are more isolated than allowed in this scenario. Additionally, the high-mass H shells around luminous SNe IIn require that some very massive stars above 40  M ⊙ die without shedding their H envelopes, and the precursor outbursts are a challenge for understanding the final burning sequences leading to core collapse. Recent evidence suggests a clear continuum in pre-SN mass loss from super-luminous SNe IIn, to regular SNe IIn, to SNe II-L and II-P, whereas most stripped-envelope SNe seem to arise from a separate channel of lower-mass binary stars rather than massive WR stars.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The Role of Luminance and Chromaticity on Symmetry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of luminance and chromaticity on symmetry detection with the noise masking paradigm. In each trial, a random dot noise mask was presented in both intervals. A symmetric target was randomly presented in one interval while a random dot control was presented in the other. The orientation of the symmetric axis of the target was either 45°or −45° diagonal. The task of the observer was to determine which interval contained a symmetric target. The dots in both the target and the mask was painted with 1 to 4 colors selected from white, black, red, green, blue and yellow. We measured the target density threshold at various noise densities. Our results showed that when the number of the colors in the images was equal, the thresholds were lower in the luminance conditions than in the chromaticity conditions. In addition, the thresholds decreased with the increment of the number of the colors in the images. This suggests that (1 the luminance symmetry detection mechanism is more sensitive than chromaticity one and (2 that, contrasted to the prediction of an uncertainty model, the diversity in color facilitates symmetry detection.

  14. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  15. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  16. Variations on a classical theme: On the formal relationship between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Bará

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formal link between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance is discussed in this paper. Directly related to the human visual system, luminance is defined in terms of the spectral radiance of the source, weighted by the CIE V(l luminous efficiency function, and scaled by the 683 lm/W luminous efficacy constant. In consequence, any exact and spectrum-independent relationship between luminance and magnitudes per square arcsecond requires that the last ones be measured precisely in the CIE V(l band. The luminance value corresponding to mVC=0 (zero-point of the CIE V(l magnitude scale depends on the reference source chosen for the definition of the magnitude system. Using absolute AB magnitudes, the zero point luminance of the CIE V(l photometric band is 10.96 x 104 cd·m-2.

  17. Assessment of active and inactive sacroiliitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis using quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengchao; Zhou, Le; Huang, Ning; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Songyan; Liu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate the active and inactive stage of sacroiliitis and the correlation between quantitative parameters and disease activity as measured by clinical scores. Forty-two patients with ankylosing spondylitis underwent DCE-MRI on a 3.0T MRI unit. According to the results of the blood sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the patients were grouped into inactive and active groups. Pharmacokinetic models were used to generate the semiquantitative and quantitative hemodynamic parameters of DCE-MRI. The between-group differences were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and the correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters and BASDAI score were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The efficacies of different parameters in differentiating the active and inactive phase of sacroiliitis were evaluated and compared using receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. K trans , K ep , V e , time to peak (TTP), max concentration (MAX Conc), and area under the curve (AUC) of the active group were significantly higher than those of the inactive stage group (P 0.05), except between AUC and MAX Conc (P = 0.0012). Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters can differentiate between active and inactive ankylosing spondylitis. Among those, K trans had the highest correlation coefficient with the BASDAI score. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:71-78. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Effects of chronic alcoholism in the sensitivity to luminance contrast in vertical sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éllen Dias Nicácio da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to measure visual contrast sensitivity (CS of luminance using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree of visual angle in chronic alcoholics in abstinence period. The participants were 20 volunteers (26–59 years of age divided into two groups: the study group (SG consisted of 10 volunteers with a clinical history of chronic alcoholism abstinence and the control group (CG consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. Each group had five female and five male participants. All participants had normal or corrected visual acuity and were free of identifiable diseases. The psychophysical method of forced choice between two temporal alternatives (2AFC was used to measure visual CS of luminance of 41.2 cd/m2. The results showed significant differences between groups for all spatial frequencies tested (p< 0.001. These results suggest alterations in the visual perception related to chronic alcohol consumption even after years of abstinence.

  19. Inter-Laboratory Comparison of Luminous Intensity Distribution and Total Luminous Flux Measurements with Far Field and Near Field Goniophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna, Paula; Quintero, Jesús; Losada, Daniel; Leloup, Frédéric; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to be recognized as a competent testing and calibration laboratory, metrology laboratories who aim to obtain an accreditation for specific tests need to fulfill a number of general requirements as stipulated in the International Standard ISO/IEC17025. One way to assure the quality of testing is to participate in proficiency testing programs or to conduct interlaboratory comparisons. In this paper, luminous intensity distribution measurements of three LED lamps, p...

  20. Os efeitos da idade na percepção visual de grades senoidais em luminância baixa The effects of age on visual perception of sine-wave gratings at low luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a função de sensibilidade ao contraste (FSC de adultos e idosos (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 anos para grades senoidais de 0,25 a 2 cpg em luminância baixa. Todos os participantes apresentavam acuidade visual normal e se encontravam livres de doenças oculares identificáveis. Foram estimados limiares de contraste para 30 participantes (seis em cada faixa etária utilizando o método psicofísico da escolha forçada. Neste método, os participantes tinham que escolher um estímulo contendo uma freqüência de teste (grade senoidal em baixo contraste ou um estímulo neutro com luminância média de 0,7 cd/m². Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 anos apresentaram prejuízos significativos na FSC nas freqüências espaciais de 1 e 2 cpg comparados ao grupo de 20-23 anos. Estes resultados sugerem alterações relacionadas à idade na FSC de freqüências espaciais em níveis baixos de luminância.The aim of this work was to investigate the contrast sensitivity function for sine-wave gratings in the range between 0.25-2 cpd in young and older adults (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years old using low luminance. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. We measured the contrast thresholds for 30 participants (six volunteers in each age using the psychophysical forced-choice staircase method. In this method the volunteers had to choose the stimulus containing a test frequency at low contrast (e.g., a sine-wave grating, or another neutral stimulus at mean luminance (0.7 cd/m². The results showed significant changes of CSF for sine-wave gratings at 1 and 2 cpd for the adults 50-59 and 60-69 years old compared to the adults of 20-23 years old. These results suggest age-related changes in the CSF for sine-wave grating at low luminance levels.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA and commuting (CPA among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21.5% exercised occasionally. Main reasons for not taking up LTPA included: high general physical activity (36.4%, lack of time (28.1%, no willingness to exercise (25.4%. Close to 82% of the surveyed population did not practice commuting physical activity (CPA. The men had higher risk for inactivity during LTPA compared to the women (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11–1.65; p ≤ 0.05. Higher odds of CPA inactivity were associated with unemployment, moderate and heavy drinking and having a number of health problems. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the social assistance recipients is much higher than it is in the general population. Promotion of an active lifestyle should take into consideration substantial differences between the general population and disadvantaged individuals and their various needs.

  2. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  3. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  4. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  5. The dangers of inactivity; exercise and inactivity physiology for the manual therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Engelbert, R.; Takken, T.

    2011-01-01

    Physiotherapists should take a primary role in relation to the prevention and management of all diseases that are associated with low levels of physical activity. The benefits of regular physical activity on health, longevity, and well being easily surpass the effectiveness of any drugs or other

  6. Revised cutoff values of ALT and HBV DNA level can better differentiate HBeAg (-) chronic inactive HBV patients from active carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Bushra; Ahmad, Waqar; Javed, Fouzia T; Gull, Sana; Hassan, Sajida

    2011-02-27

    ELISA is still used as primary test for diagnosis HBV disease. However, ELISA-positive patients were marked as HBV inactive after confirmation with PCR and vice versa. Our aim was to assess the performance of new cut-off value of ALT, HBV DNA load and significance of AST as screening tool for HBeAg (-) chronic active or inactive patients in Pakistani population. In a cross-sectional, cohort study, 567 HBeAg (-) patients followed for one year were selected. Patients with persistent elevated ALT than normal and HBV DNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL were taken as active chronic. Diagnostic values for ALT, AST and HBV DNA load in HBV HBeAg (-) chronic active and inactive patients compared using receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 567 HBeAg (-) patients, 228 were classified as chronic inactive and 339 as active. HBV infection was dominant in male. Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels showed significant and high AUROC to differentiate chronic HBeAg (-) inactive patients from active. AUROC for Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA were observed 0.997, 0.969 and 1.000, respectively. For revised cut off value for ALT (30 IU/L for male and 19 IU/L for female) and HBV DNA load ≥100,000 copies/mL, a PPV of 97%, NPV of 94%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 92% was observed to discriminate active carriers from inactive carriers. We also observed 93.5% specificity, 83.1% sensitivity, 82% PPV and 89.5% NPV for AST ≤20 IU/L to differentiate inactive carriers from active ones in our study group. Revised cut off value of ALT and NIH derived HBV DNA value can better discriminate between HBeAg (-) chronic active and inactive patients.

  7. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  8. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...... exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many...

  9. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  10. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  11. Motion detection from photopic to low scotopic luminance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grind, W A; Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J

    2000-01-01

    In this study we quantify the influence of adaptation luminance on the threshold for direction-detection in coherently moving random-pixel arrays (RPAs). Square RPAs of a constant rms-contrast (35%) were used and we determined their 'critical' or threshold-width Wc. Mean retinal illuminances were varied in 13 steps of 0.5 log unit from the low photopic range (screen luminance 0.3 cd/m2) down to 6 log units attenuation, which appeared to be about the absolute threshold of vision under the conditions of our experiment. Moving RPAs were presented at six retinal locations (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 degrees) from the fovea to the far periphery in the temporal visual field of the right eye of three experienced observers (the authors). In order to ensure an honest comparison between these very disparate conditions, the spatial dimensions (including speed) were scaled according to the acuity, as measured separately for each of the viewing-conditions and observers. Acuity scaling proves to equate the performance for all eccentricities and luminance levels rather well. The fovea is special, but only in the sense that the absolute threshold for light detection is reahed earlier than in peripheral regions. In all other respects foveal results follow the pattern found for peripheral locations. Two different regimes can be discerned in the data, one for high and one for low speeds. In the low speed range Wc is almost constant, regardless of luminance level or eccentricity. The critical 'crossing-time' Tc for any pixel starting at one end of the stimulus and leaving at the opposite end is therefore inversely proportional to velocity in the low-speed range (time-velocity reciprocity). At medium-to-high speeds Wc increases linearly with velocity, so Tc is constant. This constant (minimum) value of Tc differs between subjects, but in all subjects it increases somewhat with decreasing luminance level, even for our acuity-scaled stimuli. The different behaviour for low and high speeds

  12. LUMINOUS SATELLITES VERSUS DARK SUBHALOS: CLUSTERING IN THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The observed population of the Milky Way satellite galaxies offers a unique testing ground for galaxy formation theory on small scales. Our novel approach was to investigate the clustering of the known Milky Way satellite galaxies and to quantify the amount of substructure within their distribution using a two-point correlation function statistic in each of three spaces: configuration space, line-of-sight velocity space, and four-dimensional (4D) phase space. These results were compared to those for three sets of subhalos in the Via Lactea II cold dark matter (CDM) simulation defined to represent the luminous dwarfs. We found no evidence at a significance level above 2σ of substructure within the distribution of the Milky Way satellite galaxies in any of the three spaces. The 'luminous' subhalo sets are more strongly clustered than are the Milky Way satellites in all three spaces and over a broader range of scales in 4D phase space. Each of the 'luminous' subhalo sets are clustered as a result of substructure within their line-of-sight velocity space distributions at greater than 3σ significance, whereas the Milky Way satellite galaxies are randomly distributed in line-of-sight velocity space. While our comparison is with only one CDM simulation, the inconsistencies between the Milky Way satellite galaxies and the Via Lactea II subhalo sets for all clustering methods suggest a potential new 'small-scale' tension between CDM theory and the observed Milky Way satellites. Future work will obtain a more robust comparison between the observed Milky Way satellites and CDM theory by studying additional simulations

  13. Delayed cone-opponent signals in the luminance pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Andrew; Henning, G Bruce; Anwar, Sharif; Starba, Robert; Rider, Andrew T

    2018-02-01

    Cone signals in the luminance or achromatic pathway were investigated by measuring how the perceptual timing of M- or L-cone-detected flicker depended on temporal frequency and chromatic adaptation. Relative timings were measured, as a function of temporal frequency, by superimposing M- or L-cone-isolating flicker on "equichromatic" flicker (flicker of the same wavelength as the background) and asking observers to vary contrast and phase to cancel the perception of flicker. Measurements were made in four observers on up to 35 different backgrounds varying in wavelength and radiance. Observers showed substantial perceptual delays or advances of L- and M-cone flicker that varied systematically with cone class, background wavelength, and radiance. Delays were largest for M-cone-isolating flicker. Although complex, the results can be characterised by a surprisingly simple model in which the representations of L- and M-cone flicker are comprised not only of a fast copy of the flicker signal, but also of a slow copy that is delayed by roughly 30 ms and varies in strength and sign with both background wavelength and radiance. The delays, which are too large to be due to selective cone adaptation by the chromatic backgrounds, must arise postreceptorally. Clear evidence for the slow signals can also be found in physiological measurements of horizontal and magnocellular ganglion cells, thus placing the origin of the slow signals in the retina-most likely in an extended horizontal cell network. Luminance-equated stimuli chosen to isolate chromatic channels may inadvertently generate slow signals in the luminance channel.

  14. Planktonic Marine Luminous Bacteria: Species Distribution in the Water Column

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, E. G.; Greenberg, E. P.; Hastings, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Luminous bacteria were isolated from oceanic water samples taken throughout the upper 1,000 m and ranged in density from 0.4 to 30 colony-forming units per 100 ml. Generally, two peaks in abundance were detected: one in the upper 100 m of the water column, which consisted primarily of Beneckea spp.; and a second between 250 and 1,000 m, which consisted almost entirely of Photobacterium phosphoreum. The population of P. phosphoreum remained relatively stable in abundance at one station that wa...

  15. Diagnostics of compact clusters of galaxies by giant luminous arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The diagnosis of cluster potentials using giant luminous arcs is addressed. The properties of the arrival time surface near an arc are considered, and the results of Monte Carlo simulations of two-arc cases for a small quadrupole lens are described and applied to known cases. It is concluded that the distributions of two arc extents can be usefully applied when cluster cores have simple morphology. The extents, together with the arc width, give an estimate of the ellipticity of the lens. 37 references

  16. Properties of CO Molecular Gas in IR Luminous Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Lihong

    2003-01-01

    We present the properties of the 12CO(1-0) and (3-2) line emission from the nuclei of 60 IR luminous SLUGS galaxies. This subsample is flux limited at S60 > 5.24 Jy with FIR luminosities mostly at LFIR > 10^10 Lo. The emission line strengths of 12CO(1-0) and (3-2) transitions were compared at a common resolution of ~ 15", and the line ratios r31 vary from 0.22 to 1.72 with a mean value of 0.66 for the sources observed, indicating a large spread of the degree of excitation of CO in the sample....

  17. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, Kristian; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. DESIGN: Population-based, cross...... men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity...... significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational...

  18. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Dolman, Koert M.; Rossum, Marion A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K trans ), extravascular space fractional volume (V e ) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep ) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  19. CD8+ T Cells Induce Fatal Brainstem Pathology during Cerebral Malaria via Luminal Antigen-Specific Engagement of Brain Vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Swanson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM, we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death. At the peak of ECM, we revealed using intravital two-photon microscopy that myelomonocytic cells and parasite-specific CD8+ T cells associated primarily with the luminal surface of CNS blood vessels. Myelomonocytic cells participated in the removal of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs from cerebral blood vessels, but were not required for the disease. Interestingly, the majority of disease-inducing parasite-specific CD8+ T cells interacted with the lumen of brain vascular endothelial cells (ECs, where they were observed surveying, dividing, and arresting in a cognate peptide-MHC I dependent manner. These activities were critically dependent on IFN-γ, which was responsible for activating cerebrovascular ECs to upregulate adhesion and antigen-presenting molecules. Importantly, parasite-specific CD8+ T cell interactions with cerebral vessels were impaired in chimeric mice rendered unable to present EC antigens on MHC I, and these mice were in turn resistant to fatal brainstem pathology. Moreover, anti-adhesion molecule (LFA-1 / VLA-4 therapy prevented fatal disease by rapidly displacing luminal CD8+ T cells from cerebrovascular ECs without affecting extravascular T cells. These in vivo data demonstrate that parasite-specific CD8+ T cell-induced fatal vascular breakdown and subsequent neuronal death during ECM is associated with luminal, antigen

  20. CD8+ T Cells Induce Fatal Brainstem Pathology during Cerebral Malaria via Luminal Antigen-Specific Engagement of Brain Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Phillip A.; Hart, Geoffrey T.; Russo, Matthew V.; Nayak, Debasis; Yazew, Takele; Peña, Mirna; Khan, Shahid M.; Pierce, Susan K.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death. At the peak of ECM, we revealed using intravital two-photon microscopy that myelomonocytic cells and parasite-specific CD8+ T cells associated primarily with the luminal surface of CNS blood vessels. Myelomonocytic cells participated in the removal of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) from cerebral blood vessels, but were not required for the disease. Interestingly, the majority of disease-inducing parasite-specific CD8+ T cells interacted with the lumen of brain vascular endothelial cells (ECs), where they were observed surveying, dividing, and arresting in a cognate peptide-MHC I dependent manner. These activities were critically dependent on IFN-γ, which was responsible for activating cerebrovascular ECs to upregulate adhesion and antigen-presenting molecules. Importantly, parasite-specific CD8+ T cell interactions with cerebral vessels were impaired in chimeric mice rendered unable to present EC antigens on MHC I, and these mice were in turn resistant to fatal brainstem pathology. Moreover, anti-adhesion molecule (LFA-1 / VLA-4) therapy prevented fatal disease by rapidly displacing luminal CD8+ T cells from cerebrovascular ECs without affecting extravascular T cells. These in vivo data demonstrate that parasite-specific CD8+ T cell-induced fatal vascular breakdown and subsequent neuronal death during ECM is associated with luminal, antigen

  1. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  2. Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis of Luminous Infrared Galaxies from GOALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Vivian; Sanders, D.; Evans, A.; Mazzarella, J.; Armus, L.; Iwasawa, K.; Vavilkin, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; GOALS Team

    2009-05-01

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) were thought to be well understood and exemplified by that of Arp 220, the "poster child" of these objects; but in fact, Arp 220 has been shown to be special in more than one way. Here we present comprehensive SEDs (from radio through x-ray) for the 88 most luminous (U)LIRGs in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), which combines multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic data from space telescopes (Spitzer, HST, GALEX, and Chandra) in an effort to fully understand galaxy evolution processes and the enhanced infrared emission in the local universe. Spanning the luminosity range 11.4 < log(L_ir/L_sun) < 12.5, our objects are a complete subset of the flux-limited IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. To complement spacecraft data, we also took optical imaging data from Mauna Kea as well as searched through literature in order to compile accurate and consistent photometry and fully characterize the spectral shapes of the SEDs. We then analyzed the ratios of the radio, infrared, optical, and x-ray emission as a function of infrared luminosity and discussed the trends observed.

