WorldWideScience

Sample records for inactive lead-acid battery

  1. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  2. Lead/acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; Peters, K.; Prengaman, R. D.; Valeriote, E. M.

    Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences, the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: grain structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; cast-on-strap; terminal-post attack; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead-cadmium alloys. Leady oxide: α-PbO:β-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve-regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive.

  3. Lead acid batteries simulation including experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achaibou, N.; Malek, A. [Division Energie Solaire Photovoltaique, Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-12-01

    The storage of energy in batteries is a cause of the failure and loss of reliability in PV systems. The battery behavior has been largely described in the literature by many authors; the selected models are of Monegon and CIEMAT. This paper reviews the two general lead acid battery models and their agreement with experimental data. In order to validate these models, the behavior of different battery cycling currents has been simulated. Results obtained have been compared to real data. The CIEMAT model presents a good performance compared to Monegon's model. (author)

  4. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-01-01

    been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries...

  5. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  6. Failure modes of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, B.; Rand, D. A. J.

    The delivery and storage of electrical energy in lead/acid batteries via the conversion of lead dioxide and lead to, and from, lead sulphate is deceptively simple. In fact, battery performance depends upon the cell design, the materials of construction, a complex interplay between the multitudinous parameters involved in plate preparation, the chemical composition/structure of the active materials, and the duty/conditions of battery operation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the factors responsible for the degradation of battery performance, and eventual failure, are many and varied. Apart from occasional field surveys of automotive batteries in the U.S.A., comprehensive failure analyses of units removed from service are rarely published. In general, the information is kept proprietary, or appears as a post mortem report that is subsidiary to some other topic of interest. By contrast, the literature abounds with detailed laboratory investigations of phenomena that are likely to contribute, wholly or in part, to the demise of batteries. In broad terms, this review draws together the fragmented and scattered data presently available on the failure mechanisms of lead/acid batteries in order to provide a platform for further exploration of the phenomena, and for the planning of remedial strategies. The approach taken is to classify, first, the different lead/acid technologies in terms of required duty (i.e., float, cycling and automotive applications), unit design (i.e., flat or tubular plate, flooded or immobilized electrolyte), and grid alloy (i.e., leadantimony or leadcalcium system). A distinction is then made between catastrophic failure, as characterized by a sudden inability of the battery to function, and progressive failure, as demonstrated by some more subtle deviation from optimum performance. Catastrophic failure is attributed to incorrect cell design, poor manufacturing practice, abuse, or misuse. These problems are obvious and, accordingly

  7. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    leads to leakage current resulting in increased self-discharge and ground-shunt hazard. To overcome these problems, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) or sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries based on a oxygen-recombination cycle have emerged. SLA batteries offer the freedom of battery placement, cyclability without the ...

  8. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  9. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  10. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A reliable diagnostics of lead-acid batteries would become mandatory with the induction of an improved power net and the increase of electrically assisted features in future automobiles. Sparse-impedance spectroscopic technique described in this paper estimates the internal resistance of sealed automotive lead-acid ...

  11. Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgiallo, E. J., Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon controlled rectifier and and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, life and microstructure were uncertain in the past. Such high current pulses may have a significant effect on diffusion and reaction rates, conductivity/resistance ratios and crystal morphology of processses occuring within the battery. It is important to learn what processes become rate controlling under such conditions and to determine what may be done through design or regulation to increase the battery efficiency and life under such service. Equipment to measure watt hours with programmable discharge load banks capable of simulating high current pulsed waveforms is described.

  12. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rechargeable battery market and, in terms of value, the present world market for lead-acid batteries is about US$ 10 billion per annum.1 The on-going electrification of automobiles makes a reliable diagnostic necessary for the vehicle's energy storage units. Since sealed. ¶Dedicated to Professor C N R Rao on his 70th ...

  13. Ocular trauma from lead-acid vehicle battery explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, S

    1982-02-01

    Ocular trauma caused by lead-acid car battery explosions has been seen in a number of cases presenting to the major teaching hospitals in Adelaide. Injuries range from superficial acid burns to penetrating eye injury and retinal haemorrhage. The cause of the explosions has been ignition of the hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture generated by lead-acid batteries. The risk of explosion is known to battery manufacturing and distributing bodies and methods of avoiding explosions are well known to the industry. It is suggested that efforts should be made to design safe car batteries, and that there is an urgent need to educate the public to the risks involved with the present batteries.

  14. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sparse-impedance spectroscopic technique described in this paper estimates the internal resistance of sealed automotive lead-acid batteries in the frequency range 10 Hz-10 kHz, usually produced by the alternators fitted in ... Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  15. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  16. Oxide for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O. V.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.; Rice, D. M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide has been manufactured (Barton-pot method) from this soft lead and is characterized in terms of phase composition, particle size distribution, BET surface area, and reactivity. An investigation is also made of the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from the Bi-bearing oxide. For comparison, the characteristics and performance of a Bi-free (Barton-pot) oxide, which is manufactured in the USA, are also examined. Increasing the level of bismuth and lowering those of the other impurities in soft lead produces no unusual changes in either the physical or the chemical properties of the resulting Bi-bearing oxide compared with Bi-free oxide. This is very important because there is no need for battery manufacturers to change their paste formulae and paste-mixing procedures on switching to the new Bi-bearing oxide. There is little difference in the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from Bi-bearing or Bi-free oxides. On the other hand, these rates increase on the former electrodes when the levels of all the other impurities are made to exceed (by deliberately adding the impurities as oxide powders) the corresponding, specified values for the Bi-bearing oxide. The latter behaviour is particularly noticeable for hydrogen evolution, which is enhanced even further when a negative electrode prepared from Bi-bearing oxide is contaminated through the deposition of impurities added to the sulfuric acid solution. The effects of impurities in the positive

  17. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  18. Application of diffraction techniques in studies of lead/acid battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a resume of the most significant contributions to lead/acid battery research made by X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. In addition, those areas of research are defined which show the most promise in achieving improvements in the performance of the lead/acid battery. (Auth.)

  19. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  20. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  2. The impact of the new 36 V lead-acid battery systems on lead consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    The production of vehicles utilizing 36 V battery systems has begun with the introduction of the Toyota Crown. Other vehicles with 36 V batteries are in the near horizon. These vehicles may contain single or dual battery systems. These vehicles will most likely contain valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The battery systems developed to date utilize significantly more lead than conventional 12 V batteries. This paper will evaluate the different proposed 36 V battery systems and estimate the lead requirements for each of the competing systems. It will also project the penetration of and resultant increased lead usage of these new batteries into the future.

  3. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  4. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, Schuyler; Williams, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R 2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R 2 , 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  5. A Comparative Study of Lithium Ion to Lead Acid Batteries for use in UPS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    batteries, which are currently used in UPS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze how Li-ion batteries can become a useful alternative to present VRLA. In this study, three different electrochemical battery technologies were investigated; two of the most appealing Li-ion chemistries...... ion batteries are getting more and more attention for their use in the back-up power systems and UPSs, because of their superior characteristics, which include increased safety and higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. This fact allows them to be smaller in size and weight less than VRLA......Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems have incorporated in their structure an electrochemical battery which allows for smooth power supply when a power failure occurs. In general, UPS systems are based on lead acid batteries; mainly a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. Recently, lithium...

  6. Cost and design study for electric vehicle lead--acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A design and cost study for electric-vehicle lead--acid batteries is presented; a research and development program leading to demonstration and testing of 20- to 30-kWh batteries is proposed. Both flat pasted and tubular positive electrodes are included. Detailed testing programs are set forth. 110 figures, 8 tables (RWR)

  7. Study of the discharge characteristics of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, P.; Jedlovszky, P.; Benedek, M.

    1982-07-01

    A theoretical analysis of the electrolyte concentration distribution and current distribution in the porous lead dioxide electrode has been made by application of Fick's second law which was combined with approximate mass balances. The macrohomogeneous model for porous electrodes was used. The parameters in the models were determined experimentally for the lead dioxide battery plates and the special experimental cylindrical electrodes investigated. Numerical solutions for special cases are discussed. Theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental determinations. According to laser interferometry analysis the assumption of convectionless diffusion is, in practice, a good approximation in most cases. Theoretical studies of the local overpotential show that the utilizable capacity is determined by the decreasing ionic concentration of the electrolyte because the electrode reaction takes place mainly in the outer layers of the electrode, if the discharge current has a high value, e.g. full discharge times is less than 10 min.

  8. Recycling the plastic components in today's lead/acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feraudy, H.

    With production facilities first established in 1988 at Villefranche in the Rhone valley, the author's company aims to produce 40 tonnes of polypropylene granules from 50 000 scrap battery cases every day. Following a doubling of capacity in 1991, the company now has an annual sales turnover of 40 million FFand an output of 10 000 tonnes which makes the operation one of the largest in Europe for the production of recycled polypropylene. The technology developed and used by the Company enables the process to separate, reclaim and produce high-quality constituent materials that are suitable for use by the automotive industry at a price competitive with virgin materials. The new line, installed in 1991, has enabled the Company to add glass-fibre, rubber and other materials into the recycled product to prepare special types of high-quality material with added value. The overall process is carefully controlled and should soon be certified to ISO standard 9002.

  9. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  10. Failure mechanisms of lead/acid automotive batteries in service in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John H.; Boden, David P.

    Discarded lead/acid batteries were selected at random without regard to brand or condition and these were inspected and tested to determine the causes of failure. Samples were limited to 12-V automotive passenger-car batteries. Their age was determined from the manufacturing code and shipping date. In addition to the cause of failure, information on battery components and construction was also noted. Data are presented showing the principal modes of failure, the effect of geographical location, and the influence of grid alloy on life. In particular, the differences observed between those batteries utilizing calcium alloy for the positive grids and those using antimony alloy are discussed.

  11. Numerical algorithm for optimization of positive electrode in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murariu, Ancuta Teodora; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Morari, Cristian

    2017-12-01

    The positive electrode in lead-acid batteries is one of the most sensitive parts of the whole battery, since it is affected by various aggresive chemical processes during its life. Therefore, an optimal design of the positive electrode of the battery may have as efect a dramatic improvement of the properties of the battery - such as total capacity or endurance during its life. Our efforts dedicated to this goal cover a range of rather complex tasks, from the design based on numerical analysis to statistic analysis. We present the structure of the software implementation and the results obtained for three types of positive electrodes.

  12. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  13. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  14. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    grid is reduced, in comparison with conventional grid made entirely of lead/lead alloys, by using low-density ... from inadequacies similar to those described earlier. Recently, Kurisawa et al6 have attempted to use the ... to produce tin oxide-coated plastic grids for lead-acid batteries. Ironically, however, positive plates consti-.

  15. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  16. Contemporary Trends in Research and Development of Lead-Acid Batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2004), s. 932-933 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lead-acid batteries * electrical system * trends Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2004

  17. The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Xavier; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a teaching program that shows how electrochemical principles can be conveyed by means of hands-on experiences of student-centered teaching experiments. Employs the readily available lead-acid cell and the simple aluminum-air cell. Discusses the batteries, equilibrium cell potential, performance comparison, current, electrode separation,…

  18. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  19. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lightweight grids for lead-acid battery grids have been prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer followed by coating with lead. Subsequently, the grids have been electrochemically coated with a conductive and corrosion-resistant layer of polyaniline. These grids are about 75% lighter than those ...

  20. ANN modeling of water consumption in the lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Karami, Hassan; Mahdipour, Maryam

    Due to importance of the quantity of water loss in the life cycle of lead-acid batteries, water consumption tests were performed on 72 lead-acid batteries with low antimony grid alloy at different charge voltages and temperatures. Weight loss of batteries was measured during a period of 10 days. The behavior of batteries in different charge voltages and temperatures were modeled by artificial neural networks (ANNs) using MATLAB 7 media. Four temperatures were used in the training set, out of which three were used in prediction set and one in validation set. The network was trained by training and prediction data sets, and then was used for predicting water consumption in all three temperatures of prediction set. Finally, the network obtained was verified while being used in predicting water loss in defined temperatures of validation set. To achieve a better evaluation of the model ability, three models with different validation temperatures were used (model 1 = 50 °C, model 2 = 60 °C and model 3 = 70 °C). There was a good agreement between predicted and experimental results at prediction and validation sets for all the models. Mean prediction errors in modeling charge voltage-temperature-time behavior in the water consumption quantity for models 1-3 were below 0.99%, 0.03%, and 0.76%, respectively. The model can be simply used by inexpert operators working in lead-acid battery industry.

  1. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  2. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  3. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  4. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adventini, N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D. D.; Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Rixson, L.

    2017-06-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in Cf index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia.

  5. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.X. [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 2 Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2007-02-15

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs. (author)

  6. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, K.W.; Fletcher, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  7. Maintenance-free 100 ampere-hour, lead acid battery for deep discharge, photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, C.

    1982-06-01

    A new 6-volt 100 AH totally mantenance-free lead-acid battery was developed for deep discharge photovoltaic applications. During this 14-month contract, notable accomplishments are described. Improvement was made in cycle life of 100 AH batteries with horizntal plae orientation. This improvement corroborates prior art work on the horizontal configuraton as applies to cycle life. Eagle-Picher had instituted this work earlier on the 15 AH size CAREFREE battery. The reason for the enhanced performance horizontally is more consistent quantity of electrolyte available along the plate surface. This eliminate preferential electrochemical reaction at any part of the plate surface. Also the horizontal orientation eliminates stratification of electrolyte specific gravity which can occur on vertical oriented batteries. A substantial improvement in cycle life using the partial-state-of-charge cycling routine as conceived by Sandia was demonstrated.

  8. Eco-Balance analysis of the disused lead-acid-batteries recycling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the eco-balance analysis of the disused lead-acid batteries recycling process. Test-dedicated technology offers the possibility to recover other elements, for example, polypropylene of the battery case or to obtain crystalline sodium sulphate. The life cycle assessment was made using ReCiPe and IMPACT2002 + methods. The results are shown as environmental points [Pt]. The results are shown in the environmental categories, specific for each of the methods grouped in the impact categories. 1 Mg of the processed srap was a dopted as the functional unit. The results of the analyses indicate that recycling processes may provide the environmental impact of recycling technology less harmful. Repeated use of lead causes that its original sources are not explored. Similarly, the use of granule production-dedicated polypropylene extracted from battery casings that are used in the plastics industry, has environmental benefits. Due to the widespread use of lead-acid batteries, the attention should be paid to their proper utilization, especially in terms of heavy metals, especially lead. According to the calculations, the highest level of environmental benefits from the use of lead from secondary sources in the production of new products, was observed in the refining process.

  9. Eco-Balance analysis of the disused lead-acid-batteries recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Ewa; Kamiński, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of the eco-balance analysis of the disused lead-acid batteries recycling process. Test-dedicated technology offers the possibility to recover other elements, for example, polypropylene of the battery case or to obtain crystalline sodium sulphate. The life cycle assessment was made using ReCiPe and IMPACT2002 + methods. The results are shown as environmental points [Pt]. The results are shown in the environmental categories, specific for each of the methods grouped in the impact categories. 1 Mg of the processed srap was a dopted as the functional unit. The results of the analyses indicate that recycling processes may provide the environmental impact of recycling technology less harmful. Repeated use of lead causes that its original sources are not explored. Similarly, the use of granule production-dedicated polypropylene extracted from battery casings that are used in the plastics industry, has environmental benefits. Due to the widespread use of lead-acid batteries, the attention should be paid to their proper utilization, especially in terms of heavy metals, especially lead. According to the calculations, the highest level of environmental benefits from the use of lead from secondary sources in the production of new products, was observed in the refining process.

