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Sample records for inactive indomethacin reversed

  1. Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone). Indomethacin immediate-release capsules, suspension (liquid) and suppositories are also used to treat acute gouty arthritis ( ... suspension to take by mouth and as a suppository to be used rectally. Indomethacin capsules and liquid ...

  2. Biotin-Pt (IV)-indomethacin hybrid: A targeting anticancer prodrug providing enhanced cancer cellular uptake and reversing cisplatin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Fang, Lei; Hua, Wuyang; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-10-01

    A Pt(IV) prodrug (2) composed of cancer-targeting biotin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in the axial positions of the six-coordinated octahedral geometry derived from cisplatin was developed, which could be highly accumulated in cancer cells more than normal ones and activated by endogenous reducing molecules to release cisplatin and indomethacin moieties simultaneously to inhibit tumor progression synergistically. In vitro assays revealed that 2 exhibited significantly selective inhibition to the tested cancer cell lines and sensitivity to cisplatin resistant cancer cells. Moreover, 2 presented cyclooxygenases inhibition properties to reduce tumor-associated inflammation, reduced the invasiveness of the highly aggressive PC-3 cells, and disrupted capillary-like tube formation in EA.hy926 cells. In all, this study offers a new strategy to enhance sensitivity and reduce toxicity of cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Indomethacin therapy in hydramnios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhyankar S

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The use of indomethacin in treatment of hydramnios was evaluated. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Twelve patients with symptomatic hydramnios were treated with indomethacin (2.2- 3.0 mg/kg body weight/day. RESULTS: The treatment was started at a gestational age of 31.17-/+7.94 weeks and continued for 3.74-/+2.3 weeks. Eleven patients responded to the therapy both subjectively and objectively and pregnancies were prolonged by 4.6-/+3.1 weeks (range 0.1-10 weeks. Five women had term deliveries. Six patients had a favourable perinatal outcome. Four patients who had a known congenital anomaly in the foetus, delivered stillborn babies or had an early neonatal death. One patient who did not follow up after commencing therapy delivered a full-term stillbirth. One patient delivered within 1 day of starting therapy. Indomethacin therapy caused no maternal complications. CONCLUSION: Indomethacin was effective in the management of hydramnios and preventing it′s complications.

  4. Indomethacin for control of ICP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Nick; Zeiler, Frederick A; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael; Kazina, Colin J

    2015-06-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of indomethacin and its effects on intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with neurological illness. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to July 2014), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers independently identified all manuscripts utilizing the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Humans, prospective studies (five or more patients), documented ICP response to indomethacin, and English. non-English, retrospective studies, no documentation of ICP response to indomethacin, and animal studies. A two-tier filter of references was conducted. First, we screened manuscripts by title and abstract. Second, those references passing the first filter were pulled, and the full manuscript was checked to see if it matched the criteria for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Our search strategy produced a total of 208 citations. Twelve original articles, 10 manuscripts, and 2 meeting proceeding, were considered for the review with all utilizing indomethacin, while documenting ICP in neurological patients. All studies were prospective. Across all studies, there were a total of 177 patients studied, with 152 receiving indomethacin and 25 serving as controls in a variety of heterogeneous studies. All but one study documented a decrease in ICP with indomethacin administration, with both bolus and continuous infusions. No significant complications were described. There currently exists Oxford level 2b, GRADE C evidence to support that indomethacin reduces ICP in the severe TBI population. Similar conclusions in other populations cannot be made at this time. Comments on its impact

  5. Metformin and phenformin block the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin on the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2012-01-02

    Recent evidence has shown that systemic administration of sulfonylureas and biguanides block the diclofenac-induced antinociception, but not the effect produced by indomethacin. However, there are no reports about the peripheral interaction between analgesics and the biguanides metformin and phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether glibenclamide and glipizide and the biguanides metformin and phenformin have any effect on the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin. Diclofenac and indomethacin were administered locally in the formalin-injured rat paw, and the antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the 1% formalin test. To determine whether peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac or indomethacin was mediated by either the ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or biguanides-induced mechanisms, the effect of pretreatment with the appropriates vehicles or glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin on the antinociceptive effect induced by local peripheral diclofenac and indomethacin was assessed. Local peripheral injections of diclofenac (50-200 μg/paw) and indomethacin (200-800 μg/paw) produced a dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Local pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin blocked the diclofenac-induced antinociception. On the other hand, the pretreatment with glibenclamide and glipizide did not prevent the local antinociception produced by indomethacin. Nonetheless, metformin and phenformin reversed the local antinociception induced by indomethacin. Data suggest that diclofenac could activate the K(+) channels and biguanides-dependent mechanisms to produce its peripheral antinociceptive effects in the formalin test. Likewise, a biguanides-dependent mechanism could be activated by indomethacin consecutively to generate its peripheral antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversible Activation of Halophilic β-lactamase from Methanol-Induced Inactive Form: Contrast to Irreversible Inactivation of Non-Halophilic Counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Junpei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-06-01

    Effects of a water-miscible organic solvent, methanol, on the structure and activity of halophilic β-lactamase derived from Chromohalobacter sp.560 (HaBla), were investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) measurement and enzymatic activity determination. Beta-lactamase activity was enhanced about 1.2-fold in the presence of 10-20% methanol. CD measurement of HaBla revealed different structures depending on the methanol concentration: native-like active form (Form I) in 10-20% methanol and methanol-induced inactive form at higher concentration (Form II in 40-60% and Form III in 75-80% methanol). Incubation of HaBla with 40% methanol led to the complete loss of activity within ~80 min accompanied by the formation of Form II, whose activity was recovered promptly up to ~80% of full activity upon dilution of the methanol concentration to 10%. In addition, when the protein concentration was sufficiently high (e.g., 0.7 mg/ml), HaBla activity of Form III in 75% methanol could be recovered in the same way (with slightly slower recovery rate), upon dilution of the methanol concentration. In contrast, non-halophilic β-lactamase from Escherichia coli K12 strain MG1655 (EcBla) was irreversibly denatured in the presence of 40% methanol. HaBla showed remarkable ability to renature from the methanol-induced inactive states.

  7. Indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surwase, Sachin A; Bøtker, Johan Peter; Saville, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    suspension. Specifically, the effect of pH and temperature on crystallization behaviour was studied. Quench cooled amorphous powder was added to buffered media at different pH values (1.2, 4.5, and 6.8) at 5 and 25°C. Both the solid and solution were analyzed at different time points up to 24 h. ATR...

  8. Effect of indomethacin and lactoferrin on human tenocyte proliferation and collagen formation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yaonan [Centre for Nanohealth, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Orthopaedic, Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, China 100730 (China); Wang, Xiao; Qiu, Yiwei [Centre for Nanohealth, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Cornish, Jillian [Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Carr, Andrew J. [Centre for Nanohealth, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Xia, Zhidao, E-mail: z.xia@swansea.ac.uk [Centre for Nanohealth, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, UK SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • Indomethacin, a classic NSAID, inhibited human tenocyte proliferation at high concentration (100 µM). • Lactoferrin at 50-100 µg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival, proliferation and collagen synthesis. • Lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in patients with injuries and inflammation of tendon and ligament, and as post-surgical analgesics. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of indomethacin, a classic NSAID and its combinational effect with an anabolic agent of skeletal tissue, lactoferrin, on the proliferation and collagen formation of human tenocytes in vitro. A factorial experimental design was employed to study the dose-dependent effect of the combination of indomethacin and lactoferrin. The results showed that indomethacin at high concentration (100 μM) inhibited human tenocyte proliferation in culture medium with 1–10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Also, high dose of indomethacin inhibited the collagen formation of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. Lactoferrin at 50–100 μg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival in serum-free culture medium and enhanced proliferation and collagen synthesis of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. When 50–100 μg/ml lactoferrin was used in combination with 100–200 μM indomethacin, it partially rescued the inhibitory effects of indomethacin on human tenocyte proliferation, viability and collagen formation. To our knowledge, it is the first evidence that lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes.

  9. Effect of indomethacin and lactoferrin on human tenocyte proliferation and collagen formation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yaonan; Wang, Xiao; Qiu, Yiwei; Cornish, Jillian; Carr, Andrew J.; Xia, Zhidao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Indomethacin, a classic NSAID, inhibited human tenocyte proliferation at high concentration (100 µM). • Lactoferrin at 50-100 µg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival, proliferation and collagen synthesis. • Lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in patients with injuries and inflammation of tendon and ligament, and as post-surgical analgesics. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of indomethacin, a classic NSAID and its combinational effect with an anabolic agent of skeletal tissue, lactoferrin, on the proliferation and collagen formation of human tenocytes in vitro. A factorial experimental design was employed to study the dose-dependent effect of the combination of indomethacin and lactoferrin. The results showed that indomethacin at high concentration (100 μM) inhibited human tenocyte proliferation in culture medium with 1–10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Also, high dose of indomethacin inhibited the collagen formation of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. Lactoferrin at 50–100 μg/ml promoted human tenocyte survival in serum-free culture medium and enhanced proliferation and collagen synthesis of human tenocytes in 1% FBS culture medium. When 50–100 μg/ml lactoferrin was used in combination with 100–200 μM indomethacin, it partially rescued the inhibitory effects of indomethacin on human tenocyte proliferation, viability and collagen formation. To our knowledge, it is the first evidence that lactoferrin is anabolic to human tenocytes in vitro and reverses potential inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on human tenocytes

  10. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  11. Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin Using Full Factorial Design. SA Afifi, WM Mandour, KA Elkhodairy. Abstract. Purpose: To develop and optimize indomethacin (IDM) matrix tablets for specific colon drug delivery. Methods: Indomethacin matrix tablets containing hydrogenated castor oil ...

  12. Based Indomethacin Sustained-Release Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with prominent ... systemic toxic effects through the impairment of .... content spectrophotometrically at 298 nm. An equal volume of the withdrawn sample was replaced with fresh medium to maintain sink condition. The amount of drug released at each time.

  13. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... the SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke. [Lopes RS, Cardoso MM, Sampaio AO, Barbosa Jr MS, Souza CC, da Silva MC, Ferreira EMN, Freire MAM, Lima RR and Gomes-Leal W 2016. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the ...

  14. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia. ROSANA S LOPES MARCELO M CARDOSO ARTHUR O SAMPAIO MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA Jr CELICE C SOUZA MICHELLE C DA SILVA ELANE ...

  15. Indomethacin counteracts the effects of chronic social defeat stress on emotional but not recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Aránzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL); non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND); stressed + saline (S+SAL); and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND). Stressed animals were exposed to a daily 10 min agonistic confrontation (CSDS) for 20 days. All subjects were treated daily with saline or indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.). 24 h after the CSDS period, all the mice were evaluated in a social interaction test to distinguish between those that were resilient or susceptible to social stress. All subjects (n = 10-12 per group) were then evaluated in inhibitory avoidance (IA), novel object recognition (NOR), elevated plus maze and hot plate tests. As in control animals (NS+SAL group), IA learning was observed in the resilient groups, as well as in the susceptible mice treated with indomethacin (S+IND group). Recognition memory was observed in the non-stressed and the resilient mice, but not in the susceptible animals. Also, stressed mice exhibited higher anxiety levels. No significant differences were observed in locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety in post-pubertal mice and impairs emotional and recognition memory in the susceptible subjects. The effects of CSDS on emotional memory, but not on recognition memory and anxiety, are reversed by indomethacin. Moreover, memory impairment is not secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity.

  16. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic...... indomethacin blood levels. Oleic acid does not affect indomethacin binding until the oleate/albumin molar ratio exceeds 2. A method for measuring the reserve albumin equivalent for binding indomethacin is described. Measurement of this reserve binding equivalent in 33 neonatal serum samples shows...

  17. Formulation of indomethacin eye drops via complexation with cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim Mohamed, Maaly A; Mahmoud, Azza A

    2011-03-01

    Topically administered indomethacin is used in the management and prevention of ocular inflammation and cystoid macular edema related to cataract surgery and in the maintenance of mydriasis during cataract surgery. Pharmaceutically, the main obstacle in formulating indomethacin as eye drops is its low solubility and aqueous instability. Inclusion complexation of indomethacin with cyclodextrins (CDs) was our interest in this research to obtain stable and effective aqueous indomethacin eye drops. The influence of β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD), and sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD) on indomethacin solubility was investigated. Indomethacin-HP-β-CD complex was prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry and was subjected to in vitro release and stability studies. The anti-inflammatory effect of formulated indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops on chemically burned albino rabbit eyes was compared to those of Indocollyre(®) and Voltaren(®) eye drops. HP-β-CD was found to have a high solubilizing effect towards indomethacin and was thus selected for its formulation. Formulated indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops exhibited delayed release and high drug stability compared to the drug solution. Draize rabbit eye irritation test and histological examination on albino rabbit eyes treated with indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops revealed that these eye drops were non-irritant. The anti-inflammatory studies indicated that formulating indomethacin eye drops via complexation with HP-β-CD significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of the indomethacin compared to the investigated eye drops. An aqueous ocular delivery system for the poor water soluble anti-inflammatory indomethacin was prepared using HP-β-CD as a complexing agent. Besides a sufficient solubility for the drug, many factors were studied in the development of this system, such as stability and safety. In addition, indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops

  18. Preclinical evaluation of new indomethacin-eluting biodegradable urethral stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsar, Andres; Nieminen, Riina; Isotalo, Taina; Mikkonen, Joonas; Uurto, Ilkka; Kellomäki, Minna; Talja, Martti; Moilanen, Eeva; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of an indomethacin-eluting biodegradable urethral stent on the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and the degradation and biocompatibility of the new stent in vivo. The effects of an indomethacin and indomethacin-eluting biodegradable stent on monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and transforming growth factor-ß were measured in THP-1 cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Stents (copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide acid) that were coated with 50L/50D polylactic acid and two different concentrations of indomethacin were inserted into the rabbit urethra. Stents without the drug were used as controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the degradation of the stents. Biocompatibility was evaluated using histologic analyses of the urethral specimen. The measurements were performed at 3 weeks and 3 months. Indomethacin and indomethacin-releasing stent material inhibited MCP-1 and RANTES production in activated THP-1 macrophages. SEM analysis revealed that indomethacin coating had no effect on the degradation process of the stents and less epithelial polyposis had developed in the indomethacin stent group. In histologic analyses at 3 weeks, indomethacin-eluting stents caused more calcification but no significant differences in other tissue reactions. At 3 months, the indomethacin-eluting stents caused less inflammatory reaction and calcification compared with the control stents. Indomethacin-eluting property can be safely added to biodegradable stents without major influence on the degradation time. The development of epithelial polyposis in the urethra can be potentially reduced by the new indomethacin-eluting urethral stents.

  19. Predictors of successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M F; Verma, P; Lee, S; Vega, M; Wang, D; Kim, M; Fuloria, M

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether platelet counts can predict the likelihood of successful closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin. This was a retrospective cohort study of infants gender (odds ratio=3.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 8.49) and higher platelet count (odds ratio=1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.17) prior to indomethacin treatment were associated with successful ductal closure with indomethacin. Older GA, male gender and higher platelet count at time of treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA are predictors of successful ductal closure with indomethacin.

  20. Indomethacin induced avascular necrosis of head of femur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapkumar, K; Smith, I; Attara, G

    2000-01-01

    Chemically induced avascular necrosis of bone is a well documented entity. Indomethacin is one of the causes of this condition but is often difficult to recognise. Review of the literature shows that only one case of indomethacin induced avascular necrosis has been reported in the English language between 1966 and the present.
The case of a young healthy man, who developed avascular necrosis of head of femur after prolonged administration of indomethacin, is reported here.


Keywords: indomethacin; avascular necrosis PMID:10964124

  1. New use of indomethacin | Maitai | East and Central African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their rodenticidal effects confirmed. On the basis of these results use of indomethacin as rodenticide is justified as it is much cheaper, readily available and safer in humans compared to other rodenticides in the market. Keywords: Indomethacin, rodenticide. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.

  2. Optimization of a Novel Oral Colon Delivery System of Indomethacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and optimize indomethacin (IDM) matrix tablets for specific colon drug delivery. Methods: Indomethacin matrix tablets containing hydrogenated castor oil (HCO), and pectin (PEC) were prepared by hot fusion method. A 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the combined effect of two ...

  3. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue...

  4. Effect of indomethacin on the pregnant rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance, liver morphological study and post mortem characteristics of the pregnant Wistar rats treated with indomethacin, a general COX inhibitor. Indomethacin at doses of 0 (control, 0.32, 1.68 and 8.40 mg/kg/day were orally given once daily to each group (n=10 on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (day 0 = first day of pregnancy = positive vaginal sperm. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia on day 11 of pregnancy, and were carried out necropsy and microorganism culture study. The results showed that the doses of 0.32 and 1.68 mg/kg body weight (the therapeutic dose for humans of indomethacin caused no embryotoxic or lethal effects. The highest dose (8.40 mg/kg of indomethacin disturbed implantation process and, thus, interrupted major development in some fetuses. The peritonitis was detected in the necropsy and in the bacteriological study of the animals treated with 8.4 mg/kg. It was considered death cause of these animals. Thus, this study analyzed a pharmacological agent on pregnancy in rodents and it provided some evidences that indomethacin presented embryotoxic and lethal effects at a high dose, but it was safe in the therapeutic dose used for humans.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance reprodutiva, estudo morfológico do fígado e características " post mortem" de ratas Wistar prenhes tratadas com indometacina, um inibidor geral de COX. Indometacina foi administrada oralmente, nas doses de 0 (controle, 0,32, 1,68 e 8,40 mg/kg/dia (n=10/grupo, nos dias 3 e 4 de prenhez (dia 0 = primeiro dia de prenhez = esperma positivo. Os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia no 11º dia de prenhez, e foram realizadas necropsia e cultura de microorganismos. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de 0,32 e 1,68 mg/kg de peso corpóreo (dose terapêutica para humanos de indometacina não causaram efeitos embriotóxicos ou letais. A maior dose (8,40 mg/kg de indometacina

  5. Indomethacin treatment in small versus large premature infants with ductus arteriosus. Comparison of plasma indomethacin concentration and clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T F; Luken, J; Raval, D; Thalji, A; Carr, I; Pildes, R S

    1983-07-01

    An analysis of clinical response and plasma indomethacin concentration was performed on 10 small (less than or equal to 1000 g) and 12 large (greater than 1000 g) premature infants who had symptomatic ductus arteriosus and required intravenous indomethacin therapy (0.3 mg/kg per day). The postnatal age, daily fluid intake, and cardiopulmonary status of the two groups at time of study were comparable, The small premature infants had a significantly lower peak plasma indomethacin concentration and lower concentration in the first four hours after infusion, and lower plasma concentration X time integral than that of the larger premature infants. There was a significant difference between the groups in proportion of response (2/10 vs 9/12) after one dose of indomethacin; this difference was not seen after two to three doses. The results of the study suggest that small premature infants do respond to indomethacin treatment, but compared to the larger infants may require repeated doses.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered indomethacin in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, A A; Carr, I; Yeh, T F; Raval, D; Luken, J A; Pildes, R S

    1980-12-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg) given intravenously in 17 premature infants to promote closure of persistent ductus arteriosus. The decay of indomethacin generally showed an initial rapid distribution (alpha) phase followed by a slower elimination (beta) phase. The mean half-life of elimination (20.7 +/- 8 hours) was three times longer, and the mean clearance rate (13 +/0 9.5 ml/kg/hour) was seven times less than that reported in adults. The indomethacin clearance rate was linearly correlated with postnatal age (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). There was strong evidence of later re-entry of indomethacin into the plasma, suggesting that enterohepatic recirculation may be common in premature infants and may contribute to the relatively long half-life of elimination. Our data do not clarify the question of target concentration or minimal exposure time above which permanent closure may occur, but the group of infants who had permanent PDA closure after only one dose (8/17) had a significantly higher plasma indomethacin concentration time integral than the group (9/17) who needed more than one dose (P < 0.01). A 24-hour dosage interval was often sufficient when an iv indomethacin bolus of 0.3 mg/kg was used but, below the age of nonresponsiveness to indomethacin, a shorter interval may be preferable as postnatal age increases.