  3. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  4. No hot and luminous progenitor for Tycho's supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T. E.; Ghavamian, P.; Badenes, C.; Gilfanov, M.

    2017-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae have proven vital to our understanding of cosmology, both as standard candles and for their role in galactic chemical evolution; however, their origin remains uncertain. The canonical accretion model implies a hot and luminous progenitor that would ionize the surrounding gas out to a radius of 10-100 pc for 100,000 years after the explosion. Here, we report stringent upper limits on the temperature and luminosity of the progenitor of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572), determined using the remnant itself as a probe of its environment. Hot, luminous progenitors that would have produced a greater hydrogen ionization fraction than that measured at the radius of the present remnant ( 3 pc) can thus be excluded. This conclusively rules out steadily nuclear-burning white dwarfs (supersoft X-ray sources), as well as disk emission from a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf accreting approximately greater than 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 (recurrent novae; M⊙ is equal to one solar mass). The lack of a surrounding Strömgren sphere is consistent with the merger of a double white dwarf binary, although other more exotic scenarios may be possible.

  5. Luminal digestion of lactoferrin in suckling and weanling rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.R.; Koldovsky, O.

    1987-01-01

    The development of luminal digestion of lactoferrin was evaluated in vitro by incubating 125 I-labeled lactoferrin with fluid flushed from the stomach and small intestine of 12-day-old suckling and 31-day-old weanling rats, followed by measurement of radioactivity in trichloroacetic acid-soluble material. Gastric hydrolysis of lactoferrin at pH 3.2 in the weanling was 20-fold greater than that in the suckling. In the small intestine at neutral pH, luminal degradation of lactoferrin was minimal in the suckling but increased significantly after weaning, with maximal degradative capacity demonstrable in the midjejunum. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of intestinal acid-soluble breakdown products revealed two peaks of radioactivity, each comprising 40-45% of the total product; analysis of intestinal acid-precipitable products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded several discrete lower molecular weight species. Food deprivation for 12 h/100 g body wt decreased lactoferrin degradation in the weanling jejunum and midjejunum. The findings suggest that lactoferrin digestion may vary with respect to postnatal age of the organism, segment of the gastrointestinal tract, and dietary state. In the young animal, lactoferrin degradation is minimal, and consequently its potential for biological function may be high

  6. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET–UNLP and Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata (Argentina); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Barbá, Rodolfo H. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Angeloni, Rodolfo, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: eflajus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl, E-mail: rangelon@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  7. Luminance distribution of x-ray image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro; Tanaka, Shuji

    1986-01-01

    For a number of reasons, the luminance distribution of the output image of an X-ray image intensifier (I.I.) tube is not uniform but has a tendency to decrease toward the periphery. The reasons for this were investigated by measurement and calculation using two types of variable field I.I. with different viewing-field sizes and distances from the focal spot of the X-ray tube to the entrance plane (FED). The most significant cause of the nonuniformity in the luminance distribution is nonuniformity of the local area demagnification ratio (or distortion) of the image and the second is nonuniformity of the local photoelectric sensitivity of the input screen. The nonuniformity of an I.I. can be improved by selecting a smaller viewing field or a larger FED. The distortion of the image is divided into that from the entrance plane to the input screen and that from the input screen to the output screen, the latter being rather more significant. (author)

  8. Luminous and Obscured Quasars and Their Host Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Del Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The most heavily-obscured, luminous quasars might represent a specific phase of the evolution of the actively accreting supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, possibly related to mergers. We investigated a sample of the most luminous quasars at z ≈ 1 − 3 in the GOODS fields, selected in the mid-infrared band through detailed spectral energy distribution (SED decomposition. The vast majority of these quasars (~80% are obscured in the X-ray band and ~30% of them to such an extent, that they are undetected in some of the deepest (2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data. Although no clear relation is found between the star-formation rate of the host galaxies and the X-ray obscuration, we find a higher incidence of heavily-obscured quasars in disturbed/merging galaxies compared to the unobscured ones, thus possibly representing an earlier stage of evolution, after which the system is relaxing and becoming unobscured.

  9. The highly luminous Type Ibn supernova ASASSN-14ms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, P. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Sukhbold, T.; Bersier, D.; Brown, J. S.; Chen, P.; Dong, S.; Falco, E.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Koff, R. A.; Kiyota, S.; Brimacombe, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, T. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the highly luminous Type Ibn supernova ASASSN-14ms, which was discovered on UT 2014-12-26.61 at mV ˜ 16.5. With a peak absolute V-band magnitude brighter than -20.5, a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.7 × 1044 erg s-1, and a total radiated energy of 2.1 × 1050 erg, ASASSN-14ms is one of the most luminous Type Ibn supernovae yet discovered. In simple models, the most likely power source for this event is a combination of the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co at late times and the interaction of supernova ejecta with the progenitor's circumstellar medium at early times, although we cannot rule out the possibility of a magnetar-powered light curve. The presence of a dense circumstellar medium is indicated by the intermediate-width He I features in the spectra. The faint (mg ˜ 21.6) host galaxy SDSS J130408.52+521846.4 has an oxygen abundance below 12 + log (O/H) ≲ 8.3, a stellar mass of M* ˜ 2.6 × 108 M⊙, and a star formation rate of SFR ˜ 0.02 M⊙ yr-1.

  10. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Fernández Lajús, Eduardo; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca II] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  11. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  12. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  13. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  14. Application of radioisotope for radio-luminous watch and clock industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, Japan became No. 1 watch and clock production country in the world, and has produced 88 million watches and 59 million clocks in 1980. About 65% of them were exported. The production of radio-luminous watches and clocks in 1980 was estimated as 13 million and 11 million, respectively, and has increased by 40% as compared with the previous year. In Japan, the law concerning the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes and others is applied to radio-luminous watches and clocks, because radioactive substances are contained in luminous paint, and the production is regulated by the law as unsealed RI-using establishments. The permitted establishments engaging in radio-luminous watches and clocks are 3 luminous paint makers, 9 painting works and 35 watch and clock assembling plants. The RI utilized for radio-luminous watches and clocks is limited to Pm-147 at present, and 3788 Ci was used in 1980. About 70 years have elapsed since luminous paint was used for watches and clocks for the first time. The ISO instituted the international standard on radio-luminous paint for watches and clocks in 1975. The beta-ray emitted by Pm-147 is shielded perfectly by glasses and cases, and only the dose of brems-strahlung X-ray is the problem. The radiation control in radio-luminous watch and clock plants is described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  16. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  17. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  18. Pattern of Tumor Shrinkage during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated with Prognosis in Low-Grade Luminal Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Ippei; Araki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kokoro; Shibayama, Tomoko; Takahashi, Shunji; Gomi, Naoya; Kokubu, Yumi; Oikado, Katsunori; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji; Ohno, Shinji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Sata, Naohiro; Ito, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between tumor shrinkage patterns shown with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and prognosis in patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The low-grade luminal breast cancer was defined as hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative with nuclear grades 1 or 2. The patterns of tumor shrinkage as revealed at MR imaging were categorized into two types: concentric shrinkage (CS) and non-CS. Among 854 patients who had received NAC in a single institution from January 2000 to December 2009, 183 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated for the development set. Another data set from 292 patients who had received NAC in the same institution between January 2010 and December 2012 was used for the validation set. Among these 292 patients, 121 patients with low-grade luminal breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Results In the development set, the median observation period was 67.9 months. Recurrence was observed in 31 patients, and 16 deaths were related to breast cancer. There were statistically significant differences in both the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between patterns of tumor shrinkage (P breast cancer. DFS rate was significantly longer in patients with the CS pattern (72.8 months; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.9, 75.6 months) than in those with the non-CS pattern (56.0 months; 95% CI: 49.1, 62.9 months; P ≤ .001). The CS pattern was associated with an excellent prognosis (median OS, 80.6 months; 95% CI: 79.3, 81.8 months vs 65.0 months; 95% CI: 60.1, 69.8 months; P = .004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CS pattern had the only significant independent association with DFS (P = .007) and OS (P = .037) rates. Conclusion

  19. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...... tubular absorption via P2 receptors. The apical P2Y2 receptor plays a crucial role in this process. ATP is released continuously into the tubular lumen. The release is augmented in response to an increase of tubular flow and after stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors. The primary cilium appears...

  20. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carico, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea.

  1. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea

  2. Evaluation of global luminous efficacy models for Florianopolis, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, Roberta G.; Pereira, Fernando O.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Laboratorio de Conforto Ambiental, Dpto. de Arquitetura; Robledo, Luis [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). E.P.E.S. Ciencias Ambientales; Soler, Alfonso [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). E.P.E.S. Ciencias Ambientales and Dpto. de Fisica e Instalaciones Aplicadas, E.T.S. de Arquitectura

    2006-10-15

    Several global luminous efficacy models have been tested with daylight-measured data obtained for Felipresina, Southern Brazil. The models have been used with their original coefficients, given by the authors and also with local coefficients obtained when the models were optimized with the data measured in Felipresina. The evaluation of the different models has been carried out considering three sky categories, according to a higher or lower presence of clouds. For clear sky, the models tested have been compared with a proposed polynomial model on the solar altitude, obtained by the best fit of experimental points for Felipresina. It has been proved that the model coefficients have a local character. If those models are used with local coefficients, there is no model that works better than the others for all sky types, but that for each sky category a different model could be recommended. (author)

  3. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiz, Hany A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2015-08-01

    Luminal breast cancers represent approximately 75% of cases. Explanations into the causes of endocrine resistance are complex and are generally ascribed to genomic mechanisms. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of epigenetic modifications in hormone resistance. We review these here. Epigenetic modifications are reversible, heritable and include changes in DNA methylation patterns, modification of histones and altered microRNA expression levels that target the receptors or their signaling pathways. Large-scale analyses indicate distinct epigenomic profiles that distinguish breast cancers from normal and benign tissues. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic modifications, drugs that target epigenetic modifiers, given in combination with chemotherapies or endocrine therapies, may represent promising approaches to restoration of therapy responsiveness in these cases.

  4. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a common risk factor for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Increasing physical activity could reduce the burden of disease due to major NCDs and increase life expectancy. Undergraduate physiotherapy students represent a group of young-adults expected to have a good knowledge of physical activity. We evaluated physical activity levels of undergraduate physiotherapy students of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and determined their motives and barriers for participation in physical activity. All physiotherapy undergraduates studying at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2013 were invited for the study. Phase one was a quantitative study to evaluate the physical activity levels and phase two was a qualitative study to identify motives and barriers for physical activity and sports in the same cohort. Physical activity levels (phase 1) were assessed using the interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long-version). The qualitative study (phase 2) was conducted in the same population using Focus Group Discussions ( n  = 3) and individual In-depth Interviews ( n  = 5). Sample size in phase 1 and phase 2 were 113 (response rate = 98%; [N-115]) and 87 (response rat = 97%; [N-90]) respectively. Mean age (±SD) of participants was 23.4 ± 1 years. The mean weekly total MET minutes (±SD) of the study population was 1791.25 ± 3097. According to the IPAQ categorical score a higher percentage of participants were 'inactive' (48.7%), while only 15.9% were in the 'Highly active' group. Lack of support and encouragement received during childhood to engage in sports activity seem to have played an important role in continuing their exercise behavior through to the adult life. Academic activities were given priority by both parents and teachers. The environment and support from teachers, family and friends were important to initiate and adhere to sports and physical activity. A higher

  5. Spectroscopy and Interferometry of the Winds of Luminous Blue Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Noel D.

    2012-04-01

    Massive stars are rare, but emit most of the light we observe in the Universe and create many of the heavy elements in the Universe. In this dissertation, I explore the winds of the massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. New observational approaches and long time-series are utilized in order to examine the basic observable properties of the stars and the mass lost during their lifetimes. The mass lost through a hot star's wind impacts its long-term evolution. In order to study the winds and the long-term changes of the stars, hot stars with some of the strongest winds (the luminous blue variables or LBVs) were studied in detail with optical spectroscopy and photometry. A 25-year survey on the prototype P Cygni is presented, where the long-term changes are documented for many parameters that have not been examined before. In addition, we present a detailed study of the H-band emitting region through interferometric imaging with the CHARA Array and the MIRC beam combiner as well as spectrophotometry. A detailed study of the Hα line variability of the LBV η Carinae near its recent periastron is presented. The LBV candidate HDE 326823 is found to be a binary system with variability driven by the close binary companion and Roche lobe overflow. Finally, I present a three-year study of many LBVs in the Milky Way Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds for a statistically significant survey of the long-term variability properties of these rare stars as a population. These results show that all the sample stars exhibit similar types of variability, although with different amplitudes. Future studies of LBV winds are outlined, as well as a short discussion of Georgia State University's Hard Labor Creek Observatory for these types of studies.

  6. The Effect of the Degree of Luminal Contrast-Enhancement on CT Measurement of Plaque Size: A Comparison with T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Hur, Jin; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    We studied early and delayed contrast-enhanced CT to determine the effects of the degree of luminal enhancement on the measurement of plaque size compared to T1-weighted MRI. T1-weighted MRI and a two-phase contrast-enhanced CT was performed in 5 New Zealand white rabbits with atherosclerosis. Early-phase images were acquired during an expected peak enhancement period of the lumen; delayed-phase images were acquired 240 sec after administration of the contrast media. Anteroposterior and lateral luminal diameters (APD, LD), luminal area (LA), total vessel area (TVA), and plaque area (PA) of the aorta were measured on MRI and CT, respectively and compared to each other. A total of 78 slices of the aorta were analyzed. PA, measured on T1-weighted MR images, was significantly greater than PA for both early-phase and delayed-phase CT (p 2 (p 2 (p 2 (p = 0.159) for MRI vs. early-phase CT, MRI vs. delayed-phase CT, and early-phase CT vs. delayed-phase CT, respectively. Different luminal densities by contrast enhancement do not affect the CT measurement of plaque area for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease

  7. Computational approach to radiogenomics of breast cancer: Luminal A and luminal B molecular subtypes are associated with imaging features on routine breast MRI extracted using computer vision algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Zhang, Jing; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2015-10-01

    To identify associations between semiautomatically extracted MRI features and breast cancer molecular subtypes. We analyzed routine clinical pre-operative breast MRIs from 275 breast cancer patients at a single institution in this retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study. Six fellowship-trained breast imagers reviewed the MRIs and annotated the cancers. Computer vision algorithms were then used to extract 56 imaging features from the cancers including morphologic, texture, and dynamic features. Surrogate markers (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2]) were used to categorize tumors by molecular subtype: ER/PR+, HER2- (luminal A); ER/PR+, HER2+ (luminal B); ER/PR-, HER2+ (HER2); ER/PR/HER2- (basal). A multivariate analysis was used to determine associations between the imaging features and molecular subtype. The imaging features were associated with both luminal A (P = 0.0007) and luminal B (P = 0.0063) molecular subtypes. No association was found for either HER2 (P = 0.2465) or basal (P = 0.1014) molecular subtype and the imaging features. A P-value of 0.0125 (0.05/4) was considered significant. Luminal A and luminal B molecular subtype breast cancer are associated with semiautomatically extracted features from routine contrast enhanced breast MRI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Consecutive daily measurements of luminal concentrations of lactate in the rectum in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Michael; Wiis, Jørgen; Waldau, Tina

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study we found no difference in the concentrations of luminal lactate in the rectum between nonsurvivors and survivors in early septic shock (......In a recent study we found no difference in the concentrations of luminal lactate in the rectum between nonsurvivors and survivors in early septic shock (...

  9. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  10. Reduction of background luminance generated in the output screen of x-ray image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro

    1985-01-01

    Background luminance of several origins introduced into an X-ray image intensifier tube deteriorates the contrast of its output image. The output screen, which consists of a phosphor layer usually prepared on a transparent substrate, generates influential background luminance in the X-ray image intensifier tube. A theoretical and experimental study on how reduce the background luminance of the output screen by increasing the thickness of the substrate is presented. In evaluating the effect of the background luminance, we calculated and measured the contrast ratio usually used as a characteristic index of the image intensifier tube. The theory and results from the experimental image intensifier tubes show good agreement. This method of background luminance reduction is not only more economical but also superior to the other methods utilizing dark substrates or optical fiber plates. (author)

  11. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein can regulate obesity, a state of peripheral inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamawaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Prevention and control of obesity is complex, and requires a multifaceted approach. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms driving fat metabolism (adipogenesis and lipolysis aims at developing clinical treatments to control obesity. We recently reported a new regulatory mechanism in fat metabolism: a protein phosphatase binding protein, phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, regulates lipolysis in white adipocytes and heat production in brown adipocytes via phosphoregulation. Deficiency of PRIP in mice led to reduced fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure, resulting in a lean phenotype. Here, we evaluate PRIP as a new therapeutic target for the control of obesity.

  12. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  14. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  15. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  16. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  17. ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis-free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer.