  10. SUNRAYCE 1993: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have 'hands-on' contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  11. Lead-acid batteries with polymer-structured electrodes for electric-vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Fullea, J.; Sáez, F.; Trinidad, F.

    Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established to work together in the development of lighter lead-acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to substitute the heavy lead alloy grids (mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge and discharge reactions) by lightweight metallised polymeric network structures (PNS) with reduced mesh dimensions in comparison to conventional grids. The network was then coated with conductive materials and corrosion resistant layers to conduct the current flow. In this paper, the electrode characteristics and the design features of the batteries prepared in the project will be described and their electrical performance presented.

  12. SUNRAYCE 93: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-11-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring SUNRAYCE 93 to advance tile technology and use of photovoltaics and electric vehicles. Participants will use cars powered by photovoltaic modules and lead-acid storage batteries. This brochure, prepared for students and faculty participating in this race, outlines the health hazards presented by these electrical systems, and gives guidance on strategies for their safe usage. At the outset, it should be noted that working with photovoltaic systems and batteries requires electric vehicle drivers and technicians to have {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} contact with the car on a daily basis. It is important that no one work near a photovoltaic energy system or battery, either in a vehicle or on the bench, unless they familiarize themselves with the components in use, and know and observe safe work practices including the safety precautions described in the manuals provided by the various equipment vendors and this document.

  13. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  14. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  15. Increase of positive active material utilization in lead-acid batteries using diatomaceous earth additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Simon D.; Ponraj, Rubha; Cheng, I. Francis; Edwards, Dean B.

    In this study we examined the use of diatomites to improve the discharge capacity and utilization of the positive electrode of the lead-acid battery. A large fraction of the positive electrode performance of this battery system (half-reaction shown below) is based on the ionic conduction of sulfuric acid through the plate. PbO2(s) + HSO 4 - + 3H + + 2e - → PbSO 4(s) + 2H 2O. The porous diatomites improve the ionic conduction by providing channels in addition to the natural ones formed within the paste. The choice of diatomite is based on its stability in the oxidative and corrosive environment of the lead-acid battery, as well as its naturally high porosity. The diatomite particles were size sorted into 20-30 μm, 30-53 μm, 53-74 μm, and 74-90 μm fractions, and the discharge performances of each were measured at 1%, 3%, and 5% weight ratios. The best performance was observed with 53-74 μm particles with an optimum weight ratio of 3%. At this size fraction and weight ratio, diatomites show a 12.7% increase in active material utilization and a 9.3% increase in specific capacity at high rate discharge (50 mA cm -2) relative to control samples without diatomites.

  16. Performance characteristics of lead oxides in pasted lead/acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Saba, A.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Shenouda, A.Y. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The performance characteristics of lead oxides used for the pasted type of lead/acid battery plate have been investigated. The [alpha]- and [beta]-PbO polymorphs have been prepared carefully and used for pasting model electrodes. The factors that may affect the electrical capacity of such electrodes have been studied. These are: the type of oxide; percentage of free lead; additives such as carboxymethyl cellulose, zeolite and graphite. Lead hydroxide has also been studied with special attention. Photomicrographs have been taken to examine the crystal forms that develop on the electrode surface. Finally, some industrial samples have been investigated. (orig.)

  17. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  18. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  19. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product (ρη) of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for ρη measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency. PMID:23112618

  20. Spent lead-acid battery recycling in China - A review and sustainable analyses on mass flow of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Xihua; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Wenwen; Cao, Guoqing; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Lead is classified to be one of the top heavy metal pollutants in China. The corresponding environmental issues especially during the management of spent lead-acid battery have already caused significant public awareness and concern. This research gives a brief overview on the recycling situation based on an investigation of the lead industry in China and also the development of technologies for spent lead-acid batteries. The main principles and research focuses of different technologies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and greener technologies are summarized and compared. Subsequently, the circulability of lead based on the entire life cycle analyses of lead-acid battery is calculated. By considering different recycling schemes, the recycling situation of spent lead-acid battery in China can be understood semi-quantitatively. According to this research, 30% of the primary lead production can be shut down that the lead production can still ensure consecutive life cycle operation of lead-acid battery, if proper management of the spent lead-acid battery is implemented according to current lead industry situation in China. This research provides a methodology on the view of lead circulability in the whole life cycle of a specific product and is aiming to contribute more quantitative guidelines for efficient organization of lead industry in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide describes methods that the NRC staff considers acceptable for... replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  2. Research on the fiber reflecting sensor for detecting the residual capacity of the lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Nianbing; Chen, Yan; Luo, Yuwei

    2006-11-01

    According to the Lambert-Bee law, we can see that the photic absorption coefficient is related to the matter's concentration, the distance of the light through the absorption medium and the transmitted light intensity. The paper just according to the physical phenomena and the theory make the reflex energy relate to the concentration testing of the electrolyte, at the same time the electrolyte's concentration is related to the capacity of lead-acid battery on a corresponding function relation, so we can know the capacity state of the lead-acid battery according to the measurement on the electrolyte's concentration. According to the experiment and research the author deeply discussed how the temperature change affects the capacity of lead-acid battery and the concentration's changing relation, according to the analyses of the thermo-optic effect, we made a new reflecting fiber sensor based on the comparative temperature testing theory and absorption which can eliminate the temperature effect on the tested signal namely the output signal just related to the concentration, so really reflects the change of the capacity of the lead-acid battery when it is in the charge and discharge process. The results of the experiment and theory analyses show that this method is easy to realize the online testing of the capacity of lead-acid battery. This sensor has many merits such as precise measurement, sensitive reaction, long-life use etc. It can be widely used in the electric capacity testing of the automobile lead-acid battery, the electric capacity testing of the industry lead-acid battery, liquor's concentration testing and salinity testing of the sea and have a bright future.

  3. An Influence Study of Hydrogen Evolution Characteristics on the Negative Strap Corrosion of Lead Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative strap corrosion is an important reason for the failure of valve regulated lead acid battery. This paper selected the Pb-Sb alloy material and Pb-Sn alloy material, made an investigation on the negative corrosion resistance and hydrogen evolution of these two alloy materials by scanning electron microscope analysis, metallographic analysis, chemical study and linear sweep voltammetry, and discussed the influence of lead alloy hydrogen evolution on the negative strap corrosion. The results showed that the hydrogen evolution reaction rates of the alloys had an impact on the corrosion areas with the maximum thickness of the alloys and the depth of corrosion layers. Greater hydrogen evolution reaction rate can lead to shorter distance between the corrosion area with the maximum thickness and the liquid level; whereas the greater corrosion layer thickness can bring aggravated risk of negative strap corrosion failure.

  4. New lead acid batteries for heavy duty trucks - more robust and maintenance free; Neue, robustere und wartungsfreie Bleibatterien fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Michael; Sarrau, Jean-Francois [Exide Technologies SAS, Gennevilliers (France)

    2011-08-15

    Today's truck industry is moving inevitably towards cleaner emission standards and limits. That way new requirements followed. For example: High vibration resistent batteries. The reason is, that the Adblue tank is now integrated in the former space of the starter battery, which has to be positioned in rough environment at the back of a truck. Therefore Exide developed special lead acid batteries with a high vibration standard. (orig.)

  5. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vukić, Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process migh...

  6. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  7. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte.

  8. Photovoltaic High-Frequency Pulse Charger for Lead-Acid Battery under Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic pulse charger (PV-PC using high-frequency pulse train for charging lead-acid battery (LAB is proposed not only to explore the charging behavior with maximum power point tracking (MPPT but also to delay sulfating crystallization on the electrode pores of the LAB to prolong the battery life, which is achieved due to a brief pulse break between adjacent pulses that refreshes the discharging of LAB. Maximum energy transfer between the PV module and a boost current converter (BCC is modeled to maximize the charging energy for LAB under different solar insolation. A duty control, guided by a power-increment-aided incremental-conductance MPPT (PI-INC MPPT, is implemented to the BCC that operates at maximum power point (MPP against the random insolation. A 250 W PV-PC system for charging a four-in-series LAB (48 Vdc is examined. The charging behavior of the PV-PC system in comparison with that of CC-CV charger is studied. Four scenarios of charging statuses of PV-BC system under different solar insolation changes are investigated and compared with that using INC MPPT.

  9. A guide to the influence of bismuth on lead/acid battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, M. J.; Rand, D. A. J.; Culpin, B.

    A review is given of the literature that deals with the influence of bismuth on the microstructure, oxygen/hydrogen evolution kinetics and anodic corrosion of lead and lead alloys with regard to their performance in lead/acid batteries. Analysis shows that there is considerable disagreement as to the effect of bismuth on lead microstructure. For example, the various investigators report an increase, a decrease, or negligible change in grain size. In general, it is concluded that the oxygen overpotential on PbO 2 is lowered in the presence of bismuth. The effect is enhanced as the bismuth content is increased. It is postulated that the behaviour results from the formation of a mixed oxide, PbO 2·BiO x. By contrast, cathodic hydrogen evolution is reported widely to be largely unaffected by bismuth. Nevertheless, there is evidence that the reaction is particularly sensitive to the surface characteristics of electrodes and that these features can induce either a suppression or an enhancement of the hydrogen-gassing rate. Many studies have shown that bismuth accelerates the anodic corrosion of lead alloys, especially at high concentrations of bismuth. At 0.1 wt.% bismuth and below, the effect on the corrosion rate is negligible. The authors of this discussion are of the opinion that much of the conflicting evidence in the areas reported is caused by spurious differences in grain structure that are introduced by variations in sample preparation, rather than by the action of bismuth itself. In battery-related tests, bismuth has usually been found to exert little influence on performance, but there is some suggestion that cycle life is increased. The present body of knowledge is insufficient to confirm the correctness of any currently specified maximum level for bismuth with respect to a given battery design.

  10. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  11. Processes involved in charging of discharged lead-acid battery electrodes by pulse methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers/DQ/UFSCar, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil); de Souza, L.M.M.; Impinnisi, P.R.; de Andrade, J. [Group of Battery and Cells/DPMA-LACTEC/Centro Politecnico da UFPR, C.P. 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba (PR) (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    In general, a relatively large part of the PbSO{sub 4} of lead-acid battery electrode discharge products can be seen as particles at the end of the discharge and thus their reduction, on the negative electrode, or oxidation, on the positive electrode, must involve the dissolution of the Pb{sup 2+}. In this paper, the processes occurring on flat negative electrodes during the galvanostatic charge transients are studied in detail, especially in relation to where and how much the PbSO{sub 4} and Pb{sup 2+} are reduced. The understanding of these processes is fundamental for the understanding of any pulse charging process. Thus, it is shown for a single discharge/charge cycle, that during the charging process a disruption of the PbSO{sub 4} film, giving rise to a continuous glued non-disrupted film and to a disrupted film attached by surface tension forces to the electrode surface can occur. Further, it is shown that the amount of disruption depends on the charging current conditions and it decreases with decreasing charging currents. It is also demonstrated that the reduction of the Pb{sup 2+} dissolved from the disrupted particles takes place simultaneously to the reduction of the non-disrupted glued part of the film. On the basis of these facts, it is finally shown, for the case of multiple discharge/charge cycles, how the charge associated with the disrupted film changes with cycling and why and how it is possible to determine the amount disrupted PbSO{sub 4} film formed. (author)

  12. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials. (author)

  13. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  14. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  15. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel; Calábek, M.; Bača, P.; Křivák, P.; Lábus, R.; Bilko, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2009), s. 154-158 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead-acid * negative electrode * sulfation suppression Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  17. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  19. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  20. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The initial phase of work comprises three factorial experiments to evaluate a variety of component combinations. Goals to be met by these batteries include the following: capacity at 3 h discharge, 20 to 30 kWh; specific energy, 40 Wh/kg; specific power, 1000 W/kg for 15 s; cycle life, 800 cycles to 80% depth; price, $50/kWh. The status of the factorial experiments is reviewed. The second phase of work, design of an advanced battery, has the following goals: 30 to 40 kWh; 60 Wh/kg; 150 W/kg for 15 s; 1000 cycles to 80% depth; $40/kWh. It is not yet possible to say whether these goals can be met. Numerous approaches are under study to increase the utilization of battery chemicals. A battery design with no live electrical connection above the battery is being developed. 52 figures, 52 tables. (RWR)

  1. Oral health status among workers of lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Kundu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is a vital part of general health which not only depends on the environment in which a person lives but also the one in which he/she works. Exposure to various harmful substances in lead acid battery factory affects various organ systems of the body including tissues of the oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral health status among production line workers of lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1400 production line workers of twenty lead acid battery factories in Ghaziabad. The sample comprised all the workers in the factories including the production line. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. Results: The mean age of the study group (production line workers was 32.15 ± 7.91 years and of control group (nonproduction line workers was 31.49 ± 7.62 years. Mean years of experience were 10.90 ± 7.35 for production line workers and 9.07 ± 5.97 years for nonproduction line workers. Prevalence of gingival bleeding was present among 89.10% of the study group workers and 80.90% of control group workers (P < 0.001. Periodontal pockets were found to be present in 43.3% of workers when compared to 25.6% of control group workers (P = 0.001. Prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 55.5% among study groups as compared to 1.4% among the controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study documents the association of various oral conditions with workplace environment. The present study points the need of establishing appropriate educational, preventive, and treatment measures coupled with efficient surveillance and monitoring in the workplace environment.

  2. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa: Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A case study methodology and assessment of renewable energy technology and sustainable development is applied to a DME rural village project. Wind, solar and lead acid battery energy storage technology were used for off-grid electrification...

  3. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  4. Failure mode of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Urban, A. J.

    Within the next decade, there will be major changes in automotive technology with the introduction of several new features which will increase significantly the on-board power requirements. This high power demand is beyond the capability of present 14 V alternators and thus a 42 V power network is to be adopted. The new 'PowerNet' requires the lead-acid battery to be capable of providing a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking and power assist, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition, so-called HRPSoC duty. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from regenerative braking. Eventually, the layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high cranking-current demanded by the automobile. A mechanistic analysis of battery operation during HRPSoC duty shows that high-rate discharge is the key factor responsible for the build-up of the lead sulfate layer. Such discharge causes a compact layer of tiny lead sulfate crystals to form on the surface of the negative plate and subsequent charging gives rise to an early evolution of hydrogen. Hydrogen evolution is further exacerbated when a high charging current is used.

  5. Evaluation of a new charge algorithm for a lead-acid battery with gelled electrolyte using a 96V gel cell 4 as a test battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dieter K.

    1989-10-01

    A summary is reported of test results obtained utilizing the new UAH charge algorithm for Lead-Acid batteries with gelled electrolyte. The battery performance data for a 96V Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery pack was tested in a Jet Industries Electrica vehicle. It was shown that the new charge concept is sound although there can be problems with batteries that are highly imbalanced and where excessive electronic noise is experienced on the electronic signal feed-back line that carries the voltage sensor signals from the battery. Additional work is needed to add intelligence to the charge algorithm in terms of a better ability to extract the beginning of gas development from the voltage spread function. This can probably be accomplished by scanning the voltages more often and including that data into the function analysis by adding software filters. The Phase 4 Gel/Cell battery performance was found to be about 20 percent lower than that of the Phase 3 Gel/Cell battery. Problems with cell valve leakage were encountered in the Phase 4 Gel/Cell that pose a threat to battery life although so far no battery module has been lost.