  7. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  8. [Celecoxib vs indomethacin and acute gastric lesions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudanno, O M; Esnarriaga, J M; Cesolari, J A; Maglione, C B; Aramberry, L J; Sambrano, J S; Piombo, G; Rista, L

    2000-01-01

    In 5 random groups of Wistar rats (n = 15 for each group), ulcerogenic doses of NSAIDs COX-1-COX-2 inhibitors such as indomethacin were compared with Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor); the production of antrum gastric ulcers and bowel and colon necrotic areas was studied. Celecoxib was given each 12 hs orally and subcutaneously during 5 days and gastrointestinal lesions were not found; in contrast, Celecoxib given after indomethacin aggravated antrum gastric ulcers (p < 0.001); intestinal massive necrosis and death were observed in all the rats. We conclude that Celecoxib does not induce gastrointestinal lesions in healthy mucosa; in contrast, Celecoxib amplifies the gastrointestinal lesions induced by indomethacin.

  9. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  10. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX- dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL. Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.

  11. on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balogun

    2013-08-07

    ulcer control) ... factors (acid, pepsin, helicobacter pylori, and non- steroidal .... Table 1. Effects of N. latifolia aqueous leaf extract on indomethacin- induced ulcers in rats. Group. Treatment. Dosage (p.o). Mean ulcer index ± SEM.

  12. Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of indomethacin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei Mokarram

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: During the last two decades one of the most important problems in drug formulations has been low aqueous solubility of new molecules. However, numerous techniques, such as milling, co-solvent solubilization and solid dispersion have been used conventionally for aqueous solubility enhancement and the rate of solubility. Recently, nanoparticle engineering processes have been developed and reported for pharmaceutical applications to increase the dissolution rate of low-soluble drugs which in turn may leads to substantial increases in bioavailability. In this study, a controlled precipitation method was used to produce indomethacin nano-solid suspension in a polymeric matrix (as a model, in order to increase the solubility and rate of the dissolution of poorly soluble model drug. "nMethods: Nano-solid suspension of indomethacin in polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP was prepared by controlled precipitation technique, characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and evaluated for in vitro solubility and dissolution rate. Results and major conclusion:Absence of thermal and diffractional peaks in DSC and XRD studies indicated that indomethacin interacts with PVP in solid phase. The solubility of indomethacin in nano-solid suspension compared to crystalline form was increased to about four-fold. It was found that particle size distribution depend to the polymer MW and drug: polymer ratios. Spectroscopy methods and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images showed that indomethacin dispersed as amorphous nanosize particles in freeze dried powder. Enhanced solubility and dissolution rate of indomethacin compared to physical mixtures and crystalline form of indomethacin (polymorph I, demonstrated that it interacts with PVP via hydrogen bond and probably forming eutectic mixture.

  13. Polysaccharides derived from Ganoderma lucidum fungus mycelia ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury via induction of GM-CSF from macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kenta; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayashi, Ryohei; Shinagawa, Kei; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the human small intestine, but few effective agents exist to treat such injury. Ganoderma lucidum Karst, also known as "Reishi" or "Lingzhi", is a mushroom. We previously reported that a water-soluble extract from G. lucidum fungus mycelia (MAK) has anti-inflammatory effects in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and induction of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by MAK may provide anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effects on indomethacin-induced small intestinal injuries are unknown. The present study investigated the preventative effects of MAK via immunological function and the polysaccharides from MAK on indomethacin-induced ileitis in mice. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) were stimulated in vitro with MAK and adoptively transferred to C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally, which were then given indomethacin. Intestinal inflammation was evaluated after 24h. We performed in vivo antibody blockade to investigate the preventive role of GM-CSF, which derived from PMs stimulated with MAK. We then used PMs stimulated with MAK pre-treated by pectinase in an adoptive transfer assay to determine the preventive role of polysaccharides. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury was inhibited by adoptive transfer of PMs stimulated in vitro with MAK. In this transfer model, pre-treatment with anti-GM-CSF antibody but not with control antibody reversed the improvement of small intestinal inflammation by indomethacin. Pectinase pretreatment impaired the anti-inflammatory effect of MAK. PMs stimulated by MAK appear to contribute to the anti-inflammatory response through GM-CSF in small intestinal injury induced by indomethacin. The polysaccharides may be the components that elicit the anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant effects of betaine against Indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alirezaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Betaine (trimethyl glycine is known as methyl group donor and antioxidant in previous reports. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of betaine in Indomethacin-induced gastric damages. Methods: Thirty-two adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in an experimental study were divided into four equal groups as follow: Control, Indomethacin, Betaine-indomethacin and Ascorbic acid-indomethacin. Control and indomethacin groups received normal saline and betaine and ascorbic acid-pretreated rats were administrated betaine (1.5% of the total diet and ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days, respectively. After 24 h fasting, all of the groups received indomethacin (48 mg/kg body weight and control group received distilled water. Results: Indomethacin administration increased gastric ulcer occurrence (% in comparison with control group and betaine pretreatment significantly decreased ulcer occurrence (% when compared to the other groups (P=0.0017. Gastric wall glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly lower in indomethacin group in comparison with the other groups (P=0.0012 while, betaine and ascorbic acid pretreatment increased GPx activity in comparison with indomethacin group (P=0.0012. Catalase activity was significantly higher in betaine-pretreated rats in comparison with indomethacin and ascorbic acid-indomethacin groups (P=0.0015. Lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in betaine and ascorbic acid pretreated groups (P=0.0013. Conclusion: These results showed beneficial antioxidant effects of betaine against gastric damages induced by indomethacin in rats.

  15. Indomethacin and naproxen suppositories in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, H; Swinson, D; Jones, J; Hamilton, E B

    1978-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over study of 35 out-patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that Naproxen and Indomethacin suppositories were both effective forms of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, both being significantly superior to placebo in terms of relief of morning stiffness. PMID:356764

  16. Indomethacin elicits proteasomal dysfunctions develops apoptosis through mitochondrial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Mishra, Ribhav; Upadhyay, Arun; Reddy, Pothula P; Das, Ranabir; Mishra, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs that are mainly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever via cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. There are abundant findings that uncover the hidden critical chemotherapeutics potential of NSAIDs in cancer treatment. However, still the precise mechanism by which NSAIDs could be used as an effective anti-tumor agent in the prevention of carcinogenesis is not well understood. Here, we show that indomethacin, a well-known NSAID, induces proteasomal dysfunction that results in accumulation of unwanted proteins, mitochondrial abnormalities, and successively stimulate apoptosis in cells. We observed the interaction of indomethacin with proteasome and noticed the massive accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-positive proteins, which might be due to the suppression of proteasome activities. Furthermore, we also found that exposure of indomethacin causes the accumulation of critical proteasomal substrates that consequently generate severe mitochondrial abnormalities and prompt up key apoptotic events in cells. Our results demonstrate how indomethacin affects normal proteasomal functions and induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cells. These findings also improve our current understanding of how NSAIDs can exhibit crucial anti-proliferative effects in cells. In near future, our findings may suggest a new possible strategy for the development of specific proteasome inhibitors in conjunction with other chemo-preventive anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Gastroprotective Effect of Magnesium on Indomethacin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium is reported to reduce acid secretion and possess hypoglycemic properties. However, information about its gastroprotective ability is unknown. The gastroprotective effect of magnesium on indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Male rats were ...

  18. Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Model in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed different degrees of gastric ulcers in a dose dependent fashion in all the treated groups and were supported by macroscopic features. ... that for experimental purposes, the physical and behavioural influence of indomethacin should be considered in the determination of ulcer-doses, since it may likely affect ...

  19. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama’i Mohammad S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. Methods The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270–300 g were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs’ solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled Fini and Pini, respectively. The steady state frequency (Fsteady and amplitude (Psteady were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Results Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency. The addition of indomethacin did not alter Fini after the first application (p = 0.7665. However, after the second wash, Fini was decreased (p = 0.0005. Fsteady, Psteady and Pini were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Conclusions Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  20. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  1. Mucoadhesive controlled release microcapsules of indomethacin: optimization and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hany M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Lila, Ahmed E A; Samy, Ahmed M; Kaseem, Ala A; Nutan, Mohammad T H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and optimize indomethacin microcapsules composed of multiple mucoadhesive polymers for high drug entrapment, good mucoadhesiveness and drug release in a controlled fashion over a longer period of time. Microcapsules containing sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, Carbopol 934 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were prepared by orifice-ionic gelation method. The effects of composition of microcapsules on drug entrapment efficacy, drug release and mucoadhesive character were determined by mixture statistical design. Most formulations exhibited good mucoadhesive property in everted intestinal sac test. Drug entrapment efficiency (68-94%) was dependent on the type of polymers. Drug release (92-100%) extended over 12 h. The optimized formulation resulted in drug entrapment efficiency of 89.3%, drug release of 94.8% and mucoadhesiveness of 30.4%. All formulations were stable for more than 1.5 years. The optimized mucoadhesive microcapsules are promising for controlled delivery of indomethacin with twice a day oral administration.

  2. Amorphous formulations of indomethacin and griseofulvin prepared by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felipe L; Shearman, Gemma C; Gaisford, Simon; Williams, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    Following an array of optimization experiments, two series of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers were prepared. One set of fibers contained various loadings of indomethacin, known to form stable glasses, and the other griseofulvin (a poor glass former). Drug loadings of up to 33% w/w were achieved. Electron microscopy data showed the fibers largely to comprise smooth and uniform cylinders, with evidence for solvent droplets in some samples. In all cases, the drug was found to exist in the amorphous physical state in the fibers on the basis of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Modulated temperature DSC showed that the relationship between a formulation's glass transition temperature (Tg) and the drug loading follows the Gordon-Taylor equation, but not the Fox equation. The results of Gordon-Taylor analysis indicated that the drug/polymer interactions were stronger with indomethacin. The interactions between drug and polymer were explored in more detail using molecular modeling simulations and again found to be stronger with indomethacin; the presence of significant intermolecular forces was further confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The amorphous form of both drugs was found to be stable after storage of the fibers for 8 months in a desiccator (relative humidity <25%). Finally, the functional performance of the fibers was studied; in all cases, the drug-loaded fibers released their drug cargo very rapidly, offering accelerated dissolution over the pure drug.

  3. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  4. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  5. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  6. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  7. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  8. Effect of Aspirin and Indomethacin on Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shiuh-Lin; Lee, Kung-Shing; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Cheng, Chi-Yun; Loh, Joon-Khim; Hwang, Yan-Fen; Su, Yu-Feng; Howng, Shen-Long

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in immunosuppression and tumor growth. PGE2 inhibitors such as aspirin and indomethacin suppress experimental tumor growth. Little is known of the relationship between PGE2 synthesis in brain tumors and the dose of aspirin or indomethacin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin and indomethacin on PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells. C6 glioma cells were incubated with different concentrations (2, 4, ...

  9. Indomethacin Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration via Attenuation of Cellular Calcium Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Li Tsai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and are widely used to modulate inflammatory responses. Indomethacin is an NSAID. Herein, we reported that indomethacin can suppress cancer cell migration through its influence on the focal complexes formation. Furthermore, endothelial growth factor (EGF-mediated Ca2+ influx was attenuated by indomethacin in a dose dependent manner. Our results identified a new mechanism of action for indomethacin: inhibition of calcium influx that is a key determinant of cancer cell migration.

  10. Melatonin responsive hemicrania continua in which indomethacin was associated with contralateral headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Milo; Young, Tim M

    2014-05-01

    Headache is a well-documented side effect of indomethacin in the older medical literature; however, it has rarely been commented on in indomethacin-responsive hemicrania continua. We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with left-sided hemicrania continua whose indomethacin treatment was associated with a continuous right-sided migraine. Her indomethacin therapy was discontinued heralding a return of her left-sided hemicrania continua and a resolution of her right-sided migraine. Her hemicrania continua then responded well to melatonin, with recurrence on stopping and improvement on restarting. This is the most detailed description of headache as a side effect of indomethacin in a headache patient we are aware of, and one of only a few reported cases of melatonin-responsive hemicrania continua. We review the evidence of headache as a side effect of indomethacin in order to highlight its importance in the treatment of headache disorders. We emphasize that indomethacin headache response may be more than simply a beneficial or neutral one and might be relevant to some cases of apparently indomethacin-resistant hemicrania continua. We hope this case may encourage clinicians to inquire about headache as a potential side effect of indomethacin. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  11. Comparative studies on starvation - and indomethacin - induced ulcerations in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, R A

    1978-01-01

    Experimental models of chronic and acute peptic ulcerations were produced in the albino rats by means of prolonged starvation and indomethacin administration. In the case of acute indomethacin-induced peptic ulceration, the effects of anticholinergic drugs on the ulcers produced were also studied. Starving the rats for a period of seven days produced gastric ulceration in all the rats used while indomethacin produced gastric ulceration within five hours in all the rats used. Severe ulceration of the degree found in human peptic ulcer disease was produced only by chronic starvation. Anticholinergic drugs ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, partly at least, by reducing intra-gastric acidity.

  12. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  13. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  14. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  15. The effects of indomethacin on intracranial pressure and cerebral haemodynamics in patients undergoing craniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads; Tankisi, A; Cold, G E

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effects of indomethacin (bolus of 0.2 mg.kg-1 followed by an infusion of 0.2 mg.kg-1.h-1) and placebo on intracranial pressure and cerebral haemodynamics in 30 patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial brain tumours under propofol and fentanyl anaesthesia. Indomethacin...

  16. Indomethacin abolishes cerebral blood flow increase in response to acetazolamide-induced extracellular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1993-01-01

    by acetazolamide (Az), a drug that induces brain extracellular acidosis, which triggers its effect on CBF. We compared the results to the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on the CBF increase during hypercapnia. Indomethacin but not diclofenac, another potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was found to block almost...

  17. Manganese dioxide-graphene nanocomposite film modified electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor of indomethacin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Zhenfa; Zhang, Cuizong; Huang, Wei; Liang, Caiyun; Peng, Jinyun [Guangxi Normal University for Nationalities, Chongzuo (China)

    2016-08-15

    Excess amount of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, such as indomethacin, often leads to serious gastrointestinal complications; therefore, amount of such active compound should be regulated in commercial drugs. This study proposes an efficient analytical technique to detect indomethacin selectively. We prepared and investigated electrochemical properties of a manganese dioxide-graphene nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode (MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE). The behavior of the modified electrode as electrocatalyst towards indomethacin oxidation was also examined. The cyclic voltammetric results reveal that the electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of indomethacin can significantly be enhanced on the MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. Indomethacin exhibited a sensitive anodic peak at about 0.90 V at MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. The data obtained from differential pulse voltammetry showed that the anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the indomethacin concentrations in the range of 1.0 X 10{sup -7} to 2.5 X 10{sup -5} mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 X 10{sup -8} mol/L (S/N = 3). Most importantly, the proposed method shows efficient and selective sensing of indomethacin in commercial harmaceutical formulations. This is the first report of a voltammetric sensor for indomethacin using MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. We believe that this new method can be commercialized for routine applications in laboratories.

  18. Indomethacin decreases optic nerve oxygen tension by a mechanism other than cyclo-oxygenase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, M Hove; Pedersen, D Bach; Bang, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of several Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), on the preoptic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO2), as indomethacin previously has demonstrated a strong decreasing effect on ONPO2. We tested whether these NSAIDs, like indomethacin, also reduce the increasing effect...

  19. Allopurinol, indomethacin and riboflavin enhance radiation lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Two widely used drugs, allopurinol and indomethacin, and the vitamin riboflavin increased the response of mice to ionizing radiation. In mice a dose of 10.5 Gy of γ rays from a 60 Co source resulted in a dose-dependent shortening of survival times after pretreatment with the three agents, applied at doses which were well tolerated alone. When the dose dependency of these drugs on the influence on survival was tested, two response patterns emerged. Indomethacin (25 mg/kg) shifted the survival curve to the left and reduced the LD 50 from ∼6.5 Gy to ∼4.5 Gy. Allopurinol (100 mg/kg) diminished the survival rate to approximately 50% irrespective of the radiation dose (ranging from 0.75 to 6.0 Gy). A similar though less striking trend was seen with riboflavin (120 mg/kg), which reduced the survival rate to approximately 65% in the dose range from 3 to 6 Gy. Mortality in mice treated with allopurinol or riboflavin and irradiated with nonlethal exposures (from radiation alone) occurred within the first few days after irradiation, suggesting a different type of injury than is usually associated with radiation death. Although doses of the three drugs used clinically are clearly lower than those providing enhanced radioresponse in our experiments, subtle and nonovert injury caused by combined exposure to the drugs and radiation cannot be completely excluded. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Gastroprotective effect of ghrelin against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats: possible role of heme oxygenase-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Mona M; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to ameliorate gastric injury by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats and the role of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) pathway as a novel mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In all groups studied, ulcer score (U.S), ulcer index (U.I) and preventive index (P.I) were evaluated and the gastric inflammatory biomarkers including levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), HO-1 and bilirubin as an indicator of heme oxygenase activity were measured. Indomethacin induced significant elevation in U.S and U.I as well as the inflammatory and the oxidative markers and reduced the PGE2 in addition to HO-1 level and activity. Pretreatment with ghrelin reversed these results. In order to elucidate the possible role of HO-1 in mediating the protective effects of ghrelin, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) HO-1 blocker was administrated; it significantly attenuated the gastroprotective effect of ghrelin. In conclusion HO-1 activity significantly contributes toward ghrelin-mediated gastroprotection.