  18. SN 2008am: A SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Robinson, E. L.; Vinko, J.; Quimby, R.; Miller, A. A.; Perley, D. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Foley, R. J.; Yuan, F.; Akerlof, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations and interpretation of the Type IIn supernova SN 2008am discovered by the ROTSE Supernova Verification Project (RSVP). SN 2008am peaked at approximately -22.3 mag at a redshift of z = 0.2338, giving it a peak luminosity of ∼3 x 10 44 erg s -1 and making it one of the most luminous supernovae ever observed. The total radiated energy is ≅2 x 10 51 erg. The host galaxy appears to be an SB1 of normal luminosity (M r ' ∼ -20) with metallicity Z∼ 0.4 Z sun . ROTSE upper limits and detections constrain the rise time to be ∼34 days in the rest frame, significantly shorter than similar events, SN 2006gy and SN 2006tf. Photometric observations in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared bands (J, H, K s ) constrain the spectral energy distribution evolution. We obtained six optical spectra of the supernova, five on the early decline from maximum light and a sixth nearly a year later plus a very late time spectrum (∼2 yr) of the host galaxy. The spectra show no evidence for broad supernova photospheric features in either absorption or emission at any phase. The spectra of SN 2008am show strong Balmer-line and He I λ5876 emission with intermediate widths (∼25 A) in the first ∼40 days after optical maximum. The width formally corresponds to a velocity of ∼1000 km s -1 . We examine a variety of models for the line wings and conclude that multiple scattering is most likely, implying that our spectra contain no specific information on the bulk flow velocity. We examine a variety of models for the ROTSE light curve subject to the rise time and the nature of the spectra, including radioactive decay, shocks in optically thick and optically thin circumstellar media (CSMs) and a magnetar. The most successful model is one for which the CSM is optically thick and in which diffusion of forward shock-deposited luminosity gives rise to the observed light curve. The model suggests strong mass loss and a greater contribution from the interaction of the

  19. A metaproteomic approach to study human-microbial ecosystems at the mucosal luminal interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Li

    Full Text Available Aberrant interactions between the host and the intestinal bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of many digestive diseases. However, studying the complex ecosystem at the human mucosal-luminal interface (MLI is challenging and requires an integrative systems biology approach. Therefore, we developed a novel method integrating lavage sampling of the human mucosal surface, high-throughput proteomics, and a unique suite of bioinformatic and statistical analyses. Shotgun proteomic analysis of secreted proteins recovered from the MLI confirmed the presence of both human and bacterial components. To profile the MLI metaproteome, we collected 205 mucosal lavage samples from 38 healthy subjects, and subjected them to high-throughput proteomics. The spectral data were subjected to a rigorous data processing pipeline to optimize suitability for quantitation and analysis, and then were evaluated using a set of biostatistical tools. Compared to the mucosal transcriptome, the MLI metaproteome was enriched for extracellular proteins involved in response to stimulus and immune system processes. Analysis of the metaproteome revealed significant individual-related as well as anatomic region-related (biogeographic features. Quantitative shotgun proteomics established the identity and confirmed the biogeographic association of 49 proteins (including 3 functional protein networks demarcating the proximal and distal colon. This robust and integrated proteomic approach is thus effective for identifying functional features of the human mucosal ecosystem, and a fresh understanding of the basic biology and disease processes at the MLI.

  20. Physical inactivity: a risk factor and target for intervention in renal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Dorien M; Klaassen, Gerald; van Adrichem, Edwin; Bakker, Stephan J L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan

    2017-03-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with an increased quality of life and reduced morbidity and mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle mass decrease even in the early stages of CKD, and continue to decrease with disease progression; notably, full recovery is generally not achieved with transplantation. The combined effects of uraemia and physical inactivity drive the loss of muscle mass. Regular physical activity benefits cardiometabolic, neuromuscular and cognitive function across all stages of CKD, and therefore provides an approach to address the multimorbidity of the CKD population. Interestingly, maintenance of muscle health is associated with renoprotective effects. Despite evidence of its benefits, physical activity and exercise management are not routinely addressed in the care of these patients. Although studies defining the optimum frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity are lacking, evidence from related fields can guide practical approaches to the care of patients with renal disease. Optimization of metabolic and nutritional status alongside promotion of physical activity is recommended. Behavioural approaches are now recognized as crucial in helping patients to adopt lifestyle changes and might prove valuable in integrating physical activity into renal care.

  1. Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel

    2010-11-20

    The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: final data release and the metallicity of UV-luminous galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Michael J.; Byrne, Zachary J.; Blake, Chris; Glazebrook, Karl; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick; Croton, Darren J.; Croom, Scott M.; Davis, Tamara M.; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Hinton, Samuel R.; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J.; Li, I.-hui; Martin, D. Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Smillie, Jon; Spolaor, Max; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K.; Yee, Howard K. C.

    2018-03-01

    The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey measured the redshifts of over 200 000 ultraviolet (UV)-selected (NUV UV-luminous Lyman-break galaxies by stacking the spectra in bins of luminosity, redshift, and stellar mass. The most luminous (-25 magUV-luminous WiggleZ galaxies.

  3. Month-hour distributions of zenith luminance and diffuse illuminance in Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Alfonso; Gopinathan, Kannam K.; Robledo, Luis; Ruiz, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours are obtained from one year of data of zenith luminance measurements for cloudless, overcast and partly cloudy skies and also when the combined data for all sky types are considered. For many hours in different months, the overcast sky luminance values are roughly about three times the cloudless sky luminance values and one and a half times the partly cloudy sky values. The dependence of month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours on the ratio of global to extraterrestrial illuminance on a horizontal surface is also given. From equal mean zenith luminance contours, the approximate values of the mean zenith luminance for different sky conditions and different hours and months of the year can be easily obtained. Month-hour equal mean diffuse illuminance contours are obtained from diffuse illuminance measurements performed during the period 1992-1998. The dependence on solar altitude of the monthly average hourly values of diffuse illuminance is given and compared to the corresponding one obtained from data for Bet Dagan (Israel)

  4. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  5. Live-cell Microscopy and Fluorescence-based Measurement of Luminal pH in Intracellular Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Luminal pH is an important functional feature of intracellular organelles. Acidification of the lumen of organelles such as endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus plays a critical role in fundamental cellular processes. As such, measurement of the luminal pH of these organelles has relevance to both basic research and translational research. At the same time, accurate measurement of intraorganellar pH in living cells can be challenging and may be a limiting hurdle for research in some areas. Here, we describe three powerful methods to measure rigorously the luminal pH of different intracellular organelles, focusing on endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus. The described methods are based on live imaging of pH-sensitive fluorescent probes and include: (1 A protocol based on quantitative, ratiometric measurement of endocytosis of pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive fluorescent conjugates of transferrin; (2 A protocol for the use of proteins tagged with a ratiometric variant of the pH-sensitive intrinsically fluorescent protein pHluorin; and (3 A protocol using the fluorescent dye LysoSensor™. We describe necessary reagents, key procedures, and methods and equipment for data acquisition and analysis. Examples of implementation of the protocols are provided for cultured cells derived from a cancer cell line and for primary cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons. In addition, we present strengths and weaknesses of the different described intraorganellar pH measurement methods. These protocols are likely to be of benefit to many researchers, from basic scientists to those conducting translational research with a focus on diseases in patient-derived cells.

  6. Effects of background and contour luminance on the hue and brightness of the Watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Devinck, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    Conjoint measurement was used to investigate the joint influences of the luminance of the background and the inner contour on hue- and brightness filling-in for a stimulus configuration generating a water-color effect (WCE), i.e., a wiggly bi-chromatic contour enclosing a region with the lower luminance component on the exterior. Two stimuli with the background and inner contour luminances covarying independently were successively presented, and in separate experiments, the observer judged which member of the pair's interior regions contained a stronger hue or was brighter. Braided-contour control stimuli that generated little or no perceptual filling-in were also used to assess whether observers were judging the interior regions and not the contours themselves. Three nested models of the contributions of the background and inner contour to the judgments were fit to the data by maximum likelihood and evaluated by likelihood ratio tests. Both stimulus components contributed to both the hue and brightness of the interior region with increasing luminance of the inner contour generating an assimilative filling-in for the hue judgments but a contrast effect for the brightness judgments. Control analyses showed negligible effects for the order of the luminance of the background or inner contour on the judgments. An additive contribution of both components was rejected in favor of a saturated model in which the responses depended on the levels of both stimulus components. For the hue judgments, increased background luminance led to greater hue filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. For the brightness judgments, the higher background luminance generated less brightness filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. The results indicate different effects of the inner contour and background on the induction of the brightness and coloration percepts of the WCE, suggesting that they are mediated by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  7. Green Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Device with High Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated the small molecule green fluorescent bottom-emission organic light emitting device (OLED with the configuration of glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc 25 nm/ N,N’-di(naphthalen-1-yl-N,N’-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB 45 nm/ tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3 60 nm/ Lithium fluoride (LiF 1 nm/Aluminum (Al 100 nm where CuPc and NPB are the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer, respectively. CuPc is introduced in this device to improve carrier injection and efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the turn-on voltage is 2.8 V with a maximum luminance of 23510 cd/m2 at 12 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 4.8 cd/A at 100 cd/m2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3 V, respectively. The peak of electroluminance (EL spectrum locates at 530 nm which is typical emission peak of green light. In contrast, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device without CuPc are only 4.0 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3.6 V, respectively.

  8. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GENUS TOPOLOGY OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J. Richard; Choi, Yun-Young; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2009-01-01

    We measure the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and find it consistent with the Gaussian random phase initial conditions expected from the simplest scenarios of inflation. This studies three-dimensional topology on the largest scales ever obtained. The topology is spongelike. We measure topology in two volume-limited samples: a dense shallow sample studied with smoothing length of 21 h -1 Mpc, and a sparse deep sample studied with a smoothing length of 34 h -1 Mpc. The amplitude of the genus curve is measured with 4% uncertainty. Small distortions in the genus curve expected from nonlinear biasing and gravitational effects are well explained (to about 1σ accuracy) by N-body simulations using a subhalo-finding technique to locate LRGs. This suggests that the formation of LRGs is a clean problem that can be modeled well without any free-fitting parameters. This bodes well for using LRGs to measure the characteristic scales such as the baryon oscillation scale in future deep redshift surveys.

  10. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Masjedi, Morad

    2010-01-01

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h -1 Mpc ≤ r ≤ 0.42 h -1 Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 ± 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  11. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S.; Nam, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4∝5 [μm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  12. Confirmation of the Luminous Blue Variable Status of MWC 930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Miroshnichenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the emission-line star MWC 930 (V446 Sct during its long-term optical brightening in 2006–2013. Based on our earlier data we suggested that the object has features found in Luminous Blue Variables (LBV, such as a high luminosity (~3 105 L⊙, a low wind terminal velocity (~140 km s−1, and a tendency to show strong brightness variations (~1 mag over 20 years. For the last ~7 years it has been exhibiting a continuous optical and near-IR brightening along with a change of the emission-line spectrum appearance and cooling of the star’s photosphere. We present the object’s V-band light curve, analyze the spectral variations, and compare the observed properties with those of other recognized Galactic LBVs, such as AG Car and HR Car. Overall we conclude the MWC 930 is a bona fide Galactic LBV that is currently in the middle of an S Dor cycle.

  13. Clumpy Star Formation in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kirsten; Armus, Lee; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; GOALS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present HST narrow-band imaging of Paβ and Paα emission in 50 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies from the Great Observatory All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). These data allow us to study spatially resolved star forming regions and directly compare to star forming clumps found in both local and high-redshift galaxies. We find that the ionized gas is concentrated in star-forming clumps with sizes ranging from 70-700pc and star formation rates (SFRs) of .001 to 5 Msun yr-1. The SFRs of the clumps in GOALS spans the range from normal local galaxies to clump SFRs found in z=1-3 galaxies. The clumps have stellar ages of 5 x 106 to 4.5 x 107 yr with a median age of 8.6 x 106 yr and stellar masses of 106 to 109 Msun. The LIRGs in our sample cover the entire merger sequence from isolated galaxies to advanced staged mergers and allow us to study how the size, number, luminosity, and distribution of the clumpy star formation varies with the galaxy's merger stage, mass, and global star formation rates. Finally, we compare our results to clumpy star formation in high resolution hydrodynamical FIRE simulations and find that observed star forming clumps match the same size and star formation rate properties of those found in simulations.

  14. The diseasome of physical inactivity--and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2009-01-01

    with the occurrence of the diseases within the diseasome. Physical inactivity appears to be an independent and strong risk factor for accumulation of visceral fat, which again is a source of systemic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis...... of exercise. The finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a conceptual basis to understand the mechanisms whereby exercise influences metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. According to our theory, contracting skeletal muscles release myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion...

  15. Exercise-induced myokines and their role in chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity has recently been identified as a major and independent risk factor for the development of dementia and cognitive decline. In addition to the effect of exercise with regard to protection against neurodegenerative diseases, it is well-established that physical inactivity...... increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), colon cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer. These diseases constitute a network of related diseases, also called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". In this review, physical inactivity is given the central role as an independent...

  16. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    Small intestine luminal nutrient sensing may be crucial for modulating physiological functions. However, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We used a model of enteral nutrient deprivation, or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), resulting in intestinal mucosal atrophy and decreased...... was regulated by T1R3 and mGluR5, suggesting a novel negative regulator pathway for IEC proliferation not previously described. Loss of luminal nutrients with TPN administration may widely affect intestinal taste sensing. GLM has previously unrecognized actions on IEC growth and EBF. Restoring luminal sensing...

  17. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  18. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  19. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  1. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  2. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  3. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  4. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  5. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  6. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  7. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  8. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  9. Luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous blue variables, candidate LBVs, Fe II emission line stars, and other supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.

  10. Guidelines for treatment with infliximab for Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, D. W.; Oldenburg, B.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; van Hogezand, R. A.; de Jong, D. J.; Romberg-Camps, M. J. L.; van der Woude, J.; Dijkstra, G.

    2006-01-01

    Infliximab is an accepted induction and maintenance treatment for patients with Crohn's disease. The effectiveness of infliximab has been demonstrated for both active luminal disease and for enterocutaneous fistulisation. In addition, infliximab can be administered for extraintestinal symptoms of

  11. Guidelines for treatment with infliximab for Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, D.W.; Oldenburg, B.; Bodegraven, A.A; Hogezand, R.A. van; Jong, D.J. de; Romberg-Camps, M.; Woude, J. van der; Dijkstra, G.

    2006-01-01

    Infliximab is an accepted induction and maintenance treatment for patients with Crohn's disease. The effectiveness of infliximab has been demonstrated for both active luminal disease and for enterocutaneous fistulisation. In addition, infliximab can be administered for extraintestinal symptoms of

  12. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zembron-Lacny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.

  13. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  14. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  15. Prognostic signature and clonality pattern of recurrently mutated genes in inactive chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A M; Chen-Liang, T-H; Przychodzen, B; Hamedi, C; Muñoz-Ballester, J; Dienes, B; García-Malo, M D; Antón, A I; Arriba, F de; Teruel-Montoya, R; Ortuño, F J; Vicente, V; Maciejewski, J P; Jerez, A

    2015-01-01

    An increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with asymptomatic early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with no treatment indication at baseline. We applied a high-throughput deep-targeted analysis, especially designed for covering widely TP53 and ATM genes, in 180 patients with inactive disease at diagnosis, to test the independent prognostic value of CLL somatic recurrent mutations. We found that 40/180 patients harbored at least one acquired variant with ATM (n=17, 9.4%), NOTCH1 (n=14, 7.7%), TP53 (n=14, 7.7%) and SF3B1 (n=10, 5.5%) as most prevalent mutated genes. Harboring one ‘sub-Sanger' TP53 mutation granted an independent 3.5-fold increase of probability of needing treatment. Those patients with a double-hit ATM lesion (mutation+11q deletion) had the shorter median time to first treatment (17 months). We found that a genomic variable: TP53 mutations, most of them under the sensitivity of conventional techniques; a cell phenotypic factor: CD38-positive expression; and a classical marker as β2-microglobulin, remained as the unique independent predictors of outcome. The high-throughput determination of TP53 status, particularly in this set of patients frequently lacking high-risk chromosomal aberrations, emerges as a key step, not only for prediction modeling, but also for exploring mutation-specific therapeutic approaches and minimal residual disease monitoring

  16. Outcome of pregnancy in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythromatosus and minimal proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshohaib Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease. This study was under-taken to assess the outcome of pregnancies in patients with inactive SLE. We prospectively studied 20 female patients with diagnosis of stable class IV Lupus nephritis followed up at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2008. Before each pregnancy all the patients had their blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serology for SLE and 24-hour urine protein excretion measured and then repeated at monthly intervals during the pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Despite having negative antinuclear antibody (ANA significant complications were observed during pregnancy. The daily proteinuria during 34-36 weeks′ gestation was significantly higher (P< 0.05 than during 32 weeks. Two patients had abortions one stillbirth and 2 required termination of the pregnancy; one due to severe hypertension, and other due to renal impairment. One patient developed HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. 14 patients had a successful preg-nancy, including 4 requiring a cesarian section. In conclusion, although no clinical evidence of lupus disease activity was demonstrated pre-conception proteinuria significantly increased during pregnancy along with maternal and fetal complications. Pregnant females with diagnosis of SLE need a multidisciplinary care during the pregnancy and post-partum period.

  17. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestein, Marjolijn

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal

  18. Investigation of the overcast skies luminance distribution using 35 sensors fixed on a dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Alfonso; Robledo, Luis

    2005-01-01

    For the luminance measurements reported in the present work, one sensor was used to measure zenith luminance, and 34 sensors were positioned on a dome with their collimators pointing toward different positions P on the celestial sphere, which can be specified by the values of their zenith Z and azimuth θ angles. Overcast skies values were used. The final model proposed for the mean luminance distribution for overcast skies normalized to the zenith luminance L Zθ /L z has been developed in four steps. For each value of Z, the mean value of L Zθ /L z is expressed as a ratio of gradation functions that depend on θ. Only for θ = 180 deg. , a good coincidence is obtained with the model proposed by the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) for a wide range of values of Z

  19. Luminous Enteric Bacteria of Marine Fishes: a Study of Their Distribution, Densities, and Dispersion †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E. G.; Morin, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Three taxa of luminous bacteria (Photobacterium fischeri, P. phosphoreum, and Beneckea spp.) were found in the enteric microbial populations of 22 species of surface- and midwater-dwelling fishes. These bacteria often occurred in concentrations ranging between 105 and 107 colony-forming units per ml of enteric contents. By using a genetically marked strain, it was determined that luminous cells entering the fish during ingestion of seawater or contaminated particles traversed the alimentary tract and survived the digestive processes. After excretion, luminous bacteria proliferated extensively on the fecal material and became distributed into the surrounding seawater. Thus, this enteric habitat may serve as an enrichment of viable cells entering the planktonic luminous population. PMID:16345429

  20. Luminous enteric bacteria of marine fishes: a study of their distribution, densities, and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E G; Morin, J G

    1979-09-01

    Three taxa of luminous bacteria (Photobacterium fischeri, P. phosphoreum, and Beneckea spp.) were found in the enteric microbial populations of 22 species of surface- and midwater-dwelling fishes. These bacteria often occurred in concentrations ranging between 10 and 10 colony-forming units per ml of enteric contents. By using a genetically marked strain, it was determined that luminous cells entering the fish during ingestion of seawater or contaminated particles traversed the alimentary tract and survived the digestive processes. After excretion, luminous bacteria proliferated extensively on the fecal material and became distributed into the surrounding seawater. Thus, this enteric habitat may serve as an enrichment of viable cells entering the planktonic luminous population.