  6. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  7. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bača, P.; Micka, Karel; Křivík, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 8 (2011), s. 3988-3992 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead battery electrodes * doping with carbon * accelerated testing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.951, year: 2011

  8. High power valve regulated lead-acid batteries for new vehicle requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Francisco; Sáez, Francisco; Valenciano, Jesús

    The performance of high power VRLA ORBITAL™ batteries is presented. These batteries have been designed with isolated cylindrical cells, providing high reliability to the recombination process, while maintaining, at the same time, a very high compression (>80 kPa) over the life of the battery. Hence, the resulting VRLA modules combine a high rate capability with a very good cycle performance. Two different electrochemically active material compositions have been developed: high porosity and low porosity for starting and deep cycle applications, respectively (depending on the power demand and depth of discharge). Although, the initial performance of the starting version is higher, after a few cycles the active material of the deep cycle version is fully developed, and this achieves the same high rate capability. Both types are capable of supplying the necessary reliability for cranking at the lowest temperature (-40°C). Specific power of over 500 W/kg is achievable at a much lower cost than for nickel-metal hydride systems. Apart from the initial performance, an impressive behaviour of the cycling version has been found in deep cycle applications, due to the highly compressed and high density active material. When submitted to continuous discharge-charge cycles at 75% (IEC 896-2 specification) and 100% (BCI deep cycle) DoD, it has been found that the batteries are still healthy after more than 1000 and 700 cycles, respectively. However, it has been proven that the application of an IUi algorithm (up to 110% of overcharging) with a small constant current charging period at the end of the charge is absolutely necessary to achieve the above results. Without the final boosting period, the cycle life of the battery could be substantially shortened. The high specific power and reliability observed in the tests carried out, would allow ORBITAL™ batteries to comply with the more demanding requirements that are being introduced in conventional and future hybrid electric

  9. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  10. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, L.T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N.P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D.A.J. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Bayview Avenue, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology. (author)

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  12. The addition of red lead to flat plate and tubular valve regulated miners cap lamp lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferg, E.E.; Loyson, P. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Poorun, A. [Willard Batteries, P.O. Box 1844, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2006-04-21

    The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide. The addition of red lead to the initial starting material improves the formation efficiency but is considerably more expensive thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing. The study showed that by carefully controlling the formation conditions in terms of the voltage and temperature of a battery, good capacity performance can be achieved for cells made with flat plate electrodes that contain up to 25% red lead. The small amount of red lead in the active cured material reduces the effect of electrode surface sulphate formation and allows the battery to achieve its rated capacity within the first few cycles. Batteries made with flat plate positive electrodes that contained more that 50% red lead showed good initial capacity but had poor structural active material bonding. The study showed that MCL batteries made with tubular positive electrodes that contained less than 75% red lead resulted in a poorly formed electrode with limited capacity utilization. Pickling and soaking times of the tubular electrodes should be kept at a minimum thereby allowing higher active material utilization during subsequent capacity cycling. The study further showed that it is beneficial to use higher formation rates in order to reduce manufacturing time and to improve the active material characteristics. (author)

  13. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  14. Development and Application of a Fuzzy Control System for a Lead-Acid Battery Bank Connected to a DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and application of a fuzzy control system (FCS for the control of the charge and discharge process for a bank of batteries connected to a DC microgrid (DC-MG. The DC-MG runs on a maximum power of 1 kW with a 190 V DC bus using two photovoltaic systems of 0.6 kW each, a 1 kW bidirectional DC-AC converter to interconnect the DC-MG with the grid, a bank of 115 Ah to 120 V lead-acid batteries, and a general management system used to define the operating status of the FCS. This FCS uses a multiplexed fuzzy controller, normalizing the controller’s inputs and outputs in each operating status. The design of the fuzzy controller is based on a Mamdani inference system with AND-type fuzzy rules. The input and output variables have two trapezoidal membership functions and three triangular membership functions. LabVIEW and the NI myRIO-1900 embedded design device were used to implement the FCS. Results show the stability of the DC bus of the microgrid when the bank of batteries is in the charging and discharging process, with the bus stabilized in a range of 190 V ± 5%, thus demonstrating short response times to perturbations considering the microgrid’s response dynamics.

  15. Lead-acid batteries in stationary applications: competitors and new markets for large penetration of renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, M.; Saint-Drenan, Y. M.; Mattera, F.; Malbranche, P.

    With increasing deregulation of the European electricity market, the quality of supply is becoming an issue of growing importance. Grid-connected electricity storage systems (ESSs) can enhance the quality of supply by: (i) shortening black-out periods; (ii) shifting excess energy for use during periods of high demand; (iii) sustaining the grid for better power quality. These problems are being addressed by using technologies such as power electronics and ICT. But storage systems offer a cheap and efficient solution to such concerns. ESSs can also power high-value, ancillary services. This paper analyses the new potential markets for storage systems in the context of distributed energy resources with a high penetration of renewable energies in the electricity networks. While lead-acid batteries are the most used technology in all types of stationary applications, many different storage technologies are claimed to fulfil the technical requirements of the above applications, in particular the emerging ones. Therefore, a comparison is made of lead-acid technology and its competitors in terms of technical and economic considerations.

  16. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  17. Discharge mechanisms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, 13560-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mengarda, P.; Impinnisi, P.R. [Battery Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development - LACTEC, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    This study interpreted open circuit impedance measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates, which were at different discharge levels and arranged in a four-electrode cell. This was performed in the framework of a proposed general model of charge/discharge reactions, morphological models of active materials, and based on interpretation of the characteristics of single negative and positive plates as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This study shows that the proposed reaction models, morphological characteristics and EIS attributions are compatible with the obtained EIS data. The analysis indicates that negative and positive plate reaction mechanisms cannot be those proposed by the dissolution-precipitation mechanism alone. Rather, the reactions seem to obey the various mechanisms and morphologic ideas proposed in the present paper. It is shown that variations in the resistivity and dielectric constants of discharged films need to be studied in greater detail than film thicknesses to gain a better understanding of the processes. (author)

  18. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  19. Battery lifetime prediction by pattern recognition. Application to lead-acid battery life-cycling test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Sam P.; Spindler, W. C.

    1984-09-01

    A novel approach to battery lifetime prediction has been evaluated by application to life-cycling data collected for 108 ESB EV-106 6-V. golf cart batteries (tests conducted by TRW for NASA-Lewis). This approach utilized computerized pattern recognition methods to examine initial cycling measurements and classify each battery into one of two classes: "long-lived" or "short-lived". The classifier program was based on either a linear discriminant or nearest neighbor analysis of a training set consisting of: each member of the EV battery set which had failed; the relative lifetime of each member — normalized with respect to test conditions; and a set of "features" based on measurements of the initial behavior. The raw data set included capacity trends over the first 8 or 9 cycles and records of specific gravity and water-added for each cell after initial cycling. Features defined from these raw data included the individual data items as well as transformations and combinations of these data. All features were represented as standardized variables. It was shown that lifetime prediction of batteries within the two categories defined could be made with about 87% accuracy. It is concluded that for a similarly-manufactured battery set, relative lifetime prediction could be based on initial measurements of the same type examined here.

  20. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  1. Microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solidification cooling rates on the as-cast microstructural morphologies of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy, and to correlate the resulting microstructure with the corresponding electrochemical corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Cylindrical low-carbon steel and insulating molds were employed permitting the two extremes of a significant range of solidification cooling rates to be experimentally examined. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response of Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy samples. It was found that lower cooling rates are associated with coarse cellular arrays which result in better corrosion resistance than fine cells which are related to high cooling rates. The experimental results have shown that that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance. (author)

  2. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-09

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-07-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  4. Design and cost study for development of lead--acid batteries suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [Goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinlein, C E

    1977-01-01

    A design for an improved state-of-the-art (ISOA) battery is proposed in this report. It is believed that this ISOA design is the most efficient design achievable within the constraints of the ISOA battery development program. These constraints include realistic time and financial limitations, and compatibility with existing high-speed production equipment. The ISOA battery is in fact an improved, state-of-the-art lead--acid battery suitable for use in an electric vehicle. A durable, light-weight polypropylene container and cover complete with single-point watering and venting features are incorporated in the ISOA design. A number of materials and process parameters with profound affect on battery performance will be chosen only after extensive evaluation and cell testing. Development of an advanced lead--acid electric vehicle battery will involve the evaluation and application of effective forward concepts in the design of the battery. Many weight-saving designs will be incorporated. Significant improvements in active material efficiencies and integrity are required. The goals of 60 Wh/kg and 1000 life cycles are ambitious but achievable. The cycle life goal appears to be the most formidable. Investigations of charging equipment and parameters will be undertaken. The impact of manufacturing plants on the environment and natural resources is discussed. 3 figures, 23 tables. (RWR)

  5. An exploratory study of lead recovery in lead-acid battery lifecycle in US market: An evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genaidy, A.M.; Sequeira, R.; Tolaymat, T.; Kohler, J.; Rinder, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This research examines lead recovery and recycling in lead-acid batteries (LAB) which account for 88% of US lead consumption. We explore strategies to maximize lead recovery and recycling in the LAB lifecycle. Currently, there is limited information on recycling rates for LAB in the published literature and is derived from a single source. Therefore, its recycling efforts in the US has been unclear so as to determine the maximum opportunities for metal recovery and recycling in the face of significant demands for LAB particularly in the auto industry. Objectives: The research utilizes an evidence-based approach to: (1) determine recycling rates for lead recovery in the LAB product lifecycle for the US market; and (2) quantify and identify opportunities where lead recovery and recycling can be improved. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of the published literature was conducted to gather information on different LAB recycling models and actual data used to calculate recycling rates based on product lifecycle for the US market to identify strategies for increasing lead recovery and recycling. Results: The electronic search yielded five models for calculating LAB recycling rates. The description of evidence was documented for each model. Furthermore, an integrated model was developed to identify and quantify the maximum opportunities for lead recovery and recycling. Results showed that recycling rates declined during the period spanning from 1999 to 2006. Opportunities were identified for recovery and recycling of lead in the LAB product lifecycle. Concluding remarks: One can deduce the following from the analyses undertaken in this report: (1) lead recovery and recycling has been stable between 1999 and 2006; (2) lead consumption has increased at an annual rate of 2.25%, thus, the values derived in this study for opportunities dealing with lead recovery and recycling underestimate the amount of lead in scrap and waste generated; and (3) the

  6. Development of a lead acid battery suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report. [96 V, 20 kWh, 50 Wh/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotter, W J

    1977-08-26

    This report contains two detailed designs, and the design rationale, for an improved state-of-the-art electric vehicle battery incorporating expanded metal grids. The nominal 96-volt and 20-kWh battery incorporating this improved design is expected to cost about 25% less when manufactured in a mature plant. This report also contains detailed estimates for the capital cost and operating cost of a pilot plant to produce electric vehicle battery plates incorporating expanded metal grids. It is expected that the first electric vehicle batteries incorporating expanded metal grids can be available fifteen months after approval of this program. An additional program to improve lead acid batteries for electric vehicles further is also described. The advanced batteries resulting from this program are expected to incorporate either expanded metal grids and/or composite lead/plastic grids. In addition, these batteries are expected to contain low-density active materials. It is anticipated that those additional developments will result in an advanced battery capable of delivering 45 to 50 watt-hours/kg. As a result of the design and cost study, a ''First Buy'' improved state-of-the art vehicle battery proposed is included as part of this report. Eltra proposes to manufacture and deliver the required 2500 vehicle batteries within the time limits set forth by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. 20 figures, 13 tables.

  7. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  8. On the reaction in the lead-acid battery (as the special review-article by the 2005' Gaston Planté Medal recipient)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Zen-ichiro

    It is my great pleasure to be awarded with the 2005' Gaston Planté Medal for significant contribution to the development of lead-acid battery science and technology. I would like to thank most heartily to Prof. D. Pavlov of Chairman, and all members of the Organic Committee of LABAT'2005 for the best treatment to select me as a 2005' Gaston Planté Medallist.

  9. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  10. Modeling of the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing and comparison with measurement data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ui Seong; Shin, Chee Burm [Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea); Chung, Seung Myun; Kim, Sung Tae [Research and Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company, Whasung 445-706 (Korea); Cho, Byung Won [Battery Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2009-05-01

    One-dimensional modeling was carried-out to predict the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing. The model not only accounted for electrochemical kinetics and ionic mass transfer in a battery cell, but also considered the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. In order to validate the modeling, modeling results were compared with the measurement data of the cycling behaviors of the lead-acid batteries having nominal capacity of 68 Ah that are mounted on the automobiles manufactured by Hyundai Motor Company. The cycling was performed under the protocol of the constant-current discharge and the constant-voltage charge. The discharge rate of C/3 was used. The range of state of charge was between 1 and 0.85. The voltage was kept constant at the gassing voltage until the charge current tapered to 10 mA. The retention capacity of the battery was measured with C/3 discharge rate before the beginning of cycling and after every 40 cycles of cycling. The modeling results were in good agreement with the measurement data. (author)

  11. Study of the manufacturing costs of lead--acid batteries for peaking power. Final report for the period ending Oct. 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A detailed study was made of a postulated 1000-MWh per year lead--acid battery business dedicated to supplying a single design of 40-MWh peaking power batteries to electric utilities. State-of-the-art industrial technology is assumed, but the manufacturing facility and business organization is tailored to the one product. Analysis of the product costs and business expenses associated with such an operation indicates that substantially lower selling prices can be realized as compared with normal industrial battery pricing. Under the low-risk conditions assumed, the selling price would be $36.90/kWh at the 4-h rate. Advanced technology would reduce the cost to $31.62/kWh. 21 figures, 31 tables. (RWR)

  12. Synthetic fibre reinforcement of absorptive glass-mat separators for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarro, R.

    The contribution of synthetic fibres to the puncture resistance of absorptive glass-mat (AGM) battery separators when they are combined with glass microfibres is presented. Other mechanical characteristics necessary for the automated manufacture of batteries are also improved by the addition of well-chosen synthetic fibres. The selection of these synthetic fibres is of paramount importance given that specific physical parameters such as wicking, porosity or wettability have to be taken into account to design a useful and long-life AGM battery separator.

  13. Structures of battery- and energy management systems using lead-acid batteries and ultracaps; Strukturen von Batterie- und Energiemanagementsystemen mit Bleibatterien und Ultracaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, D.

    2007-07-01

    The publication presents methods of damage-free operation of lead batteries in electric road vehicles. The original charging method used in the citySTROMer car was based on the total voltage, causing permanent overload and fast ageing of modules. The charge state of the vehicle is defined on the basis of the residual charge state, a charge balance, and an evaluation of the temperature-compensated minimum module voltage. The time when current limiting is necessary is recognized reliably, and the charge state indicator works reliably soon after starting. The vehicle has an integrated power-assist store. Ultracap modules of various capacities were characterized in the laboratory. A variant was constructed in which the battery is discharged permanently with average driving current while the ultracap is used for making up the difference to the load at a given moment. The load cases for power-assist were identified on the basis of real driving cycles. The system can be described as an onboard dual-voltage system. The higher voltage of the ultracap provides higher power for acceleration. The availability of the ultracap is ensured in 90 percent of all accelerations. The first battery set installed in the car is now in its fourth winter, with a mileage of nearly 7000 km. In March 2006, 63 Ah were recorded in battery driving cycle in urban traffic at temperatures below freezing point. After commissioning in May 2002, 71 Ah were recorded. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit entwickelt Verfahren zum schaedigungsfreien Betrieb von Bleibatterien in elektrischen Strassenfahrzeugen. Das urspruenglich im untersuchten citySTROMer eingesetzte Ladeverfahren war an der Gesamtspannung orientiert und hat Module hoeherer Spannungslage ueberladen. Die permanente Ueberladung fuehrt zu einem sehr schnellen Alterungsprozess. Die Ladezustandsbestimmung im Fahrzeug erfolgt ueber die Bestimmung des Restladegrades, eine Ladungsbilanzierung und die Auswertung der temperaturkompensierten

  14. Multi-step constant-current charging method for electric vehicle, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries during night time for load-levelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power, Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power, Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power, Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power, Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power, Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs), the conditions for charging EV batteries with available current patterns should allow complete charging in a short time, i.e., less than 5 to 8 h. Therefore, in this study, a new charging condition is investigated for the EV valve-regulated lead/acid battery system, which should allow complete charging of EV battery systems with multi-step constant currents in a much shorter time with longer cycle life and higher energy efficiency compared with two-step constant-current charging. Although a high magnitude of the first current in the two-step constant-current method prolongs cycle life by suppressing the softening of positive active material, too large a charging current magnitude degrades cells due to excess internal evolution of heat. A charging current magnitude of approximately 0.5 C is expected to prolong cycle life further. Three-step charging could also increase the magnitude of charging current in the first step without shortening cycle life. Four-or six-step constant-current methods could shorten the charging time to less than 5 h, as well as yield higher energy efficiency and enhanced cycle life of over 400 cycles compared with two-step charging with the first step current of 0.5 C. Investigation of the degradation mechanism of the batteries revealed that the conditions of multi-step constant-current charging suppressed softening of positive active material and sulfation of negative active material, but, unfortunately, advanced the corrosion of the grids in the positive plates. By adopting improved grids and cooling of the battery system, the multistep constant-current method may enhance the cycle life. (orig.)