  1. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  2. Indomethacin activates protein kinase C and potentiates α7 ACh receptor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have earlier found that indomethacin activates CaMKII, as a novel action distinct from COX inhibition. To explore further indomethacin actions, the present study focused upon PKC and examined the effect of indomethacin on α7 ACh receptor responses and hippocampal synaptic transmission through PKC. We recorded currents through α7 ACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, quantified PKC activity in the in situ and cell-free PKC assay, and monitored field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Indomethacin potentiated α7 ACh receptor currents in a bell-shaped concentration (100 nM-1 mM)-dependent manner, and the potentiating effect was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. Indomethacin activated PKC in a concentration (1-100 μM)-dependent manner for cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Additionally, indomethacin (100 μM) significantly activated PKC-ε under the cell-free conditions. Indomethacin (100 μM) induced a transient huge increase in the fEPSP slope followed by persistent increase, and the former effect was attenuated by the α7 ACh receptor antagonist α-bungarotoxin or GF109203X. Indomethacin (100 μM) also increased the rate of nicotine-evoked mEPSCs, and the effect was prevented by α-bungarotoxin or GF109203X. The results of the present study show that indomethacin activates PKC, possibly PKC-e in the brain, thereby potentiating α7 ACh receptor responses to stimulate presynaptic glutamate release, which in part contributes to facilitation of hippocampal transmission. This extends our knowledge about diverse indomethacin actions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  4. Effect of Aspirin and Indomethacin on Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Lin Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 plays an important role in immunosuppression and tumor growth. PGE2 inhibitors such as aspirin and indomethacin suppress experimental tumor growth. Little is known of the relationship between PGE2 synthesis in brain tumors and the dose of aspirin or indomethacin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin and indomethacin on PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells. C6 glioma cells were incubated with different concentrations (2, 4, and 8 μM of aspirin and indomethacin for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Intracellular PGE2 concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Each concentration of aspirin and indomethacin effectively inhibited PGE2 synthesis. Concentrations of 2, 4, and 8 μM of aspirin significantly inhibited PGE2 production at 6, 4, and 1 hours, respectively, and the inhibition persisted for more than 24 hours (p 0.05. Indomethacin 8 μM was effective at 1 hour and the inhibition persisted beyond 24 hours (p < 0.05. Our study demonstrates that aspirin and indomethacin inhibit PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells and that low-dose aspirin is as effective as high-dose aspirin. This study may encourage future clinical use of low-dose aspirin in the prevention or treatment of brain tumors.

  5. Improvement of dissolution rate of indomethacin by inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Henrika; Palo, Mirja; Rijckaert, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare printable inks of the poorly water soluble drug indomethacin (IMC), fabricate printed systems with flexible doses and investigate the effect of ink excipients on the printability, dissolution rate and the solid state properties of the drug. A piezoelectric...... inkjet printer was used to print 1×1cm2 squares onto a paper substrate and an impermeable transparency film. l-arginine (ARG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as additional formulation excipients. Accurately dosed samples were generated as a result of the ink and droplet formation optimization....... Increased dissolution rate was obtained for all formulations. The formulation with IMC and ARG printed on transparency film resulted in a co-amorphous system. The solid state characteristics of the printed drug on porous paper substrates were not possible to determine due to strong interference from...

  6. Erythema nodosum migrans successfully treated with indomethacin: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum migrans (subacute nodular migratory panniculitis is a panniculitis characterized by migrating subcutaneous nodules or plaque on the lower extremity. We describe a 75-year-old woman with idiopathic erythema nodosum migrans which was manifest centrifugally spreading, slightly morpheaform erythematous plaque on the lower left leg successfully treated with indomethacin. She was initially diagnosed and treated as a case with cellulitis and with poor clinical response. A biopsy specimen from this lesion showed that the septal was thickening; fibrous tissue was also seen with lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and occasional multinucleated giant cells with some inflammatory cells infiltrated into the periphery of the fat lobules. Erythema nodosum migrans should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any morpheaform centrifugally expended plaque, especially in the lower extremities in cases of unknown etiology.

  7. Erythema nodosum migrans successfully treated with indomethacin: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Erythema nodosum migrans (subacute nodular migratory panniculitis) is a panniculitis characterized by migrating subcutaneous nodules or plaque on the lower extremity. We describe a 75-year-old woman with idiopathic erythema nodosum migrans which was manifest centrifugally spreading, slightly morpheaform erythematous plaque on the lower left leg successfully treated with indomethacin. She was initially diagnosed and treated as a case with cellulitis and with poor clinical response. A biopsy specimen from this lesion showed that the septal was thickening; fibrous tissue was also seen with lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and occasional multinucleated giant cells with some inflammatory cells infiltrated into the periphery of the fat lobules. Erythema nodosum migrans should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any morpheaform centrifugally expended plaque, especially in the lower extremities in cases of unknown etiology.

  8. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  9. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  10. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  11. PECTIN MICROGELS CONTAINING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BASED ON NANOCAPSULES FOR THE CONTROLLED RELEASE OF INDOMETHACIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela HOLBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocapsule-based Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit E100 containing indomethacin have been prepared. The nanosuspensions have been included into pectin microgels of different polysaccharide concentrations, 28-61 µm-ranged polymer microgels with size and size polydispersity highly depending on the pectin amount being thus obtained. Study of the drug release revealed that indomethacin was released at a slower and more controlled rate from the microgels containing nanocapsules than from the empty pectin microgels. Also, the rate of released indomethacin increased with the augmentation of pectin amount into the microgels.

  12. Indomethacin sensitive suppressor cell activity in head and neck cancer patients pre- and postirradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, R.D.; Panje, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the addition of indomethacin to PHA or Con A stimulated lymphocytes from patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or from patients with the disease who have just finished irradiation therapy from the disease was quantitated and compared to those of the control group. Lymphocytes from eight of 26 patients with untreated carcinoma were significantly augmented by the addition of indomethacin. The remaining eighteen patients were equal to the controls. For all 17 patients who had just finished extensive field irradiation therapy, significant enhancement of PHA and Con A reactivity by indomethacin was found, which did not appear to be solely a function of low baseline mitogen reactivity. The results of this study support the hypothesis that perhaps patients receiving irradiation therapy may benefit by the oral administration of indomethacin, an approach that needs further consideration

  13. Improved lung compliance following indomethacin therapy in premature infants with persistent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T F; Thalji, A; Luken, L; Lilien, L; Carr, I; Pildes, R S

    1981-12-01

    In the course of a double-blind controlled study of intravenous indomethacin therapy in premature infants with patent ducts arteriosus (PDA), dynamic lung compliance (CL) was determined in 11 infants (six control, five indomethacin) who were not on assisted ventilation during the study period. The clinical, biochemical and laboratory data before the study were comparable between the groups. Following therapy with indomethacin there was a significant decrease in left atrial/aortic root ratio (LA/Ao), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) on echocardiogram, and an increase in tidal volume (VT) and CL. In the control group, these variables did not change significantly. The improved lung compliance following early indomethacin closure of PDA may alter the clinical course and outcome of these premature infants.

  14. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Local delivery of indomethacin by a polyorthoester inhibits reossification of experimental bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Andersen, R

    1995-01-01

    Inhibition of orthotopic reossification after surgical removal of bone is sometimes indicated and may be accomplished by implantation of interpositional materials or by systemic administration of indomethacin. However, implantation of nonresorbable foreign material may induce a chronic inflammation...... were killed 50 days postoperatively. The mean area of the residual defects were greater in the defects with the polyorthoester with 5% indomethacin compared with defects with polyorthoester without drug or without implant as judged by computer-assisted area measurements on radiographs. By light...

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics for prediction of gastric damage induced by indomethacin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, So Young [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hyun [Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myeon Woo [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu-Bong [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dandae-ro, Cheonan, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hwa [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dandae-ro, Cheonan, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Hwan, E-mail: hyokwa11@korea.kr [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Jeong, E-mail: hwalee@ewha.ac.kr [Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR based metabolomics - gastric damage by indomethacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pattern recognition analysis was performed to biomarkers of gastric damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate were selected as putative biomarkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gastric damage induced by NSAIDs can be screened in the preclinical step of drug. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have side effects including gastric erosions, ulceration and bleeding. In this study, pattern recognition analysis of the {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of urine was performed to develop surrogate biomarkers related to the gastrointestinal (GI) damage induced by indomethacin in rats. Urine was collected for 5 h after oral administration of indomethacin (25 mg kg{sup -1}) or co-administration with cimetidine (100 mg kg{sup -1}), which protects against GI damage. The {sup 1}H-NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04 ppm) for global profiling, and 36 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. The level of gastric damage in each animal was also determined. Indomethacin caused severe gastric damage; however, indomethacin administered with cimetidine did not. Simultaneously, the patterns of changes in their endogenous metabolites were different. Multivariate data analyses were carried out to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to indomethacin using partial least square-discrimination analysis. In targeted profiling, a few endogenous metabolites, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate, were selected as putative biomarkers for the gastric damage induced by indomethacin. These metabolites changed depending on the degree of GI damage, although the same dose of indomethacin (10 mg kg{sup -1}) was administered to rats. The results of global and targeted profiling suggest that the gastric damage induced by

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics for prediction of gastric damage induced by indomethacin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, So Young; Park, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myeon Woo; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Seon Hwa; Choi, Ki Hwan; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NMR based metabolomics – gastric damage by indomethacin. ► Pattern recognition analysis was performed to biomarkers of gastric damage. ► 2-Oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate were selected as putative biomarkers. ► The gastric damage induced by NSAIDs can be screened in the preclinical step of drug. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have side effects including gastric erosions, ulceration and bleeding. In this study, pattern recognition analysis of the 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of urine was performed to develop surrogate biomarkers related to the gastrointestinal (GI) damage induced by indomethacin in rats. Urine was collected for 5 h after oral administration of indomethacin (25 mg kg −1 ) or co-administration with cimetidine (100 mg kg −1 ), which protects against GI damage. The 1 H-NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04 ppm) for global profiling, and 36 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. The level of gastric damage in each animal was also determined. Indomethacin caused severe gastric damage; however, indomethacin administered with cimetidine did not. Simultaneously, the patterns of changes in their endogenous metabolites were different. Multivariate data analyses were carried out to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to indomethacin using partial least square-discrimination analysis. In targeted profiling, a few endogenous metabolites, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate, were selected as putative biomarkers for the gastric damage induced by indomethacin. These metabolites changed depending on the degree of GI damage, although the same dose of indomethacin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered to rats. The results of global and targeted profiling suggest that the gastric damage induced by NSAIDs can be screened in the preclinical stage of drug development using a NMR based metabolomics approach.

  18. Factors affecting successful closure of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Lee, Jiun

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is high in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Indomethacin has been widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA. This retrospective study was undertaken to identify factors such as birth weight, gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, ductal size, timing of the first dose of indomethacin and side effects of indomethacin, which may affect the successful closure of the PDA with indomethacin in ELBW infants. A cohort of 139 ELBW infants who had received indomethacin treatment for PDA during a consecutive period of more than three years (September 2000 to December 2003) was retrospectively analyzed. Administration of indomethacin was associated with closure of PDA in 108 (77.7%) of 139 ELBW infants, and only 19.4% of infants required surgical ligation of the ductus eventually. There was no significant relationship between closure of PDA with gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, and ductal size. A higher birth weight and early use of indomethacin after birth could significantly increase the closure rate of PDA (P<0.05). Side effects of indomethacin such as transient oliguria and hyponatremia during indomethacin therapy did not affect PDA closure. Indomethacin is effective for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants. A higher rate of ductal closure is related to the increase of birth weight. PDA closure with indomethacin is age-related, and early administration of indomethacin could increase PDA closure and reduce the incidence of hyponatremia. There is no significant difference in major morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after early treatment. Early screening for hemodynamically significant PDA in ELBW infants and early treatment with indomethacin are recommended.

  19. Oseltamivir and indomethacin reduce the oxidative stress in brain and stomach of infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David Calderón; Herrera, Maribel Ortiz; Brizuela, Norma Osnaya; Mejía, Gerardo Barragán; García, Ernestina Hernández; Olguín, Hugo Juárez; Ruíz, Norma Labra; Peraza, Armando Valenzuela

    2017-12-21

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oseltamivir and indomethacin on lipid peroxidation (LP), GABA levels, and ATPase activity in brain and stomach of normal and infected rats (IR), as novel inflammation model. Female Sprague Dawley rats grouped five each, either in the absence or presence of a live culture of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh), were treated as follows: group 1 (control), PBS buffer; group 2, oseltamivir (100 mg/kg); group 3, indomethacin (67 μg/rat); group 4, oseltamivir (100 mg/kg) + indomethacin (67 μg/rat). All drugs were given intraperitoneally for 5 days. IR received the same treatments and the brain and stomach of the rats were removed in order to measure levels of GABA, LP, and total ATPase, using validated methods. Levels of GABA increased in stomach and cortex of IR with oseltamivir, but decreased in striatum and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of IR with indomethacin. LP decreased in the three brain regions of IR with oseltamivir. ATPase increased in stomach of IR and non-IR with oseltamivir and in striatum and cerebellum/medulla oblongata of IR with indomethacin. Results suggest that the effect of free radicals produced in an infection and inflammatory condition caused by S. typh could be less toxic by a combination of oseltamivir and indomethacin. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage: effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.R.; Stewart, W.B.; Duncan, C.C.; Scott, D.T.; Lambrecht, R.

    1983-01-01

    The newborn beagle puppy has been demonstrated to provide a good model for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). A study was designed to determine if indomethacin can prevent IVH and if indomethacin would produce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Newborn beagle puppies were randomized by computer into two groups: one was pretreated with indomethacin, a known inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, and the other was saline. The dogs in both groups were then assigned either to undergo hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult or to receive no insult. Twenty percent of all pups receiving indomethacin and undergoing the insult experienced IVH, compared to 71% of the pups undergoing insult that had been pretreated with saline. Significant alterations in the blood pressure responses to the hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult were noted in the former group compared to the saline-pretreated pups subjected to insult. Finally, employing carbon-14 autoradiography for the determination of CBF, it was demonstrated that indomethacin decreases resting CBF of the newborn beagle pups and, in indomethacin-pretreated animals subjected to insult, prevents the increases in CBF seen in the saline-pretreated traumatized pups. 62 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  1. Indomethacin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippalgaonkar, Ketan; Adelli, Goutham R.; Hippalgaonkar, Kanchan; Repka, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The goal of this study was to develop and characterize indomethacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IN-SLNs; 0.1% w/v) for ocular delivery. Methods Various lipids, homogenization pressures/cycles, Tween 80 fraction in the mixture of surfactants (Poloxamer 188 and Tween 80; total surfactant concentration at 1% w/v), and pH were investigated in the preparation of the IN-SLNs. Compritol® 888 ATO was selected as the lipid phase for the IN-SLNs, as indomethacin exhibited a highest distribution coefficient and solubility in this phase. Results Homogenization at 15,000 psi for 6 cycles resulted in the smallest particle size. Increase in the Poloxamer 188 fraction resulted in decrease in the entrapment efficiency (EE). The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta-potential, and EE of the optimized formulation were 140 nm, 0.16, −21 mV, and 72.0%, respectively. IN-SLNs were physically stable post-sterilization and on storage for a period of 1 month (last timepoint tested). A dramatic increase in the chemical stability and in vitro corneal permeability of indomethacin was observed with the IN-SLN formulation in comparison to the indomethacin solution- (0.1% w/v) and indomethacin hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-based formulations (0.1% w/v). Conclusion Results from this study suggest that topical IN-SLNs could significantly improve ocular bioavailability of indomethacin. PMID:23421502

  2. Microglial responses to amyloid β peptide opsonization and indomethacin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Brian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that passive or active immunization with anti-amyloid β peptide (Aβ antibodies may enhance microglial clearance of Aβ deposits from the brain. However, in a human clinical trial, several patients developed secondary inflammatory responses in brain that were sufficient to halt the study. Methods We have used an in vitro culture system to model the responses of microglia, derived from rapid autopsies of Alzheimer's disease patients, to Aβ deposits. Results Opsonization of the deposits with anti-Aβ IgG 6E10 enhanced microglial chemotaxis to and phagocytosis of Aβ, as well as exacerbated microglial secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Indomethacin, a common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, had no effect on microglial chemotaxis or phagocytosis, but did significantly inhibit the enhanced production of IL-6 after Aβ opsonization. Conclusion These results are consistent with well known, differential NSAID actions on immune cell functions, and suggest that concurrent NSAID administration might serve as a useful adjunct to Aβ immunization, permitting unfettered clearance of Aβ while dampening secondary, inflammation-related adverse events.

  3. The effects of indomethacin, diclofenac, and acetaminophen suppository on pain and opioids consumption after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godrat Akhavanakbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section is one of the common surgeries of women. Acute post-operative pain is one of the recognized post-operative complications. Aims: This study was planned to compare the effects of suppositories, indomethacin, diclofenac and acetaminophen, on post-operative pain and opioid usage after cesarean section. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, 120 candidates of cesarean with spinal anesthesia and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I-II were randomly divided into four groups. Acetaminophen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and placebo suppositories were used in groups, respectively, after operation and the dosage was repeated every 6 h and pain score and opioid usage were compared 24 h after the surgery. The severity of pain was recorded on the basis of Visual Analog Scale (VAS and if severe pain (VAS > 5 was observed, 0.5 mg/kg intramuscular pethidine had been used. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed in SPSS software version 15 and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, Chi-square, and Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD post-hoc. Results : Pain score was significantly higher in control group than other groups, and also pain score in acetaminophen group was higher than indomethacin and diclofenac. The three intervention groups received the first dose of pethidine far more than control group and the distance for diclofenac and indomethacin were significantly longer (P < 0.001. The use of indomethacin, diclofenac, and acetaminophen significantly reduces the amount of pethidine usage in 24 h after the surgery relation to control group. Conclusions : Considering the significant decreasing pain score and opioid usage especially in indomethacin and diclofenac groups rather than control group, it is suggested using of indomethacin and diclofenac suppositories for post-cesarean section analgesia.

  4. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.