  1. The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Delahunt, Peter B; Hardy, Joseph L; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2005-05-01

    When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. Over a wide range of stimulus chromaticities, there was a reliable shift in color appearance that closely followed the direction of the inducing contour. When the contours were equated in luminance, the WCE was still present, but weak. The magnitude of the color spreading increased with increases in luminance contrast between the two contours. Additionally, as the luminance contrast between the contours increased, the chromaticity of the induced color more closely resembled that of the inside contour. The results support the hypothesis that the WCE is mediated by luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

  2. Characterizing luminous efficiency functions for a simulated mesopic night driving task based on reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalmas, Attila; Bodrogi, Peter; Sik-Lanyi, Cecilia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study is to test the luminous efficiency functions V(lambda), V'(lambda), V(10)(lambda) and their linear combinations on the basis of a data set gained from a simulated mesopic night-time driving experiment. Another aim is to provide 'real-world' data for the 'X framework' or 'linear combination model', and to find out its limits in a practical situation. Human performance was measured by the reaction time method. Results show that the single parameter of the linear combination of photopic and scotopic luminous efficiency functions can be determined analytically with little variation for a given mesopic background luminance level and a given visual target colour, but the computation leads to considerable deviations comparing all three target colours (red, green and blue) used in the experiment. The conclusion for the given experimental conditions is that the single parameter of the linear combination model has an increasing deviation for lower background luminance levels.

  3. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  4. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 μm data on 20 luminous z ∼ 2 starbursts with S 1.2 m m > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S 350 μ m > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 μm-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T 1 ≅ 35.5 ± 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10 12.9±0.1 L sun for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at ≅4 x 10 10 M sun , assuming κ 850 μ m = 0.15 m 2 kg -1 and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply ∼>2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 μm flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z ∼ 1.5-2.5.

  5. STAR FORMATION IN LUMINOUS H II REGIONS IN M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relano, Monica; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength (ultraviolet, infrared, optical, and CO) study of a set of luminous H II regions in M33: NGC 604, NGC 595, NGC 592, NGC 588, and IC131. We study the emission distribution in the interiors of the H II regions to investigate the relation between the dust emission at 8 μm and 24 μm and the location of the massive stars and gas. We find that the 24 μm emission is closely related to the location of the ionized gas, while the 8 μm emission is more related to the boundaries of the molecular clouds consistently with its expected association with photodissociation regions. Ultraviolet emission is generally surrounded by the Hα emission. For NGC 604 and NGC 595, where CO data are available, we see a radial gradient of the emission distribution at the wavelengths studied here: from the center to the boundary of the H II regions we observe ultraviolet, Hα, 24 μm, 8 μm, and CO emission distributions. We quantify the star formation for our H II regions using the integrated fluxes at the set of available wavelengths, assuming an instantaneous burst of star formation. We show that a linear combination of 24 μm and Hα emission better describes the star formation for these objects than the dust luminosities by themselves. For NGC 604, we obtain and compare extinction maps derived from the Balmer decrement and from the 24 μm and Hα emission line ratio. Although the maps show locally different values in extinction, we find similar integrated extinctions derived from the two methods. We also investigate here the possible existence of embedded star formation within NGC 604.

  6. Underlying mechanisms of transient luminous events: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient luminous events (TLEs occasionally observed above a strong thunderstorm system have been the subject of a great deal of research during recent years. The main goal of this review is to introduce readers to recent theories of electrodynamics processes associated with TLEs. We examine the simplest versions of these theories in order to make their physics as transparent as possible. The study is begun with the conventional mechanism for air breakdown at stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes. An electron impact ionization and dissociative attachment to neutrals are discussed. A streamer size and mobility of electrons as a function of altitude in the atmosphere are estimated on the basis of similarity law. An alternative mechanism of air breakdown, runaway electron mechanism, is discussed. In this section we focus on a runaway breakdown field, characteristic length to increase avalanche of runaway electrons and on the role played by fast seed electrons in generation of the runaway breakdown. An effect of thunderclouds charge distribution on initiation of blue jets and gigantic jets is examined. A model in which the blue jet is treated as upward-propagating positive leader with a streamer zone/corona on the top is discussed. Sprite models based on streamer-like mechanism of air breakdown in the presence of atmospheric conductivity are reviewed. To analyze conditions for sprite generation, thunderstorm electric field arising just after positive cloud-to-ground stroke is compared with the thresholds for propagation of positively/negatively charged streamers and with runway breakdown. Our own estimate of tendril's length at the bottom of sprite is obtained to demonstrate that the runaway breakdown can trigger the streamer formation. In conclusion we discuss physical mechanisms of VLF (very low frequency and ELF (extremely low frequency phenomena associated with sprites.

  7. Extracellular Vesicles in Luminal Fluid of the Ovine Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gregory; Brooks, Kelsey; Wildung, Mark; Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Christenson, Lane K.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Microvesicles and exosomes are nanoparticles released from cells and can contain small RNAs, mRNA and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. In sheep, endogenous beta retroviruses (enJSRVs) are expressed in the endometrial epithelia of the uterus and can be transferred to the conceptus trophectoderm. One potential mechanism of enJSRVs transfer from the uterus to the conceptus is via exosomes/microvesicles. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate exosomes in the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of sheep. Exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles) were isolated from the ULF of day 14 cyclic and pregnant ewes using ExoQuick-TC. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis found the isolates contained vesicles that ranged from 50 to 200 nm in diameter. The isolated extracellular vesicles were positive for two common markers of exosomes (CD63 and HSP70) by Western blot analysis. Proteins in the extracellular vesicles were determined by mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. Extracellular vesicle RNA was analyzed for small RNAs by sequencing and enJSRVs RNA by RT-PCR. The ULF extracellular vesicles contained a large number of small RNAs and miRNAs including 81 conserved mature miRNAs. Cyclic and pregnant ULF extracellular vesicles contained enJSRVs env and gag RNAs that could be delivered to heterologous cells in vitro. These studies support the hypothesis that ULF extracellular vesicles can deliver enJSRVs RNA to the conceptus, which is important as enJSRVs regulate conceptus trophectoderm development. Importantly, these studies support the idea that extracellular vesicles containing select miRNAs, RNAs and proteins are present in the ULF and likely have a biological role in conceptus-endometrial interactions important for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24614226

  8. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Tinucci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present. Resumo A prática de atividades físicas tem sido recomendada para a prevenção e reabilitação cardíacas. Porém, quando feita de maneira inadequada, o que ocorre mais freqüentemente na ausência de supervisão em locais públicos, esta prática pode se associar ao aumento do risco de acometimentos cardiovasculares. Comparar o risco cardiovascular de freqüentadores de parques p

  9. The invasive lobular carcinoma as a prototype luminal A breast cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Han-Sung; Ro, Jungsil; Jeong, Junsoo; Shin, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Youngmee; Kim, Eun-A; Ko, Kyoung Lan; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Keun Seok; Park, In Hae

    2010-01-01

    Although the invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most frequent histologic subtype in Western countries, its incidence is much lower in Asia, and its characteristics are less well known. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 83 Korean patients (2.8%) with ILC for comparison with 2,833 (97.2%) with the invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), including 1,088 (37.3%) with the luminal A subtype (LA-IDC). The mean age of all patients was 48.2 years, with no significant differences among the groups. Compared to IDC, ILC showed a larger tumor size (≥T2, 59.8% vs. 38.8%, P = 0.001), a lower histologic grade (HG 1/2, 90.4% vs. 64.4%, P < 0.001), more frequent estrogen receptor positive (90.4% vs. 64.4%, P < 0.001), progesterone receptor positive (71.1% vs. 50.1%, P < 0.001) and HER2 negative (97.5% vs. 74.6%, P < 0.001) status, and lower Ki-67 expression (10.3% ± 10.6% vs. 20.6% ± 19.8%, P < 0.001), as well as being more likely to be of the luminal A subtype (91.4% vs. 51.2%, P < 0.001). Six (7.2%) ILC and 359 (12.7%) IDC patients developed disease recurrence, with a median follow-up of 56.4 (range 4.9-136.6) months. The outcome of ILC was close to LA-IDC (HR 0.77 for recurrence, 95% CI 0.31-1.90, P = 0.57; HR 0.75 for death, 95% CI 0.18-3.09, P = 0.70) and significantly better than for the non-LA-IDC (HR 1.69 for recurrence, 95% CI 1.23-2.33, P = 0.001; HR 1.50 for death, 95% CI 0.97-2.33, P = 0.07). ILC, a rare histologic type of breast cancer in Korea, has distinctive clinicopathological characteristics similar to those of LA-IDC

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOST LUMINOUS STAR IN M33: A SUPER SYMBIOTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikołajewska, Joanna; Iłkiewicz, Krystian [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shara, Michael M., E-mail: mikolaj@camk.edu.pl [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-01-30

    We present the first spectrum of the most luminous infrared star in M33, and use it to demonstrate that the object is almost certainly a binary composed of a massive O star and a dust-enshrouded red hypergiant. This is the most luminous symbiotic binary ever discovered. Its radial velocity is an excellent match to that of the hydrogen gas in the disk of M33, supporting our interpretation that it is a very young and massive binary star.

  11. Luminous Efficiency of Hypervelocity Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon Derived from the 2015 Geminid Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Ehlert, S. R.

    2017-01-01

    Meteoroids cannot be observed directly because of their small size. In-situ measurements of the meteoroid environment are rare and have very small collecting areas. The Moon, in contrast, has a large collecting area and therefore can be used as a large meteoroid detector for gram-kilogram sized particles. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by Earth-based telescopes. Their kinetic energy is converted to luminous energy with some unknown luminous efficiency ?(v), which is likely a function of meteoroid velocity (among other factors). This luminous efficiency is imperative to calculating the kinetic energy and mass of the meteoroid, as well as meteoroid fluxes, and it cannot be determined in the laboratory at meteoroid speeds and sizes due to mechanical constraints. Since laboratory simulations fail to resolve the luminous efficiency problem, observations of the impact flash itself must be utilized. Meteoroids associated with specific meteor showers have known speed and direction, which simplifies the determination of the luminous efficiency. NASA has routinely monitored the Moon for impact flashes since early 2006 [1]. During this time, several meteor showers have produced multiple impact flashes on the Moon, yielding a sufficient sample of impact flashes with which to perform a luminous efficiency analysis similar to that outlined in Bellot Rubio et al. [2, 3] and further described by Moser et al. [4], utilizing Earth-based measurements of the shower flux and mass index. The Geminid meteor shower has produced the most impact flashes in the NASA dataset to date with over 80 detections. More than half of these Geminids were recorded in 2015 (locations pictured in Fig. 1), and may represent the largest single-shower impact flash sample known. This work analyzes the 2015 Geminid lunar impacts and calculates their luminous efficiency. The luminous efficiency is then applied to calculate the kinetic energies and mass-es of these shower

  12. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  13. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  14. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  15. Basal cell signaling by p63 controls luminal progenitor function and lactation via NRG1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Nicole; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; van Bragt, Maaike; Sfondouris, Mary E.; Jones, Frank E.; Li, Zhe; Ellisen, Leif W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mammary epithelium is organized as a bi-layer of luminal and basal/myoepithelial cells. During pregnancy the luminal compartment expands for milk production, while basal cells are thought to provide structural and contractile support. Here we reveal an unanticipated, pregnancy-specific role of basal epithelia as a central coordinator of lactogenesis. We demonstrate that genetic deletion of the transcription factor p63 (Trp63) gene exclusively within basal cells of the adult gland during pregnancy leads to dramatic defects in luminal cell proliferation and differentiation, resulting in lactation failure. This phenotype is explained by direct transcriptional activation of the EGF-family ligand gene Nrg1 by p63 selectively in basal cells, which is required for luminal ERBB4/STAT5A activation and consequent luminal progenitor cell maturation. Thus, paracrine basal-to-luminal cell signaling, controlled by p63 via NRG1, orchestrates the entire lactation program. Collectively, these findings redefine the paradigm for cellular interactions specifying the functional maturation of the mammary gland. PMID:24412575

  16. Polycomb group gene Ezh2 regulates mammary gland morphogenesis and maintains the luminal progenitor pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Ewa Malgorzata; Nacerddine, Karim; Pietersen, Alexandra; Beuger, Vincent; Pawlitzky, Inka; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Wientjens, Ellen; Tanger, Ellen; Seibler, Jost; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Jonkers, Jos

    2013-09-01

    Specification of the cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland involves complex signaling that remains poorly defined. Polycomb group proteins are known to contribute to the maintenance of stem cell identity through epigenetic modifications, leading to stable alterations in gene expression. The polycomb protein family member EZH2 is known to be important for stem cell maintenance in multiple tissues, but its role in mammary gland development and differentiation remains unknown. Our analyses show that EZH2 is predominantly expressed in luminal cells of the mouse mammary epithelium. As mammary gland development occurs mostly after birth, the analysis of EZH2 gene function in postnatal development is precluded by embryonic lethality of conventional EZH2 knockout mice. To investigate the role of EZH2 in normal mammary gland epithelium, we have generated novel transgenic mice that express doxycycline-regulatable short hairpin (sh) RNAs directed against Ezh2. Knockdown of EZH2 results in delayed outgrowth of the mammary epithelium during puberty, due to impaired terminal end bud formation and ductal elongation. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that EZH2 is required to maintain the luminal cell pool and may limit differentiation of luminal progenitors into CD61(+) differentiated luminal cells, suggesting a role for EZH2 in mammary luminal cell fate determination. Consistent with this, EZH2 knockdown reduced lobuloalveolar expansion during pregnancy, suggesting EZH2 is required for the differentiation of luminal progenitors to alveolar cells. © AlphaMed Press.

  17. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  18. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  20. LUMINOUS THERMAL FLARES FROM QUIESCENT SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, Suvi; Heckman, Tim; Cenko, S. Bradley; Eracleous, Michael; Forster, Karl; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Wyder, Ted K.; Neff, Susan G.; Seibert, Mark; Schiminovich, David

    2009-01-01

    A dormant supermassive black hole lurking in the center of a galaxy will be revealed when a star passes close enough to be torn apart by tidal forces, and a flare of electromagnetic radiation is emitted when the bound fraction of the stellar debris falls back onto the black hole and is accreted. Although the tidal disruption of a star is a rare event in a galaxy, ∼10 -4 yr -1 , observational candidates have emerged in all-sky X-ray and deep ultraviolet (UV) surveys in the form of luminous UV/X-ray flares from otherwise quiescent galaxies. Here we present the third candidate tidal disruption event discovered in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Deep Imaging Survey: a 1.6 x 10 43 erg s -1 UV/optical flare from a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.1855. The UV/optical spectral energy distribution (SED) during the peak of the flare measured by GALEX and Palomar Large Field Camera imaging can be modeled as a single temperature blackbody with T bb = 1.7 x 10 5 K and a bolometric luminosity of 3 x 10 45 erg s -1 , assuming an internal extinction with E(B - V) gas = 0.3. The Chandra upper limit on the X-ray luminosity during the peak of the flare, L X (2 - 10 keV) 41 erg s -1 , is 2 orders of magnitude fainter than expected from the ratios of UV to X-ray flux density observed in active galaxies. We compare the light curves and broadband properties of all three tidal disruption candidates discovered by GALEX, and find that (1) the light curves are well fitted by the power-law decline expected for the fallback of debris from a tidally disrupted solar-type star and (2) the UV/optical SEDs can be attributed to thermal emission from an envelope of debris located at roughly 10 times the tidal disruption radius of a ∼10 7 M sun central black hole. We use the observed peak absolute optical magnitudes of the flares (-17.5>M g > - 18.9) to predict the detection capabilities of upcoming optical synoptic surveys.

  1. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  2. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  3. [Basal-luminal epithelial cell differentiation in prostate cancer is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epithelium migration in the mesenchyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshak, O V; Sushilova, E N; Voskresenskii, M A; Grozov, R V; Komyakov, B K; Zarytskey, A Y; Popov, B V

    2016-11-01

    In patients with prostate cancer to trace the pathway of the malignant cells of the basal layer of the prostate epithelium during their differentiation into luminal cells and/or migration in the mesenchyme. We used histological and immunohistochemical staining of the markers of the basal layer of the prostate: cytokeratin 5 (CK5), E-cadherin and AMACR, and Western blot to assess the production of the same markers in epithelial and stromal compartments of malignant and normal prostate tissue in patients with prostate cancer. Our findings revealed that prostate cancer is associated with losing of the basal epithelial layer in the prostate tumor tissue, which is accompanied by a complete loss of CK5 secretion, increased levels of E-cadherin and AMACR in luminal epithelium and the emergence of cells producing E-cadherin and AMACR in the stromal compartment of the prostate. These findings suggest that in prostate cancer the transformation the basal layer of the epithelial cells is associated with their differentiation into luminal cells and migration into the surrounding mesenchyme due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Prostate cancer pathogenesis of associated with changes in epithelial cell pathways and the levels of the markers expression. Their assessment can be used for studying the disease mechanisms and seeking new diagnosis and treatment options.

  4. Comparison of visual assessment and image analysis in the evaluation of Ki-67 expression and their prognostic significance in immunohistochemically defined luminal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihiro, Koji; Oda, Miyo; Ohara, Masahiro; Kadoya, Takayuki; Osaki, Akihiko; Nishisaka, Takashi; Shiroma, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshie

    2016-12-01

    To compare the Ki-67 labeling index value obtained through immunohistochemistry analysis by human examiners to that obtained from computer-assisted image analysis, and to establish a cut-off value for Ki-67 labeling index for each method in luminal B breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry analysis for Ki-67 was performed on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 403 patients with primary luminal breast cancers. Whole slide images were obtained using the NanoZoomer (Hamamatsu Photonics, Hamamatsu, Japan) and thoroughly analyzed using the Definiens Tissue Studio version 1.1 (Definiens AG, Munich, Germany) to detect the percentage of positively-stained nuclei of carcinoma cells. Although a significant correlation was found between the Ki-67 labeling index obtained by manual assessment and computer-assisted image analysis (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, P visual counting (cut-off value: 28.5%; P visual counting (cut-off value: 19.7%, P visual counting could equally predict disease-free survival in patients with luminal B breast carcinoma, including those who received endocrine therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...

  6. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  7. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  8. Physical Inactivity from the Viewpoint of Evolutionary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Kirchengast

    2014-01-01

    Activity patterns of recent Homo sapiens are characterized by a sedentary life style and consequently by exercise deficiency. This lack of physical activity increases the risk of various chronic non-communicable diseases and reduces health related quality of life. From the perspective of evolutionary medicine, the high rates of non-communicable disease among contemporary industrialized populations may be interpreted as the result of a mismatch between high rates of physical activity in the ad...