  15. The roles of cellular and dendritic microstructural morphologies on the corrosion resistance of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Rosa, Daniel M.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-03

    During the past 20 years, lead acid batteries manufacturers have modified grid manufacturing processes and the chemical composition of the used alloys in order to decrease battery grid weight as well as to reduce the production costs, and to increase the battery life-time cycle and the corrosion resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular and dendritic microstructures of two different Pb-Sb alloys on the resultant corrosion behavior. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used to obtain cellular and dendritic structures. Macrostructural and microstructural aspects along the casting have been characterized by optical microscopy and SEM techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves were used to analyze the corrosion resistance of samples in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. For cellular microstructures the corrosion rate decreases with increasing cell spacing. In contrast, finer dendritic spacings exhibit better corrosion resistance than coarser ones. The microstructural pre-programming may be used as an alternative way to produce Pb alloy components in conventional casting, rolled-expanded, and continuous drum casting with better corrosion resistance. (author)

  16. Determination of the load state of lead-acid batteries using neural networks; Determinacion del estado de carga de baterias plomo-acido utilizando redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristin V, Miguel A; Ortega S, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The charge of lead-acid batteries (LAB), as in any other type of batteries, consists of replacing the energy consumed during the discharge. Nevertheless, as no physical or chemical process is good enough to totality recharge a battery, it is necessary to supply to it more than the 100% of the energy demanded during its discharge. A critical factor to make a suitable load control of the batteries is to determine its own state of load. That is to say, to have an efficient load control, it is necessary to count on means that allow to accurately determining the residual capacity of the battery to deliver load. This one is the one of the aspects of greater interest in the research centers around world. For this reason, in this work it was pretended to develop a calculation algorithm of the state of load of batteries based on a fuzzy-neural network that could calculate the state of load without using the battery current as an input. This is because one of the main problems for the designers of battery load controllers is the correct supervision of the current that circulates around the system in all the rank of operation of the same one because the sensors do not have a linear behavior. [Spanish] La recarga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA), como cualquier otro tipo de baterias, consiste en reponer la energia consumida durante la descarga. Sin embargo, como ningun proceso fisico o quimico es lo bastante eficiente para recargar a totalidad una bateria, es necesario suministrarle mas del 100% de la energia demandada durante su descarga. Un factor critico para realizar un adecuado control de carga de las baterias, es determinar su propio estado de carga. Es decir, para tener un control de carga eficiente, es necesario contar con un medio que permita determinar con precision la capacidad remanente de la bateria para entregar carga. Este es uno de los aspectos de mayor interes en los centros de investigacion alrededor el mundo. Por tal razon, en este trabajo se propuso

  17. Electrochemical corrosion of Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloys for lead-acid battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the electrochemical corrosion behavior of as-cast Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloy samples in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was used to obtain the as-cast samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response. It was found that a coarse cellular array has a better electrochemical corrosion resistance than fine cells. The pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance associated with environmental and economical aspects. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  19. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  20. Comparison of electrochemical performance of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A comparative experimental study of the electrochemical features of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys is carried out with a view to applications in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components. The as-cast samples are obtained using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloy samples having similar coarse cell arrays are subjected to corrosion tests in order to assess the effect of Sn or Sb segregation in the cell boundary on the electrochemical performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis are used to evaluate the electrochemical parameters in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Both the experimental and simulated EIS parameters evidence different kinetics of corrosion. The Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy is found to have a current density which is of about three times lower than that of the Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloy which indicates that dilute Pb-Sn alloys have higher potential for application as positive grid material in maintenance-free Pb-acid batteries. (author)

  1. Uncovering the Evolution of Lead In-Use Stocks in Lead-Acid Batteries and the Impact on Future Lead Metabolism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Tian, Jinping

    2016-05-17

    This study aims to illustrate the evolution of lead in-use stocks, particularly in lead-acid batteries (LABs), and their impact on future lead metabolism in China. First, we used a bottom-up methodology to study the evolution of lead in-use stocks in China from 2000 to 2014. It was found that the lead in-use stocks increased from 0.91 to 7.75 Mt. The principal driving force of such change is the rapid development of LABs-driven electric vehicles. Then, we proposed three scenarios, low, baseline, and high in-use stocks, to project the lead demand and supply toward 2030. The results show that the LAB demand will decrease as a result of competition and replacement by lithium ion batteries. The lead demand in China will come to a peak around 2018-2020 under the three scenarios, then reduce to 3.7, 4.6, and 5.3 Mt/yr in 2030. Meanwhile, primary lead outputs will follow the increase of zinc production in China. Secondary lead recovered from spent LABs will also increase gradually. The overall unused lead stocks in 2030 will be 49.6, 44.8, and 41.2 Mt under the three scenarios, some 3.5-5.7 times as big as the lead in-use stocks. Thus, a large amount of lead will have to be safely stockpiled or exported in China.

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  3. Contamination of Soil with Pb and Sb at a Lead-Acid Battery Dumpsite and Their Potential Early Uptake by Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Jera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of spent Lead-Acid Batteries (LABs and disposal of process slag potentially contaminate soil with Pb and Sb. Total and available concentrations of Pb and Sb in three soil treatments and parts of Phragmites australis were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Soil with nonrecycled slag (NR had higher total metal concentrations than that with recycled slag (RS. Low available fractions of Pb and Sb were found in the soil treatments before planting P. australis. After 16 weeks of growth of P. australis, the available fractions of Pb had no statistical difference from initial values (p>0.05 while available Sb fractions were significantly lower when compared with their initial values (p<0.05. Metal transfer factors showed that P. australis poorly accumulate Pb and Sb in roots and very poorly translocate them to leaves after growing for 8 and 16 weeks. It may be a poor phytoextractor of Pb and Sb in metal-contaminated soil at least for the 16 weeks of its initial growth. However, the plant established itself on the metalliferous site where all vegetation had been destroyed. This could be useful for potential ecological restoration. The long-term phytoextraction potential of P. australis in such environments as LABs may need further investigation.

  4. The Environmental Burdens of Lead-Acid Batteries in China: Insights from an Integrated Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-acid batteries (LABs, a widely used energy storage equipment in cars and electric vehicles, are becoming serious problems due to their high environmental impact. In this study, an integrated method, combining material flow analysis with life cycle assessment, was developed to analyze the environmental emissions and burdens of lead in LABs. The environmental burdens from other materials in LABs were not included. The results indicated that the amount of primary lead used in LABs accounted for 77% of the total lead production in 2014 in China. The amount of discharged lead into the environment was 8.54 × 105 tonnes, which was mainly from raw material extraction (57.2%. The largest environmental burden was from the raw materials extraction and processing, which accounted for 81.7% of the total environmental burdens. The environmental burdens of the environmental toxicity potential, human toxicity potential-cancer, human toxicity potential-non-cancer, water footprint and land use accounted for more than 90% at this stage. Moreover, the environmental burdens from primary lead was much more serious than regenerated lead. On the basis of the results, main practical measures and policies were proposed to reduce the lead emissions and environmental burdens of LABs in China, namely establishing an effective LABs recycling system, enlarging the market share of the legal regenerated lead, regulating the production of regenerated lead, and avoiding the long-distance transportation of the waste LABs.

  5. Nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on electrochemical properties of carbon foam as constructive electrode for lead acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumari, Saroj; Mathur, Rakesh B.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nanostructuring effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on electrochemical properties of coal tar pitch (CTP) based carbon foam (CFoam) was investigated. The different weight fractions of MWCNTs were mixed with CTP and foam was developed from the mixture of CTP and MWCNTs by sacrificial template technique and heat treated at 1,400 and 2,500 °C in inert atmosphere. These foams were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and potentiostat PARSTAT for cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that, bulk density of CFoam increases with increasing MWCNTs content and decreases after certain amount. The MWCNTs influence the morphology of CFoam and increase the width of ligaments as well as surface area. During the heat treatment, stresses exerting at MWCNTs/carbon interface accelerate ordering of the graphene layer which have positive effect on the electrochemical properties of CFoam. The current density increases from 475 to 675 mA/cm2 of 1,400 °C heat treated and 95 to 210 mA/cm2 of 2,500 °C heat-treated CFoam with 1 wt% MWCNTs. The specific capacitance was decreases with increasing the scan rate from 100 to 1,000 mV/s. In case of 1 % MWCNTs content CFoam the specific capacitance at the scan rate 100 mV/s was increased from 850 to 1,250 μF/cm2 and 48 to 340 μF/cm2 of CFoam heat treated at 1,400 °C and 2,500 °C respectively. Thus, the higher value surface area and current density of MWCNTs-incorporated CFoam heat treated to 1,400 °C can be suitable for lead acid battery electrode with improved charging capability.

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  7. Improvement of the electrochemical behaviour of lead-acid batteries for a photovoltaic application; Amelioration du comportement electrochimique des batteries plomb-acide a usage photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, G.

    2003-10-01

    In an isolated photovoltaic system, the accumulator constitutes the weak point of the device and remains the element to be made reliable. Indeed, for this type of application, the main difficulty lies in the maintenance of a good charge capacity of the battery whatever the conditions of sunshine and use may be. This requirement is closely related to the electric conduction properties of the lead-alloy/PAM interface, which changes with the charge level of the accumulator. The alloys chosen for the positive electrodes making are ternary Pb-Ca-Sn systems which play the role of both collector of current and support of the PAM. At ambient temperature, these alloys are prone to metallurgical transformations. The transition from the 'aged' structure to the 'averaged' one is followed by a drop of the mechanical properties and by a reduction of the corrosion resistance whatever the charge conditions are. The use of a heat treatment, resulting from TTT curves, makes possible to durably maintain alloy in an aged state in which the best behaviors are observed. The optimization of the tin content in alloy is of great importance here, since it was established that the effect of this element, associated to the heat treatment, allows to improve the properties of material more, even during tests in temperature. Moreover, the observed corrosion behavior of alloys shows that tin plays an essential role in formation and growth of the lead oxides, but also in the adherence properties of the corrosion layer during the tests of cycling. The addition of further element into alloys, such as silver or rare earths, provided an efficient solution to the adherence problems underlined before. (author)

  8. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  9. Study on the influence of storage life expectancy of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid - VRLA battery; Estudo sobre a influencia da estocagem na expectativa de vida util da bateria chumbo-acida regulada por valvula - VRLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A. Pinhel [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: pinhel@furnas.com.br; Rosolem, Maria de F.N.C.; Santos, G.R. dos; Frare, P.T.; Arioli, V.T.; Beck, R.F. [Telecomunicacoes do CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: mfatima@cpqd.com.br, glauco@cpqd.com.br, pfrare@cpqd.com.br, varioli@cpqd.com.br, raul@cpqd.com; Soares, L.A., Email: luiz.las@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    When valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are acquired and are not placed in operation immediately and remain stored in open circuit, they can loose autonomy and life. In these cases the current practice recommends, that the batteries receive quarterly recharges, which is often unfeasible. Given this scenario, Furnas by the CPqD, decided to verify the real impact of stockpiling in the expectancy of VRLAs battery life to establish the veracity of practice adopted or establish new procedures. The influences of time, the temperature of the local storage and application of charges are evaluated. It was also studied the application of techniques for measuring the internal resistance battery (conductance and impedance) for degradation monitoring and identification of the need for application of charges. As final products, it was developed novel diagnostic techniques that allow more accurate monitoring of the storage process.

  10. Secondary Batteries: Lead Acid Battery Thermal Runaway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherino, Henry A

    2007-01-01

    .... Although it is a fact that this recombination reaction is exothermic, the first law of thermodynamics mandates that the net enthalpy of the closed cycle oxygen recombination process is exactly zero...

  11. Exhaust lead-acid batteries recycling as a tool of the environmental protection policy. Energy, environmental and economic issues; Il riciclaggio delle batterie al piombo-acido esauste come strumento della politica di salvaguardia ambiental. Aspetti energetici, ambientali ed economici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picini, P.; Battista, A. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Lead is an heavy metal that has a major impact on human health and his removal from the environment is an important action for its protection. The aim of the present work is to provide a framework of the Italian lead recycling with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of COBAT activities (COBAT is the Mandatory Consortium to collect and recycle the exhaust lead-acid batteries and lead wastes). In order to better understand the context in which COBAT works, some statistical data on the lead production, consumption and end uses in Italy and in the world are provided. An estimate of the energy consumptions and the environmental impact related to Italian lead production was also carried out. [Italian] Il piombo e' uno dei metalli pesanti a maggiore impatto ambientale e sanitario e la sua rimozione dall'ambiente costituisce un'importante azione di protezione e tutela della salute umana. Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' quello di fornire un quadro di riferimento relativo al riciclaggio del piombo in Italia evidenziandone gli aspetti ambientali ed economici in relazione alle attivita' condotte dal COBAT (Consorzio Obbligatorio delle Batterie Esauste e dei rifiuti piombosi). In tal senso, per disporre di una visione piu' completa del contesto in cui si inserisce l'attivita' del Consorzio, vengono forniti alcuni dati di carattere statistico sulla produzione, sul consumo e sugli utilizzi del piombo in Italia e nel mondo e viene effettuata una stima dei consumi energetici e dell'impianto ambientale associati alla produzione di piombo nazionale.

  12. In-vehicle evaluation of the Globe EV 2300 lead-acid, Delco Remy 150 nickel-zinc, and Eagle-Picher NIF 270 nickel-iron battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, A. A.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    Developmental versions of the Delco-Remy nickel-zinc,the Globe lead-acid, and the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery systems designed for electric-vehicle application were evaluated. The systems were tested with the Jet Industries Jet 750 pickup truck and the General Electric/Chrysler ETV 1-2 vehicle on a a chassis dynamometer. Performance of the batteries were determined under: (1) constant-speed; (2) cyclic drive profiles; and (3) continuous and segmented driving conditions. Data are presented on capacity, specific energy, discharge, internal resistance, and temperature characteristics. Maintenance features, such as the single-point watering and venting subsystems, and charging schemes, are addressed and results are discussed.