    1987-01-01

    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Ganguli, S.; Artal, R.; Sperling, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, the authors infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3- 3 H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n . 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment

  7. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.; Ganguli, S.; Artal, R.; Sperling, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, the authors infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3-/sup 3/H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n . 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment.

  8. Indomethacin and salicylate decrease epinephrine-induced glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J D; Ganguli, S; Artal, R; Sperling, M A

    1985-02-01

    Epinephrine (E) produces an immediate (0-30 minutes) rise in hepatic glucose production (Ra), largely due to activation of glycogenolysis; thereafter, E-stimulated gluconeogenesis becomes the major factor maintaining glucose production. To investigate the possible role of arachidonic acid metabolites on Ra during E stimulation, we infused E in trained conscious dogs before and during administration of two inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, indomethacin (INDO) and salicylate (S). On separate days, experimental animals were treated with both oral and IV INDO and oral acetylsalicylic acid and IV sodium salicylate. Ra and glucose utilization (Rd), both in mg x kg-1 min-1, were calculated by isotope dilution using 3-3H-glucose. After achieving steady state specific activity, control (C) and experimental animals (n = 6 per group) received E (0.1 ug x kg-1 min-1) for 150 minutes, raising plasma levels to approximately 1500 pg/mL in each group. In C, plasma glucose (G; mg/dL) rose by 17 +/- 5 at 10 minutes and 19 +/- 3 at 20 minutes due to an initial spike in Ra (2.7 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.5; P less than 0.01) at 10 minutes. INDO and S treatment attenuated this initial (10-20 minutes) rise in G (P less than 0.05) due to a lower stimulated Ra at 10 minutes (3.3 +/- 0.1 with INDO; 3.0 +/- 0.5 with S; P less than 0.05). After 20 minutes Ra was not different in the 3 groups; no overall differences in Rd, glucose clearance, or plasma insulin levels occurred with INDO or S treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Betaine improves gastroprotective effects of ranitidine and omeprazole against Indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Alirezaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Antioxidant capacity of betaine has been indicated in our recent studies. Thus, we examined oral betaine as an antioxidant agent in combination with antisecretory drugs to prevent indomethacin-induced gastric damages in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two controls (negative and normal and five experimental groups as follows: betaine-indomethacin (Bet.-Ind., ascorbic acid-indomethacin (Asc.-Ind., omeprazole-indomethacin (Ome.-Ind., betaine-omeprazole plus indomethacin (Bet.-Ome.-Ind. and betaine-ranitidine plus indomethacin (Bet.-Ran.-Ind.. Results: The betaine pretreated groups received betaine at a dosage of 1.5% (w/w in their diet, whereas 50 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was administered orally to the Asc.-Ind., group for 15 consecutive days. After a 24 hour fast, all the groups received 48 mg/kg of indomethacin once except for normal control group. The omeprazole and ranitidine groups also received one dose of omeprazole (10 mg/kg and ranitidine (50 mg/kg, 120 minutes before receiving indomethacin. Histopathological findings indicated the gastroprotective effects of betaine and ranitidine in pretreated rats. Pretreatment by betaine and ranitidine increased significantly the ulcer index inhibition (%, in comparison with ascorbic acid and omeprazole (alone treatment. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly higher in the Bet.-Ran.-Ind., group as compared to the Asc.-Ind., and Ome.-Ind., treated rats. GPx activity also increased significantly in Bet.-Ind., treated rats as compared to the Asc.-Ind. group. Catalase (CAT activity was remarkably higher in the Bet.-Ran.-Ind., treated rats than the Asc.-Ind., and Ome.-Ind., groups. TBARS concentration as a lipid peroxidation marker increased significantly in Ome.-Ind., group as compared to the Bet.-Ind., and Bet.-Ran.-Ind., treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, it seems that betaine as an antioxidant agent, is able to

  10. Unilateral Facial Pain and Headache: Effects of Both Indomethacin and Sumatriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Sjaastad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three female patients presented with a similar pattern of unilateral facial pain and headache, reminiscent of atypical facial pain. The neck and ipsilateral shoulder (n=2 were also involved. The attacks of pain lasted from several hours to days. There was some tenderness in the neck, but upper cervical nerve anesthetic blocks did not provide any positive results. Indomethacin, taken at the time of the attacks, exerted a very marked effect. Sumatriptan produced an even more rapid and complete effect, but with intolerable side effects, including malaise and breathing difficulties. The unilateral facial pain and headache described in these cases resembles both cervicogenic headache (CEH and hemicrania continua (HC, especially the former, which may be associated with both facial and shoulder pain. Indomethacin is, however, generally not effective in CEH. A clear sumatriptan effect in the cases studied is remarkable because there is usually little or no sumatriptan effect in HC. Atypical facial pain is difficult to treat, and probably does not respond well to indomethacin. The present study found that some patients with a similar symptomatology may benefit from indomethacin. The demonstrated effectiveness of indomethacin or sumatriptan makes it important to recognize such cases. Future serotonin agonists may have a more favourable effect to side effect ratio than sumatriptan and provide a more ideal approach to therapy in such cases.

  11. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Effect of indomethacin and salt depletion on renal proton MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.N.; Mammen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Blockade of the synthesis of vasodilating prostaglandins with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) renders the renal medulla susceptible to hypoxic injury with reduced renal function, especially in clinical conditions characterized by volume depletion. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and urine production may effect renal MR imaging under these circumstances. We injected salt-depleted and control rats undergoing proton MR imaging with indomethacin 10 mg/kg. Indomethacin abolished the cortico-medullary T2-gradient and markedly diminished the overall renal signal in salt-depleted rats only. These changes, which progressed over a period of 40 min after indomethacin was injected, probably result from renal oligemia and decreased urine production, with an associated decrease in T2-values. We suggest that a history of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be obtained and taken into account in the evaluation of renal proton MR imaging, especially in the presence of salt and volume depletion. (orig.)

  13. In vivo effects of dexamethasone and indomethacin on neutrophil-induced alterations of nasal epithelial mucosubstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Portereiko, J.V.; Harkema, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neutrophils migrating through rat nasal mucosal epithelium, in response to intranasal instillation of endotoxin, induce a transient decrease in stored epithelial mucosubstances. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes can either increase or decrease mucous secretion of airway epithelia in vitro. In this study, rats were treated with indomethacin a specific inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, or with dexamethasone, a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, and challenged with intranasally instilled endotoxin. Dexamethasone alone or in combination with indomethacin, but not indomethacin alone, significantly altered the neutrophil response to intranasally instilled endotoxin and may have inhibited the neutrophil-induced decrease in stored mucosubstances. These data suggest that leukotrienes and possibly prostaglandins play a significant role in the coordinated response of the nasal mucosal epitholium to an acute inflammatory stimulus. (author)

  14. New heparin–indomethacin conjugate with an ester linkage: Synthesis, self aggregation and drug delivery behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan-Nan; Zheng, Bing-Na [DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lin, Jian-Tao [DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); Zhang, Li-Ming, E-mail: ceszhlm@mail.sysu.edu.cn [DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2014-01-01

    New heparin–indomethacin conjugate with an ester linkage was prepared by the carbodiimide-mediated condensation reaction, and then characterized by FTIR and {sup 1}HNMR analyses. Due to its amphiphilic character, such a conjugate could self-aggregate into spherical nanoparticles in aqueous system, as confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. By the in vitro drug release tests, the resultant conjugate nanoparticles were found to have a sustained and esterase-sensitive release behavior for conjugated indomethacin. In addition, the uptake of these conjugate nanoparticles into human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. - Highlights: • New heparin–indomethacin conjugate with an ester linkage was prepared. • Such a conjugate could self-aggregate into spherical nanoparticles in aqueous system. • The resultant conjugate nanoparticles exhibited an esterase-sensitive drug release behavior. • The resultant conjugate nanoparticles showed the cellular uptake ability in CNE1 cells.

  15. Timing of intracranial hemorrhage and monitoring of indomethacin therapy in premature neonates by cranial sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.; Duncan, C.; Eherenkranz, R.; Taylor, K.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen cranial US studies were performed in each of 31 premature neonates weighing 600-1,250 gm. The studies revealed a 61% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Forty-two percent had occurred by age 6 hours and 95% bu age 5 days. These control data were confirmed in patients given prophylactic indomethacin. Forty-eight infants weighing less than 1,250 gm were randomly assigned to treatment with indomethacin (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours given intravenously for five treatments) or a placebo at 6 hours of life. Cardiac US disclosed patent ductus arteriosus in 82% of patients at 6 hours, with subsequent closure in 84% of the treated group and in 60% of the controls. ICH occurred in 25% of the treated infant and in 58% of the controls. The authors conclude that indomethacin therapy can reduce the incidence of ICH, but requires careful sonographic monitoring by US

  16. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  17. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  18. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  19. Comparison of two neonatal indomethacin protocols: efficacy and outcome for patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosito, G; Sum, K; Chorne, N

    2010-10-01

    Indomethacin, a non-selective inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, is the gold standard treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Indomethacin has been shown to permanently close the ductus and when given prophylactically, it reduces the incidence of PDA (1, 2). This study compares PDA closure and surgical ligation rates between patients using two different indomethacin administration protocols. This is a retrospective comparison analysis of 72 neonates, who received one of two indomethacin administration protocols. Our previous protocol suggested an initial dose of 0·2 mg/kg followed by two 0·1 mg/kg, with doses infused over 4 h and a 24-h dosing interval. A new potentially more useful protocol using the same mg/kg dose regimen but with doses infused over 30 min and a 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated. Each neonate was allowed three courses of treatment before surgical ligation was performed for persistent PDA. There were no statistically significant differences between the two protocol groups when comparing percentages of neonates with gestational age≤28 weeks, birth weight≤1000 g, male gender or receiving indomethacin for the indication of PDA prophylaxis vs. treatment. There was a trend towards a higher PDA closure rate and subsequently a lower PDA ligation rate in the new protocol when compared with the previous protocol. In this small population of premature neonates, there was a trend, but no significant difference, towards increasing PDA closure and lower surgical ligation rates in neonates given indomethacin with more frequent dosing and shorter infusion time. A well-powered randomized controlled trial is now needed. Copyright © 2010 The Authors. JCPT © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Intravenous indomethacin therapy in premature infants with persistent ductus arteriosus--a double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T F; Luken, J A; Thalji, A; Raval, D; Carr, I; Pildes, R S

    1981-01-01

    A double-blind controlled trial of intravenous indomethacin therapy was performed using a group of 55 premature infants (27 placebo, 28 indomethacin) with a significant persistent ductus arteriosus. Indomethacin administration at a mean postnatal age of 8.9 days was followed by a significant effect on PDA in 89%; 75% of successes were attributable to indomethacin and 25% to spontaneous effects, an improvement by indomethacin of 86% in infants not undergoing spontaneous improvement. The short-term side effects of indomethacin were transient; urinary output and serum sodium concentration decreased and serum potassium concentration increased. Indomethacin administration was associated with a decreased need for assisted ventilation and a decreased need for surgical closure of PDA. There was no significant difference between the placebo and indomethacin groups in mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia morbidity. The infants who developed BPD had higher RDS scores and lower PO2 values, requiring higher FIO2s within four hours of birth than those who did not develop BPD, indicating a more severe underlying pulmonary disability present birth.

  1. Inhibition of heterotopic osteogenesis in rats by a new bioerodible system for local delivery of indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    of implants were used: polyorthoester and demineralized bone (Group A, the control group) and polyorthoester with 5 per cent indomethacin and demineralized bone (Group B, the experimental group). In the first series, host-tissue responses and osteoinduction were evaluated histologically at two, three...

  2. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghlool, Sameh S; Shehata, Basim A; Abo-Seif, Ali A; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A

    2015-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and marshmallow (100 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally on a daily basis for 14 days prior to a single intra-peritoneal administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Indomethacin administration resulted in significant ulcerogenic effect evidenced by significant elevations in ulcer number, ulcer index, and blood superoxide dismutase activity accompanied by significant decreases in gastric mucosal nitric oxide and glutathione levels. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxides and histamine content were observed. Alternatively, pretreatment with famotidine, ginger or marshmallow significantly corrected macroscopic and biochemical findings, supported microscopically by results of histopathological study. These results demonstrate that administration of either ginger or marshmallow extract could protect against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats presumably via their antioxidant properties and inhibition of histamine release.

  3. A Comparison of Early Ibuprofen and Indomethacin Administration to Prevent Intraventricular Hemorrhage Among Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kalani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricularhemorrhage (IVH is one of thecommon morbidities among preterm neonates. In thepresentstudy, we set out to evaluate the efficacy of two prophylactic modalities (ibuprofen and indomethacin prophylaxis for prevention of IVH in our local setting. A prospective study was carried out in Akbar-Abadi Hospital, Tehran-Iran (2013-2014. Ninety-six preterm neonates who cared in closed incubator entered the study. Neonates randomly assigned into 3 groups; control, oral indomethacin (0.2 mg/kg indomethacin daily for 3 days and oral ibuprofen (10,5,5 mg/kg ibuprofen every 24 hours during 3 administration. For all subjects brain sonography examination was performed in 3rd day, first, 2nd week of life and when infants reached to 36 and 42 weeks of postmenstrual age. The IVH prevalence and the effectiveness of the drugs among groups were statistically assessed. Of all 93 subjects; 14 cases had IVH (15.1%. IVH was significantly more frequent in the controls than in other groups (P=0.049. Prophylactic treatment could significantly decrease the incidence of grade 3 or 4 IVH in experimental groups (P=0.008. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups with respect to theincidence of GI bleeding, Oliguria, renal dysfunction or NEC (P.value>.05. This study demonstrates that low-dose prophylactic indomethacin and ibuprofen are equally associated with a reduction of IVH without any significant side effects like renal dysfunction, GI bleeding or NEC.

  4. Indomethacin sensitive suppressor cell activity in head and neck cancer patients pre- and postirradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, R.D.; Panje, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the addition of indomethacin to PHA or Con A stimulated lymphocytes from patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or from patients with the disease who have just finished irradiation therapy from the disease was quantitated and compared to those of the control group. Lymphocytes from eight of 26 patients with untreated carcinoma were significantly augmented by the addition of indomethacin. The remaining eighteen patients were equal to the controls. For all 17 patients who had just finished extensive field irradiation therapy, significant enhancement of PHA and Con A reactivity by indomethacin was found, which did not appear to be solely a function of low baseline mitogen reactivity. In additional studies, stimulated lymphocytes of irradiated patients were tested for their sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of PGE2. The mitogen treated lymphocytes from all patients that had just finished irradiation therapy were found to be significantly more sensitive to the inhibition by PGE2 as compared to the normal lymphocyte response. This effect was also found not to be related merely to a low PHA or Con A reactivity of the lymphocytes. The results of this study support the hypothesis that perhaps patients receiving irradiation therapy may benefit by the oral administration of indomethacin, an approach that needs further consideration

  5. Indomethacin and paracetamol : Interaction with prostaglandin synthesis in the rat stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, A.A. van; Hagelen, F.; Noordwijk, J. van

    1982-01-01

    Using ex vivo incubation of mucosal strips the production of prostaglandins (I2- and E-like PGs) in the rat stomach was demonstrated by bioassay. Indomethacin inhibited this PG synthesis 1 and 4 h after oral drug administration. Paracetamol stimulated the production of PGs when given by itself but

  6. Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in combination with cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Hermelinda P F; Cardoso, Luiz G V; Ferreira, Luciano R; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2004-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, a number of facts involving the occurrence of gastrointestinal lesions have limited the chronic use of NSAIDs. In order to diminish the occurrence of gastrointestinal damage caused by NSAIDs, the combination of NSAIDs with the H2 receptor blocker, cimetidine, has been evaluated. The anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in association with or without cimetidine were determined at pre-clinical levels. It was observed that the group of animals treated with indomethacin and cimetidine, or tenoxicam and cimetidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test) of type-III gastric ulcers. Furthermore, indomethacin or tenoxicam (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in association with cimetidine increased the anti-inflammatory activity. The group, which received indomethacin and cimetidine presented the best performance in decreasing the inflammatory process (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test).

  7. Furosemide in preterm infants treated with indomethacin for patent ductus arteriosus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, P.; Struis, N.C.; Niemarkt, H.; Oetomo, S.B.; Tanke, R.B.; Overmeire, B. Van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of furosemide on renal function and water balance in preterm infants treated with indomethacin (3 x 0.2 mg/kg at 12-h intervals) for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus. Patients and METHODS: We performed a retrospective multi-centre double cohort study in preterm

  8. Application of machine learning in prediction of hydrotrope-enhanced solubilisation of indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiati, Safa A; Martini, Luigi G; Smith, Norman W; Lawrence, M Jayne; Barlow, David J

    2017-09-15

    Systematic in-vitro studies have been conducted to determine the ability of a range of 10 potential hydrotropes to improve the apparent aqueous solubility of the poorly water soluble drug, indomethacin. Solubilisation of the drug in the presence of the hydrotropes was determined experimentally using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. These experimental data, together with various known and computed physicochemical properties of the hydrotropes were thereafter used in silico to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to allow for predictions of indomethacin solubilisation. The trained ANN was found to give highly accurate predictions of indomethacin solubilisation in the presence of hydrotropes and was thus shown to provide a valuable means by which hydrotrope efficacy could be screened computationally. Interrogation of the network connection weights afforded a quantitative assessment of the relative importance of the various hydrotrope physicochemical properties in determining the extent of the enhancement in indomethacin solubilisation. It is concluded that in-silico screening of drug/hydrotrope systems using artificial neural networks offers significant potential to reduce the need for extensive laboratory testing of these systems, and could thus provide an economy in terms of reduced costs and time in drug formulation development. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and recrystallization behavior of spray-dried co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Radi, Lydia; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-07-01

    To improve the dissolution properties and the physical stability of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients, small molecule stabilizing agents may be added to prepare co-amorphous systems. The objective of the study was to investigate if spray-drying allows the preparation of co-amorphous drug-drug systems such as naproxen-indomethacin and to examine the influence of the process conditions on the resulting initial sample crystallinity and the recrystallization behavior of the drug(s). For this purpose, the process parameters inlet temperature and pump feed rate were varied according to a 2(2) factorial design and the obtained samples were analyzed with X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of the data revealed that the preparation of fully amorphous samples could be achieved depending on the process conditions. The resulting recrystallization behavior of the samples, such as the total recrystallization rate, the individual recrystallization rates of naproxen and indomethacin as well as the polymorphic form of indomethacin that was formed were influenced by these process conditions. For initially amorphous samples, it was found that naproxen and indomethacin recrystallized almost simultaneously, which supports the theory of formation of drug-drug heterodimers in the co-amorphous phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Indomethacin inhibits the natriuretic effects of neuropeptide Y in anesthetized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Limmroth, V.; Michel, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a unique modulator of renal function that enhances urine flow and sodium excretion despite marked reductions in renal blood flow. We investigated whether the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin alters the renal NPY effects in anesthetized rats. Treatment with 5 mg/kg

  11. Preparation and Comparative Bioavailability Studies of Indomethacin-Loaded Cetyl Alcohol Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the in vitro release and to find out whether the bioavailability of a 75 mg indomethacin capsule (Microcid SR was equivalent to optimized formulation (indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres. Indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres were prepared by meltable emulsified cooling-induced technique. Surface morphology of microspheres has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. A single dose, randomized, complete cross over study of IM microspheres was carried out on 10 healthy male and female Albino sheep’s under fasting conditions. The plasma was separated and the concentrations of the drug were determined by HPLC-UV method. Plasma indomethacin concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were statistically analyzed. The SEM images revealed the spherical shape of fat microspheres, and more than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were in the size range 12–32 μm. DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and stability studies indicated that the drug after encapsulation with fat microspheres was stable and compatible. Both formulations were found to be bioequivalent as evidenced by in vivo studies. Based on this study, it can be concluded that cetyl alcohol microspheres and Microcid SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.