  9. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  10. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lineage-Biased Stem Cells Maintain Estrogen-Receptor-Positive and -Negative Mouse Mammary Luminal Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating the mammary differentiation hierarchy is important for the study of mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Mammary luminal cells are considered a major origin of human breast cancers. However, how estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+ and ER− luminal cells are developed and maintained remains poorly understood. The prevailing model suggests that a common stem/progenitor cell generates both cell types. Through genetic lineage tracing in mice, we find that SOX9-expressing cells specifically contribute to the development and maintenance of ER− luminal cells and, to a lesser degree, basal cells. In parallel, PROM1-expressing cells give rise only to ER+ luminal cells. Both SOX9+ and PROM1+ cells specifically sustain their respective lineages even after pregnancy-caused tissue remodeling or serial transplantation, demonstrating characteristic properties of long-term repopulating stem cells. Thus, our data reveal that mouse mammary ER+ and ER− luminal cells are two independent lineages that are maintained by distinct stem cells, providing a revised mammary epithelial cell hierarchy.

  12. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  13. Pixel-Wise-Inter/Intra-Channel Color and Luminance Uniformity Corrections for Multi-Channel Projection Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 – Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PIXEL-WISE INTER/INTRA-CHANNEL COLOR & LUMINANCE UNIFORMITY...Conference Dayton, Ohio – 28-29 June 2016 14. ABSTRACT Inter- and intra-channel color and luminance are generally non-uniform in multi-channel...projection display systems. Several methods have been proposed to correct for both inter- and intra-channel color and luminance variation in multi-channel

  14. British Standard method for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical x-ray image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Under the direction of the Light Electrical Engineering Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining the luminance distribution of electro-optical X-ray image intensifiers. The luminance distribution is determined from the measurement of the luminance over the area of the output image related to conditions of uniform exposure rate in the entrance plane of an electro-optical X-ray image intensifier. (U.K.)

  15. Varied Human Tolerance to the Combined Conditions of Low Contrast and Diminished Luminance: A Quasi-Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    al. (2004) described Pelli-Robson CA under photopic and mesopic luminance conditions in a large Spanish population over a wide age range in an...subject age, number of subjects, level of luminance utilized, and target contrast. Referring to Table 1, presented in the Appendix due to its landscape ...Puell et al. (2004) described Pelli-Robson CS under photopic and mesopic luminance conditions in a large Spanish population over a wide range of

  16. Combined portal, splenic and mesenteric venous thrombosis in inactive ulcerative colitis with heterozygous mutation in MTHFR gene: A rare case of thrombophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Gürsoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is a rare but potentially catastrophic phenomenon occurring in patients having tendency of thrombosis. It may lead to serious complications. The etiology of thrombophilia is thought to be multifactorial and related to both acquired and inherited factors. Inflammatory bowel disease is an acquired cause of thrombophilia. Thromboembolic events are seen during inflammatory bowel disease, especially during the active period of the disease. In inflammatory bowel disease, thrombus formation in portal, splenic and mesenteric veins are not common. Besides, the association of genetic disorders related to metabolism of homocysteine with inflammatory bowel disease has been evidenced, especially in Crohn disease and rarely in ulcerative colitis. We present a rare case of ulcerative colitis in association with combined portal, splenic and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The patient was recently diagnosed with the disease which was in the inactive period. Interestingly, our patient was also heterozygous for the mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene.

  17. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone L Reynolds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

  18. Changes in physical activity among adults with diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study of inactive patients with Type 2 diabetes who become physically active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, S; Uratsu, C S; Schmittdiel, J A; Grant, R W

    2015-08-01

    To identify the predictors and clinical effects among inactive patients with diabetes who become physically active, in the setting of a large integrated health system. We studied adults with Type 2 diabetes with at least two clinic visits between December 2011 and November 2012 who reported being inactive at their first visit. The mean (±sd) interval between their first and last visit was 6.2 (±2.3) months. We analysed self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity data collected using a structured intake form during routine clinical care. The study cohort (N = 6853) had a mean age of 60.2 years; 51.4% were women and 53.6% were non-white. Nearly two-thirds (62.5%, n = 4280) reported remaining physically inactive, while 16.0% reported achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (≥ 150 min/week) by the last visit of the study period. Female gender (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.67, 0.88), obesity (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2) : odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.60, 0.97; BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) : odds ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.42, 0.70), chronic kidney disease (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.65, 0.94) and depression (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.62, 0.96) were each independently associated with not achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level, while physician referral to lifestyle education was a positive predictor (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.09, 1.85). Controlling for baseline differences, patients achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity target lost 1.0 kg more weight compared with patients remaining inactive (P diabetes in a real-world clinical setting lost weight after becoming physically active; however, nearly two-thirds of patients remained inactive. Novel interventions to address physical inactivity in primary care should address barriers faced by older patients with medically complex disease. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  19. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    high blood pressure [2]. Hypertensive patients are at higher risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease [1]. Blood pressure control in hypertensives is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, reduce health care utilization, and ultimately lower health care costs [3]. Only 35 % of hypertensive ...

  20. Luminance and image quality analysis of an organic electroluminescent panel with a patterned microlens array attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hoang Yan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Jia-Rong; Wei, Mao-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Luminance and image quality observed from the normal direction of a commercial 2.0 inch panel based on organic electroluminescence (OEL) technology attached to regular and patterned microlens array films (MAFs) were studied and analyzed. When applying the regularly arranged MAF on the panel, a luminance enhancement of 23% was observed, accompanied by a reduction of the image quality index as low as 74%. By removing the microlenses on the emitting areas, the patterned MAF enhances the luminance efficiency of the OEL by 52% keeping the image quality index of the display as high as 94%, due to the effective light extraction in the glass substrate being less than the critical angle. 3D simulation based on a ray-tracing model was also established to investigate the spatial distribution of light rays radiated from an OEL pixel with different microstructures which showed consistent results with the experimental results

  1. Serendipitous Discovery of a Radio Transient in the Luminous Radio Galaxy Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Richard A.; Perley, Daniel A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Dhawan, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Recent Jansky Very Large Array observations of the luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A have revealed the presence of a 3 mJy, flat-spectrum, unresolved radio source located 0.4" (450 pc) from the nucleus. This source was not present in observations made 25 years ago. The luminosity and SED of the transient are comparable to the most luminous supernovae in the universe, and to GRB afterglows, although the most likely interpretation is that the transient represents a luminous flare from the nucleus of a minor galaxy merging with the host of Cygnus A -- possibly in the form of a tidal disruption event. We present our observations and interpretation of this event using recent JVLA and VLBA observations, and discuss its implications for the Cygnus A system and for dusty, merging galaxies generally.

  2. Study on methodology of LED's luminous flux measurement with integrating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Muqing; Zhou Xiaoli; Li Wenyi; Chen Yuyang; Zhang Wanlu

    2008-01-01

    Errors are introduced when using traditional methods for measuring the total luminous flux of LEDs since an LED is quite different from traditional light sources in terms of physical size, flux level, spectrum and spatial distribution. This paper uses commercial lighting simulation software named Tracepro to simulate the self-absorption effect when using traditional integrating sphere methods to measure the total luminous flux of LEDs and then presents a modified method for the measurement. The LED under investigation or a specially designed narrow beam standard lamp is placed on the interior wall of the sphere in our method. The results show that the measurement method presented here can lead to better precision in the evaluation of the total luminous flux of LEDs

  3. Influence of narcotics on luminance and frequency modulated visual evoked potentials in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, T; Ehlken, D; Wingert, K; Feuerstein, T J; Bach, M; Lagrèze, W A

    2009-06-01

    Quantification of visual function is essential for the impact of disease models and their treatment. Recently, we introduced a chronic implant model to record visual evoked potentials (VEP) in awake Brown-Norway rats. Here, we investigated the hemispheric distribution of VEP after monocular stimulation, the chronic electrode implantation and the influence of commonly used anesthetics. Potentials were recorded by electrodes, implanted epidurally over the superior colliculus. The entire visual field of the rat was stimulated. Flicker stimuli were modulated in luminance with a modulation depth from 5 to 80% at 7.5 Hz and flashes with a modulation depth of >95% in a frequency range of 2.9-38 Hz. Recordings were constant over 9 days. When one eye was blinded, the potentials recorded from the contralateral side were not affected, while the potentials of the ipsilateral side were markedly reduced. Further, potentials of awake animals were compared with those receiving general anesthetics. For one group of rats (n = 8), we administered isoflurane by inhalation in five concentrations. Four different groups (n = 7-11) were given choralhydrate (200 and 400 mg/kg) and the combination of ketamine/xyaline (65/7 or 130/14 mg/kg, respectively) intraperitoneally. Isoflurane depressed the VEP in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with chloralhydrate and ketamine/xyaline increased the VEP at low concentrations and depressed it in high concentrations. The new VEP paradigm assesses distinct qualities of contrast vision in rats. All tested narcotics alter VEP amplitudes and can be avoided.

  4. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. The effect of luminous intensity on the attraction of phlebotomine sand flies to light traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Neto, Abdias R; Costa-Neta, Benedita M; da Silva, Apoliana Araújo; Brito, Jefferson M; Aguiar, João V C; Ponte, Islana S; Silva, Francinaldo S

    2017-12-19

    To improve the efficiency of light traps in collecting phlebotomine sand flies, the potential effects of luminous intensity on the attraction of these insects to traps were evaluated. Sand flies were collected with Hooper Pugedo (HP) light traps fitted with 5-mm light-emitting diodes (LED) bulbs: green (520 nm wavelength-10,000, 15,000 and 20,000 millicandela (mcd) and blue (470 nm-4,000, 12,000 and 15,000 mcd). A total of 3,264 sand flies comprising 13 species were collected. The collected species were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (52.48%), Evandromyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes, 1939) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (32.90%) and Micropygomyia goiana (Martins, Falcão, & Silva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) (9.76%). An increase in luminous intensity of the LEDs increased the size of the sand fly catch. The lower luminous intensity of green (10,000 mcd) attracted an average of 13.7 ± 2.8 sand flies/trap per night and the other luminous intensities accounted for a mean of 24.1 ± 4.0 (15,000 mcd) and 28.2 ± 5.0 (20,000 mcd) sand flies/trap per night. Regarding the blue wavelength, the lower luminous intensity (4,000 mcd) attracted an average of 27.4 ± 4.1 sand flies/trap per night, followed by 12,000 mcd (37.6 ± 8.7) and 15,000 mcd (40.5 ± 7.3). Based on our data, the luminous intensity of light traps should be considered when developing light traps for monitoring or controlling phlebotomine sand flies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ["Glare vision". I. Physiological principles of vision change with increased test field luminance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, B; Ochsner, H; Zrenner, E

    1992-02-01

    Clinical tests of visual acuity are an important measure of visual function. However visual acuity is usually determined only in narrow range of luminance levels between 160 and 320 cd/m2; therefore losses of visual acuity in other ranges of light intensity can not be detected. In a distance of 80 cm from the patients eyes, Landolt rings of varying sizes were presented on a small test field whose light intensity can be varied between 0.1 and 30,000 cd/m2. Thereby an acuity-luminance-function can be obtained. We studied such functions under different conditions of exposure time both with constant and with increasing luminance of the test field. We found that persons with normal vision can increase their visual acuity with increasing test field luminance up to a range of 5000 cd/m2. The maximum values of visual acuity under optimal lightening conditions lie (varying with age) between 2.2 and 0.9. Under pathological conditions visual acuity falls at high luminances accompanied by sensations of glare. Tests of glare sensitivity as a function of exposure time showed 4 sec to be a critical time of exposure since after 4 sec normal persons just reach their maximum visual acuity at high luminances. The underlying physiological mechanisms lead us to suppose that patients with neuronal light adaptation disturbances display a greater visual loss as a result of decreased time of exposure than those with disturbances in the ocular media. Visual acuity as well as the capacity to increase the patients visual acuity under optimal conditions of lighting were both found to be strongly age-dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Classification of radioactive self-luminous light sources. American national standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This standard establishes the classification of certain radioactive self-luminous light sources according to radionuclide, type of source, activity, and performance requirements. The objectives are to establish minimum prototype testing requirements for radioactive self-luminous light sources, to promote uniformity of marking such sources, and to establish minimum physical performance for such sources. This standard is primarily directed toward assuring adequate containment of the radioactive material. Testing procedures and classification designations are specified for discoloration, temperature, thermal shock, reduced pressure, impact, vibration, and immersion. A range of test requirements is presented according to intended usage and source activity

  8. Charge on luminous bodies resembling natural ball lightning produced via electrical arcs through lump silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christina L.; Miley, Galen P.; Griffiths, David J.; Sánchez, Erik

    2014-12-01

    A phenomenon resembling natural ball lightning can be produced via electrical arcing through silicon. We use lump silicon instead of silicon wafers to achieve higher production rates and larger, longer-lived luminous balls than previously reported. The luminous balls consist of a silicon core surrounded by a porous network of loosely bound silicon dioxide nanoparticles. We find that the balls carry a small net charge on the order of 10-12 C and propose that the nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the core due to this charge.

  9. The most luminous type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei of the Swift/ BAT catalog : Are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rudolf Erik; Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Wong, Ivy; Schawinski, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of the most luminous obscured AGN of the Swift/BAT 70 month catalog, which is based on an all-sky survey in the 14 – 195 keV energy range. This survey identified 838 AGN. Excluding Blazars and AGN close ( |gb| BAT 70 month catalog and from a specific observation campaign in order to analyze the relationship of their luminosity to black hole mass and their Eddington ratios. We discuss whether these most luminous type 2 AGN have common characteristics, which differentiate them from all the type 2 AGN in the 70 month catalog.

  10. 3CR249.1 and Ton202-luminous QSOs in interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, A.; MacKenty, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The morphologies of the extended emission-line regions around the QSOs 3CR249.1 and Ton202 indicate that they have, in both cases, resulted from interactions between two galaxies of roughly equal mass and that the galaxies involved possessed extensive rotating gaseous disks before their encounters. These two examples provide support for the position that luminous QSOs are frequently activated by violent interactions. More generally, the distribution of gas around luminous QSOs promises to be a sensitive and useful indicator of the recent history of their physical environment. (author)

  11. Measurements of the propagation velocity and shape of the luminous front in a coaxial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu Bujor, T.; Tsois, N.; Muscalu, G.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurements on the propagation velocity of the luminous front and the shape of the plasma sheath produced in a coaxial accelerator working in hydrogen (2.0 Torr) at condenser voltages between 15 and 17 kV are reported. The arrival times of the luminous and shock fronts, determined from hydrogen continuum emission and laser beam deflection measurements, respectively, have been used to estimate the propagation velocities and plasma sheath spatial distribution (geometrical shape). Velocities ranging from 10 to 20 cm/μsec and a non-planar geometrical shape resulted. (author)

  12. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  13. Physical Inactivity from the Viewpoint of Evolutionary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Kirchengast

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity patterns of recent Homo sapiens are characterized by a sedentary life style and consequently by exercise deficiency. This lack of physical activity increases the risk of various chronic non-communicable diseases and reduces health related quality of life. From the perspective of evolutionary medicine, the high rates of non-communicable disease among contemporary industrialized populations may be interpreted as the result of a mismatch between high rates of physical activity in the adaptively relevant (ARE and sedentary recent life circumstances. Public transport, cars, elevators, supermarkets and internet shopping diminished daily physical activities dramatically, therefore recent Homo sapiens suffer from the consequences of a convenient life style, which is completely new in our evolution and history. The only possibility to increase physical activity and enhance health and well-being is through sporting activities during leisure time.

  14. ROLE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENETIC STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TO ENDOCRINOTHERAPY WITH TAMOXIFEN IN PATIENTS WITH LUMINAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. М. Slonimskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormone therapy with tamoxifen is the commonly used treatment for luminal breast cancer. However, it appears to be ineffective in 20–40 % of cases and the possible reasons of this failure are related to the features of distribution and structure of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in tumor tissue. Realization of the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen is carried out by blocking the activation center of AF-2 receptor. The change in the functional state of this receptor resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms coding 2228480 (G/A in exon 8 of ERα gene is considered as a possible cause of treatment failure with tamoxifen.The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between the ERα expression and polymorphic variants in exon 8 of the ERα gene and the efficacy of tamoxifen in patientswith luminal breast cancer.Material and methods: The study included 97 patients with stage T1–2N0–1M0 luminal breast cancer, who received adjuvant chemotherapy with tamoxifen. The follow-up ranged from 24 to 130 months. Long-term treatment outcomes were assessed upon the progression of the disease with the evidence of distant metastases. In tumor tissue samples, the ERα expression was studied using the immunohistochemical method. The values of the ERα expression intensity as well as the character of ERα distribution were assessed. Polymorphic variants of exon 8 of the ERα gene were studied using real-time PCR.Results. The heterogeneous distribution of ERα gene was observed in 86.5 % cases with diseases progression and in 58.3 % of cases with favorable disease outcome (р=0.0072; χ2 =7.22. Mutation of rs2228480 (G/A in exon 8 of the ERα gene was observed in 19.4 % of cases. Mutations were not noted in tumor cells with homogenous distribution of the ERα gene and mutations were found in 25.7 % (р=0.014; χ2 =6.09 in heterogeneous distribution. Mutation in exon 8 of the ERα gene was shown to occur more often in patients with disease progression

  15. Inverse relationship between Ki67 and survival in early luminal breast cancer: confirmation in a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Alberto; Garcia-Valdecasas, Barbara; Murata, Paola; Teran, Rolando; Lopez, Laura; Barnadas, Agusti; Lerma, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Ki67 is a prognostic marker in early breast cancer, but its real usefulness remains controversial. The standard cut-off values for Ki67 have not been universally accepted and different values may be used depending on the type of biopsy (fine needle biopsy versus surgical specimen biopsy). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of Ki67 and to determine the most accurate prognostic cut-off. 495 tissue samples from patients with luminal tumours who underwent breast surgery between 2005 and 2011 were collected from the Department of Pathology at Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona. Patients with stage IV, HER2-positive tumours or triple-negative breast carcinoma were excluded from the study. Pathology data including tumour grading and ki67 percentage were obtained retrospectively from clinical records. In all cases, the percentage of ki67 was evaluated in fine needle biopsies. In the multivariate analysis, Ki67 as a continuous variable was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (OS p = 0.0001, HR 1.037, CI 1.014-1.059; CSS p = 0.0001, HR 1.063, CI 1.031-1.096) (Cox regression model). CSS was poor when associated with a KI67 cut-off point >14% (p = 0.013, HR 14.85; CI 1.074-120.53) (Cox regression model). Disease-free survival (DFS) was not associated with Ki67 CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of luminal breast carcinoma can be predicted using Ki67 as a continuous variable and a standard cut-off value of 14%. Information about the specimen type used to determine ki67 should be recorded in the pathological report.