  13. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  14. Effect of additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrodes during formation and partial state of charge operation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivík, P.; Micka, Karel; Bača, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 209, JUL 1 2012 (2012), s. 15-19 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : load acid battery electrodes * Doping with carbon * PSoC cycling Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.675, year: 2012

  15. Impact of a 12-volt Lead Acid Battery State-of-Charge on the Performance of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Santanu Prasad; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    In most of the Automotive Air Conditioning Systems (AACSs) though the compressor is powered by the car engine, the evaporator blower and the condenser fan are run by an alternator. Further, this alternator is powered from engine shaft. If there is any fault in the alternator that must drop the output voltage. This variation in output voltage can be achieved from a car battery by regulating its charging current. Owing to this, a stationary test rig for an AACS is developed with all actual auto...

  16. The interrelation between mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and microstructure of Pb-Sn casting alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    It is well known that there is a strong influence of thermal processing variables on the solidification structure and as a direct consequence on the casting final properties. The morphological microstructural parameters such as grain size and cellular or dendritic spacings will depend on the heat transfer conditions imposed by the metal/mould system. There is a need to improve the understanding of the interrelation between the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dilute Pb-Sn casting alloys which are widely used in the manufacture of battery components. The present study has established correlations between cellular microstructure, ultimate tensile strength and corrosion resistance of Pb-1 wt% Sn and Pb-2.5 wt% Sn alloys by providing a combined plot of these properties as a function of cell spacing. It was found that a compromise between good corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties can be attained by choosing an appropriate cell spacing range. (author)

  17. Bipolar lead acid batteries with ceramic partitioning walls. Forming and characterization of negative electrodes; Bipolaera blybatterier med keramiska mellanvaeggar. Tillverkning och karaktaerisering av negativa elektroder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ove; Haraldsen, Britta [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2001-01-01

    Bipolar electrodes are built with positive and negative paste on each side of a partitioning wall (PW). The PW must be dimensional stable and shall not allow electrolyte to flow through. The process of lead infiltration in porous ceramic plates is studied in this report in combination with different methods of forming pos. and neg. halves. Plante formed negative paste can not withstand a high pressure - relief details must be included in the design. The expanders in NAM are necessary to maintain the capacity. Positive Plante formed electrodes are not proper formed due to a too high current density. Furthermore, they are very brittle. The usefulness of paste plates has been shown and the future work will be directed towards such bipolar electrodes to be included in prototype batteries.

  18. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  19. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  20. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-10-25

    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  2. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  3. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  4. Evaluation of Pb and Fe tenors present in the sediments nearby the activities of taking advantage of lead-acid batteries; Avaliacao dos teores de Pb e Fe presentes nos sedimentos proximos as atividades de reaproveitamento de baterias chumbo-acidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda; Andrade, Crescencio; Monteiro, Carlos; Oliveira, Daniela; Valentim, Eliane, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN/PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The region chosen for this study was the Municipality of Belo Jardim, Pernambuco State, Brazil, which is considered an important industrial complex of the production and repairing of lead-acid batteries. Sediment samples were collected near to the illegal smelting industries and analyzed by ionic exchange method using a alpha-beta proportional counter for determining the activity of Pb-210, radionuclide used as geochronological tool. The chemical elements Pb and Fe were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The obtained results indicated an expressive increasing of lead and iron concentrations in the last 20 years. The concentrations in the sampled profile varied from 318 to 15487 mg.kg-1 and from 19 to 1524 mg.kg-1 for Fe and Pb, respectively. (author)

  5. The performance characteristics of lead acid deep cycle batteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /discharge voltages, charge/discharge ratio and round – trip energy efficiency were studied by using two solar panels (model: 80 W, SF 125 x 35V/ 4 Amps), one solar panel (model: 45 W, STP 045 - 12/Rb), 2000 VA inverter, 2 Gaston Sealed ...

  6. Fractionation of lead-acid battery soil amended with Biochar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile (bio)available metal concentration in contaminated soils can be minimized through biological immobilization and stabilization methods using a range of organic compounds, such as “biochar.” Biochar has a high surface area, highly porous, variable – charge organic material that has the potential to increase soil ...

  7. Avaliação e diagnóstico das condições de trabalho em duas indústrias de baterias chumbo-ácidas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Evaluation and diagnosis of working conditions in two lead-acid batteries industries in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Aluizio de Oliveira Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise do processo produtivo e das condições de trabalho em fábricas de baterias chumbo-ácidas apresenta uma gama de informações mais completas do que as que têm sido discutidas até então. O presente estudo analisa o processo produtivo de duas indústrias de baterias no Rio de Janeiro. A metodologia utilizada aborda o assunto de uma forma qualitativa, utilizando como ferramentas entrevistas estruturadas com os trabalhadores e análise do ambiente de trabalho. O principal objetivo deste artigo é mostrar uma metodologia de análise com visão ambiental ressaltando os riscos inerentes a estas atividades com uso de mapas de riscos, através de sua construção nos ambientes estudados. Os resultados sugerem um conjunto de recomendações, baseadas na literatura científica e nas normas de segurança e medicina do trabalho explicitadas pela legislação brasileira.The analysis of the productive process and work conditions in companies of lead-acid batteries presents a range of more complete information than the ones that have been discussed for others companies up to now for its low technology profile. The present study analyzes the productive process of two industries of batteries in Rio de Janeiro. The used methodology approaches the subject in a qualitative point of view, using tools as: worker's structured interviews and analysis of the work conditions, under an environmental concept. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present a methodology including environment concept on work conditions and point out the inherent risks of these activities by construction of risk's maps. The results has suggested some recommendations, based on scientific knowledge so as safety and occupational health norms, adopted in Brazilian Legislation. Besides that it is pointed out the absolute necessity of general discussion with laborers’ participation.

  8. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  9. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  10. MO-Co@N-Doped Carbon (M = Zn or Co): Vital Roles of Inactive Zn and Highly Efficient Activity toward Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Reactions for Rechargeable Zn-Air Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Biaohua [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Environmental Catalysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; He, Xiaobo [Changzhou Institute of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Changzhou 213164 P. R. China; Yin, Fengxiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Environmental Catalysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Changzhou Institute of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Changzhou 213164 P. R. China; Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Environmental Catalysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Di-Jia [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Shi, Ruixing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Chen, Jinnan [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China; Yin, Hongwei [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 P. R. China

    2017-06-14

    A highly efficient bifunctional oxygen catalyst is required for practical applications of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are their core electrode reactions. Here, the MO-Co@ N-doped carbon (NC, M = Zn or Co) is developed as a highly active ORR/OER bifunctional catalyst via pyrolysis of a bimetal metal-organic framework containing Zn and Co, i.e., precursor (CoZn). The vital roles of inactive Zn in developing highly active bifunctional oxygen catalysts are unraveled. When the precursors include Zn, the surface contents of pyridinic N for ORR and the surface contents of Co-N-x and Co3+/Co2+ ratios for OER are enhanced, while the high specific surface areas, high porosity, and high electrochemical active surface areas are also achieved. Furthermore, the synergistic effects between Zn-based and Co-based species can promote the well growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at high pyrolysis temperatures (>= 700 degrees C), which is favorable for charge transfer. The optimized CoZn-NC-700 shows the highly bifunctional ORR/OER activity and the excellent durability during the ORR/OER processes, even better than 20 wt% Pt/C (for ORR) and IrO2 (for OER). CoZn-NC-700 also exhibits the prominent Zn-air battery performance and even outperforms the mixture of 20 wt% Pt/C and IrO2.

  11. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  12. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... and, for a lead-acid battery, the fully charged specific gravity value. This information must be...

  14. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  15. Hot corrosion resistance of a Pb-Sb alloy for lead acid battery grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Aoki, Claudia S.C. [Research and Development Centre - CPqD Foundation, Rod. Campinas/Mogi, km 118.5, 13086-912 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the microstructural morphologies of a Pb-6.6 wt%Sb alloy on the resulting corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at different temperatures: environment temperature, 50 C and 70 C. A water-cooled unidirectional solidification system was employed permitting a wide range of microstructures to be analyzed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the Pb-Sb alloy samples. It was found that with increasing temperatures the general corrosion resistance of Pb-Sb dendritic alloys decreases, and that independently of the working temperature finer dendritic spacings exhibit better corrosion resistance than coarser ones. (author)

  16. fractionation of lead-acid battery soil amended with biochar 36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. Mobile (bio)available metal concentration in contaminated soils can be minimized through biological immobilization and stabilization methods using a range of organic compounds, such as. “biochar.” Biochar has a high surface area, highly porous, variable – charge organic material that has the potential to ...

  17. Thermal characterization of tetrabasic lead sulfate used in the lead acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, E. E.; Billing, D. G.; Venter, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The thermal production of 4PbO·PbSO4 was comprehensively studied and characterized for two syntheses routes, i.e. either heating 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O, or a mixture of 4PbO:PbSO4, in air to about 700 °C. In the 3PbO·PbSO4·H2O approach, the formation of an intermediate amorphous phase occurred at around 210 °C with the loss of H2O from the hydrated structure. Formation of 4PbO·PbSO4 initiated at around 270 °C with predominantly 4PbO·PbSO4 and 13% residual PbO·PbSO4 existing at 700 °C. With the synthesis route of mixing a stoichiometric ratio of 4PbO with PbSO4, an intermediate phase of PbO·PbSO4 formed at around 300 °C, before the 4PbO·PbSO4 phase started to form at around 500 °C. Upon further heating, 4PbO·PbSO4 was the predominant phase with 8% of PbO·PbSO4 remaining. Both samples decomposed upon further heating to 850 °C. Powder neutron diffraction studies of the final 4PbO·PbSO4 products from the two different synthesis routes showed similar crystallographic unit cell lattice parameters with slight differences in the PbO:PbSO4 contents. This could possibly be linked to differences observed in the microscopic crystallite shapes from the two synthesis routes.

  18. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. E.

    1986-03-01

    Cycle life of the 15-electrode Advanced-1 design, utilizing the all lead-plastic grids, was increased from less than 150 to 296 cycles (C-420) by using an additive to strengthen the positive active material (PAM). This cell demonstrated a specific energy of 44.6 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate. The utilization of the PAM was increased from 45.2 Ah/1b PAM to 58.4 Ah/1b PAM. The 58.4 Ah/1b value represents an increase of 91% in the utilization as compared to an EV-2300 at the same rate. The flow-through cell operates in an oxygen recombination mode and the cell design controls the efficiency of the recombination. The main failure mode of the cells was the loss of the preferred structure of the PAM, resulting in the cracking and dislodging of pellets. A secondary failure mode is the change of the physical and chemical properties of the negative active material. A new, cell component (diffuser) increased the uniformity of the electrolyte flow through the positive electrode. Die cutting Lexan sheet stock reduced test cell building labor costs by 75%. A 3-electrode screening cell design was develope d which utilizes a gasketing material to seal the assembly.

  19. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either under- or overreported (depending on the net trade flow). Factors that influence consumption and trade patterns include variations in industry structure, labor or financial markets, legislation, and technology. As U.S. trade patterns of manufactured products change, omitting mineral commodities incorporated into these goods as part of U.S. mineral commodity consumption estimates may affect the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Although it may be desirable to include minerals contained in manufactured products as part of consumption estimates, collection and estimation of these data are sometimes difficult. Consumption and trade data for every traded product may not be readily available. Compiling comprehensive consumption statistics for mineral commodities, which have many end uses, each including multiple products, may be time consuming. For these reasons, studies of all mineral commodities are not feasible. Mineral commodity selection for this study is based on data accessibility considerations and the relative importance of lead contained in imported and exported products when considered part of total U.S. lead consumption. Lead was selected for this initial evaluation of total mineral consumption because of the need to understand the consumption pattern of this potentially toxic metal and its compounds, the relative simplicity of this sector?s end-use structure, and the availability of trade data. This study draws upon the findings of an earlier lead consumption study (Biviano and others, 1999) conducted by the USGS for the period 1984 to 1993, but uses a different study methodology for an industry whose structure has changed from that considered in the earlier study. Figure 1 shows the quantity of material contributing to U.S. total consumption of lead metal from domestic and foreign industrial sectors in 2004, based upon trade data reported by the USGS and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC). For

  20. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  1. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  2. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  3. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  4. Navy primary and secondary batteries: Design and manufacturing guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The best practices for the specification, design, and manufacture of primary and secondary batteries most commonly used in military applications are provided. The scope was limited to lead-acid batteries (excluding submarine batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, dry cell, thermal cells, and lithium cells (primaries only). Silver-Zinc batteries, secondary and primary, were purposely excluded since they represent a small portion of the military procurement and require a special treatment of their manufacture and quality assurance best practices.

  5. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given is a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel-motel; remote residence; and single residence.

  6. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malevu, T.D., E-mail: malevutd@ufs.ac.za; Ocaya, R.O.; Tshabalala, K.G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI{sub 2} that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5–5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor–acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  7. Characterization of microglass wet laid nonwovens used as battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientek, M.J.; Bender, R.J. [Schuller International, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Significant advancements have been made during the past few years in the battery industry with the development of Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) cells for a variety of applications. Today, most sealed or gas recombining, lead-acid batteries utilize absorptive microglass separators in their design. The 100% microglass battery separator mat used in rechargeable lead-acid batteries has been identified as being a critical component necessary for the operation of these cells. With the growing importance of the microglass separator in modern battery technology, an understanding of the various properties of the separator is essential to better understand the impact separators have on battery performance. A method for characterizing microglass separators is described by surface area, mechanical, chemical, and microscopy techniques.

  8. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  9. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  10. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  11. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  12. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  13. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  14. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  15. Current Distribution over the Electrode Surface in a Lead-acid Cell during Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, P.; Křivák, P.; Bača, P.; Calábek, M.; Micka, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2002), s. 34-44 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/98/1170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : grid design * current distribution * lead-acid cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.777, year: 2002

  16. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  17. The battery recycling loop: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.

    Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

  18. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The progress of the design and development program is detailed. Results of drop tests, characteristics tests, and life cycle tests are presented and discussed. Results of tests of mechanical agitation of the electrolyte by air bubbling and an air lift pump are reported. Work on the electrode designs and electrolyte circulation systems is reported. (WHK)

  19. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  20. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  1. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  2. Technical Status and Progress of Lead Recycling of Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-hua; Zhan, Jing; Zhang, Chuan-fu

    The characteristics of various components in waste lead acid battery are analyzed in this paper. The present status and the study progress situation in industry production and research field of recycling of waste lead acid battery and lead paste used broken-separation technology are introduced. The comparison of advantages and disadvantages in different industry processes is carried. The advantages of redox bath smelting of lead concentrate and lead paste are analyzed. The method of redox bath smelting will be a low-carbon, environmentally friendly and efficient processes of secondary lead production and can be intensive to desulfurize for high temperature pool.

  3. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  4. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  5. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  6. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  7. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  8. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  9. Optimization of station battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  10. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  11. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flywheel-battery hydrid: a new concept for vehicle propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept was examined for powering the automobile: a flywheel-battery hybrid that can be developed for near-term use from currently available lead-acid batteries and state-of-the-art flywheel designs. To illustrate the concept, a calculation is given of the range and performance of the hybrid power system in a typical commute vehicle, and the results are compared to the measured range and performance of an all-battery vehicle. This comparison shows improved performance and a twofold urban-range increase for the hybrid over the all-battery power system

  13. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  14. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  15. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  16. VRLA automotive batteries for stop&go and dual battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. J.; Calasanzio, D.; Aliberti, R.