  12. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior...

  13. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  14. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  15. DISSOLUTION AND COMPATIBILITY STUDY OF BINARY AND TERNARY INTERACTIVE MIXTURES OF INDOMETHACIN: COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CAPSULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to use Weibull distribution function and Baker-Lonsdale models to study the dissolution kinetics of prepared binary and ternary interactive mixtures containing indomethacin in comparison with three commercially available capsules of indomethacin, namely, Rothacin®, Indomin® and Indylon®. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with cloud point method was used to study the compatibility of indomethacin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lactose and to provide an explanation(s) for the insignificant increase in dissolution rate observed in the ternary interactive mixture as well as for the reduction in the dissolution rate observed from the binary system in our previous study. Results showed that the Weibull distribution function equation was the best fit to the dissolution data for all formulations used in this study. DSC curves showed that the decrease in dissolution rate from the binary and ternary interactive mixtures was due to incompatibility of indomethacin with PVP. Also DSC curves showed that lactose was compatible with indomethacin and that lactose was used as excipient in two commercial products (Rothacin® and Indylon®). Results from the cloud point method showed that the addition of indomethacin to 1% PVP solution containing ammonium sulfate (with cloud point at 76°C) reduces the cloud point of PVP indicating that there is an interaction between indomethacin and PVP, while the cloud point of 1% PVP containing ammonium sulfate was not affected by the addition of lactose.

  16. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  17. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  18. Effect of indomethacin, diclofenac sodium and sodium salicylate on peripheral blood cell counts in sublethally gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Kozubik, A.; Pipalova, I.

    1989-01-01

    Treatment with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium was found to increase granulocyte counts in the blood of sublethally gamma-irradiated mice. Treatment with sodium salicylate was ineffective in this respect, administration of sodium salicylate together with indomethacin even decreased the indomethacin-induced effects. The results suggest that the hemopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-steroidal anti-flammatory drugs cannot be correlated with the anti-inflammatory activity but rather with the side effects of these compounds, including the action on gastro-intestinal prostanoid production. This conclusion doubts on the possibility of the usefulness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in conditions of the radiation syndrome. (orig.) [de

  19. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  20. The effect of i.v. indomethacin on the gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow in anaesthetized dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Ewald, H; Holm, I E

    1988-01-01

    Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and causes gastric mucosal damage. The correlation between the gastric mucosal function and gastric blood flow was investigated. The intragastric liquid junction corrected potential difference (PD) across the stomach wall was used to characterize the ...

  1. Intravenous indomethacin therapy in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus. Causes of death and one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T F; Goldbarg, H R; Henek, T; Thalji, A; Pildes, R S

    1982-09-01

    Fifty-five infants participated in a double-blind study of indomethacin therapy for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Seventeen infants died. There was no significant difference in autopsy findings between the groups with respect to pneumonia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, kernicterus, brain softening, and renal damage. For those infants who survived and returned for follow-up at approximately 1 year of age, there was no significant difference between the control (n = 17) and indomethacin (n = 13) groups with respect to physical growth, Bayley scores, respiratory infection, abnormal eye ground, neurological defects, and abnormal EEG. Four in the control group (24%) and three in the indomethacin group (23%) had moderate to severe neurological defects and/or scored less than 80 on the Bayley Mental Development Index or Psychomotor Development Index. It appeared that indomethacin therapy did not have a long-term adverse effect on premature infants.

  2. Inhibition by indomethacin and aspirin of 15 hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1974-01-01

    15 Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase from bovine lung was purified 7.4 times to a specific activity of 1.4 mU/mg of protein. The isoelectric point was estimated at 5.4 and the molecular weight by gel filtration at 40,000. K(m) for prostaglandin E and for NAD was found to be 3.4 µM and 1.1 x 10M ...... respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by indomethacin and aspirin. The indomethacin inhibition was found to be non competitive to prostaglandin E having a K(i) = 1.4 x 10M and a K'(i) = 1.6 x 10M....

  3. Improvement of the physicochemical properties of Co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin by naproxen-sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of the physicochemical properties of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) applying the concept of co-amorphisation is a promising alternative to the use of polymer glass solutions. In co-amorphous systems, the physical stability and the dissolution rate of the involved...... components may be improved in comparison to the respective single amorphous phases. However, for the co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin model system it has been reported that recrystallization could not be prevented for more than 112days regardless of the applied preparation method and blend ratio...... In the present study, it was thus tested if the physicochemical properties of co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin could be optimized by incorporation of the naproxen sodium into the system. Three different co-amorphous systems in nine different molar ratios were prepared by quench-cooling: naproxen...

  4. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  5. Potentiometric determination of ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen using an artificial neural network calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. HAKAN AKTAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three anti-inflammatory agents, namely ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen, were titrated potentiometrically using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in acetonitrile solvent under a nitrogen atmosphere at 25 °C. MATLAB 7.0 software was applied for data treatment as a multivariate calibration tool in the potentiometric titration procedure. An artificial neural network (ANN was used as a multivariate calibration tool in the potentiometric titration to model the complex non-linear relationship between ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen concentrations and the millivolt (mV of the solutions measured after the addition of different volumes of the titrant. The optimized network predicted the concentrations of agents in synthetic mixtures. The results showed that the employed ANN can precede the titration data with an average relative error of prediction of less than 2.30 %.

  6. An Indomethacin Analogue, N-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)-melatonin, is a Selective Inhibitor of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3 (Type 2 3α-HSD, Type 5 17β-HSD, and Prostaglandin F Synthase), a Potential Target for the Treatment of Hormone Dependent and Hormone Independent Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C.; Steckelbroeck, Stephan; Penning, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3 (type 2 3α-HSD, type 5 17β-HSD, and prostaglandin F synthase) regulates ligand access to steroid hormone and prostaglandin receptors and may stimulate proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells. NSAIDs are known inhibitors of AKR1C enzymes. An NSAID analogue that inhibits AKR1C3 but is inactive against the cyclooxygenases and the other AKR1C family members would provide an important tool to examine the role of AKR1C3 in proliferative signaling. We tested NSAIDs and NSAID analogues for inhibition of the reduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) catalyzed by AKR1C3 and the closely related isoforms AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. Two of the compounds initially screened, indomethacin and its methyl ester, were specific for AKR1C3 versus the other AKR1C isoforms. Based on these results and the crystal structure of AKR1C3, we predicted that N-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-melatonin (CBM), an indomethacin analogue that does not inhibit the cyclooxygenases, would selectively inhibit AKR1C3. CBM inhibited the reduction of PQ by AKR1C3, but did not significantly inhibit AKR1C1 or AKR1C2. Indomethacin and CBM also inhibited the AKR1C3-catalyzed reduction of Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione but did not significantly inhibit the reduction of steroid hormones catalyzed by AKR1C1 or AKR1C2. The pattern of inhibition of AKR1C3 by indomethacin and CBM was uncompetitive versus PQ, but competitive versus Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione, indicating that two different inhibitory complexes form during the ordered bi-bi reactions. The identification of CBM as a specific inhibitor of AKR1C3 will aid the investigation of its roles in steroid hormone and prostaglandin signaling and the resultant effects on cancer development. PMID:17950253

  7. An indomethacin analogue, N-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-melatonin, is a selective inhibitor of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (type 2 3alpha-HSD, type 5 17beta-HSD, and prostaglandin F synthase), a potential target for the treatment of hormone dependent and hormone independent malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrns, Michael C; Steckelbroeck, Stephan; Penning, Trevor M

    2008-01-15

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3 (type 2 3alpha-HSD, type 5 17beta-HSD, and prostaglandin F synthase) regulates ligand access to steroid hormone and prostaglandin receptors and may stimulate proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells. NSAIDs are known inhibitors of AKR1C enzymes. An NSAID analogue that inhibits AKR1C3 but is inactive against the cyclooxygenases and the other AKR1C family members would provide an important tool to examine the role of AKR1C3 in proliferative signaling. We tested NSAIDs and NSAID analogues for inhibition of the reduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) catalyzed by AKR1C3 and the closely related isoforms AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. Two of the compounds initially screened, indomethacin and its methyl ester, were specific for AKR1C3 versus the other AKR1C isoforms. Based on these results and the crystal structure of AKR1C3, we predicted that N-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-melatonin (CBM), an indomethacin analogue that does not inhibit the cyclooxygenases, would selectively inhibit AKR1C3. CBM inhibited the reduction of PQ by AKR1C3, but did not significantly inhibit AKR1C1 or AKR1C2. Indomethacin and CBM also inhibited the AKR1C3-catalyzed reduction of Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione but did not significantly inhibit the reduction of steroid hormones catalyzed by AKR1C1 or AKR1C2. The pattern of inhibition of AKR1C3 by indomethacin and CBM was uncompetitive versus PQ, but competitive versus Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, indicating that two different inhibitory complexes form during the ordered bi bi reactions. The identification of CBM as a specific inhibitor of AKR1C3 will aid the investigation of its roles in steroid hormone and prostaglandin signaling and the resultant effects on cancer development.

  8. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Agent Indomethacin Reduces Invasion and Alters Metabolism in a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ackerstaff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hostile physiological environments such as hypoxia and acidic extracellular pH, which exist in solid tumors, may promote invasion and metastasis through inflammatory responses and formation of eicosanoids. Here, we have investigated the effects of the antiinflammatory agent indomethacin on the invasion and metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-435 in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles (DME-based or Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-based cell medium, using a magnetic resonance-compatible invasion assay. Indomethacin treatment significantly reduced the invasion of MDA-MB-435 cells independent of the culture and perfusion conditions examined. Significant changes were detected in levels of intracellular choline phospholipid metabolites and in triglyceride (TG concentrations of these cells, depending on indomethacin treatment and basal cell medium used. Additionally, genetic profiling of breast cancer cells, grown and treated with low-dose indomethacin in cell culture using an RPMI-based medium, revealed the upregulation of several genes implicating cyclooxygenaseindependent targets of indomethacin. These data confirm the ability of an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce breast cancer invasion and demonstrate, depending on cell culture and perfusion conditions, that the indomethacin-induced decrease in invasion is associated with changes in choline phospholipid metabolism, TG metabolism, and gene expression.

  10. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce end points associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Effects of aspirin, prednisolone and indomethacin on nephrotoxic serum nephritis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, H.; Sakamoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effects of aspirin, prednisolone, and indomethacin on nephrotoxic serum nephritis in rats was studied. The nephritis was induced by a single intravenous injection of nephrotoxic serum (NTS, rabbit anti-serum against the water-soluble renal antigen of the rat). The injection of NTS induced the heterologous phase of proteinuria (within a day after NTS injection) and then the autologous phase (5 to 7 days after NTS injection). The effect of drugs given before the NTS (i.e. prophylactically...

  12. Protective effects of ginger and marshmallow extracts on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghlool, Sameh S.; Shehata, Basim A.; Abo-Seif, Ali A.; Abd El-Latif, Hekma A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastric ulcer is one of the most serious diseases. Most classic treatment lines produce adverse drug reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of two natural extracts, namely ginger and marshmallow extracts, on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, and three treatment groups receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), and m...

  13. Coamorphous drug systems: enhanced physical stability and dissolution rate of indomethacin and naproxen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Grohganz, Holger

    2011-01-01

    at 277.15 and 298.15 K under dry conditions (phosphorus pentoxide) and analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Intrinsic dissolution testing was carried out to identify dissolution advantages of the coamorphous form over its crystalline counterparts or amorphous indomethacin. Fourier transform...... representing the second compound. This approach resulted in a good fit to the experimentally determined T(g)s....

  14. Healing Potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae rhizomes against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration: a mechanistic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Sandip K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the rhizomes of the Indian medicinal plant, Picrorhiza kurroa in healing indomethacin-induced acute stomach ulceration in mice and examine its capacity to modulate oxidative stress and the levels of prostaglandin (PGE2 and EGF during the process. Methods Male swiss albino mice, ulcerated with indomethacin (18 mg/kg, p. o., single dose were treated up to 7 days with different doses of the methanol extract of P. kurroa rhizomes (designated as PK. The healing capacity of the most effective dose of PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d was compared with that of omeprazole (Omez (3 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d. The effects of the drug-treatment for one and three days on the biochemical parameters were assessed by comparing the results with that of untreated mice of the 1st and 3rd day of ulceration. The stomach tissues of the mice were used for the biochemical analysis. Results The macroscopic indices revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin administration, which was effectively healed by PK. Under the optimized treatment regime, PK and Omez reduced the ulcer indices by 45.1% (P P Compared to the ulcerated untreated mice, those treated with PK for 3 days showed decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (32.7%, P P P 2 (21.4%, P P P P P P P Conclusion PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 days could effectively heal indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in mice by reducing oxidative stress, and promoting mucin secretion, prostaglandin synthesis and augmenting expressions of cyclooxygenase enzymes and growth factors.

  15. Indomethacin solubility in propylene glycol + water mixtures according to the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    OpenAIRE

    Holguín, Andrés R.; Delgado, Daniel R.; Martínez, Fleming

    2012-01-01

    In this work the Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA) was applied to evaluate the solubility of the analgesic drug indomethacin in propylene glycol + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlative capacity of EHSA was found using a regular polynomial model in order four (overall deviation lower than 2.2 %), when the W interaction parameter is related to the solubility parameter of the mixtures. Nevertheless, the deviations obtained in the estimated solubility with respect to ...

  16. Comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of percolated extract of Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) with indomethacin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Effat; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Fatemi, Ghasem; Etemad, Leila; Taghipour, Gholamhossein; Abbasifard, Mitra

    2012-01-01

    In traditional Iranian medicine, the core of the fruit of Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) has been used in the management of the pain. In this study gastric ulcerogenicity effect of the percolated extract of A. occidentale was investigated in rats. The extract or indomethacin (200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg) was administrated orally. In the control group normal saline (5 ml/kg) was used. After getting extract, indomethacin or normal saline, animals were slaughtered. The stomachs were detached and 10ml of 2% formalin injected in to the stomach for fixing the internal coat of the gastric wall. The stomachs were then slitted open near the bigger curvature and lacerations in the glandular part were evaluated. The ulcer index was determined using j-score. Data demonstrated that the oral dose of 200mg/kg of the extract did not provoke any ulcerogenic consequence in the rat's stomach. Gastric ulcerginicity of the extract at the doses of 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg was less than the similar doses of indomethacin (poccidentale is an appropriate plant for ongoing search for establishing an analgesic agent with low gastro-intestinal side effects for clinical use.

  17. Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Protective roles of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Sabiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the quantitative polyphenolic constituents and gastroprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight. Wistar rats were pretreated with esomeprazole (reference drug at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, S. mombin or F. exasperata at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days prior to ulcer induction. At the end of the experiment, gastric secretions and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. We observed that the significantly increased (p < 0.05 ulcer index, gastric volume, malondialdehyde level and pepsin activity were effectively reduced following treatment with S. mombin and F. exasperata. The extracts also markedly attenuated the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase as well as pH and mucin content in the ulcerated rats. These findings are indicative of gastroprotective and antioxidative potentials of the extracts which is also evident in the degree of % inhibition against ulceration. The available data in this study suggest that the extracts of S. mombin and F. exasperata proved to be capable of ameliorating indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration and the probable mechanisms are via antioxidative and proton pump inhibition.

  18. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF PGE1 AND INDOMETHACIN ON ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Niaki

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available  Prostaglandin £j (PGE-^ and indomethacin, a nonstroidal antiinflammatory drug, were separately administered during ortliodontic tooth movement in rats. At the beginning, an orthodontic appliance was placed and activated in male albinos rats. In tlie first examination, the experimental group received submucosal injections of PGE-y (10 mg/kg/day near the first maxillary riglit molars, and alcohol was injected to control group animals as a vehicle similarly. Jn the second examination, indomethacin (10 mg/kg/day and metiiyl cellulose subcutaneousfy injected to experimental and control groups respectively. Tooth movement was measured at 1,3,5,7,9 and 11 days. In PGE^ group, tooth movement increased significantly at the beginning of seven days as compared to the vehicle injected group and the number of osteoclast and Howship's lacunae were markedly increased. A significant iniiibition of tooth movement occurred beginning at seven days in the indomethacin group compared to the control group.