  16. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  17. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  18. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Adam D.; Perou, Charles M.; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  19. St Gallen 2015 subtyping of luminal breast cancers : impact of different Ki67-based proliferation assessment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, Cornelia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647927; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Decker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ki67 has been proposed as prognostic proliferation marker in luminal breast cancer (BC), but little is known on the influence of Ki67 assessment methods on subtyping into luminal A- and B-like tumors. Our aim was to study the influence of different Ki67-labeling index (Ki67-LI) assessment methods on

  20. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer such...

  1. 75 FR 57820 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC.; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC.; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuanc...

  2. 78 FR 25486 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuanc...

  3. The skylight gradient of luminance helps sandhoppers in sun and moon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alberto; Galanti, Giuditta; Mercatelli, Luca

    2012-08-15

    To return to the ecologically optimal zone of the beach, the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) maintains a constant sea-land direction based on the sun and moon compasses. In this study, we investigated the role of the skylight gradient of luminance in sun and moon identification under natural and artificial conditions of illumination. Clock-shifted (inverted) sandhoppers tested under the sun (during their subjective night) and under the full moon (during their subjective day) exhibit orientation in accordance with correct identification of the sun and the moon at night. Tested in artificial conditions of illumination at night without the artificial gradient of luminance, the artificial astronomical cue is identified as the moon even when the conditions of illumination allow sun compass orientation during the day. When the artificial gradient of luminance is added, the artificial astronomical cue is identified as the sun. The role of the sky gradient of luminance in sun and moon identification is discussed on the basis of present and past findings.

  4. Maturation of polarization and luminance contrast sensitivities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartron, Lelia; Dickel, Ludovic; Shashar, Nadav; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a characteristic of the visual system of cephalopods. It has been well documented in adult cuttlefish, which use polarization sensitivity in a large range of tasks such as communication, orientation and predation. Because cuttlefish do not benefit from parental care, their visual system (including the ability to detect motion) must be efficient from hatching to enable them to detect prey or predators. We studied the maturation and functionality of polarization sensitivity in newly hatched cuttlefish. In a first experiment, we examined the response of juvenile cuttlefish from hatching to the age of 1 month towards a moving, vertically oriented grating (contrasting and polarized stripes) using an optomotor response apparatus. Cuttlefish showed differences in maturation of polarization versus luminance contrast motion detection. In a second experiment, we examined the involvement of polarization information in prey preference and detection in cuttlefish of the same age. Cuttlefish preferentially chose not to attack transparent prey whose polarization contrast had been removed with a depolarizing filter. Performances of prey detection based on luminance contrast improved with age. Polarization contrast can help cuttlefish detect transparent prey. Our results suggest that polarization is not a simple modulation of luminance information, but rather that it is processed as a distinct channel of visual information. Both luminance and polarization sensitivity are functional, though not fully matured, in newly hatched cuttlefish and seem to help in prey detection.

  5. Modulation of visual cortical excitability by working memory: effect of luminance contrast of mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira eCattaneo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the impact of stimulus properties such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency and orientation on visually evoked neural activity, much less is known about how they modulate neural activity when they are properties of a mental image held in working memory (WM. Here we addressed this question by investigating how a parametric manipulation of an imagined stimulus attribute affects neuronal excitability in the early visual cortex. We manipulated luminance contrast, a stimulus property known to strongly affect the magnitude of neuronal responses in early visual areas. Luminance contrast modulated neuronal excitability, as assessed by the frequency of phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with the exact nature of this modulation depending on TMS intensity. These results point to a strong overlap in the neuronal processes underlying visual perception and mental imagery: not only does WM maintenance selectively engage neurons which are tuned to the maintained attribute (as has previously been shown, but the extent to which those neurons are activated depends on the luminance contrast (as is the case with visually-evoked responses. From a methodological viewpoint, these results suggest that assessment of visual cortical excitability using TMS is affected by the TMS intensity used to probe the neuronal population.

  6. Visual memory for random block patterns defined by luminance and color contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, FW; Greenlee, MW

    2000-01-01

    We studied the ability of human subjects to memorize the visual information in computer-generated random block patterns defined either by luminance contrast, by color contrast, or by both. Memory performance declines rapidly with increasing inter-stimulus interval, showing a half-life of

  7. 78 FR 29391 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... risk to public health or safety, and are consistent with the common defense and security; and (2... only temporary relief from the applicable regulation and the licensee has made good faith efforts to... only temporary relief from the regulations of 10 CFR 50.71(e)(3)(iii). Luminant has made good faith...

  8. Polarized backlight unit using a polarization-preserving light-redirecting film for improving luminance gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeongmin; Lee, Sungrae; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-05-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a polarized backlight unit (BLU) configuration with a new light-redirecting film (LRF) to improve the luminance gain and light transmittance in liquid crystal displays. We combined a very low birefringence triacetyl cellulose (TAC) base layer with UV-cured prismatic patterns in a mass-producible process to demonstrate a polarization-preserving LRF. Detailed analyses of the states of polarization (SOP) through the LRF were reported. We also fabricated a 7-in. edge-lit BLU using the new LRF. We found that the light directing capability of the new LRF was equivalent to that of a conventional prism film whose base layer was a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film, and that the new LRF successfully suppressed random polarization changes of the transmitted light. Utilizing these new advantages, we obtained 68% transmittance through the polarizer over the BLU with the new LRF, which was about 1.3-fold that for the BLU with the conventional prism film (54%). We also obtained 127% luminance gain using the new LRF, which was equivalent to that of the conventional prism film. Here, the luminance gain is referred to as the amount of increase in luminance on the surface normal of the light-guiding plate without any film.

  9. Electrical-thermal-luminous-chromatic model of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Koh, S.W.; Yuan, C.; Zeijl, H. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Lee, S.W.R.; Zhang, G.

    2014-01-01

    The drive of increased electrical currents to achieve high luminous output for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (PW-LED) has led to a series of thermal problems. The light performance of PW-LED is affected by the heat generated by the two major sources in a package/module: chip(s) and

  10. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets : Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D.M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest

  11. The structure of dark and luminous matter in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we explore new techniques to study the dark and luminous matter in the outskirts of galaxies. To determine the mass and shape of the dark matter halo around the early-type galaxy NGC 2974, we measure the kinematics of its large neutral gas ring. We combine these large-scale kinematics

  12. The distribution of dark and luminous matter inferred from extended rotation curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, Roelof; Pestaña, José Luis G.

    A better understanding of the formation of mass structures in the Universe can be obtained by determining the amount and distribution of dark and luminous matter in spiral galaxies. To investigate such matters a sample of 12 galaxies, most with accurate distances, has been composed of which the

  13. First observations of transient luminous events in Indian sub-continent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Veenadhari, B.

    2014-01-01

    The article offers information on the initial observations of flashes of lightning discharge observed above thunderstorms. It mentions that the transient luminous events (TLE) are classified on the basis of their geometrical shape and luminosity into Sprites, Halos and Blue Starters. It also focu...

  14. Discovery and evolution of an unusual luminous variable star in NGC 3432 (supernova 2000ch)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, R. M.; Vrba, F. J.; Henden, A. A.; Canzian, B.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Filipenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Li, W.; Coil, A. L.; Schmidt, G. D.; Smith, P. S.; Starrfield, S.; Klose, S.; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Hudec, René; Šimon, Vojtěch

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 818 (2004), s. 326-336 ISSN 0004-6280 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : supernova e * luminous blue variables * extragalactic sources Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2004

  15. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael

    2015-12-14

    The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

  16. Luminance contrast has little influence on the spread of object-based attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, P.; Korjoukov, I.; Vartak, D.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    We direct our attention to those visual stimuli that are relevant to our behavioral goals. Some of the visual stimuli that surround us are represented more strongly, because they have a higher luminance contrast. However, selective attention also boosts the representation of visual stimuli. It is

  17. Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-11-01

    This study developed a model for setting the adaptive luminance contrast between text and background for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays. The study was carried out in two experiments. In Experiment I, a user test was conducted to identify the optimal luminance contrast with regard to subjects' reading performance, measured by lines of text reading and visual comfort, assessed by self-report after the reading. Based on the empirical results of the test, an ideal adaptive model which decreases the luminance contrast gradually with passage of time was developed. In Experiment II, a validation test involving reading performance, visual comfort, and physiological stress measured by a brainwave analysis using an electroencephalogram confirmed that the proposed adaptive luminance contrast is adequate for prolonged text reading on smartphone displays. The developed model enhances both reading performance and visual comfort as well as reduces the energy consumption of a smartphone; hence, it is expected that this study will be applied to diverse kinds of visual display terminals.

  18. Contributions of contour frequency, amplitude, and luminance to the watercolor effect estimated by conjoint measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Devinck, Frédéric; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2014-04-10

    The watercolor effect is a long-range, assimilative, filling-in phenomenon induced by a pair of distant, wavy contours of different chromaticities. Here, we measured joint influences of the contour frequency and amplitude and the luminance of the interior contour on the strength of the effect. Contour pairs, each enclosing a circular region, were presented with two of the dimensions varying independently across trials (luminance/frequency, luminance/amplitude, frequency/amplitude) in a conjoint measurement paradigm (Luce & Tukey, 1964). In each trial, observers judged which of the stimuli evoked the strongest fill-in color. Control stimuli were identical except that the contours were intertwined and generated little filling-in. Perceptual scales were estimated by a maximum likelihood method (Ho, Landy, & Maloney, 2008). An additive model accounted for the joint contributions of any pair of dimensions. As shown previously using difference scaling (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012), the strength increases with luminance of the interior contour. The strength of the phenomenon was nearly independent of the amplitude of modulation of the contour but increased with its frequency up to an asymptotic level. On average, the strength of the effect was similar along a given dimension regardless of the other dimension with which it was paired, demonstrating consistency of the underlying estimated perceptual scales.

  19. Quantum dot-based immunofluorescent imaging of Ki67 and identification of prognostic value in HER2-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Zhong; Chen, Chuang; Jiang, Guan; Tian, Wei-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Sheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The immunohistochemical assessment of Ki67 antigen (Ki67) is the most widely practiced measurement of breast cancer cell proliferation; however, it has some disadvantages and thus the prognostic value of Ki67 in breast cancer remains controversial. Our previous studies confirmed the advantages of quantum dots-based nanotechnology for quantitative analysis of biomarkers compared with conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC). This study was designed to assess Ki67 by quantum dot-immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC) and investigate the prognostic value of the Ki67 score in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer. Ki67 expression in 108 HER2-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer specimens was detected by IHC and QD-IHC. Two observers assessed the Ki67 score independently and comparisons between the two methods were made. The prognostic value of the Ki67 score for five-year disease-free survival was estimated. The same antigen localization, high correlation of staining rates (r=0.993), and high agreement of measurements (κ=0.874) of Ki67 expression (cutoff: 30%) in breast cancer were found by QD-IHC and conventional IHC. The QD-IHC had a better interobserver agreement for the Ki67 score than conventional IHC (t=-7.280, PKi67 expression (cutoff: 30%) was associated with shorter disease-free survival (log-rank test; IHC, P=0.026; QD-IHC, P=0.001), especially in the lymph node-negative subgroups (log-rank test; IHC, P=0.017; QD-IHC, P=0.002). QD-IHC imaging of Ki67 was an easier and more accurate method for detecting and assessing Ki67. The Ki67 score was an independent prognosticator in the HER2-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer patients.

  20. SPORT AS A STRATEGY FOR PREVENTING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY: WALKING FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Roaul Aiello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the senile population, regular physical activity and reduction of a sedentary lifestyle lead to a series of positive effects. Such as, increased independence in daily activities and personal care, higher self-esteem, a better quality of life, a higher life expectancy and a decrease in mortality. Moreover, physical, psychological, and cognitive functions can also improve. With regards to this notion, the Walking Football (WF activity was started in England; a sport designed for the needs population segment, who, due to overweight and other typical diseases of old age, has a limited mobility and can only play sports with lowmoderate cardiovascular effort. WF is a new sport mainly created for people over 50, i.e. the population diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases, and the actual increase of obesity gradually cause to abstain from a regular physical activity. The game is played 7 vs. 7 and all players must only walk; running is considered a foul. To avoid sudden movements and reduce the risk of injury, the ball must be always kept on the ground, and slide tackles and an aggressive behavior are prohibited. This sport, a slow variation of football, is considered a low risk sport activity for the low incidence of traumatic events and can be practiced safely because the cardiovascular effort is minimum. WF comes directly from football, which is considered the most popular sport in the world. It is also associated with positive social and motivational factors that may facilitate compliance to the sport, which help maintain a physically active lifestyle. WF is still not widespread in Italy, and our hope is that it can become, in a short time, a reference for the sports designed for the elderly.

  1. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  3. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  4. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  5. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  6. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  8. Granulocytes impose a tight bottleneck upon the gut luminal pathogen population during Salmonella typhimurium colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Maier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Topological, chemical and immunological barriers are thought to limit infection by enteropathogenic bacteria. However, in many cases these barriers and their consequences for the infection process remain incompletely understood. Here, we employed a mouse model for Salmonella colitis and a mixed inoculum approach to identify barriers limiting the gut luminal pathogen population. Mice were infected via the oral route with wild type S. Typhimurium (S. Tm and/or mixtures of phenotypically identical but differentially tagged S. Tm strains ("WITS", wild-type isogenic tagged strains, which can be individually tracked by quantitative real-time PCR. WITS dilution experiments identified a substantial loss in tag/genetic diversity within the gut luminal S. Tm population by days 2-4 post infection. The diversity-loss was not attributable to overgrowth by S. Tm mutants, but required inflammation, Gr-1+ cells (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes and most likely NADPH-oxidase-mediated defense, but not iNOS. Mathematical modelling indicated that inflammation inflicts a bottleneck transiently restricting the gut luminal S. Tm population to approximately 6000 cells and plating experiments verified a transient, inflammation- and Gr-1+ cell-dependent dip in the gut luminal S. Tm population at day 2 post infection. We conclude that granulocytes, an important clinical hallmark of S. Tm-induced inflammation, impose a drastic bottleneck upon the pathogen population. This extends the current view of inflammation-fuelled gut-luminal Salmonella growth by establishing the host response in the intestinal lumen as a double-edged sword, fostering and diminishing colonization in a dynamic equilibrium. Our work identifies a potent immune defense against gut infection and reveals a potential Achilles' heel of the infection process which might be targeted for therapy.

  9. Effects of feeding on luminal pH and morphology of the gastroesophageal junction of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Scott M; Secor, Stephen M

    2012-10-01

    At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly from the stomach into the esophagus thereby providing the opportunity for the reflux of gastric juices. To explore whether snakes experience or can prevent gastric reflux, we examined post-feeding changes of luminal pH of the distal esophagus and stomach, the fine scale luminal pH profile at the gastroesophageal junction, and the morphology of the gastroesophageal junction for the Burmese python (Python molurus), the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), and the diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer). For each species fasted, there was no distension of the gastroesophageal junction and only modest changes in luminal pH from the distal esophagus into the stomach. Feeding resulted in marked distension and changes in tissue morphology of the gastroesophageal junction. Simultaneously, there was a significant decrease in luminal pH of the distal esophagus for pythons and house snakes, and for all three species a steep gradient in luminal pH decreasing across a 3-cm span from the distal edge of the esophagus into the proximal edge of the stomach. The moderate acidification of the distal most portion of the esophagus for pythons and house snakes suggests that there is some anterior movement of gastric juices across the gastroesophageal junction. Given that this modest reflux of gastric fluid is localized to the most distal region of the esophagus, snakes are apparently able to prevent and protect against acid reflux in the absence of a functional LES. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the Histological and Serological Parameters of Patients with Hepatitis Delta Virus in Active and Inactive Hepatitis B Virus Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Ram, D. B.; Talpur, A.; Tanveer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the histological and serological parameters of patients with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in active HBV versus inactive HBV carriers. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Sindh, from June 2008 to September 2011. Methodology: This study included 49 consecutive inactive HBV carriers who were HBsAg-positive, HBV DNA-negative, anti-D antibody-positive, and HDV RNA-positive, as well as 277 patients with active HBV who were HBsAg-positive, anti- HDV antibody-positive, HDV RNA-positive, and demonstrated > 20,000 IU/mL HBV DNA and > 2 (ULN) serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Liver biopsies were obtained and the staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR scoring system. Continuous variables such as age, SGPT, platelet count, and the HBV DNA level were computed as the mean A +- standard deviation. Categorical variables such as gender and stage of fibrosis are expressed as percentages. All data were processed using SPSS version 16. Results: This study included 49 patients in an inactive HBV group. Fibrosis stage 0 was observed in 37 (75.5%) patients and 12 (24.5%) were stage 1. Among the 277 patients with active disease, fibrosis stage 0 was present in 7 (2.5%) patients, stage 1 in 31 (11.2%) patients, stage 2 in 172 (62.1%) patients, stage 3 in 44 (15.9%) patients and stage 4 in 23 (8.3%) patients. Conclusion: HDV in active HBV carriers is severe on its initial presentation and requires prompt treatment whereas in inactive HBV carriers demonstrates an indolent course. (author)

  11. Effects of Long-Term Acupuncture Treatment on Resting-State Brain Activity in Migraine Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Active Acupoints and Inactive Acupoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Fuwen; Dong, Xilin; Peng, Yulin; Qin, Wei; Wu, Fumei; Li, Ying; Yuan, Kai; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Tang, Zili; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been commonly used for preventing migraine attacks and relieving pain during a migraine, although there is limited knowledge on the physiological mechanism behind this method. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences in brain activities evoked by active acupoints and inactive acupoints and to investigate the possible correlation between clinical variables and brain responses. Methods and Results A randomized controlled trial and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were conducted. A total of eighty migraineurs without aura were enrolled to receive either active acupoint acupuncture or inactive acupoint acupuncture treatment for 8 weeks, and twenty patients in each group were randomly selected for the fMRI scan at the end of baseline and at the end of treatment. The neuroimaging data indicated that long-term active acupoint therapy elicited a more extensive and remarkable cerebral response compared with acupuncture at inactive acupoints. Most of the regions were involved in the pain matrix, lateral pain system, medial pain system, default mode network, and cognitive components of pain processing. Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly related to the increased average Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the anterior cingulate cortex in the two groups. Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with increased average ReHo values in the insula which could be detected in the active acupoint group. Conclusions Long-term active acupoint therapy and inactive acupoint therapy have different brain activities. We postulate that acupuncture at the active acupoint might have the potential effect of regulating some disease-affected key regions and the pain circuitry for migraine, and promote establishing psychophysical pain homeostasis. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003635 PMID:24915066

  12. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  13. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...