    The electrical power requirements for vehicles are continuing to increase and evolve. A substantial amount of effort has been directed towards the development of 36/42 V systems as a route to higher power with reduced current levels but high implementation costs have resulted in the introduction of these systems becoming deferred. In the interim, however, alternator power outputs at 14 V are being increased substantially and at the same time the requirements for batteries are becoming more intensive. In particular, stop&go systems and wire-based vehicle systems are resulting in new demands. For stop&go, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to rest and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. This results in an onerous duty cycle with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries cannot meet this duty cycle and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are needed to meet the demands that are applied. For wire-based systems, such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire, electrical power has become more critical and although the alternator and battery provide double redundancy, triple redundancy with a small reserve battery is specified. In this case, a small VRLA battery can be used and is optimised for standby service rather than for repeated discharges. The background to these applications is considered and test results under simulated operating conditions are discussed. Good performance can be obtained in batteries adapted for both applications. Battery management is also critical for both applications: in stop&go service, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) need to be monitored to ensure that the vehicle can be restarted; for reserve or back-up batteries, the SOC and SOH are monitored to verify that the battery is always capable of carrying out the duty cycle if required. Practical methods of battery condition monitoring will be described.

  17. Batteries for storage of wind-generated energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Cost effectiveness characteristics of conventional-, metal gas-, and high energy alkali metal-batteries for wind generated energy storage are considered. A lead-acid battery with a power density of 20 to 30 watt/hours per pound is good for about 1500 charge-discharge cycles at a cost of about $80 per kilowatt hour. A zinc-chlorine battery that stores chlorine as solid chlorine hydrate at temperatures below 10 C eliminates the need to handle gaseous chlorine; its raw material cost are low and inexpensive carbon can be used for the chlorine electrode. This system has the best chance to replace lead-acid. Exotic alkali metal batteries are deemed too costly at the present stage of development.

  18. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  19. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  20. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  1. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  2. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  3. Advances in VRLA battery technology for telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Sudhan S. [SPM Consultants LLC, 112 Gwynmont Circle, North Wales, PA 19454 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Wide scale use of the newly emergent VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) battery in telecommunication applications and the subsequent problems encountered early in their deployment history spurred intense efforts to improve the design as a continuous endeavor. After implementing improvements to battery placement and containment design to prevent the sudden onset of thermal runaway, the focus of the development work has been on cell internals. These include improved grid and strap alloys, superior AGM (absorbent glass mat) separator that retains compression in the cell, use of beneficial additives to the active materials and the need to avoid contaminants that promote detrimental side reactions. These improvements are now resulting in a vastly superior VRLA experience in the telecommunication applications. To further improve the reliability demanded by today's communication and internet environment VRLA battery installations should include continuous cell/module and system monitoring similar to that incorporated in competing advanced battery systems under development. (author)

  4. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  5. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, G.J. [The Focus Partnership, 126 Main Street, Swithland, Loughborough, Leics LE12 8TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-25

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  6. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  7. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  8. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  9. ETK's experience in the application of VRLA batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, I. [Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of the company Ericsson Nikola Tesla (ETK) in the application of VRLA batteries. After a short comment on conventional lead acid batteries, the paper explains the reasons for introduction of VRLA batteries and presents our experience considering their quality, performance, hydrogen evolution, safety, service life etc. Stress is put on some internal and external factors which affect useful life, such as positive grid corrosion, ambient temperature and charging voltage. ETK also gained experience in relation to adaptation of some UPS systems to VRLA batteries. The article concludes with the list of important advantages and disadvantages of VRLA batteries compared with the flooded ones. (orig.)

  10. Design And Construction Of Microcontroller Based Solar Battery Charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Ni Tun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing charging controlling and display unit.

  11. Investigation of silica additive for high-rate sealed lead-acid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.-F.; Fang, B.-J.; Lin, Y.-K.; Chen, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of silica (SiO 2 ) additive in the positive electrode on the high-rate discharge performance of sealed lead-acid cells. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the plate's chemical composition and crystal morphology is independent of the SiO 2 additive in the positive electrodes. Cells with SiO 2 additive in the positive plates decrease the active material, causing a lower initial capacity. However, the plates with SiO 2 additive exhibit a smaller pore size, which has a good mechanical strength and retains the electrolyte in the pore during high-rate discharge causing a lower capacity loss per cycle and a higher average capacity per cycle. Apparently, the SiO 2 additive has the beneficial effect of decreasing the capacity loss during the high-rate discharge cycles. Moreover, the discharge capacity loss rate does not correlate with the amount of SiO 2 additives. Adding more SiO 2 additives to the positive electrode decreases the active material appreciably causing a lower average capacity. The optimal amount of SiO 2 additive is about 3 wt%. The phase composition of the positive electrodes at different locations was determined after the cells completed the high-rate cycle test. The results reveal that the higher utilization of electrode plates at high-rate discharge occurred through the terminal and diagonal areas

  12. An improved nickel/zinc battery for ventricular assist systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, D. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Ferreira, E. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Charkey, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Nickel/zinc batteries are currently being manufactured under contract to the national institutes of health (NIH) for a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The nickel/zinc system is being developed to replace the current lead-acid battery in this application. First generation prototype cells provide 60 Wh kg{sup -1}, which is a weight saving of more than 35% compared to the lead-acid battery in current use. Further optimization of this design will result in a projected energy density of 70 Wh kg{sup -1} by reducing the cell weight by 15%. Cell characterization and accelerated testing are underway to establish cell performance as a function of cycle life. (orig.)

  13. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  14. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  16. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  17. Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Louey, R.

    Transport is one of the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil-fuels consumption. This has lead to a growing demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) to reduce air pollution and consumption of fossil fuels. CSIRO Energy Technology has developed the ultra-battery, a new technology that will reduce the cost and boost the performance of batteries in HEVs. The ultra-battery is a hybrid energy-storage device, which combines an asymmetric supercapacitor, and a lead-acid battery in one unit cell, taking the best from both technologies without the need for extra electronic controls. The capacitor will enhance the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer in discharging and charging. Consequently, this hybrid technology is able to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The ultra-battery has been subjected to a variety of tests. To date, results show that the discharge and charge power of the ultra-battery is ∼50% higher and its cycle-life is at least three times longer than that of the conventional lead-acid counterpart. Furthermore, the ultra-battery is able to be produced as either flooded-electrolyte or valve-regulated designs in the existing lead-acid factory and also able to reconfigure for a variety of applications, such as conventional automobile, power tool, forklift, high-power uninterruptible power supply and remote-area power supply. The prototype ultra-batteries have been constructed and are under laboratory evaluation and field trial. The success of the ultra-battery will obviously make HEVs more affordable and widespread. This, in turn, will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the urban environment and the consumption of limited supplies of fossil fuels.

  18. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubak, G.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H 2 -O 2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  19. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  20. Multibat in Austria - an effective battery management on temple site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, M. [Arsenal Research - Oesterreichisches Forschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal, Vienna (Austria); Torcheux, L.; Schweitz, G.; Alzieu, J. [EDF, Site des Renardieres. Moret sur Loing (France); Becker, G. [TBB - Technisches Buero Becker, Absam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Effective management is needed to maintain a battery in a favourable state of charge and to overcome the failures of lead-acid batteries during its working life. Electricite de France has patented a battery management principle associated to new storage architecture for lead-acid batteries and based on individual management of several batteries and control of their state of charge. For transferring and implementing rapidly patented RTD results into industrial applications the European project ''MULTIBAT - Development of Multi-Battery Management System for Renewable Energies'' was set up together with partners from five countries and financed by the Commission. The temple is located on top of the hill within the Austrian community Moedling, 16 km in the south of Vienna. A public financed light show illuminates the old Temple each night. Far away from the grid the 5 kWp photovoltaic system is perfectly integrated in the monarchy architecture of the Temple, which was the main condition of the preservation of ancient monuments to install a PV system on the roof.

  1. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  2. Eight years of experience with valve-regulated batteries for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Yasuda, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Horie, S.; Kanetsuki, K.

    In 1985, Matsushita developed a valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) battery with an expanded grid for automotive use. Since 1989, these batteries have been adopted as original equipment for cars. To take full advantage of their benefits, the batteries are installed away from the engine compartment, for example, in the boot of the car. Despite a steady market for automotive VRLA batteries, there are still a few problems that accompany their use. These must be solved in order to enhance reliability and improve customer satisfaction. The major areas of concern are life at high temperature, and recovery after over-discharge and long standing. Work in these areas is reported here.

  3. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  4. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  5. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  6. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  7. The Asian battery market—a decade of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckfeld, S.; Manders, J. E.; Stevenson, M. W.

    The Asian battery industry will undergo significant change over the next decade as it adapts to the enormous economic and technological pressures of our rapidly changing world. Europe and North America in recent years have seen significant rationalisation in battery manufacturing capacity and ownership for a variety of reasons. Into the future, Asia will be no exception, but the rate and magnitude of change may conceivably be greater than that already experienced elsewhere. Rationalisation in battery manufacturing plants will occur as a result of the establishment of super plants to manufacture batteries in order to improve the economies of scale and to facilitate the heavy investment in new capital and equipment that will be required to supply the newer technology battery types. The impact of 42 V automotive systems and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries will be influential on this scenario. It is expected that China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand will feature heavily in the future Asian battery scene at the expense of some established countries and producers. The current state of the battery industry in Asia, factors driving change in Asia, and the likely implications for those companies that are currently manufacturing batteries in Asia or considering a future role in Asia within the coming decade are examined in this paper.

  8. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  9. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  10. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  11. On battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrids: Investigation of the combined hybrid capacitors/hydrogen alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Piromalis, Dimitrios D.; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Papadakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrid is technically feasible. • Laboratory testing of hybrid capacitors. • Investigation of hybrid capacitors utilization along with hydrogen subsystem. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology aims to cover holistically the needs in remote areas as far as electrical power, potable water through desalination, fuel for transportation in the form of hydrogen, heating and cooling are concerned. Deep discharge lead acid batteries are mostly used in such systems, associated with specific disadvantages, both technical and environmental. This paper investigated the possibility of replacing the battery bank from a polygeneration microgrid with a hybrid capacitor bank and more intensive utilization of a hydrogen subsystem. Initially commercial hybrid capacitors were tested under laboratory conditions and based on the respective results a case study was performed. The optimized combination of hybrid capacitors and higher hydrogen usage was then investigated through simulations and compared to a polygeneration microgrid featuring deep discharge lead acid batteries. From the results it was clear that it is technically possible to exchange the battery bank with a hybrid capacitor bank and higher hydrogen utilization. From the economic point of view, the current cost of the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components is high which leads to higher overall cost in comparison with deep discharge lead acid batteries. Taking into account, though, the decreasing cost prospects and trends of both the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components it is expected that this approach will become economically competitive in a few years

  12. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  13. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  14. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  15. Remote monitoring of VRLA batteries for telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, Tomonobu; Matsushima, Toshio [NTT Facilities Inc., G.H.Y. Building, 2-13-1 Kita-Otsuka, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-0004 (Japan)

    2007-05-25

    This paper describes a remote monitoring system that can be set up in an operating center to monitor the state of valve regulated lead acid batteries (VRLA) used as a backup power supply for telecommunications. This system has a battery voltage monitoring function, a lifetime prediction function based on ambient temperature, and a discharge circuit diagnosis function. In addition, the system can be equipped with an internal resistance measurement function and an electrolyte leakage detection function to further insure power-supply reliability. Various states of batteries observed with the system are transmitted to the remote operating center by a remote monitoring function. This function enables obtaining immediate information about the condition of batteries and helps to avoid unexpected failures. (author)

  16. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  17. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  18. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  19. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  20. Influence of silver on the anodic corrosion and gas evolution of Pb-Sb-As-Se alloys as positive grids in lead acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizpar, A.; Ghasemi, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of silver addition in the range 0.01-0.09 wt.% on the anodic corrosion and gas evolution of Pb-Sb-As-Se alloy in 1.28 sp.gr. H 2 SO 4 solution at 25 deg. C was studied using linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, weight loss measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results drawn from different techniques are comparable. The effect of different concentration of silver on the corrosion behavior of Pb-Sb-As-Se was investigated. The experimental results show that the silver added to Pb-Sb-As-Se alloy inhibits the growth of anodic corrosion layer. A decrease in the oxygen evolution overpotential and an increase in the hydrogen evolution overpotential with the addition of Ag were also observed during the experiments. Cyclic voltammetric measurements provided information on the effect of Ag on the oxidation of PbSO 4 to PbO 2

  1. Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U.; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2007-01-01

    -of-discharge, the current rate, the existing acid stratification, and the time since the last full charging. The actual Ah throughput is continuously multiplied by a weight factor that represents the actual operating conditions. Even though the modelling approach is mainly heuristic, all of the effects that are taken...

  2. Renewable rural electrification: Prediction of sustainability in South Africa. Case study: Wind and solar photo-voltaic with lead acid battery storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available basic needs within available resources (MDG) A Gini: share of poorest quintile in national consumption (MDG) A World Bank Model for MDG productivity; 0.4% per 10 years life expectancy (MDG) B World Bank Model for MDG productivity; 0... Lucingweni Village is located with its four neighbouring villages and the nature reserve (Illustration 1). The time period for the case study is from September 2004 to January 2007. The boundaries and key elements have been described...

  3. Advanced batteries for load-leveling - The utility perspective on system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonaco, J. L.; Lewis, P. A.; Roman, H. T.; Zemkoski, J.

    1982-09-01

    Rechargeable battery systems for applications as utility load-leveling units, particularly in urban areas, are discussed. Particular attention is given to advanced lead-acid, zinc-halogen, sodium-sulfer, and lithium-iron sulfide battery systems, noting that battery charging can proceed at light load hours and requires no fuel on-site. Each battery site will have a master site controller and related subsystems necessary for ensuring grid-quality power output from the batteries and charging when feasible. The actual interconnection with the grid is envisioned as similar to transmission, subtransmission, or distribution systems similar to cogeneration or wind-derived energy interconnections. Analyses are presented of factors influencing the planning economics, impacts on existing grids through solid-state converters, and operational and maintenance considerations. Finally, research directions towards large scale battery implementation are outlined.

  4. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  5. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  6. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  7. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  8. Mechanical-electrochemical modeling of Li-ion battery designed for an electric scooter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Farid, Mohammed M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland (New Zealand)

    2006-07-14

    A macroscopic electrochemical-mechanical model was developed to predict the various power demands of an electric scooter and other outputs, such as the Li-ion battery pack current and voltage requirements for a randomly generated drive cycle using the Matlab-based Simulink software. The simulation results obtained were compared with the actual field test results of a commercial lead-acid battery pack used in a specific electric scooter. The simulation results appeared to give a realistic idea of the dynamic performance of a conceptual Li-ion battery pack in a typical drive pattern. These results, though, need to be validated in an actual field test. (author)

  9. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  10. The influence of battery degradation level on the selected traction parameters of a light-duty electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.; Noga, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes results of an analysis of the impact of degradation level of battery made in lead-acid technology on selected traction parameters of an electric light duty vehicle. Lead-acid batteries are still used in these types of vehicles. They do not require complex systems of performance management and monitoring and are easy to maintaining. Despite the basic disadvantage, which is the low value of energy density, low price is a decisive factor for their use in low-speed electric vehicles. The process of aging of the battery related with an increase in internal resistance of the cells and the loss of electric capacity of the battery was considered. A simplified model of cooperation of the DC electric motor with the battery assuming increased internal resistance was presented. In the paper the results of comparative traction research of the light-duty vehicle equipped with a set of new batteries and set of batteries having a significant degradation level were showed. The analysis of obtained results showed that the correct exploitation of the battery can slow down the processes of degradation and, thus, extend battery life cycle.