  20. Indomethacin co-crystals and their parent mixtures: does the intestinal barrier recognize them differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Valeria; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ferraro, Luca; Beggiato, Sarah; Spizzo, Federico; Spisni, Enzo; Pavan, Barbara

    2015-05-04

    Co-crystals are crystalline complexes of two or more molecules bound together in crystal lattices through noncovalent interactions. The solubility and dissolution properties of co-crystals can allow to increase the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is currently believed that the co-crystallization strategy should not induce changes on the pharmacological profile of the APIs, even if it is not yet clear whether a co-crystal would be defined as a physical mixture or as a new chemical entity. In order to clarify these aspects, we chose indomethacin as guest poorly aqueous soluble molecule and compared its properties with those of its co-crystals obtained with 2-hydroxy-4-methylpyridine (co-crystal 1), 2-methoxy-5-nitroaniline (co-crystal 2), and saccharine (co-crystal 3). In particular, we performed a systematic comparison among indomethacin, its co-crystals, and their parent physical mixtures by evaluating via HPLC analysis the API dissolution profile, its ability to permeate across intestinal cell monolayers (NCM460), and its oral bioavailability in rat. The indomethacin dissolution profile was not altered by the presence of co-crystallizing agents as physical mixtures, whereas significant changes were observed by the dissolution of the co-crystals. Furthermore, there was a qualitative concordance between the API dissolution patterns and the relative oral bioavailabilities in rats. Co-crystal 1 induced a drastic decrease of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value of NCM460 cell monolayers, whereas its parent mixture did not evidence any effect. The saccharin-indomethacin mixture induced a drastic decrease of the TEER value of monolayers, whereas its parent co-crystal 3 did not induce any effects on their integrity, being anyway able to increase the permeation of indomethacin. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time different effects induced by co-crystals and their parent physical

  1. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental study of the effect of cisplatin combined with indomethacin and its derivatives for the treatment of lewis lung carcinoma with '18FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jidong; Zhang Caixia; Lu Guoxiu; Xu Weina; Yu Shupeng

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin have been used in the treatment of fever, pain, inflammation and rheumatic disease. In recent years, some researches have confirmed that Indomethacin have the ability of assistant therapy on many kinds of malignant tumors, such as colon cancer; gastric cancer and lung cancer: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Cisplatin combined with Indomethacin and Histamine-Indomethacin to Lewis lung cancer. Methods: 40 male Kunming mice were used to establish Lewis lung cancer model. They were randomly divided into four groups: Cisplatin treatment group, Cisplatin+Indomethacin treatment group, Cisplatin+Histamine-Indomethacin treatment group and control group. Each mouse was given the PET/CT imaging and taken orbital blood for 0.2 mL before and after the treatment. Histological detection was given. Results: Ratio of targets were significantly different after the treatment, especially in Cisplatin+Histamine-Indomethacin treatment group. Each group TNF-α levels were increased after treatment and the Cisplatin+Histamine-Indomethacin treatment group was the most obvious. There was no obvious difference in tumor inhibiting rates. Conclusions: The results showed that Cisplatin combined with Histamine-Indomethacin could inhibit tumor growth and promote apoptosis of tumor cells better. The changes of the ratio of targets could reflect the effect of the chemotherapy drugs earlier. (authors)

  3. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  4. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  5. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  6. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  7. School-age outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter C; Westerveld, Michael; Schneider, Karen C; Katz, Karol H; Makuch, Robert W; Ment, Laura R

    2003-04-01

    The cohort consisted of 328 very low birth weight infants (600-1250 g birth weight) who were enrolled in the low-dose prophylactic indomethacin prevention trial and were intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) negative at 6 postnatal hours. The objective was to determine the effects of both IVH and indomethacin on cognitive, language, and achievement performance at 8 years of age. The cohort was divided into 4 subgroups for analysis: indomethacin plus IVH, indomethacin no IVH, saline plus IVH, and saline with no IVH. The children were evaluated prospectively at 8 years of age with a neurologic assessment, history of school performance, and a battery of cognitive, academic, behavioral, and functional assessments. Children in both IVH groups had more cerebral palsy; more hearing impairment; lower daily living skills scores; lower IQ, vocabulary, and reading and mathematics achievement test scores; and greater educational resource needs. With logistic regression analyses grade 3 to 4 IVH, periventricular leukomalacia and/or ventriculomegaly, male gender, maternal education, and language spoken in the home contributed to outcomes. No effects of indomethacin or gestational age were identified. Although biological factors including IVH, ventriculomegaly, and periventricular leukomalacia contribute significantly to school age outcomes among very low birth weight survivors at 8 years of age, social and environmental factors including maternal level of education and primary language spoken in the home are also important contributors to outcome.

  8. No effect of one-year treatment with indomethacin on Alzheimer's disease progression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle de Jong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID indomethacin slows cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD.This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between May 2000 and September 2005 in two hospitals in the Netherlands. 51 patients with mild to moderate AD were enrolled into the study. Patients received 100 mg indomethacin or placebo daily for 12 months. Additionally, all patients received omeprazole. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline after one year of treatment on the cognitive subscale of the AD Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog. Secondary outcome measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change with caregiver input, the noncognitive subscale of the ADAS, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia. Considerable recruitment problems of participants were encountered, leading to an underpowered study. In the placebo group, 19 out of 25 patients completed the study, and 19 out of 26 patients in the indomethacin group. The deterioration on the ADAS-cog was less in the indomethacin group (7.8+/-7.6, than in the placebo group (9.3+/-10.0. This difference (1.5 points; CI -4.5-7.5 was not statistically significant, and neither were any of the secondary outcome measures.The results of this study are inconclusive with respect to the hypothesis that indomethacin slows the progression of AD.

  9. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ment of Civil Engineering and is presently the. Chairman of Center for. Sustainable Technologies,. Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research areas include, unsaturated soil behaviour, hazardous waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis,.

  10. Reversible Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  11. Gastroprotective effect of andrographolide sodium bisulfite against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ming; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Su, Zu-Qing; Feng, Xue-Xuan; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Su, Zi-Ren

    2015-06-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  13. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  14. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  15. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  16. Chemical Speciation of the System Cu(II-Indomethacin in Ethanol and Water by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Rodríguez-Laguna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the metal-drug complexes could be in fact the active agents displaying therapeutic effects of drugs. The characterization of the global formation equilibrium of complexes formed between metal ions and species with biological activity such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provides essential information to understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Since equilibrium constants determine the relative predominance of species, they provide crucial information to identify what complexes are more likely to be present in the system being responsible for the therapeutic effects of the drug. In this paper, the systems formed between copper and Indomethacin of different concentrations in ethanol or water were studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The stoichiometry of the complexes Cu(II–Indomethacin and their formation constants were investigated. Moreover, molecular structures of the Cu(II–Indomethacin complexes were explored by means of the molecular modeling within the frame of the density functional theory.

  17. Prostaglandins, Masculinization and Its Disorders: Effects of Fetal Exposure of the Rat to the Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor- Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Afshan; Mungall, William; McKinnell, Chris; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal ‘masculinization programming window’ (MPW). What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG)-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity) during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization) was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5–e18.5) to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5), testis weight (e21.5) and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5), but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5) or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5). Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001) in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference. PMID:23671609

  18. Endogenous prostaglandins as local regulators of blood flow in man: effect of indomethacin on reactive and functional hyperaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Wennmalm, A

    1976-05-01

    1. The contribution of endogenously formed prostaglandins of the E series (PGE) to the development of reactive and functional hyperaemia was studied in the human forearm. 2. Forearm blood flow was recorded using venous occlusion plethysmography. The concentration of prostaglandin E-like substances (PLS) in the venous effluent from the muscle was analysed using bio-assay. For inhibition of PG biosynthesis, indomethacin (1-25 mg/kg body weight) was administered. 3. Following 5 min of arterial occlusion, a marked hyperaemia developed during the next 150 sec. Indomethacin, while not affecting the resting arterial blood flow, significantly decreased the peak level as well as the duration of the hyperaemia. The total reactive hyperaemia was 25 ml./100 ml. tissue before, and 13 ml./100 ml. tissue after administration of indomethacin. 4. During sustained isometric forearm contraction, and following isometric and dynamic forearm muscle activity, a moderate hyperaemia was observed. This was significantly diminished when indomethacin had been administered, although not to the same extent as the reactive hyperaemia. The total hyperaemia in the absence and presence of indomethacin was 113 and 77 ml./100 ml. tissue, respectively, in connexion with isometric contraction and 206 and 120 ml./100 ml. tissue, respectively, following dynamic work. 5. The venous concentration of PLS was very low at rest. A significantly increased concentration was observed after ischaemia. This increased release of PLS was entirely suppressed by indomethacin. With the present assay method, muscular activity elicited no detectable change in the venous concentration of PLS. 6. It is concluded that reactive hyperaemia depends to a considerable extent on an intact PGE synthesis. It is furthermore suggested that endogenous PGE may contribute to the functional hyperaemia that appears during and after muscle activity.

  19. Prostaglandins, masculinization and its disorders: effects of fetal exposure of the rat to the cyclooxygenase inhibitor- indomethacin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Dean

    Full Text Available Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal 'masculinization programming window' (MPW. What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5-e18.5 to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5, testis weight (e21.5 and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5, but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5 or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5. Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001 in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference.

  20. MRP2 mediated drug-drug interaction: indomethacin increases sulfasalazine absorption in the small intestine, potentially decreasing its colonic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-02-15

    We have recently shown that efflux transport, mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is responsible for sulfasalazine low-permeability in the small intestine, thereby enabling its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between indomethacin and sulfasalazine, in the mechanism of efflux transporter competition. The concentration-dependent effects of indomethacin on sulfasalazine intestinal epithelial transport were investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in both apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions. The interaction was then investigated in the in situ single-pass rat jejunal perfusion model. Sulfasalazine displayed 30-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Indomethacin significantly increased AP-BL and decreased BL-AP sulfasalazine Caco-2 transport, in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 75 and 196 microM respectively. In the rat model, higher sulfasalazine concentrations resulted in higher intestinal permeability, consistent with saturation of efflux transporter. Without indomethacin, sulfasalazine demonstrated low rat jejunal permeability (vs. metoprolol). Indomethacin significantly increased sulfasalazine P(eff), effectively shifting it from BCS (biopharmaceutics classification system) Class IV to II. In conclusion, the data indicate that concomitant intake of indomethacin and sulfasalazine may lead to increased absorption of sulfasalazine in the small intestine, thereby reducing its colonic concentration and potentially altering its therapeutic effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  2. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of the iliac crest followed by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry with defined antigens (CD105+/73+/45−/14−). The cells were seeded and incubated as follows: without additives (Group 0; donor A/B/C), with 10−7 M iloprost only (Group 0+ilo; A/B), with indomethacin only in concentrations of 10−6 M (Group 1, A), 10−5 M (Group 2, B), 10−4 M (Group 3, A/B), and together with 10−7 M iloprost (Groups 4–6, A/B/C). On Day 10 and 28, UV/Vis spectrometric and immunocytochemical assays (4 samples per group and donor) were performed to investigate cell proliferation (cell count measurement) and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage (CD34−, CD45−, CD105+, type 1 collagen (Col1), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runx2, Twist, specific ALP-activity). Results Indomethacin alone suppressed BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by downregulation of Runx2, Col1, and ALP. In combination with indomethacin, iloprost increased cell proliferation and differentiation and it completely suppressed Twist expression at Day 10 and 28. Iloprost alone did not promote cell proliferation, but moderately enhanced Runx2 and Twist expression. However, the proliferative effects and the specific ALP-activity varied donor-dependently. Conclusions Iloprost partially antagonized the suppressing effects of indomethacin on BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage. It enhanced the expression of Runx2 and, only in the presence of indomethacin

  3. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of t...

  4. Interleukin-13, but Not Indomethacin, Increases Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Synthesis in Human Lung Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is associated with constitutively elevated synthesis of bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl-leukotrienes, associated with increased expression of leukotriene (LTC4 synthase and Th2 cytokines and airway eosinophilia. We examined whether interleukin-13 can increase LTC4 synthase gene transcription and cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis in macrophages isolated from resected human lung tissue and whether an NSAID (indomethacin can trigger further cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis in these cells. Overnight culture of human lung macrophages with IL-13 (10 ng/mL increased spontaneous and ionophore-stimulated production of cysteinyl-leukotrienes by 42% (P=0.02 and 52% (P=0.005, respectively, as quantified by enzyme immunoassays, but PCR gene transcription assays did not demonstrate an effect on LTC4S mRNA. The addition of indomethacin (100 μM did not modulate cysteinyl-leukotriene production in either IL-13-treated or untreated macrophages. We conclude that while IL-13 enhances cysteinyl-leukotriene synthesis in human lung macrophages, it does not replicate the enhanced LTC4 synthase expression observed in the AERD lung nor confer sensitivity to NSAIDs.

  5. Morphine Suppository versus Indomethacin Suppository in the Management of Renal Colic: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Zamanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal colic is a medical emergency due to the rapid onset and devastating nature of its pain. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are both used as first-line choices in its management. Aim. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of opioids and NSAIDs in the management of acute renal colic. Methods. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups (n=79 and received either 10 mg morphine or 100 mg indomethacin suppositories. The severity of pain was measured using verbal numeric rating scale at baseline and 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the administration of analgesics. Drug side effects as well as patients’ vital signs were also recorded. Results. The mean decrease in the pain score during the first 20 minutes was significantly higher among those who received morphine suppository. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean decrease in pain score during the first 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the admission. Prevalence of drug side effects or changes in the vital signs was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Morphine suppositories seem to be more efficient in achieving rapid pain relief comparing to indomethacin.

  6. Formulation of Indomethacin Colon Targeted Delivery Systems Using Polysaccharides as Carriers by Applying Liquisolid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the formulation of matrix tablets for colon-specific drug delivery (CSDD system of indomethacin (IDM by applying liquisolid (LS technique. A CSDD system based on time-dependent polymethacrylates and enzyme degradable polysaccharides was established. Eudragit RL 100 (E-RL 100 was employed as time-dependent polymer, whereas bacterial degradable polysaccharides were presented as LS systems loaded with the drug. Indomethacin-loaded LS systems were prepared using different polysaccharides, namely, guar gum (GG, pectin (PEC, and chitosan (CH, as carriers separately or in mixtures of different ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1. Liquisolid systems that displayed promising results concerning drug release rate in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 were compressed into tablets after the addition of the calculated amount of E-RL 100 and lubrication with magnesium stearate and talc in the ratio of 1 : 9. It was found that E-RL 100 improved the flowability and compressibility of all LS formulations. The release data revealed that all formulations succeeded to sustain drug release over a period of 24 hours. Stability study indicated that PEC-based LS system as well as its matrix tablets was stable over the period of storage (one year and could provide a minimum shelf life of two years.

  7. Indomethacin attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia does not modify radiation-induced motor hypoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.L.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, H.D.; Landauer, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation produces hyperthermia and reduces motor activity. Previous studies suggested that radiation-induced hyperthermia results from a relatively direct action on the brain and is mediated by prostaglandins. To test the hypothesis that hypoactivity may be, in part, a thermoregulatory response to this elevation in body temperature, adult male rats were given indomethacin (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, and were either irradiated (LINAC 18.6 MeV (nominal) high-energy electrons, 10 Gy at 10 Gy/min, 2.8 μsec pulses at 2 Hz) or sham-irradiated. The locomotor activity of all rats was then measured for 30 min in a photocell monitor for distance traveled and number of vertical movements. Rectal temperatures of irradiated rats administered vehicle only were elevated by 0.9±0.2degC at the beginning and the end of the activity session. Although indomethacin, at the two higher doses tested, attenuated the hyperthermia in irradiated rats by 52-75%, it did not attenuate radiation-induced reductions in motor activity. These results indicate that motor hypoactivity after exposure to 10 Gy of high-energy electrons is not due to elevated body temperature or to the increased synthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  8. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or the water reaches the tip of every leaf of a plant is due to osmotic pressure. ... concentration and temperature of the solution by a law that is similar to the gas law. ... waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis, desalinatiion, seawater, water purification.

  9. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  10. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  11. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  12. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  13. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  14. Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin-the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannow, J; Benjamins, J-W; Wohlert, J

    2017-01-01

    , demonstrated a prolonged release compared to films, owing to the tortuous diffusion path that the drug needs to take around the intact air-bubbles. However, the nanofoam was only obtained at a relatively low drug content of 21wt% using fixed processing parameters. Herein, the effect of indomethacin content...

  15. Oral Ibuprofen versus Intravenous Indomethacin for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Han Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In infants with VLBW, oral ibuprofen is as effective as intravenous indomethacin for closure of PDA and is associated with significantly fewer cases of necrotizing enterocolitis among infants with birth body weights <1250 g and significantly lower rates of elevated creatinine levels among neonates with birth body weights ranging from 1000 to 1500 g.

  16. Effect of Amlodipine and Indomethacin in electrical and picrotoxin induced convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagathi Devi N, Prasanna V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are the drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many AEDs have been developed, but the ideal AED which can not only prevent but also abolish seizures by correcting the underlying pathophysiology is still not in sight. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs may form such a group, as the initiation of epileptogenic activity in the neuron is connected with a phenomenon known as “intrinsic burst firing” which is activated by inward calcium current. In this study, Amlodipine, a CCB of the dihydropyridine class was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in mice. It was compared with Phenytoin sodium, one of the oldest anti epileptic drugs. Amlodipine was also combined with Indomethacin, a conventional NSAID, to look for any potentiating effect of this prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30 G were used for this study; 48 were divided into 8 groups, each group containing 6 mice. Group 1-4 MES (50 m Amp for 0.1 secs induced convulsion method, Group 5-8 evaluated by using the chemo-convulsant, picrotoxin (0.7 mg / kg. Group 1, 5 are controls of MES, Picrotoxin (without treatment. Group 2 &6 administered standard drug phenytoin (0.5mg/100mg i.p, Group 3 & 7: Amlodipine group (8 mg / kg i.p and Group 4 & 8: Amlodipine (8 mg/kg and Indomethacin group (20 mg / kg. In MES method Duration of tonic hind limb extension, Clonic convulsions, Recovery period were studied. In Picrotoxin method Latent period before onset of convulsions, severity of convulsions assessed. Results: In electrically induced seizures, the 3 parameters compared are duration of tonic hind limb extension, THLE, (P0.05; duration of recovery phase (P<0.0001 and in picrotoxin-induced seizures, the 2 parameters are onset of seizures (P<0.05 and severity of seizures (P<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of Amlodipine and Indomethacin showed a superior

  17. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... by accounting for the significance of the materials and the equipment that enters into the production of statistics. Key words: Reversible statistics, diverse materials, constructivism, economics, science, and technology....

  18. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  19. Preventive effects of 10-day supplementation with saffron and indomethacin on the delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Rajabi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) often occurs after unaccustomed eccentric exercise and reduces exercise performance. We aimed to study the preventive effects of saffron and indomethacin on the biochemical and functional indicators of DOMS after 1-session eccentric exercise. A 10-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pretest-posttest design. Controlled research laboratory. Thirty-nine nonactive male university students randomly divided into saffron (n = 12), indomethacin (n = 12), and control (n = 15) groups. Saffron group received 1 capsule containing dried saffron powder (n = 12, 300 mg/d), indomethacin group received 75 mg indomethacin (n = 12, 25 mg thrice a day), and control group (n = 15) received placebo capsules, 1 week before and 3 days after eccentric exercise. Ten days before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after muscle soreness protocol, the maximum isometric and isotonic forces, plasma creatine kinase (CK), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), perceived pain, knee range of movement, and thigh circumference were measured. Muscle soreness protocol was performed with a weight load equal to 80% of the maximum isotonic force in 4 sessions with 20 repetitions and 3-minute rest in between. This study shows that 10-day supplementation with 300 mg saffron significantly decreased the CK and LDH concentrations (P < 0.0001). In the saffron group, there was no decline in maximum isometric and isotonic forces after eccentric exercise, but a significant decline in the isometric force was observed in the control group (P < 0.0001). No pain was reported in the saffron group, whereas the indomethacin group experienced pain before 72 hours (P < 0.001). Results obtained from the current novel research indicate a strong preventive effect of 10-day supplementation with saffron on the DOMS. The saffron can be used to prevent DOMS and alleviate the DOMS symptoms.