  14. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.

    1987-01-01

    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  15. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  16. Physical inactivity as one of the chronic disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since cardiovascular risk factors have been shown to persist into adulthood, health professionals should assume some responsibility for the prevention, detection, and intervention relevant to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.

  17. Who Are the "Lazy" Ants? The Function of Inactivity in Social Insects and a Possible Role of Constraint: Inactive Ants Are Corpulent and May Be Young and/or Selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Integrity of Narrow Epithelial Tubes in the C. elegans Excretory System Requires a Transient Luminal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hasreet K; Cohen, Jennifer D; Ayala-Figueroa, Jesus; Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Poggioli, Corey; Bickard, Kevin; Parry, Jean M; Pu, Pu; Hall, David H; Sundaram, Meera V

    2016-08-01

    Most epithelial cells secrete a glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix that can have diverse but still poorly understood roles in development and physiology. Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain glycoproteins are common constituents of these matrices, and their loss in humans is associated with a number of diseases. Understanding of the functions, organization and regulation of apical matrices has been hampered by difficulties in imaging them both in vivo and ex vivo. We identified the PAN-Apple, mucin and ZP domain glycoprotein LET-653 as an early and transient apical matrix component that shapes developing epithelia in C. elegans. LET-653 has modest effects on shaping of the vulva and epidermis, but is essential to prevent lumen fragmentation in the very narrow, unicellular excretory duct tube. We were able to image the transient LET-653 matrix by both live confocal imaging and transmission electron microscopy. Structure/function and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that LET-653 exists in two separate luminal matrix pools, a loose fibrillar matrix in the central core of the lumen, to which it binds dynamically via its PAN domains, and an apical-membrane-associated matrix, to which it binds stably via its ZP domain. The PAN domains are both necessary and sufficient to confer a cyclic pattern of duct lumen localization that precedes each molt, while the ZP domain is required for lumen integrity. Ectopic expression of full-length LET-653, but not the PAN domains alone, could expand lumen diameter in the developing gut tube, where LET-653 is not normally expressed. Together, these data support a model in which the PAN domains regulate the ability of the LET-653 ZP domain to interact with other factors at the apical membrane, and this ZP domain interaction promotes expansion and maintenance of lumen diameter. These data identify a transient apical matrix component present prior to cuticle secretion in C. elegans, demonstrate critical roles for

  19. 37 CFR 11.19 - Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...

  20. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  1. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  2. Comparison of Static Balance in Active and Inactive Adult and Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.

  3. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).

  4. 17 CFR 210.3-11 - Financial statements of an inactive registrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  5. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  7. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  8. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged

  9. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  10. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  11. Living near the port area is associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  12. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  13. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  14. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  15. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  16. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  17. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  18. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  19. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  20. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  1. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  2. Wheelchair-Specific Fitness of Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  3. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  4. The impact of the luminance, size and location of LED billboards on drivers' visual performance-Laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesinska, Malgorzata

    2018-02-28

    A proper visual performance by drivers can be ensured by, among else, a correct distribution of luminance in their field of view. At night, when the driver's sight is adapted to low luminance levels, high luminance level objects located near the road may be a source of glare, which is not only a nuisance, but it may also blind the driver. For many years, LED billboards (light-emitting diode billboards) have been installed near roads. Such billboards are usually large, have high luminance and show dynamically changing images. These parameters have a significant impact on the drivers' visual performance and, in turn, on road traffic safety. The study on the impact of the luminance, size and location of LED billboards on the drivers' visual performance was conducted on a volunteer group. Testing the impact of LED billboards on the visual performance of drivers in real-life conditions is very difficult. Therefore, the tests have been conducted in laboratory conditions, using a car driving simulator. The paper describes the testing procedure and tests results. The permissible luminance and areas of LED screens in two locations near the road, which significantly reduce the drivers' visual performance in municipal traffic at night, were determined by conducting an analysis of the results. Recommendations on the permissible luminance and areas of LED billboards were formulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% ..... awash bfimtmoqs mama. NmN mun bmo NH mww Hm mom a mwm mm Hmv h Qumran 13°F. 03 mm 7K N ...

  6. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E 2 to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa

  7. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  9. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  10. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  11. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  12. SN 2010jl in UGC 5189: Yet another luminous type IIn supernova in a metal-poor galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, R.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Pogge, R. W.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Antognini, J.; Yan, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present ASAS data starting 25 days before the discovery of the recent type IIn SN 2010jl, and we compare its light curve to other luminous IIn SNe, showing that it is a luminous (M_I ~ -20.5) event. Its host galaxy, UGC 5189, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance (12 + log(O/H) = 8.2), which reinforces the emerging trend that over-luminous core-collapse supernovae are found in the low-metallicity tail of the galaxy distribution, similar to the known trend for the hosts of long GRBs. We comp...

  13. A MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nathan; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cooper, Michael C.; Matheson, Thomas; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.

    2011-01-01

    The bright, nearby, recently discovered supernova (SN) 2010jl is a luminous Type IIn SN. Here, we report archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of its host galaxy UGC 5189A taken roughly 10 yr prior to explosion, as well as early-time optical spectra of the SN. The HST images reveal a luminous, blue point source at the position of the SN, with an absolute magnitude of -12.0 in the F300W filter. If it is not just a chance alignment, the source at the SN position could be (1) a massive young ( sun . This reinforces mounting evidence that many SNe IIn result from very massive stars, that massive stars can produce visible SNe without collapsing quietly to black holes, and that massive stars can sometimes retain their H envelopes until shortly before explosion. Standard stellar evolution models fail to account for these observed properties.

  14. Correcting LCD luminance non-uniformity for threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perperidis, Antonios; Murray, Ian; Brash, Harry; McTrusty, Alice; Cameron, Lorraine; Fleck, Brian; Minns, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The accurate assessment of visual field function can provide valuable information on a range of visual disorders. Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) is a novel instrument for measuring supra-threshold visual fields in young children who are otherwise unable to perform Automated Static Perimetry (ASP). However, limitations in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology restrict the ability of SVOP to determine threshold values at various points in the visual field, often required in detailed perimetry examinations. This paper introduces a purpose-specific LCD luminance non-uniformity compensation approach to address this limitation. Thorough quantitative evaluation identifies the effectiveness of the proposed approach in (i) compensating for luminance non-uniformities across an LCD, and (ii) enabling SVOP to perform accurate and precise threshold visual field tests. The findings demonstrate that SVOP provides a promising alternative to the current threshold ASP standard (Humphrey Field Analyser).

  15. The starburst-AGN connection - A sensitive VLBI survey of luminous IRAS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Smith, Harding J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an 18 cm VLBI survey of 31 luminous, radio-compact IR galaxies are presented. Over half the sample galaxies show high-brightness temperature emission, with T sub b greater than 10 exp 5 K and structure on scales of 5-150 mas. The limits for nondetected sources are similar, consistent with a picture in which most of these galaxies have compact cores at a level of a few percent of the total radio flux density. Characteristics of the extended radio structure, infrared properties, and optical excitation are not good indicators of the detectability of VLBI-scale emission. Structural information and energetic considerations rule out a single supernova interpretation of the compact emission in these galaxies, although we cannot exclude the possibility of several simultaneous extraordinarily luminous radio supernovae within the central few hundred cubic parsec. Our results instead favor the presence of an AGN obscured by starburst-related dust.

  16. The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world i s expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z 4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

  17. Cues from the reef: olfactory preferences of a symbiotically luminous cardinalfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Alison L.; Harii, Saki; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2015-06-01

    The symbiotically luminous, reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae), exhibits daily site fidelity, homing behavior, and a preference for the long-spined urchin, Diadema setosum, as its daytime host. The fish acquires its symbiont during larval development and releases large numbers of the bacteria with its feces daily at a host urchin. To examine the role of olfaction in site fidelity and homing by S. tubifer, juvenile and adult fish were tested in a two-channel choice flume for their olfactory preferences. Neither juveniles nor adults showed a preference for seawater conditioned by D. setosum. Juvenile fish, but not adults, preferred seawater conditioned by conspecific fish versus unconditioned seawater. Both juveniles and adults preferred seawater conditioned by their luminous symbiont and also preferred home site water to foreign reef water. These results suggest that S. tubifer uses chemical cues for homing and possibly settlement and symbiont acquisition, but not for host urchin recognition.

  18. Proposal of a utilization of a luminous bacterium in the teaching and learning of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Kinno, Ikuo; Ono, Toshiro; Sakoda, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    We isolated the luminous bacterium Vibrio phosphoreum H1 as a tool for education in radiation safety. It emits strong and steady luminescence. It is nonpathogenic, cannot be grown under normal low-salt conditions, and can be handled without any special equipment or reagents. We can cultivate it on a desk at room temperature, and can use a home-made broth containing a high salt concentration. Heat treatment at 37°C kills the bacterium, leading to its loss of luminescence. Although X-ray irradiation clearly kills it as the exposure dose increases, luminescence remains intact for some time, suggesting a delayed appearance of the biological effect of radiation exposure. We showed that the luminous bacterium Vibrio phosphoreum H1 can be used as a tool for teaching and learning about the effects of radiation. We proposed a practical plan that can be employed at high schools as well as universities. (author)

  19. Compact RGBY light sources with high luminance for laser display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Katrin; Blume, Gunnar; Werner, Nils; Müller, André; Sumpf, Bernd; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Ressel, Peter; Sahm, Alexander; Bege, Roland; Hofmann, Julian; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Tränkle, Günther

    2018-02-01

    Watt-class visible laser light with a high luminance can be created with high-power GaAs-based lasers either directly in the red spectral region or using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) for the colors in the blue-yellow spectral region. The concepts and results of red- and near infrared-emitting distributed Bragg reflector tapered lasers and master oscillator power amplifier systems as well as their application for SHG bench-top experiments and miniaturized modules are presented. Examples of these high-luminance light sources aiming at different applications such as flying spot display or holographic 3D cinema are discussed in more detail. The semiconductor material allows an easy adaptation of the wavelength allowing techniques such as six-primary color 3D projection or color space enhancement by adding a fourth yellow color.

  20. Giant luminous arcs from lensing: determination of the mass distribution inside distant cluster cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, F.; Rigaut, F.

    1989-01-01

    The observations of giant luminous arcs are used in the context of the gravitational lensing theory, to investigate the distribution of the deflecting matter, usually situated in the cores of distant clusters. Analytic equations of the caustic curves are presented for a multi-point mass model, which roughly accounts for the observed arc properties. A more general lensing model is introduced, where the lensing objects (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies) are extended and follow the r 1/4 law. Numerical simulations reproduce pixel by pixel all the gravitational images, including the arcs, found in the cores of the A 370 and CI2244-02 clusters. They are consistent with the use of the observations of luminous matter and X-ray emitting matter as a tracer of the total mass distribution

  1. Giant luminous arcs from lensing: determination of the mass distribution inside distant cluster cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, F.; Rigaut, F. (Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (FR))

    1989-12-01

    The observations of giant luminous arcs are used in the context of the gravitational lensing theory, to investigate the distribution of the deflecting matter, usually situated in the cores of distant clusters. Analytic equations of the caustic curves are presented for a multi-point mass model, which roughly accounts for the observed arc properties. A more general lensing model is introduced, where the lensing objects (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies) are extended and follow the r{sup 1/4} law. Numerical simulations reproduce pixel by pixel all the gravitational images, including the arcs, found in the cores of the A 370 and CI2244-02 clusters. They are consistent with the use of the observations of luminous matter and X-ray emitting matter as a tracer of the total mass distribution.

  2. Automatic Supervision of Temperature, Humidity, and Luminance with an Assistant Personal Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart environments and Ambient Intelligence (AmI technologies are defining the future society where energy optimization and intelligent management are essential for a sustainable advance. Mobile robotics is also making an important contribution to this advance with the integration of sensors and intelligent processing algorithms. This paper presents the application of an Assistant Personal Robot (APR as an autonomous agent for temperature, humidity, and luminance supervision in human-frequented areas. The robot multiagent capabilities allow gathering sensor information while exploring or performing specific tasks and then verifying human comfortability levels. The proposed methodology creates information maps with the distribution of temperature, humidity, and luminance and interprets such information in terms of comfort and warns about corrective actuations if required.

  3. X-Ray Emission from Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies and Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, A. F.; Salim, S.; Heckman, T. P.; Overzier, R.; Mallery, R.; Rich, M.; Strickland, D.; Grimes, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an XMM mini-survey of GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) that appear to include an interesting subset that are analogs to the distant (3Break Galaxies (LBGs). The 2-10 kev X-ray emission of LBGs appear to be broadly similar to that of galaxies in the local Universe, possibly indicating similarity in the production of accreting binaries over large evolutionary timescales in the Universe. We have detected luminous X-ray emission from one UVLG that permits basic X-ray spectroscopic analysis, and have direct X-ray constraints on a total of 6 UVLGs. We find evidence for likely large scatter in the assumed X-ray/star-formation rate relation for LBGs.

  4. High luminance phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on Re(I) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Fujun; Che, Guangbo; Wang, Yang; Wang, Bo; Gao, Lin; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel Re(I) complex with the acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline (APPT) ligand Re(APPT)(CO)3Br (abbreviated as Re-APPT) was used to fabricate organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the device at different bias voltages, it could be found that the EL maxima shifted approximately 30 nm. For OLEDs with 5% Re-APPT doped emissive layer, turn-on voltage of 6 V, maximum luminance of 7631 cd/m2 and a current efficiency up to 2.36 cd/A were obtained. We suppose that a direct charge trapping took the dominant position in the EL process. Trapping contributed mostly to this relatively higher luminance.

  5. Luminal flow amplifies stent-based drug deposition in arterial bifurcations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya B Kolachalama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of arterial bifurcation lesions using drug-eluting stents (DES is now common clinical practice and yet the mechanisms governing drug distribution in these complex morphologies are incompletely understood. It is still not evident how to efficiently determine the efficacy of local drug delivery and quantify zones of excessive drug that are harbingers of vascular toxicity and thrombosis, and areas of depletion that are associated with tissue overgrowth and luminal re-narrowing.We constructed two-phase computational models of stent-deployed arterial bifurcations simulating blood flow and drug transport to investigate the factors modulating drug distribution when the main-branch (MB was treated using a DES. Simulations predicted extensive flow-mediated drug delivery in bifurcated vascular beds where the drug distribution patterns are heterogeneous and sensitive to relative stent position and luminal flow. A single DES in the MB coupled with large retrograde luminal flow on the lateral wall of the side-branch (SB can provide drug deposition on the SB lumen-wall interface, except when the MB stent is downstream of the SB flow divider. In an even more dramatic fashion, the presence of the SB affects drug distribution in the stented MB. Here fluid mechanic effects play an even greater role than in the SB especially when the DES is across and downstream to the flow divider and in a manner dependent upon the Reynolds number.The flow effects on drug deposition and subsequent uptake from endovascular DES are amplified in bifurcation lesions. When only one branch is stented, a complex interplay occurs - drug deposition in the stented MB is altered by the flow divider imposed by the SB and in the SB by the presence of a DES in the MB. The use of DES in arterial bifurcations requires a complex calculus that balances vascular and stent geometry as well as luminal flow.

  6. Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Gerson S; Ferreira, Joacy V; Bastos, Cristiano C; Dos Santos, Marcus V; Pavao, Antonio C [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2010-05-11

    The energy density of a luminous silicon ball [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 048501 (2007)] is calculated for a model with a metal core surrounded by an atmosphere of silicon oxides. Experimental data combined with the molecular orbital calculations of the oxidation enthalpy lead to a mean energy density of 3.9 MJ m{sup -3}, which is within the range of estimates from other ball lightning models. This result provides good evidence to support the silicon-based model. (methodological notes)

  7. Production of Ball-Lightning-Like Luminous Balls by Electrical Discharges in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim, Jr.; Felisberto da Silva, Eronides, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation.

  8. Intratumoral estrogen production and actions in luminal A type invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mayu; Miki, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Minoru; Hata, Shuko; Yoda, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Sagara, Yasuaki; Rai, Yoshiaki; Ohi, Yasuyo; Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Suzuki, Takashi; Ouchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-02-01

    The great majority of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is estrogen-dependent luminal A type carcinoma but the details of estrogen actions and its intratumoral metabolism have not been well studied compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We first immunolocalized estrogen-related enzymes including estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1/2, and aromatase. We then evaluated the tissue concentrations of estrogens in ILC and IDC and subsequently estrogen-responsive gene profiles in these tumors in order to explore the possible differences and/or similarity of intratumoral estrogen environment of these two breast cancer subtypes. The status of STS and 17βHSD1 was significantly lower in ILCs than IDCs (p = 0.022 and p < 0.0001), but that of EST and 17βHSD2 vice versa (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0106). In ILCs, tissue concentrations of estrone and estradiol were lower than those in IDCs (p = 0.0709 and 0.069). In addition, the great majority of estrogen response genes tended to be lower in ILCs. Among those genes above, FOXP1 was significantly higher in ILCs than in IDCs (p = 0.002). FOXP1 expression was reported to be significantly higher in relapse-free IDC patients treated with tamoxifen. Therefore, tamoxifen may be considered an option of endocrine therapy for luminal A type ILC patients. This is the first study to demonstrate the detailed and comprehensive status of intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens and the status of estrogen response genes in luminal A-like ILC with comparison to those in luminal A-like IDCs.

  9. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gerson S.; Ferreira, Joacy V.; Bastos, Cristiano C.; dos Santos, Marcus V.; Pavão, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    The energy density of a luminous silicon ball [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 048501 (2007)] is calculated for a model with a metal core surrounded by an atmosphere of silicon oxides. Experimental data combined with the molecular orbital calculations of the oxidation enthalpy lead to a mean energy density of 3.9 MJ m-3, which is within the range of estimates from other ball lightning models. This result provides good evidence to support the silicon-based model.

  10. Production of ball-lightning-like luminous balls by electrical discharges in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gerson Silva; Pavão, Antonio Carlos; Alpes de Vasconcelos, Elder; Mendes, Odim; da Silva, Eronides Felisberto

    2007-01-26

    We performed electric arc discharges in pure Si to generate luminous balls with lifetime in the order of seconds and several properties usually reported for natural ball lightning. This simple experiment does not rely on energy sources and excitation mechanisms that are improbable in the natural phenomenon and clearly demonstrates the role of vaporization and oxidation of Si, as proposed by the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory for ball-lightning formation.