  11. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  12. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  13. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle

  14. Empirical evaluation of the improvement of battery output when coupled with a capacitor bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen R.; Anderson, Allen; Tasillo, Edward; Infantolino, William; Wolfgramm, Paul

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated experimentally that a capacitor bank when connected in parallel with a battery increases the energy output by mitigating the effects of high current spikes in the load. High current draws are taken from the capacitor bank which can furnish a small amount of energy quickly. The battery which can furnish substantial energy over a period of time then recharges the capacitor bank during times of decreased load. With a current square wave (P-P of 1.5 to 2× the average), capacitors afforded an increase in the retrievable energy of approximately 8% for a lead acid battery, 40% for a rechargeable lithium ion battery, and 46% for a non-rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  15. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of variability and rate on battery charge storage and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena Marie

    The growing prevalence of hybrid and electric vehicles, intermittent renewable energy sources, and other complex power systems has triggered a rapid increase in demand for energy storage. Unlike portable electronic devices, whose batteries can be recharged according to a pre-determined protocol simply by plugging them into the wall, many of these applications are characterized by highly variable charge and demand profiles. The central objective of this work is to assess the impact of power distribution and frequency on battery behavior in order to improve overall system efficiency and lifespan in these variable power applications. We first develop and experimentally verify a model to describe the trade-off between battery charging power and energy stored to assess how varying power input affects battery efficiency. This relationship is influenced both by efficiency losses at high powers and by premature voltage cutoffs, which contribute to incomplete battery charging and discharging. We experimentally study the impact of variable power on battery aging in lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, lithium-ion and lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a case study we focus on off-grid wind systems, and analyze the impact of both power distribution and frequency on charge acceptance and degradation in each of these chemistries. We suggest that lithium iron phosphate batteries may be more suitable for off-grid electrification projects than standard lead-acid batteries. We experimentally assess the impact of additional variable charging parameters on battery performance, including the interplay between efficiency, frequency of power oscillations, state-of-charge, incomplete charging and path dependence. We develop a frequency-domain model for hybrid energy storage systems that couples non-stationary frequency analysis of variable power signals to a frequency-based metric for energy storage device performance. The experimental and modeling work developed herein can be utilized to

  17. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  18. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  19. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  20. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  1. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  2. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  3. Stockage pour les énergies renouvelables : évaluation et modélisation de la batterie plomb-acide

    OpenAIRE

    Coupan, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    This work has two parts. A first more "strategic" part concerning the importance of storage for renewable energies. An increasingly technical and increasingly precise part concerning the positioning of the electrochemical storage, the position of the Lead Acid battery, the technological variants, to arrive at a detailed electrochemical modeling of the type of battery retained.In the first section, Chapter 1 of the thesis highlights the good positioning of electrochemical storage for the needs...

  4. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  5. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  6. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  7. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  8. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  9. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  10. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  11. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  12. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  13. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  14. Magnet Design and Analysis of a 40 Tesla Long Pulse System Energized by a Battery Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. L.; Peng, T.; Wang, G. B.; Ding, T. H.; Han, X. T.; Pan, Y.; Li, L.

    2013-03-01

    A 40 tesla long pulse magnet and a battery bank as the power supply have been designed. This is now under construction at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. The 22 mm bore magnet will generate smooth pulses with duration 1 s and rise time 0.5 s. The battery bank consists of 945 12V/200 Ah lead-acid battery cells. The magnet and battery bank were optimized by codes developed in-house and by ANSYS. The coil was made from soft copper with internal reinforcement by fiber-epoxy composite; it is divided into two sections connected in series. The inner section consists of helix coils with each layer reinforced by Zylon composite. The outer section will be wound from copper sheet and externally reinforced by carbon fiber composite.

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Cracking in Si-based anodes for Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aifantis, KE; Dempsey, JP; Hackney, SA

    2005-01-01

    In attempts to increase the anode capacity of rechargeable Li-ion batteries, composite materials with micro- and nano-scale domains of Li active material surrounded by Li inactive material are being investigated. Materials such as Si, Al and Sn that provide capacities between 900 and 4000 mAh g(-1)

  17. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  18. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  19. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  20. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part I: Performance and energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    The technical performance and energy requirements for production and transportation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system at different operating conditions are presented. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (Li-ion), sodium-sulphur (NaS), nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lead-acid (PbA), vanadium-redox (VRB), zinc-bromine (ZnBr) and polysulfide-bromide (PSB). In the reference case, the energy requirements for production and transport of PV-battery systems that use the different battery technologies differ by up to a factor of three. Production and transport of batteries contribute 24-70% to the energy requirements, and the PV array contributes 26-68%. The contribution from other system components is less than 10%. The contribution of transport to energy requirements is 1-9% for transportation by truck, but may be up to 73% for air transportation. The energy requirement for battery production and transport is dominant for systems based on NiCd, NiMH and PbA batteries. The energy requirements for these systems are, therefore, sensitive to changes in battery service life and gravimetric energy density. For systems with batteries with relatively low energy requirement for production and transportation (Li-ion, NaS, VRB, ZnBr, PSB), the battery charge-discharge efficiency has a larger impact. In Part II, the data presented here are used to calculate energy payback times and overall battery efficiencies of the PV-battery systems

  1. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  2. Supercapacitor performance evaluation in replacing battery based on charging and discharging current characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Siahaan, S.; Mubarakah, N.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Supercapacitor is a new device of energy storage, which has much difference between ordinary capacitors and batteries. Supercapacitor have higher capacitance and energy density than regular capacitors. The supercapacitor also has a fast charging time, as well as a long life. To be used as a battery replacement please note the internal parameters of the battery to be replaced. In this paper conducted a simulation study to utilize supercapacitor as a replacement battery. The internal parameters of the battery and the supercapacitor are obtained based on the characteristics of charging and discharging current using a predefined equivalent circuit model. The battery to be replaced is a 12-volt lead-acid type, 6.5 Ah which is used on motorcycles with 6A charging and discharging currents. Super capacitor replacement capacitor is a capacity of 1600F, 2.7V which is connected in series as many as 6 pieces with 16.2 volt terminal voltage and charging current 12A. To obtain the same supercapacitor characteristic as the battery characteristic to be replaced, modification of its internal parameters is made. The results show that the super-capacitor can replace the battery function for 1000 seconds.

  3. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  4. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  5. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  6. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  7. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  8. Analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong J.; Cho, Bo H.

    In spacecraft battery charger systems, switching regulators are widely used for bus voltage regulation, charge current regulation, and peak power tracking. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of the battery charging subsystem of direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT) systems are analyzed to facilitate design of the control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control loop designs of the charger in various modes of operation are discussed. Analyses are verified through simulations. It is shown that when the charger operates in the bus voltage regulation mode, the control-to-voltage transfer function has a negative DC gain and two LHP zeros in both the DET and PPT systems. The control-to-inductor current transfer function also has a negative DC gain and a RHP zero. Thus, in the current-mode control, the current loop can no longer be used to stabilize the system. When the system operates in the charge current regulation mode, the charger operates with a fixed duty cycle which is determined by the regulated bus voltage and the battery voltage. Without an input filter, the converter becomes a first-order system. When the peak power tracker is inactive, the operating point of the solar array output moves to the voltage source region. Thus, the solar array behaves as a stiff voltage source to a constant power load.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF PROLONGED PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN HEALTHY MALE PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that physical activity beneficially influences cognitive functioning. Less thoroughly investigated are the cognitive outcomes of reduced physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity induced by bed rest on the participant’s cognitive functioning. Bed rest is a well-accepted method by which an acute stage of human adaptation to weightlessness in space flights is simulated, as well as an important model to study the consequences of extreme physical inactivity in humans. The subjects participating in the study consisted of fifteen healthy males aged between 19 and 65 years who were exposed to 14-day horizontal bed rest in a strict hospital environment. To assess the cognitive functions of the participants, a neuropsychological test battery was administered before and after the bed rest experiment. There was no significant impairment in cognitive performance after the 14-day bed rest on all tests, except in the measurements of delayed recall in the group of older adults. The results suggest that cognitive functions remained relatively stable during the period of physical immobilization. The obtained results have been discussed taking the possible contributing factors into account such as the practice effect, the relatively short duration of bed rest, and the choice of the cognitive measures administered. The study also provides evidence that favourable living and psychosocial conditions can protect one against cognitive decline in the case of extreme physical inactivity.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  11. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  12. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  13. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  16. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  17. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  18. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  19. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  20. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  1. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  2. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  3. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  4. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  5. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  6. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  7. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  8. Development of near-term batteries for electric vehicles. Summary report, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, J.B. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The status and results through FY 1979 on the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Battery Project of the Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. This project conducts R and D on lead-acid, nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries with the objective of achieving commercialization in electric vehicles in the 1980's. Key results of the R and D indicate major technology advancements and achievement of most of FY 1979 performance goals. In the lead-acid system the specific energy was increased from less than 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate; the peak power density improved from 70 W/kg to over 110 W/kg at the 50% state of charge; and over 200 deep-discharge cycle life demonstrated. In the nickel/iron system a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg was achieved; a peak power of about 100 W/kg demonstrated and a life of 36 cycles obtained. In the nickel/zinc system, specific energies of up to 64 Wh/kg were shown; peak powers of 133 W/kg obtained; and a life of up to 120 cycles measured. Future R and D will emphasize increased cycle life for nickel/zinc batteries and increased cycle life and specific energy for lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. Testing of 145 cells was completed by NBTL. Cell evaluation included a full set of performance tests plus the application of a simulated power profile equivalent to the power demands of an electric vehicle in stop-start urban driving. Simplified test profiles which approximate electric vehicle demands are also described.

  9. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  10. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  11. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  12. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  13. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  14. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  15. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  16. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  17. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  18. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  19. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  20. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  1. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  2. Status of the Li-Al/FeS battery manufacturing technology. An evaluation for the US Army, Belvoir R and D Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenskas, A. A.; Shimotake, H.; Malecha, R.; Battles, J.; Miller, W.; Yao, N. P.; Saltat, R.; Hudson, R.

    1984-08-01

    Research and development work on rechargeable lithium/molten salt batteries, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, is under way at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and several industrial laboratories for the past decade. In 1978, a program for the US Army (Belvoir R and D Center) was initiated with ANL and Eagle-Picher Industries to ascertain the status and to aid the development of the manufacturing technology of the Li-Al/FeS battery as a power source for forklift trucks. A long lived cell, achieving greater than 1000 discharge cycles, was developed in the Army program and was used as a basis for a forklift truck battery design. The projected performance of the Li-Al/FeS battery showed a 200% increase in stored energy when compared with a lead acid battery of equal volume.

  3. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  4. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  6. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  7. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  8. Lead paste recycling based on conversion into battery grade oxides. Electrochemical tests and industrial production of new batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, G.; Rosestolato, D.; Scura, F.; Cattarin, S.; Mattarozzi, L.; Guerriero, P.; Gambirasi, A.; Brianese, N.; Staiti, P.; Guerriero, R.; La Sala, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present the preparation and characterization of pure lead monoxide obtained through recycling of the lead paste recovered from exhausted lead acid batteries. The recycling is based on a hydrometallurgical procedure reported in a STC Patent, that includes simple chemical operations (desulphurisation, leaching, precipitation, filtration) and a final thermal conversion. Materials obtained by treatment at 600 °C consist predominantly of β-PbO. The electrochemical behaviour of Positive Active Mass (PAM) prepared from different materials (or mixtures) is then investigated and compared. An optimized oxide material, obtained by prolonged (8 h) thermal treatment at 600 °C, consists of pure β-PbO and appears suitable for preparation of battery elements, alone or in mixture with a small fraction (10%-30%) of traditional industrial leady oxide. The resulting battery performances are similar to those obtained from pure leady oxide. In comparison with traditional recycling processes, the proposed method guarantees lower energy consumption, limited environmental impact and reduced operating risk for industry workers.

  9. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  10. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  11. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  12. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  13. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  14. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  15. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  16. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  17. Verification test for an electric vehicle using capacitor-battery series connection for battery load levelling; Denchi no fuka heijunka no tame no kyapashita to denchi no chokuretsu setsuzoku hoshiki wo saiyoshita denki jidosha no jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaoka, K.; Takehara, J.; Kato, S. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    For the prolongation of the distance that an electric vehicle (EV) can cover on a single charge and of the service life of the EV battery unit, a system is developed, in which the battery unit and the capacitor unit are connected in series for the levelling-off of battery peak loads, and the system is tested aboard a running real vehicle. Installed on the real vehicle is a battery unit that is a series connection of 20 12V-38Ah seal-type lead-acid batteries, each battery consisting of two cells connected in parallel. Driving the vehicle is a DC brushless motor capable of a maximum operation of 9000rpm. Also installed is a capacitor unit that is a parallel connection of 40 2.3V-1800F capacitors, each capacitor consisting of two capacitors connected in parallel. Findings are described below. In a 0-400m acceleration test, 22.5 seconds is recorded with the capacitor unit in operation, meaning an improvement of 0.7 seconds. The maximum speed remains unchanged at 110km/h, which agrees with the pre-calculated value. Although the battery peak load reduction rate in a 15-mode drive pattern marks 23%, the distances covered on a single charge in this drive pattern turn out to be almost the same whether the capacitor unit is in operation or not. 3 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  20. Effect of tariffs on the performance and economic benefits of PV-coupled battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared under three different retail tariffs. • The battery ageing, i.e. capacity and discharge capability reduction is simulated. • A dynamic tariff (1-h resolution) increases the battery discharge value up to 28%. • A Li-ion cost of 375 CHF/kW h is required for Geneva for PV energy time-shift. • This requirement becomes 500 CHF/kW h if demand peak-shaving is also performed. - Abstract: The use of batteries in combination with PV systems in single homes is expected to become a widely applied energy storage solution. Since PV system cost is decreasing and the electricity market is constantly evolving there is marked interest in understanding the performance and economic benefits of adding battery systems to PV generation under different retail tariffs. The performance of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery systems in combination with PV generation for a single home in Switzerland is studied using a time-dependant analysis. Firstly, the economic benefits of the two battery types are analysed for three different types of tariffs, i.e. a dynamic tariff based on the wholesale market (one price per hour for every day of the year), a flat rate and time-of-use tariff with two periods. Secondly, the reduction of battery capacity and annual discharge throughout the battery lifetime are simulated for PbA and Li-ion batteries. It was found that despite the levelised value of battery systems reaches up to 28% higher values with the dynamic tariff compared to the flat rate tariff, the levelised cost increases by 94% for the dynamic tariff, resulting in lower profitability. The main reason for this is the reduction of equivalent full cycles performed with by battery systems with the dynamic tariff. Economic benefits also depend on the regulatory context and Li-ion battery systems were able to achieve internal rate of return (IRR) up to 0.8% and 4.3% in the region of Jura (Switzerland) and Germany due to

  1. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  2. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  3. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  4. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  5. Electric vehicle batteries. Development status for the promising candidates; Elbilsbatterier. Utvecklingsstatus foer de fraemsta kandidaterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Johansson, Arne [Catella Generics AB, Jaerfaella (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    One driver for the EV and HEV programme of KFB is to study the effects of a large scale introduction of electric vehicles in the future. Catella Generics was contracted to investigate and report on the development status for EV batteries and the success potential for the different candidates, their development obstacles and alternative usage and on the links between different players. The batteries studied in greater detail have been evaluated according to special criteria like performance, cost, ruggedness, resource efficiency, safety and environmental impact and how that will influence their likely success. Models for the evaluation of EV batteries have been developed by the car manufacturers and authorities. We have based our investigation on the criteria established by USABC and the modifications made by PNGV for the energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Some basic conclusions reported as a result of this investigation are listed below: Lead-acid may have a role as energy storage in HEVs. Ni/Cd batteries are attractive from a technical standpoint, but questioned based on the environmental concern for cadmium. Ni/MH batteries are attracting a great attention in the medium term. Na/NiCl{sub 2} batteries have been successful in the German demonstration programme. Lithium batteries have a great potential in the long term. Metal/air batteries have been operated without problems, however there need for a special infrastructure is a major draw-back. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are new alternative power sources for propulsion of EVs, however these are not included in this report.