  20. Protective effect of two extracts of Cydonia oblonga miller (Quince fruits on gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In various studies, Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince has been reported to have many properties such as antioxidant and anti-ulcerative effects. This study has aimed to investigate the protective effects of quince aqueous extract (QAE and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE on gastric ulcer caused by indomethacin and the relevant macroscopic, histopathology, and biochemical factors in rats. Methods: Ten groups of male Wistar rats, six in each, were used in this study. These groups included: normal (distilled water, control (distilled water + indomethacin, reference (ranitidine or sucralfate + indomethacin, and test groups (QAE or QHE + indomethacin treated with three increasing doses (200, 500, and 800 mg/kg. Extracts and drugs were given orally to rats 1 h before injecting the indomethacin (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Six hours later, the abdomen of rats was exposed, its pylorus was legated, gastric acid content was extracted, and its pH and the amount of pepsin secreted were measured by Anson method. Then, histopathology indices, ulcer area, ulcer index, and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were measured in gastric mucus. Results: Both extracts of quince were effective to reduce the acidity of stomach and pepsin activity. Compared to control group, the average of enzyme activity of MPO was significantly declined in all treated groups. Control group had the highest level of gastric ulcer indices including severity, area, and index while the evaluated parameters had decreased in all extract treated groups although it seems that QAE was somewhat more effective. Conclusions: Protective effect of QAE and QHE on gastric ulcer was done by undermining offensive factors including decreasing the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin activity and by strengthening the protective factors of gastric mucus including antioxidant capacity.

  1. A theoretical and spectroscopic study of co-amorphous naproxen and indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Grohganz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    . In this study, the co-amorphous drug mixture containing naproxen (NAP) and indomethacin (IND) was investigated using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and quantum mechanical calculations. The structures of both drugs were optimized as monomer, homodimer and heterodimer using density functional theory and used...... for the calculation of IR spectra. Conformational analysis confirmed that the optimized structures were suitable for the theoretical prediction of the spectra. Vibrational modes from the calculation could be matched with experimentally observed spectra for crystalline and amorphous NAP and IND, and it could be shown...... that NAP and IND exist as heterodimers in the co-amorphous mixture when quench cooled together from the melt in a 1:1 molar ratio....

  2. Preparation and recrystallization behavior of spray-dried co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Radi, Lydia; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    To improve the dissolution properties and the physical stability of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients, small molecule stabilizing agents may be added to prepare co-amorphous systems. The objective of the study was to investigate if spray-drying allows the preparation of co-amorphous drug......-drug systems such as naproxen-indomethacin and to examine the influence of the process conditions on the resulting initial sample crystallinity and the recrystallization behavior of the drug(s). For this purpose, the process parameters inlet temperature and pump feed rate were varied according to a 2(2......) factorial design and the obtained samples were analyzed with X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of the data revealed that the preparation of fully amorphous samples could be achieved depending on the process conditions. The resulting recrystallization...

  3. Performance comparison between crystalline and co-amorphous salts of indomethacin-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Georgia; Nouri, Khatera; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    forms of salts of indomethacin (IND) with the amino acid lysine (LYS), allowing the direct comparison of their solid-state properties to their in vitro performance. X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that DBM experiments led to the formation of a fully co......-amorphous salt, while LAG resulted in a crystalline salt. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the samples prepared by DBM had a single glass transition temperature (Tg) of approx. 100°C for the co-amorphous salt, while a new melting point (223°C) was obtained for the crystalline salt prepared by LAG....... Intrinsic dissolution and powder dissolution studies demonstrated an increased dissolution rate of the drug in the co-amorphous salt compared to pure amorphous IND and also the crystalline drug-LYS salt. Furthermore, the co-amorphous IND-LYS salt presented long term physical stability in dry conditions...

  4. Extended hildebrand solubility approach in the estimation of indomethacin solubility in ethyl acetate + ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruidiaz, Miller A; Martinez, Fleming

    2009-01-01

    Indomethacin (IMC) is a widely used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, whose physicochemical properties have not been thoroughly studied. In this work the Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA) was applied to evaluate the solubility of IMC in ethyl acetate + ethanol mixtures at 298.15 K. A good predictive capacity of EHSA was found using regular polynomial models in order five, when the W interaction parameter is related to the solubility parameter of the mixtures. Nevertheless, the deviations obtained in the estimated solubility with respect to experimental solubility were of the same order when compared with those obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility as a function of the mixtures solubility parameters.

  5. Polymer incorporation method affects the physical stability of amorphous indomethacin in aqueous suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surwase, S A; Itkonen, L; Aaltonen, J

    2015-01-01

    methylcellulose (HPMC) and Soluplus® (SP)) were used and included in the suspensions either as a solid dispersion (SD) with IND or dissolved in the suspension medium prior to the addition of amorphous IND. The total concentrations of both IND and the polymer in the suspensions were kept the same for both methods......This study reports the potential of different polymers and polymer incorporation methods to inhibit crystallisation and maintain supersaturation of amorphous indomethacin (IND) in aqueous suspensions during storage. Three different polymers (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), hydroxypropyl...... of polymer incorporation. All the polymers (with both incorporation methods) inhibited crystallisation of the amorphous IND. The SDs were better than the predissolved polymer solutions at inhibiting crystallisation. The SDs were also better at maintaining drug supersaturation. SP showed a higher IND...

  6. In-vitro and in-vivo study of indomethacin loaded gelatin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Dhanawat, Meenakshi; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2011-06-01

    The present research work deals with fabrication of indomethacin loaded gelatin nanoparticles prepared by double desolvation method for controlled drug delivery. Submicron polymeric particles with size 20% in 1 hr) followed by controlled release (> 75% in 12 hr). Among the kinetic models employed, the Higuchi model showed a better fit (R2 > 0.9) with n IDM) was studied by rat paw model and IGNP significantly (P IDM. Pharmacokinetic study showed significant enhancement (P IDM. Cmax of IGNP had higher value (110.81 +/- 8.53 microg/mL) compared to that of IDM (51.66 +/- 7.5 microg/mL). AUC0-12 was 1009.78 +/- 80.24 and 194.33 +/- 46.76/microg x h/mL in IGNP and IDM respectively (relative bioavailability 500%). Further, a good in vitro-in vivo correlation established the formulation for future trials.

  7. Inhibition of surface crystallisation of amorphous indomethacin particles in physical drug-polymer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, Petra A; Laitinen, Riikka; Barthold, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    or Soluplus(®) in 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 (w/w) ratios were stored at 30°C and 23 or 42% RH. Samples were analysed during storage by X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). IMC Eudragit(®) mixtures showed higher physical......Surface coverage may affect the crystallisation behaviour of amorphous materials. This study investigates crystallisation inhibition in powder mixtures of amorphous drug and pharmaceutical excipients. Pure amorphous indomethacin (IMC) powder and physical mixtures thereof with Eudragit(®) E...... through reduced IMC surface molecular mobility. Polymer particles may also mechanically hinder crystal growth outwards from the surface. This work highlights the importance of microparticulate surface coverage of amorphous drug particles on their stability....

  8. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... to paracetamol. Investigations of the gross anatomy of the testis as well as Leydig cells number and rate of gonocyte apoptosis after the 3?days of ex vivo differentiation showed no significant effect of the analgesics tested compared with controls. These data indicate therefore that mild analgesics specifically...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  9. Aquagenic Palmar Wrinkling Induced by Combined Use of Salazopyrin and Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Gündüz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic palmar wrinkling (APW is an uncommon dermatological condition, which manifests as asymptomatic or tender palmar papules and may cause discomfort and manual functional limitations during its flares. Despite some studies implying a relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF and APW, there are also reports of APW cases without an accompanying CF. In this report we describe a 19-year-old ankylosing spondylitis patient, who developed APW lesions after the start of combined salazopyrin and indomethacin treatment. His palmar lesions were resistant to topical corticosteroid and aluminium hydroxide therapy and disappeared only after stopping the anti-inflammatory drugs. With this report, we aim to highlight and address this underrecognized dermatological condition and possible role of aquaporins in its pathogenesis.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of indomethacin and piroxicam administration before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Gül, Özer; Şık, Aytek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups. Two groups were administered oral piroxicam (10 mg capsules) or 100 mg indomethacin (rectal suppository), respectively, 1-2 h before ET. As a control, the third group did not receive any form of treatment before ET. Basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and level 17β-estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, the collected and transferred number of embryos, and the number of grade A embryos obtained were determined in all patients. The implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates of the groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rate per ET and the implantation rate were 35.2% and 12.15% in the piroxicam group, 31.7% and 10.9% in the indomethacin group, and 32.9% and 12.5% in the control, respectively. The miscarriage rates of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 12%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively (P = 0.964). The differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.887). There were also no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.842). These results suggest that NSAID administration before ET has no additional effect on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta; Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan; Di Martino, Piera

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the γ form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of α and γ polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the γ form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of α form than γ form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  13. Effects of Prophylactic Indomethacin on Vasopressor-Dependent Hypotension in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Melissa; Koo, Jane; Wickremasinghe, Andrea; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Clyman, Ronald I

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether a moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is responsible for vasopressor-dependent hypotension, occurring at the end of the first postnatal week. We performed a retrospective, double cohort controlled study of infants delivered at ≤27 +6 weeks' gestation (n = 313). From January 2004 through April 2011, all infants were treated with prophylactic indomethacin ([PINDO] epoch). From May 2011 through December 2015, no infant was treated with indomethacin until at least 8 postnatal days (conservative epoch). Echocardiograms were performed on postnatal days 6 or 7. Hypotension was managed by a predefined protocol. The primary outcome was the incidence of dopamine-dependent hypotension, defined as having received at least 6 µg/kg/min dopamine for at least 24 hours during postnatal days 4-7. As expected, the incidence of moderate-to-large PDA at the end of the first week differed significantly between epochs (PINDO = 8%; conservative = 64%). In multivariate analyses, infants in the PINDO epoch had a significantly lower incidence of vasopressor-dependent hypotension (11%) than infants in the conservative epoch (21%; OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.82). Infants in the PINDO epoch also required less mean airway pressure, had a lower respiratory severity score, and lower mode of ventilation score than infants in the conservative epoch during postnatal days 4-7. The effects of PINDO on both the incidence of vasopressor-dependent hypotension and the need for respiratory support were no longer significant when analyses were adjusted for "presence or absence of a moderate-to-large PDA." PINDO decreases vasopressor-dependent hypotension and the need for respiratory support at the end of the first postnatal week. These effects are mediated by closure of the PDA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of indomethacin-loaded nanoparticles: effect of polymer matrix and surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupeyrón D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Danay Dupeyrón,1,2 Monique Kawakami,1 Adriana M Ferreira,1 Paolin Rocio Cáceres-Vélez,3 Jacques Rieumont,4 Ricardo Bentes Azevedo,3 José Carlos T Carvalho1 1Laboratório de Pesquisa em Fármacos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Colegiado de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Brazil; 3Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil; 4Departamento de Química – Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la Habana, Cuba Abstract: Despite recent advances in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, the design of targeted delivery systems to improve the efficacy and reduce side effects of NSAIDs continues to be a focus of much research. Enteric nanoparticles have been recognized as a potential system to reduce gastrointestinal irritations caused by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EUDRAGIT® L100, polyethylene glycol, and polysorbate 80 on encapsulation efficiency of indomethacin within enteric nanoparticles. Formulations were developed based on a multilevel factorial design (three factors, two levels. The amount of polyethylene glycol was shown to be the factor that had the greatest influence on the encapsulation efficiency (evaluated response at 95% confidence level. Some properties of nanoparticles like process yield, drug–polymer interaction, particle morphology, and in vitro dissolution profile, which could affect biological performance, have also been evaluated. Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, indomethacin, enteric polymer, polyethylene glycol, nanoparticles

  15. Indomethacin treatment prevents high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance but not glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even; Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Røen, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet or a regular diet supplemented or not with indomethacin (±INDO) for 7 weeks. Development of obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance was monitored, and the effect of indomethacin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in vivo...... and in vitro using MIN6 β-cells. We found that supplementation with indomethacin prevented HF/HS-induced obesity and diet-induced changes in systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, HF/HS+INDO-fed mice remained insulin-sensitive. However, mice fed HF/HS+INDO exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Hepatic glucose...

  16. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  17. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  18. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  19. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  20. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  1. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  2. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  3. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  4. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  5. Indomethacin and diclofenac in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Árpád; Solymosi, Norbert; Mohácsi, László; Patai, Árpád V

    2017-06-01

    Diclofenac and indomethacin are the most studied drugs for preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, there are no prospective, randomized multicenter trials with a sufficient number of patients for correct evaluation of their efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate all prospective trials published in full text that studied the efficacy of diclofenac or indomethacin and were controlled with placebo or non-treatment for the prevention of PEP in adult patients undergoing ERCP. Systematic search of databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane) for relevant studies published from inception to 30 June 2016. Our meta-analysis of 4741 patients from 17 trials showed that diclofenac or indomethacin significantly decreased the risk ratio (RR) of PEP to 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.78; P = .0001), number needed to treat (NNT) was 20, and the reduction of RR of moderate to severe PEP was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97; P = .0339). The efficacy of indomethacin compared with diclofenac was similar (P = .98). The efficacy of indomethacin or diclofenac did not differ according to timing (P = .99) or between patients with average-risk and high-risk for PEP (P = .6923). The effect of non-rectal administration of indomethacin or diclofenac was not significant (P = .1507), but the rectal route was very effective (P = .0005) with an NNT of 19. The administration of indomethacin or diclofenac was avoided in patients with renal failure. Substantial adverse events were not detected. The use of rectally administered diclofenac or indomethacin before or closely after ERCP is inexpensive and safe and is recommended in every patient (without renal failure) undergoing ERCP. (Registration number: CRD42016042726, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermoanalytical and Fourier transform infrared spectral curve-fitting techniques used to investigate the amorphous indomethacin formation and its physical stability in Indomethacin-Soluplus® solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Lin, Hong-Liang; Chi, Ying-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ting; Kao, Chi-Yu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien

    2015-12-30

    The amorphous form of a drug has higher water solubility and faster dissolution rate than its crystalline form. However, the amorphous form is less thermodynamically stable and may recrystallize during manufacturing and storage. Maintaining the amorphous state of drug in a solid dosage form is extremely important to ensure product quality. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the amount of amorphous indomethacin (INDO) formed in the Soluplus® solid dispersions using thermoanalytical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral curve-fitting techniques. The INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions with various weight ratios of both components were prepared by air-drying and heat-drying processes. A predominate IR peak at 1683cm(-1) for amorphous INDO was selected as a marker for monitoring the solid state of INDO in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The physical stability of amorphous INDO in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions prepared by both drying processes was also studied under accelerated conditions. A typical endothermic peak at 161°C for γ-form of INDO (γ-INDO) disappeared from all the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions, suggesting the amorphization of INDO caused by Soluplus® after drying. In addition, two unique IR peaks at 1682 (1681) and 1593 (1591)cm(-1) corresponded to the amorphous form of INDO were observed in the FTIR spectra of all the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The quantitative amounts of amorphous INDO formed in all the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions were increased with the increase of γ-INDO loaded into the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions by applying curve-fitting technique. However, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Soluplus® and INDO were only observed in the samples prepared by heat-drying process, due to a marked spectral shift from 1636 to 1628cm(-1) in the INDO/Soluplus® solid dispersions. The INDO/Soluplus® solid

  7. Sustained-release indomethacin in the management of the acute painful shoulder from bursitis and/or tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, J J; Londino, A V; Eyvazzadeh, C

    1985-10-25

    Of all the forms of nonarticular rheumatism, by far the most common are bursitis and tendinitis. Yet, the bursae and neighboring tendon sheaths are the most neglected anatomic structures of the body. Moreover, like the joints, they are lined by synovial membrane, secrete synovial fluid, and are common sites of rheumatic problems. The vast majority of painful shoulder problems are caused by acute subacromial (subdeltoid) bursitis and bicipital tendinitis. In the management of these periarticular disorders, the ultimate goal is to preserve shoulder motion. Although this is accomplished by daily range-of-motion exercises, it is clearly facilitated by suppression of periarticular inflammation and discomfort through the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Of these, sustained-release indomethacin provides the anti-inflammatory efficacy of indomethacin and by virtue of its sustained-release formulation, may promote patient compliance since it need be given only once or twice daily.