  11. Spatial distribution of luminous X-ray binaries in spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zhao-yu; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Xi-wei

    2008-01-01

    We have modelled the spatial distribution of luminous X-ray binaries (XRBs) in spiral galaxies that are like the Milky Way using an evolutionary population synthesis code. In agreement with previous theoretical expectations and observations, we find that both high- and low-mass XRBs show clear concentrations towards the galactic plane and bulge.We also compare XRB distributions under the galactic potential with a dark matter halo and the modified Newtonian dynamics potential, and we suggest t...

  12. Circular dichroism of luminous energy, induced by the dissipation in light scattering by aligned atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.

    1996-01-01

    A compact expression for the cross section of light scattering by aligned atomic systems is derived. It is shown that in above-threshold or resonant scattering, when the channel of luminous energy dissipation is open, circular dichroism effects can be observed in the angular distribution and the degree of polarization of the scattered light. In such cases circular polarization of the scattered light is also induced when the incident light has no circular polarization

  13. Mapping the distribution of luminous and dark matter in strong lensing galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras, I.; Saha, P.; Williams, L. L. R.; Burles, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present the distribution of luminous and dark matter in a set of strong lensing (early-type) galaxies. By combining two independent techniques – stellar population synthesis and gravitational lensing – we can compare the baryonic and dark matter content in these galaxies within the regions that can be probed using the images of the lensed background source. Two samples were studied, extracted from the CASTLES and SLACS surveys. The former probes a wider range of redshifts and allows us to ...

  14. Human prostate luminal cell differentiation requires NOTCH3 induction by p38-MAPK and MYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sander B; Berger, Penny L; Ljungman, Mats; Miranti, Cindy K

    2017-06-01

    Many pathways dysregulated in prostate cancer are also involved in epithelial differentiation. To better understand prostate tumor initiation, we sought to investigate specific genes and mechanisms required for normal basal to luminal cell differentiation. Utilizing human prostate basal epithelial cells and an in vitro differentiation model, we tested the hypothesis that regulation of NOTCH3 by the p38 MAPK family (hereafter p38-MAPK), via MYC, is required for luminal differentiation. Inhibition (SB202190 and BIRB796) or knockdown of p38α (also known as MAPK14) and/or p38δ (also known as MAPK13) prevented proper differentiation. Additionally, treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor (RO4929097) or knockdown of NOTCH1 and/or NOTCH3 greatly impaired differentiation and caused luminal cell death. Constitutive p38-MAPK activation through MKK6(CA) increased NOTCH3 (but not NOTCH1) mRNA and protein levels, which was diminished upon MYC inhibition (10058-F4 and JQ1) or knockdown. Furthermore, we validated two NOTCH3 enhancer elements through a combination of enhancer (e)RNA detection (BruUV-seq) and luciferase reporter assays. Finally, we found that the NOTCH3 mRNA half-life increased during differentiation or upon acute p38-MAPK activation. These results reveal a new connection between p38-MAPK, MYC and NOTCH signaling, demonstrate two mechanisms of NOTCH3 regulation and provide evidence for NOTCH3 involvement in prostate luminal cell differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A recombinant fusion toxin based on enzymatic inactive C3bot1 selectively targets macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dmochewitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C3bot1 protein (~23 kDa from Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosylates and thereby inactivates Rho. C3bot1 is selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages but not of other cell types such as epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Most likely, the internalization occurs by a specific endocytotic pathway via acidified endosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested whether enzymatic inactive C3bot1E174Q serves as a macrophage-selective transport system for delivery of enzymatic active proteins into the cytosol of such cells. Having confirmed that C3bot1E174Q does not induce macrophage activation, we used the actin ADP-ribosylating C2I (∼50 kDa from Clostridium botulinum as a reporter enzyme for C3bot1E174Q-mediated delivery into macrophages. The recombinant C3bot1E174Q-C2I fusion toxin was cloned and expressed as GST-protein in Escherichia coli. Purified C3bot1E174Q-C2I was recognized by antibodies against C2I and C3bot and showed C2I-specific enzyme activity in vitro. When applied to cultured cells C3bot1E174Q-C2I ADP-ribosylated actin in the cytosol of macrophages including J774A.1 and RAW264.7 cell lines as well as primary cultured human macrophages but not of epithelial cells. Together with confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, the biochemical data indicate the selective uptake of a recombinant C3-fusion toxin into the cytosol of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrated that C3bot1E174Q can be used as a delivery system for fast, selective and specific transport of enzymes into the cytosol of living macrophages. Therefore, C3-based fusion toxins can represent valuable molecular tools in experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well as attractive candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches against macrophage-associated diseases.

  16. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. V. The Upper HR Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Hahn, David [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C. [Barber Observatory, University of Illinois, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    We present HR diagrams for the massive star populations in M31 and M33, including several different types of emission-line stars: the confirmed luminous blue variables (LBVs), candidate LBVs, B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. We estimate their apparent temperatures and luminosities for comparison with their respective massive star populations and evaluate the possible relationships of these different classes of evolved, massive stars, and their evolutionary state. Several of the LBV candidates lie near the LBV/S Dor instability strip that supports their classification. Most of the B[e] supergiants, however, are less luminous than the LBVs. Many are very dusty with the infrared flux contributing one-third or more to their total flux. They are also relatively isolated from other luminous OB stars. Overall, their spatial distribution suggests a more evolved state. Some may be post-RSGs (red supergiants) like the warm hypergiants, and there may be more than one path to becoming a B[e] star. There are sufficient differences in the spectra, luminosities, spatial distribution, and the presence or lack of dust between the LBVs and B[e] supergiants to conclude that one group does not evolve into the other.

  17. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-03-22

    We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

  18. Clustering Batik Images using Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm Based on Log-Average Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Batik is a fabric or clothes that are made ​​with a special staining technique called wax-resist dyeing and is one of the cultural heritage which has high artistic value. In order to improve the efficiency and give better semantic to the image, some researchers apply clustering algorithm for managing images before they can be retrieved. Image clustering is a process of grouping images based on their similarity. In this paper we attempt to provide an alternative method of grouping batik image using fuzzy c-means (FCM algorithm based on log-average luminance of the batik. FCM clustering algorithm is an algorithm that works using fuzzy models that allow all data from all cluster members are formed with different degrees of membership between 0 and 1. Log-average luminance (LAL is the average value of the lighting in an image. We can compare different image lighting from one image to another using LAL. From the experiments that have been made, it can be concluded that fuzzy c-means algorithm can be used for batik image clustering based on log-average luminance of each image possessed.

  19. Carbon dioxide mediates duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion in response to luminal acidity in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, M; Johansson, B; Pettersson, A; Fändriks, L

    1998-09-01

    Acid exposure of the duodenum elicits various functional responses, e.g., an increased mucosal alkaline secretion. Despite low pH in luminal contents, the mucosal secretion of bicarbonate-rich fluid results in pH neutrality at the surface epithelium. It follows that it is probably not luminal pH that triggers the secretory response. The present study was undertaken to investigate if CO2 could serve as an intermediate messenger between luminal acid and the mucosal secretory response. Experiments were performed on chloralose-anesthetized rats. The duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion was measured by in situ pH-stat titration. Exposure of the duodenal mucosa to CO2, administered either as a pregassed solution (pH 4, PCO2 700 mm Hg) or as an acidified bicarbonate solution (pH 6.4, PCO2 240 mm Hg), raised the alkaline output by approximately 65%. This response was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (0.3 mmol/L intraluminally) but not by indomethacin (5 mg/kg intravenously). Exposure of the duodenal mucosa to solutions with high concentrations of CO2 increases the mucosal alkaline secretion despite an almost neutral pH. Data indicate that the L-arginine/NO pathway is involved in the mediation of this response.

  20. Body size but not warning signal luminance influences predation risk in recently metamorphosed poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Eric E; Stevens, Martin; Moore, Allen J; Rowland, Hannah M; Blount, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    During early development, many aposematic species have bright and conspicuous warning appearance, but have yet to acquire chemical defenses, a phenotypic state which presumably makes them vulnerable to predation. Body size and signal luminance in particular are known to be sensitive to variation in early nutrition. However, the relative importance of these traits as determinants of predation risk in juveniles is not known. To address this question, we utilized computer-assisted design (CAD) and information on putative predator visual sensitivities to produce artificial models of postmetamorphic froglets that varied in terms of body size and signal luminance. We then deployed the artificial models in the field and measured rates of attack by birds and unknown predators. Our results indicate that body size was a significant predictor of artificial prey survival. Rates of attack by bird predators were significantly higher on smaller models. However, predation by birds did not differ between artificial models of varying signal luminance. This suggests that at the completion of metamorphosis, smaller froglets may be at a selective disadvantage, potentially because predators can discern they have relatively low levels of chemical defense compared to larger froglets. There is likely to be a premium on efficient foraging, giving rise to rapid growth and the acquisition of toxins from dietary sources in juvenile poison frogs.

  1. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  2. BRIP1 overexpression is correlated with clinical features and survival outcome of luminal breast cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Oman, breast cancer is most common, representing approximately more than 25% of all cancers in women. Relatively younger populations of patients (25–40 years present surprisingly with an aggressive phenotype and advanced tumor stages. In this study, we investigated differential gene expressions in Luminal A, Luminal B, triple-negative and Her2+ breast cancer subtypes and compared data to benign tumor samples. We identified a potential candidate gene BRIP1, showing differential expression in the four breast cancer subtypes examined, suggesting that BRIP1 has the profile of a useful diagnostic marker, suitable for targeted therapeutic intervention. RT-qPCR and Western blotting analysis showed higher BRIP1 expression in luminal samples as compared to triple-negative subtype patient’s samples. We further screened BRIP1 for eventual mutations/SNPs/deletions by sequencing the entire coding region. Four previously identified polymorphisms were detected, one within the 5′-UTR region (c.141-64G > A and three in the BRCA-binding domain (c.2755T > C, c.2647G > A and c.3411T > C. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that patients with overexpression of BRIP1 displayed a poor survival rate (P < 0.05. BRIP1 has a dual function of an oncogene and a tumor suppressor gene in addition to its role as a potential biomarker to predict survival and prognosis. Data obtained in this study suggest that BRIP1 can plausibly have an oncogenic role in sporadic cancers.

  3. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey in the SDSS Footprint. I. Infrared-based Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Linhua; Green, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. However, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide-area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the quasar luminosity function at z> 3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of z≳ 3 quasars at the brightest end. We identified the purely optical-color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore, we designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright ({m}{{i}}footprint to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.0≤slant z≤slant 5.0. In this paper, we present the quasar selection algorithm and the quasar candidate catalog.

  4. Motion coherence detection as a function of luminance level in human central vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankheet, M J; van Doorn, A J; Bouman, M A; van de Grind, W A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the changes and invariances of foveal motion detection upon dark adaptation. It is well-documented that dark adaptation affects both spatial and temporal aspects of visual processing. The question we were interested in is how this alters motion coherence detection for moving random texture. To compare motion sensitivity at different adaptation levels, we adjusted the viewing distance for equal detectability of a stationary pattern. At these viewing distances we then measured velocity tuning curves for moving random pixel arrays (RPAs). Mean luminance levels ranged from 50 down to 0.005 cd m-2. Our main conclusion is that foveal velocity tuning is amazingly close to luminance-invariant, down to a level of 0.05 cd m-2. Because different viewing distances, and hence, retinal image sizes were used, we performed two control experiments to assess variations of these two parameters separately. We examined the effects of retinal inhomogeneities using discs of different size and annuli filled with RPAs. Our conclusion is that the central visual field, including the near periphery is still rather homogeneous for motion detection at 0.05 cd m-2, but the fovea becomes unresponsive at the lowest luminance level. Variations in viewing distance had marked effects on velocity tuning, both at the light adapted level and the 0.05 cd m-2 level. The size and type of these changes indicated the effectiveness of distance scaling, and show that deviations from perfect invariance of motion coherence detection were not due to inaccurate distance scaling.

  5. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. V. The Upper HR Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Hahn, David; Martin, John C.; Weis, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    We present HR diagrams for the massive star populations in M31 and M33, including several different types of emission-line stars: the confirmed luminous blue variables (LBVs), candidate LBVs, B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. We estimate their apparent temperatures and luminosities for comparison with their respective massive star populations and evaluate the possible relationships of these different classes of evolved, massive stars, and their evolutionary state. Several of the LBV candidates lie near the LBV/S Dor instability strip that supports their classification. Most of the B[e] supergiants, however, are less luminous than the LBVs. Many are very dusty with the infrared flux contributing one-third or more to their total flux. They are also relatively isolated from other luminous OB stars. Overall, their spatial distribution suggests a more evolved state. Some may be post-RSGs (red supergiants) like the warm hypergiants, and there may be more than one path to becoming a B[e] star. There are sufficient differences in the spectra, luminosities, spatial distribution, and the presence or lack of dust between the LBVs and B[e] supergiants to conclude that one group does not evolve into the other.

  6. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Norihisa; Chou, Yu-Chien; Galvez, Jose J; Candia, Paola de; Cardiff, Robert D; Benezra, Robert; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2003-01-01

    The family of inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id) proteins is known to regulate development in several tissues. One member of this gene family, Id-1, has been implicated in mammary development and carcinogenesis. Mammary glands contain various cell types, among which the luminal epithelial cells are primarily targeted for proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. Therefore, to assess the precise significance of Id-1 in mammary biology and carcinogenesis, we examined its cellular localization in vivo using immunohistochemistry. Extracts of whole mammary glands from wild type and Id-1 null mutant mice, and tissue sections from paraffin-embedded mouse mammary glands from various developmental stages and normal human breast were subjected to immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. In both these procedures, an anti-Id-1 rabbit polyclonal antibody was used for detection of Id-1. In immunoblot analyses, using whole mammary gland extracts, Id-1 was detected. In immunohistochemical analyses, however, Id-1 was not detected in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands during any stage of development, but it was detected in vascular endothelial cells. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

  7. Luminance change generates apparent movement: implications for models of directional specificity in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, G

    1984-01-01

    Two alternative schemes have been proposed for coding the local direction of stimulus motion in the visual image. The "sequence discrimination" scheme (e.g. Barlow H.B. and Levick W. R., J. Physiol., Lond. 178, 477-504, 1965) uses sequential change in stimulus position over time to infer movement direction; the "spatiotemporal derivative" scheme (Marr D.M. and Ullman S., Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B211, 151-180, 1981) uses change in stimulus luminance over space and time at just one position to infer movement direction. To test these models, subjects were shown stimuli which contained combinations of stationary vertical edges and changing luminances over time. They consistently reported either leftward or rightward motion, even though no sequential change in edge location took place. Perceived directions agreed with the predictions of the spatiotemporal derivative scheme. Alternative explanations for the results based on changes in apparent edge location could not account for the data. Previous reports of apparent motion during changes in stimulus luminance are also consistent with the scheme.

  8. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  9. A simple immunohistochemical panel comprising 2 conventional markers, Ki67 and p53, is a powerful tool for predicting patient outcome in luminal-type breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ki67 is widely used in order to distinguish the “A” and “B” subtypes of luminal-type breast cancer. This study aimed to validate the prognostic value of adding p53 to Ki67 for characterizing luminal-type breast cancer. Methods Immunostaining for Ki67, p53, and the molecular markers HER2, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, FOXA1, GATA3, and P-cadherin was examined hormone receptor (HR)-positive cancer tissues from 150 patients. The prognostic value of an immunohistochemical panel comprising Ki67 and p53 was compared with that of the single Ki67 labeling index (LI), and uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Division of the patients based on the immunohistochemistry results into favorable- (low Ki67 LI, p53-negative) and unfavorable- (high Ki67 LI and/or p53-positive) phenotype groups yielded distinctly different Kaplan-Meier's curves of both disease-free (PKi67 LI vs. high Ki67LI curves. While the prognostic values of the other molecular markers were not significant, combined Ki67-p53 status was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Conclusion These data indicate that an immunohistochemical panel comprising Ki67 and p53 is a practical tool for management of patients with HR-positive breast cancer. PMID:23384409

  10. [Crohn's disease surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Marek, Filip; Válek, Vlastimil A; Bartušek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of Crohns disease is an important part of the general treatment algorithm. The role of surgery is changing with the development of conservative procedures. The recent years have seen the return to early treatment of patients with Crohns disease. Given the character of the disease and its intestinal symptoms, a specific approach to these patients is necessary, especially regarding the correct choice of surgery. The paper focuses on the luminal damage of the small and large intestine including complications of the disease. We describe the individual indications for a surgical solution, including the choice of anastomosis or multiple / repeated surgeries.

  11. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eKimura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively. This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancellation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition, the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition, the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L–M and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  12. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eiji; Kuroki, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively). This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancelation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance) was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition), the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition), the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L-M) and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  13. Perseveration in congenitally blind children: effects of luminous and acoustic targets on a modified A-not-B task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Diz, Maria Caroline; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Romani, Maria Fernanda

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not blind children perseverate during a modified Piagetian A-not-B reaching task, with conditions that employ luminous AB targets and acoustic AB targets. Ten congenitally blind children, ages 1-4 years, with residual vision for light, took part in this study. Behavioral and kinematic data were computed for participants' reaches, performed in six A trials and in two B trials, in both stimulus conditions. All of the children perseverated in the luminous condition, and none of them perseverated in the condition using acoustic targets. The children tilted their heads in the direction of the target as they reached towards it. However, this coupling action (head-reaching) occurred predominantly in the A trials in the acoustic condition. In the luminous condition, in contrast to the acoustic condition, the children took longer times to initiate the reaching movement. Also, in the luminous condition, the children explored the target surroundings, unlike the acoustic condition, in which they reached straight ahead. For these blind children, sound was more relevant to reaching than was the luminous stimulus. The luminous input caused perseveration in congenitally blind children in a similar way that has been reported in the literature for typically-developing, sighted infants, ages 8-12 months, performing A-not-B tasks with visual inputs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  15. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  16. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  17. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities

  19. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  20. The acute effects of strength training on inflammatory markers predicting atherosclerosis: a study on inactive middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizheh N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, are the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease has had an increasing prevalence in Iran in recent years. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP are two novel cardiovascular risk factors that independently predict risks of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one session of circuit resistance training on the blood levels of the aforesaid inflammatory markers in inactive middle-aged men."n"nMethods: The participants of this study included twenty-three healthy but inactive middle-aged men who were overweight and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=14 and control (n=9 groups. The activity included doing exercises with the subjects' 35% one-repetition maximum (1-RM intensity at ten different stations. Blood levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP were measured before and after the exercise."n"nResults: Analysis of data using independent samples t-test showed a significant increment in the serum levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP after training in the experimental (P<0.05 versus the control group."n"nConclusion: Elevation of homocysteine levels is due to the increase in protein metabolism