  6. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery venting system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  8. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  9. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  10. Conceptual design of a sodium sulfur cell for US electric van batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binden, Peter J.

    1993-05-01

    A conceptual design of an advanced sodium/sulfur cell for US electric-van applications has been completed. The important design factors included specific physical and electrical requirements, service life, manufacturability, thermal management, and safety. The capacity of this cell is approximately the same as that for the PB cell being developed by Silent Power Limited (10 Ah). The new cell offers a 50% improvement in energy capacity and nearly a 100% improvement in peak power over the existing PB cells. A battery constructed with such cells would significantly exceed the USABC's mid-term performance specifications. In addition, a similar cell and battery design effort was completed for an advanced passenger car application. A battery using the van cell would have nearly 3 times the energy compared to lead-acid batteries, yet weigh 40% less; a present-day battery using a cell specifically designed for this car would provide 50% more energy in a package 60% smaller and 50% lighter.

  11. A hybrid PV-battery/diesel electricity supply on Peucang island: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Günther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies are currently under a dynamic cost development. This case holds especially for solar technology that has reached price levels that were unimaginable until a short time ago. It also holds for battery technologies the application of which is related to the increasing usage of photovoltaic energy converters and the growing interest in electric vehicles. With the decreasing prices more and more possible application cases of renewable energy technologies become economically viable. A case study was done for a location on a small island located on the west tip of Java. The levelized electricity cost of a hybrid electricity supply system composed of a solar generator and battery in combination with the existing diesel generators was compared to the electricity generation cost of the existing system. Two different battery options were taken into account, lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The results of this study can give a rough orientation also for other locations with similar characteristics.

  12. Single-Source Multi-Battery Solar Charger: Analysis and Stability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kuperman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic analysis of a multi-battery dual mode charger, powered by a single solar array and suitable for lead-acid and lithium-ion cell-based batteries is presented. Each battery is interfaced to the solar array by means of a current-controlled buck power stage, operating either in constant power or constant voltage mode. Operation in former/latter charging mode implies regulating input/output voltage of the converter, which is a non-trivial situation since while feeding different batteries, all the converters share the same input terminals, connected to the solar array. It is revealed that when at least one of the batteries operates in constant power charging mode, open-loop instability occurs whenever converter input voltage is lower than maximum power point voltage of the solar array. Consequently, input voltage regulating controller must be designed to stabilize closed-loop dynamics for the worst case of instability, which is also derived. Moreover, it is shown that the dynamics of the converters operating under output voltage control are perceived as disturbances by input voltage control loop and must be properly rejected. Simple loop shaping design is proposed based on a PI controller, allowing stabilizing the system in case of worst case instability and rejecting output voltage control induced disturbances at the expense of non-constant, operating-point dependent closed-loop damping.

  13. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  14. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  15. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  16. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems; Caracterizacion de bater@as de litio para aplicaci@n a sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-07-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  17. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  18. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  19. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  20. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  1. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  2. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  3. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind-diesel-battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merei, Ghada [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

    2012-07-01

    The power supply of remote sites and applications at minimal cost and with low emissions is an important issue when discussing future energy concepts. This paper presents the modelling and optimisation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system. The system consists of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a wind turbine as renewable power sources, a diesel generator for back-up power and batteries to store excess energy and to improve the system reliability. For storage the technologies of lithium-ion, lead-acid, vanadium redox-flow or a combination thereof are considered. In order to use different battery technologies at once, a battery management system (BMS) is needed. The presented BMS minimises operation cost while taking into account different battery operating points and ageing mechanisms. The system is modelled and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. As input, the model uses data of the irradiation, wind speed and air temperature measured in ten minute intervals for ten years in Aachen, Germany. The load is assumed to be that of a rural UMTS/GSM base station for telecommunication. For a timeframe of 20 years, the performance is evaluated and the total costs are determined. Using a genetic algorithm, component sizes and settings are then varied and the system re-evaluated to minimise the overall cost. The optimisation results show that using batteries in combination with the renewables is economic and ecologic. However, the best solution is to combine redox-flow batteries with the renewables. In addition, a power supply system consisting only of batteries, PV and wind generators can satisfy the power demand.

  4. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  5. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  6. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For any battery-powered vehicles (be it unmanned aerial vehicles, small passenger aircraft, or assets in exoplanetary operations) to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it is critical to monitor battery health as well performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL). To fulfil these needs, it is important to capture the battery's inherent characteristics as well as operational knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic algorithms. Several battery modeling methodologies have been developed in last few years as the understanding of underlying electrochemical mechanics has been advancing. The models can generally be classified as empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multi-physics models, and molecular/atomist. Empirical models are based on fitting certain functions to past experimental data, without making use of any physicochemical principles. Electrical circuit equivalent models are an example of such empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models are typically continuum models that include electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. The former type of model has the advantage of being computationally efficient, but has limited accuracy and robustness, due to the approximations used in developed model, and as a result of such approximations, cannot represent aging well. The latter type of model has the advantage of being very accurate, but is often computationally inefficient, having to solve complex sets of partial differential equations, and thus not suited well for online prognostic applications. In addition both multi-physics and atomist models are computationally expensive hence are even less suited to online application An electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries has been developed, that captures crucial electrochemical processes, captures effects of aging, is computationally efficient

  7. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  8. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  10. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  11. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  12. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  13. The nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work. 19 refs

  14. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  15. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  16. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  17. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  18. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  19. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  20. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  2. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  3. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  4. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    company, Yardney Technical Products, is a potential supplier of lithium systems to the military but, to date, has not produced any batteries . The...small,3 single pimary cell batteries used in commercial electoic devices. Yardney Technical Products, Inc. and BST Systems are the North Americ-m...primary reserve silver zinc batteries , there are three main suppliers - Yardney , Whittaker, and Eagle-Picher. Commercial primary silver zinc cells are

  5. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  6. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  7. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  8. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  9. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  10. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  11. Design of shape memory alloy actuators for direct power by an automotive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, M.; Huang, S.; Ataalla, T.; Baxter, A.; Subic, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model Ni–Ti SMA actuators directly powered by a standard automotive battery. ► Feasible permutations for direct power are identified and confirmed experimentally. ► 0.5 mm diameter SMA of 225 mm length or larger is feasible for direct power. ► The feasibility of 0.25 mm SMA is greater, although the actuation force is lower. ► Prototype actuators are developed for long-stroke and short-stroke applications. -- Abstract: Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are increasingly utilized as mechanical actuators due to high power-to-mass ratio, high fatigue life and low cost. The implementation of SMA actuators in an automotive environment is of particular interest due to the potential for lower end-user functional efforts, together with reduced component mass and cost within a limited packaging space. In applications of this kind, the actuators are powered by a standard automotive (six cell lead-acid) battery. Although resistors and electronic devices can be used to avoid overload of either the SMA or battery system, the feasibility of supplying power to the actuators directly from the battery becomes a key objective for reducing system cost and complexity. In this study, the electrical resistivity of a linear Ni–Ti SMA actuator was theoretically calculated and experimentally verified. Based on this developed knowledge, the resistance of various actuator permutations was calculated, and the feasibility of operating the actuators with a standard automotive battery was assessed. To confirm the feasibility of powering SMA actuators directly from the automotive battery, two SMA actuator concepts were developed and experimentally validated.

  12. Development of high power VRLA batteries using novel materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Valenciano, J.; Ojeda, A.; Raybaut, G.; Ihmels, K.; Deiters, J.; Clement, N.; Morales, J.; Sánchez, L.

    Nowadays UPS manufacturers demand batteries with very high specific power and relatively low specific energy, because most mains failures can be defined as "microfailures", usually of the order of seconds. Due to this fact, it is not necessary to provide energy but power. Within a 3-year EU funded project, a new AGM valve-regulated lead-acid battery with weight and volume substantially reduced, as well as a substantial improvement in its reliability, is under development. These aspects can provide the achievement of a more efficient, safe and economic energy supply. Battery specific power is practically related to electrode area, so that its increase, and therefore an electrode thickness reduction, appear essential to achieve the project objectives. Furthermore, it is necessary to achieve a similar reduction in the conventional glass microfibre separator. But such thin material should have improved mechanical properties and can make the battery more prone to develop short circuits across the separator. In order to avoid this problem, a new microporous polyethylene membrane has been developed and tested, with excellent mechanical properties, high porosity and low pore size. For these reasons, the final separator configuration includes a combination of both materials, improved non-woven glass microfibre and the polyethylene membrane. Batteries are designed and assembled by Tudor (Exide Technologies) as battery manufacturer and will be tested in real conditions by MGE UPS Systems as end user. Daramic for the membrane and Bernard Dumas for the glass microfibre mat, have developed and supplied the separators, while the Inorganic Chemistry Department of Córdoba University carries out fundamental research studies on very thin electrodes.

  13. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery...

  14. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  15. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  16. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the system lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. ...

  17. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  18. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  19. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  1. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  2. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  3. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  4. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  5. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  6. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  7. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  8. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  9. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  10. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  11. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  13. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  14. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  15. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Argent-Katwala, Ashok; Dingle, Nicholas J.; Harder, Uli

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  16. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  17. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  18. Secondary-Phase Stochastics in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mistry, Aashutosh N. [Purdue University; Mukherjee, Partha P. [Purdue University

    2018-01-12

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes exhibit complex interplay among multiple electrochemically coupled transport processes, which rely on the underlying functionality and relative arrangement of different constituent phases. The electrochemically inactive solid phases (e.g., conductive additive and binder, referred to as the secondary phase), while beneficial for improved electronic conductivity and mechanical integrity, may partially block the electrochemically active sites and introduce additional transport resistances in the pore (electrolyte) phase. In this work, the role of mesoscale interactions and inherent stochasticity in porous electrodes is elucidated in the context of short-range (interface) and long-range (transport) characteristics. The electrode microstructure significantly affects kinetically and transport-limiting scenarios and thereby the cell performance. The secondary-phase morphology is also found to strongly influence the microstructure-transport-kinetics interactions. Apropos, strategies have been proposed for performance improvement via electrode microstructural modifications.

  19. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  20. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  1. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  2. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  3. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  4. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  5. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  6. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  7. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  9. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  10. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  11. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................................. 62 5.3 Sizing the battery ................................................................................................ 65 5.4 Specifications for the battery bank ..................................................................... 67 5... of the system, the specific components required may include major components such as a DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances) The performance...

  12. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  13. Cell for making secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  14. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  15. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  16. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  17. A zinc paste primary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

    1983-03-01

    It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

  18. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  19. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  20. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  1. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  2. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  3. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  4. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  5. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  6. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  7. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  8. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  9. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  10. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  11. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  13. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  14. Short-range contacts govern the performance of industry-relevant battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelly, Samantha L.; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Tang, Maureen H.

    2018-05-01

    Fundamental understanding of how processing affects composite battery electrode structure and performance is still lacking, especially for industry-relevant electrodes with low fractions of inactive material. This work combines rheology, electronic conductivity measurements, and battery rate capability tests to prove that short-range electronic contacts are more important to cathode rate capability than either ion transport or long-range electronic conductivity. LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2, carbon black, and polyvinylidene difluoride in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone represent a typical commercial electrode with carbon black with active material decreases the relative fraction of bulk (free) carbon, as shown by small angle oscillatory shear and microscopy. More free carbon leads to a stronger gel network (more long-range particle contacts) and higher electronic conductivity of the dried films. Improvements in battery rate capability at constant electrode porosity do not correlate to electronic conductivity, but rather show an optimum fraction of free carbon. Simple comparison of rate capability in electrodes with increased total carbon loading (3 wt%) shows improvement for all fractions of free carbon. These results clearly indicate that ion transport cannot be limiting and highlight the critical importance of short-range electronic contacts for controlling battery performance.

  15. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  16. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  17. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  19. Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind/battery/hydrogen systems for very small-scale applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of three stand-alone hybrid power systems based on renewable energy sources which supply a specific group of low-power consumers. This particular case includes measuring sensors and obstacle lights on a meteorological mast for wind measurements requiring an uninterrupted power supply in cold climate conditions. Although these low-power (100 W measuring sensors and obstacle lights use little energy, their energy consumption is not the same as the available solar energy obtained on a daily or seasonal basis. In the paper, complementarity of renewable energy sources was analysed, as well as one of short-term lead-acid battery-based storage and seasonal, hydrogen-based (electrolyser, H2 tank, and fuel cells storage. These relatively complex power systems were proposed earlier for high-power consumers only, while this study specifically highlights the role of the hydrogen system for supplying low-power consumers. The analysis employed a numerical simulation method using the HOMER software tool. The results of the analysis suggest that solar and wind-solar systems, which involve meteorological conditions as referred to in this paper, include a relatively large number of lead-acid batteries. Additionally, the analysis suggests that the use of hydrogen power systems for supplying low power-consumers is entirely justifiable, as it significantly reduces the number of batteries (two at minimum in this particular case. It was shown that the increase in costs induced by the hydrogen system is acceptable.

  20. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  1. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  2. The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amy; Lawler, Kathy; Olson, Ingrid R; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery (PFPB) tests four aspects of face perception: discrimination of facial similarity, attractiveness, gender, and age. Calibration with 116 neurologically intact subjects yielded average performance of ~90%. Across subjects, there was a low correlation (perception. There were modest effects of subject demographic factors upon performance, and test-retest reliability scores (between 0.37 and 0.75) were comparable to other neuropsychological batteries. Modification of the stimuli to obscure internal facial features lowered performance on the age, gender, and attractiveness discrimination tests between 2 and 4 standard deviations. The clinical sensitivity of the battery was demonstrated by testing a patient with acquired prosopagnosia. She showed performance impairments of between 2 and 4 standard deviations on all sub-tests. The PFPB is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:18082362

  3. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  4. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  5. Li-air batteries: Decouple to stabilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium-air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

  6. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  7. Battery failure model derived from flaw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, I.

    1981-01-01

    A previously derived failure model for battery lifetime is discussed in terms of growth rate of the flaw, distribution of flaw sizes, and number of flaws. Equations are presented for determining the failure model for a nickel cadmium battery.

  8. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  9. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  10. Materials science: Pulley protection in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2017-09-01

    High-energy battery electrodes can break apart during operation. Conventional rope-and-pulley systems have inspired the development of a polymer that holds electrodes together at the molecular scale, enabling durable batteries to be made.

  11. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  12. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  13. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  14. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  15. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  16. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  17. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  18. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  19. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  20. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  1. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  2. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  3. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... of degradation processes. (iii) Reduction of battery cost; a way to reduce costs, increase battery residual value and improve sustainability is to consider second life uses of batteries used in EV. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary...

  5. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  7. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  8. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  9. Top ten reasons why coke batteries fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohle, H.; Schulte, H.; Ramani, R.V. [ThyssenKrupp EnCoke GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The reasons for the failure of coke batteries are varied and interrelated. Identifying them and taking precautionary measures against them will help with the possible extension of the service life of the batteries. Most of the contributory factors are interrelated and in combination they encourage faster deterioration of the battery. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  10. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  11. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Battery impedance can provide valuable insight into the condition of the battery. Commercially available impedance measurement instruments are expensive. Hence their direct use in a battery management system is not justifiable. In this work, a 3-kW bi-directional converter for charging and discharging a batterybank has ...

  12. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  14. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  15. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  16. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  17. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  18. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  20. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.