  8. Effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bin Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Methods: A total of 85 patients with common bile duct stones or obstructive jaundice were divided into the observation group (n=45 and the control group (n=40 according to the different treatment methods, both two groups patients were treated with ERCP, patients in the observation group was given indomethacin suppositories 50 mg preoperative 30 min. Serum amylase, inflammatory factors and T cell subsets were detected preoperative, postoperative 6 h and postoperative 24 h. Inflammatory factors including interleukin -10 (IL-10, interleukin -6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4. T cell subsets including CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and calculated CD4+ / CD8+ . Results: In both two groups, postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly higher than before surgery; in the observation group, the postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly lower than in the control group at the same time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum proinflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α increased first and then decreased, both were significantly higher than before surgery; both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 gradually increased, both were significantly higher than before surgery, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05; In the observation group, antiinflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 significantly increased while pro-inflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α significantly decreased compared with the control group at the same time point 6 h and 24 h after surgery, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h T cell subsets CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4

  9. Chemosensitizing indomethacin-conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide nanoparticles for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Termsarasab, Ubonvan; Lee, Mee Yeon; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Song Yi; Kim, Jung Sun; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2017-07-15

    A chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO)-indomethacin (IDM) conjugate (CI) was synthesized to fabricate chemosensitizing nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. IDM was conjugated to a CSO backbone via amide bond formation, of which successful synthesis was confirmed by proton-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded CI (CI10/DOX; CI:DOX=10:1 [w/w]) NPs with IDM increased in the presence of A549 cell lysates. In A549 cells (human lung carcinoma cells), more efficient cellular uptake of CI10/DOX NPs than that of free DOX was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity of CI10/DOX NPs in A549 cells was higher than those of free DOX and CI NPs with free DOX groups. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration in rats showed significantly lower clearance of DOX from NPs compared with the free DOX group. Tumor targetability of the developed CI NPs was also verified by a real-time optical imaging study. In summary, the chemosensitizing CI/DOX NP with enhanced anticancer activity, prolonged blood circulation, and passive tumor targeting can be a promising anticancer drug delivery system for tumor-targeted therapy. Chemosensitizing nanoparticles (NPs) based on amphiphilic chitosan oligosaccharide-indomethacin (CSO-IDM; CI) conjugate were developed for tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). IDM was introduced to the CSO backbone as a hydrophobic residue to synthesize an amphiphilic conjugate and a chemosenstizer of DOX for improving antitumor efficacies. IDM, conjugated to CSO, may inhibit the efflux of cellular uptaken DOX via multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and subsequently augment the anti-proliferation potentials of DOX in A549 cells (MRP-expressed human lung cancer cells). Chemosensitizing properties of developed CI NPs were assessed in cell culture models and the tumor targetability of CI/DOX NPs was demonstrated in A549 tumor-xenografted mouse

  10. Zinc salt enhances gastroprotective activity of risperidone in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, F S; Onwuchekwa, C

    2016-09-01

    Zinc has been reported to mediate cellular responses to injury by producing cytoprotection via the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Anti-stress medications are generally anti-psychotic drugs and anti- depressants. Some Anti-psychotic drugs such as risperidone have been reported to possess anti-ulcer activity. Risperidone as an antipsychotic drug blocks several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, adrenergic, histaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The study investigated the antiulcer activity of Zinc Chloride (ZnCl(2)) in combination with risperidone in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into two groups of twenty animals each for ZnCl(2) and risperidone groups. Each group was further divided into four subgroups. ZnCl(2) was administered orally at 20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg to a subgroup, while 80mg/kg of ZnCl(2) was administered in combination with risperidone (0.1mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg and 0.5mg/kg) orally once daily for 21 days. The controls were treated with distilled water. Ulcer was induced using indomethacin. Histology of the stomach tissues was prepared with PAS and H& E stains. Ulcer score and ulcer area were assessed using standard methods. Data were analysed using student t-test and Graphpad Prism 5. There were decreases in ulcer scores using the different doses of ZnCl, (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg). Also using the highest dose ZnCl(2) (80mg/ kg) and different doses of risperidone there were decreases in ulcer scores compared to the control. This effect of the risperidone showed a significant dose- dependent reduction. The effect ZnCl(2), and risperidone were also reflected in the ulcer area and in the histology. These findings suggest that ZnCl(2), enhances the gastroprotective activity ofrisperidone in indomethacin- induced gastric ulcer. However, more detailed studies are necessary to confirm the relevance of this finding and its implications in clinical settings.

  11. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  12. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  13. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  14. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  15. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  16. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  17. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  18. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  19. Relationships among the behavioral, noradrenergic, and pituitary–adrenal responses to interleukin-1 and the effects of indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Dunn, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral administration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to activate the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) and brain noradrenergic systems. We studied the relationship between these responses using in vivo microdialysis to assess the release of hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE), while simultaneously sampling blood for ACTH and corticosterone, and monitoring body temperature and behavior in freely moving rats. Rats were implanted with microdialysis probes in the medial hypothalamus, with intravenous catheters, and with telethermometers in the abdomen. Each rat was injected with saline and IL-1β (1 μg ip) in random order, monitoring microdialysate NE, body temperature and plasma ACTH and corticosterone for 2–4 h after injection. Saline injections were followed by transient increases in microdialysate NE and in plasma ACTH and corticosterone. IL-1β injections resulted in prolonged elevations of microdialysate NE, as well as plasma ACTH and corticosterone, and body temperature. IL-1β also induced shivering and a prolonged depression of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg/kg sc) prevented the IL-1β-induced increases in body temperature and the apparent increase in hypothalamic NE release, but only attenuated the IL-1β-induced shivering and the increase in plasma ACTH. The results indicate a close temporal relationship between the release of NE and HPA axis activation. Such a relationship is also supported by the similar effects of indomethacin pretreatment on NE and ACTH. The shivering is likely involved in the increase in body temperature, but indomethacin only attenuated the shivering while it blocked the fever. However, the effects of indomethacin clearly indicate that neither the increase in body temperature nor the increase in hypothalamic NE release was essential for HPA axis activation. These results suggest that hypothalamic NE is involved in the IL-1-induced HPA axis activation, but that this is not the only

  20. Indomethacin lowers optic nerve oxygen tension and reduces the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition and carbon dioxide breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; Stefánsson, E; Kiilgaard, J F; la Cour, M; Bang, K; Jensen, P K

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: Prostaglandins are important in blood flow regulation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition increase the oxygen tension in the retina and optic nerve. To study the mechanism of this effect and the role of cyclo-oxygenase in the regulation of optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO2), the authors investigated how indomethacin affects ONPO2 and the ONPO2 increases caused by CO2 breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the pig.

  1. Indomethacin lowers optic nerve oxygen tension and reduces the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition and carbon dioxide breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; Stefánsson, E

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important in blood flow regulation. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition increase the oxygen tension in the retina and optic nerve. To study the mechanism of this effect and the role of cyclo-oxygenase in the regulation of optic nerve oxygen tension...... (ONPO(2)), the authors investigated how indomethacin affects ONPO(2) and the ONPO(2) increases caused by CO(2) breathing and carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the pig....

  2. Effect of indomethacin on aloin and 1,8 dioxianthraquinone-induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Autore, G; Duraccio, M R

    1983-10-01

    The effect of aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone on the release of prostaglandin-like material (PG) from rat isolated colon has been investigated. Orally administered aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone stimulates PG production by subsequently isolated segments of colon. Indomethacin was able to prevent this increased production of PG. These results suggest that the laxative properties of aloin and 1,8 dioxyanthraquinone may depend, at least in part, on increased prostaglandin synthesis by the intestinal tissue.

  3. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  4. Assessment of the percutaneous penetration of indomethacin from soybean oil microemulsion: effects of the HLB value of mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangmei; Tan, Fengping; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the ratios or the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) values of Cremophor EL and Span 80 on the phase behavior of the O/W microemulsions and the percutaneous absorption and penetration of indomethacin microemulsions. The existence of microemulsion regions is investigated in quaternary systems composed of soybean oil/Cremophor EL and Span 80 (mixed surfactants)/diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (cosurfactant)/water by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams at various Cremophor EL/Span 80 ratios. In addition, five microemulsion formulations with various mixed surfactants HLB values were evaluated by in vitro penetration experiments using mouse skin and Franz diffusion cells. The flux and amount of indomethacin penetration from 5 microemulsion formulations were significantly different from the control, and the enhance ratios ranged from 2.38 to 4.68 and 2.11 to 4.23, respectively. The HLB value of mixed surfactants in the formulations was a principal factor in determining the percutaneous penetration of the drug. The flux and amount of drug penetration increased gradually with increasing content of the lipophilic surfactant Span 80 and skin retention was highest for mixed surfactants with a HLB value of 7.6. Therefore, it is suggested that the presence of mixed surfactants was beneficial in the formation of O/W microemulsions and enhanced percutaneous penetration of indomethacin.

  5. Low sodium diet, indomethacin, and contrast media; A comparison between renal effects of diatrizoate and iohexol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Hemmingsen, L.; Golman, K.; Skaarup, P.; Larsen, S. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Inst. of Pathology Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus (Sweden). Dept. of Experimental Research)

    1990-11-01

    Urine profiles were followed for 3 or 9 days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 30 adult Wistar rats, which received a low sodium diet for 14 days, and indomethacin intravenously 2 hours and immediately before contrast medium or saline injection. A control group of 10 rats, which also received low sodium diet, got saline alone and no indomethacin or contrast medium. Diatrizoate increased albuminuria during the first 22 hours after its injection whereas iohexol did not have any significant effect on albuminuria. Both contrast media caused tubular dysfunction, but there was significant difference between them during the first 2 hours after injection. Compared to the effect of saline, iohexol but not diatrizoate caused increased excretion of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase for 2 days. Iodine measurements showed delayed exretion of both media. Light microscopy showed focal location of dilated tubular profiles with hydrophia, which were only present in kidneys exposed to contrast media. It is concluded that in rats fed on a low sodium diet administration of indomethacin in relation to iohexol has a greater tubular cell effect than diatrizoate, which in turn has a greater effect on the glomerular permeability. The excretion of both media is delayed. (orig.).

  6. [Synthesis of colon-specific prodrug of indomethacin and its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-fu; Yang, Li-qun; Chen, Ru-fu; Cai, Xiang; Li, Le-qun; Li, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Quan-bo; Zhou, Jia-jia; Jiang, Zhi-peng

    2010-03-01

    To develop a colon-specific prodrug of Indomethacin microbially triggered, carry out in vitro/in vivo evaluation of drug release, and appraise its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer. Indomethacin prodrugs were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR, and dissolution test simulating gastrointestinal tract was employed to screen the colon-specific prodrug. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of portal vein and peripheral blood in Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. Lastly, the inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer in nude mice was observed. The chemical structure characterized by FTIR and NMR demonstrated that six kinds of indomethacin-block-amylose with different drug loading (IDM-AM-1-6) were synthesized, among which IDM-AM-3 was degraded 1.3%, 9.3% and 95.3%, respectively, in simulated gastric fluid for 4 h, small intestine for 6 h, and colon for 36 h. The pharmacokinetic test of IDM-AM-3 showed that absorption was delayed significantly (P IDM regarding to portal vein. Additionally, its AUC(0-t) in peripheral blood was remarkably lower than that in Portal vein (P IDM (P IDM-AM-3 possesses advantage of sustained release in portal vein providing some experimental basis for colon-specific delivery system applied to sustained release in the portal vein.

  7. Telemetric assessment of referred vaginal hyperalgesia and the effect of Indomethacin in a rat model of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eDmitrieva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of endometriosis, among others, include pelvic/abdominal and muscle pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are first-line treatment for this pain. Similar to women, rats with surgically-induced endometriosis (ENDO, but not its surgical control, exhibit vaginal hyperalgesia, which in rats is evidenced by a decreased threshold for the visceromotor response (VMR induced by vaginal distention. Here we assess the VMR in rats with implanted probes that telemetrically transmit EMG activity from the abdominal muscle. The feasibility and sensitivity of this technique for monitoring the VMR threshold across the estrous cycle and the influence of Indomethacin on ENDO-induced vaginal hyperalgesia were evaluated. VMR thresholds in response to vaginal distention with an infusion pump were measured in different estrous stages. Indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg i.p.or s.c. was injected in proestrous rats and 40-60 min later the VMR threshold was measured. The VMR threshold varied across the estrous cycle only in ENDO rats, being lowest in proestrus. Indomethacin increased this threshold in proestrous ENDO rats. These results show that telemetric assessment of the VMR is a sensitive tool, suitable for long-term studies in conscious rats. The results with this technique also suggest that ENDO-associated vaginal hyperalgesia involves COX activity, the feature that also underlies inflammatory pains.

  8. 15-PGDH inhibitors: the antiulcer effects of carbenoxolone, pioglitazone and verapamil in indomethacin induced peptic ulcer rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Y M; El-Azab, M F; Fouda, A

    2013-01-01

    15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the enzyme responsible for prostaglandins (PGs) metabolism. PGs have an important role in the protection of stomach mucosa against destructive stimuli. The aim of the present study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, pioglitazone and verapamil on 15-PGDH enzyme. The experiments were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt from May 2011 to August 2011. Adult male albino rats were fasted for 18 hours before administration of high dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg, p.o.), except for the negative control group which received saline only, followed by pyloric ligation to induce acute gastric ulcers. The rats were pretreated orally with saline, pioglitazone (20 mg/kg), verapamil (25 mg/kg), carbenoxolone (30 mg/kg) or their combinations 30 minutes before indomethacin. The rats were sacrificed after four hours of pyloric ligation. The effects of the previous treatments on the ulcer index (Ui), the microscopic appearance of gastric mucosa, the gastric acid output, the gastric barrier mucus content, and 15-PGDH enzyme activity were determined. Indomethacin resulted in severe ulceration and increased gastric acid output (p ulcer index, gastric acid output and 15-PGDH activity (p ulcer index, gastric acid output and 15-PGDH activity (p stomach mucosa.

  9. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Dolman, Koert M.; Rossum, Marion A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K trans ), extravascular space fractional volume (V e ) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep ) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  10. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Centella asiatica Leaf Extract Protects Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-Mei; Choi, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jae Min; Cha, Kyung Hoi; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) leaf extract (CAE) against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by the oral administration of IND to the rats after a 24 h fast. CAE (50 or 250 mg/kg) or lansoprazole (a reference drug) was orally administrated 30 min before the IND administration, and 5 h later, the stomachs were removed to quantify the lesions. Orally administered CAE significantly reduced IND-induced gastric injury. The histopathological observations (hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining) confirmed the protection against gastric mucosal injury. Also, CAE decreased the malondialdehyde content compared to the control group. Moreover, pretreatment with CAE resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor, Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggested that CAE possesses gastroprotective effects against IND-induced gastric mucosal injury, which could be attributed to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stimulate gastric mucus secretion in the rat gastric mucosa.

  12. Mechanisms underlying changes in indomethacin solubility with local anesthetics and related basic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yohsuke; Tateuchi, Ryo; Chatani, Hitoshi; Goto, Satoru

    2018-03-01

    Indomethacin (IND), an acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and lidocaine (LID), a local anesthetic (LA), form a eutectic complex when mixed, with a lower melting point. The aqueous solubility of the mixture is greater than that of IND or LID alone, improving the bioavailability of IND. Therefore, IND and LID can be used to model changes in efficacy caused by physicochemical interactions between drugs. In this study, the intermolecular interactions between IND and structurally similar LAs were examined by measuring solubility and analyzing thermodynamics using differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicate that the solubility of IND (log S'IND) varies with LA hydrophobicity. Reductions in melting point resulting from mixing IND and LAs contributed to changes in IND solubility, attributable to direct intermolecular interactions between IND and the LAs. In addition, binding energy of IND-LA as in water was calculated, and the values were correlating with the solubility of IND in experiments. Understanding these interactions will help address some of the problems encountered in polypharmacy.

  13. Chemical synthesis of an indomethacin ester prodrug and its metabolic activation by human carboxylesterase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Fumiya; Yoshitsugu, Misaki; Haba, Masami; Hosokawa, Masakiyo

    2018-02-21

    It is necessary to consider the affinity of prodrugs for metabolic enzymes for efficient activation of the prodrugs in the body. Although many prodrugs have been synthesized with consideration of these chemical properties, there has been little study on the design of a structure with consideration of biological properties such as substrate recognition ability of metabolic enzymes. In this report, chemical synthesis and evaluation of indomethacin prodrugs metabolically activated by human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1) are described. The synthesized prodrugs were subjected to hydrolysis reactions in solutions of human liver microsomes (HLM), human intestine microsomes (HIM) and hCES1, and the hydrolytic parameters were investigated to evaluate the hydrolytic rates of these prodrugs and to elucidate the substrate recognition ability of hCES1. It was found that the hydrolytic rates greatly change depending on the steric hindrance and stereochemistry of the ester in HLM, HIM and hCES1 solutions. Furthermore, in a hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by hCES1, the V max value of n-butyl thioester with chemically high reactivity was significantly lower than that of n-butyl ester. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective Acceleration of Crystal Growth of Indomethacin Polymorphs by Low-Concentration Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Jing; Tao, Jun; Zhou, Dongshan; Cai, Ting

    2017-12-04

    Physical stability of pharmaceutical amorphous solid dispersions is one of the critical attributes to the successful development of the formulation. Herein, we studied the impact of low-concentration poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on the crystallization rates of three polymorphs of indomethacin (IMC, γ-, α-, and δ-form). We observed that the addition of 3% w/w PEO significantly increased the crystal growth rates of γ-form and α-form of IMC, but had a negligible effect on the δ-form. The reduction of the activation energy for the crystal growth of IMC polymorphs after adding the PEO follows the order γ-form > α-form > δ-form, which is consistent with the trend toward the accelerating effects of PEO on the crystal growth rates of three polymorphs. With the addition of low-concentration PEO, there is an increase of molecular mobility of IMC as evidenced by the decreased structural relaxation times and viscosities. This study suggests that the substantially different effects of PEO on the crystal growth rates of IMC polymorphs are attributable to the different adsorption of PEO on the crystal surface of those polymorphs, which in turn exerts a selective accelerating effect on IMC molecules to organize into the different crystalline phases. These findings are relevant for understanding the crystallization behavior of amorphous solid dispersions containing polymorphic drugs.

  15. Physiological effects of indomethacin and celecobix: an S-transform laser Doppler flowmetry signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assous, S; Humeau, A; Tartas, M; Abraham, P; L'Huillier, J P

    2005-01-01

    Conventional signal processing typically involves frequency selective techniques which are highly inadequate for nonstationary signals. In this paper, we present an approach to perform time-frequency selective processing of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals using the S-transform. The approach is motivated by the excellent localization, in both time and frequency, afforded by the wavelet basis functions. Suitably chosen Gaussian wavelet functions are used to characterize the subspace of signals that have a given localized time-frequency support, thus enabling a time-frequency partitioning of signals. In this paper, the goal is to study the influence of various pharmacological substances taken by the oral way (celecobix (Celebrex (registered) ), indomethacin (Indocid (registered) ) and placebo) on the physiological activity behaviour. The results show that no statistical differences are observed in the energy computed from the time-frequency representation of LDF signals, for the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities between Celebrex and placebo, and Indocid and placebo. The work therefore proves that these drugs do not affect these physiological activities. For future physiological studies, there will therefore be no need to exclude patients having taken cyclo-oxygenase 1 inhibitions

  16. Protective effects of indomethacin and dexamethasone in a goat model with intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaiyu; Wu, Gang; Li, Yifei; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Rong; Zhu, Qi; Huang, Xupei; Mu, Dezhi; Hua, Yimin

    2012-08-13

    Intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty (IUBAV) has been used for critical aortic stenosis. However, it is necessary to determine the fetal impairments such as preterm birth after this approach and to find a way to prevent or reduce them. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic value of indomethacin (IDM) and dexamethasone (DXS) on reducing the preterm birth rate in experimental goats after IUBAV. Our results indicated that the administration of IDM/DXS significantly reduced the rate of premature birth. IDM/DXS treatment led to preservation of myocardial ultrastructure with less damage, and amelioration of the fetal and placental circulation. Furthermore, we found that norepinephrine (NE) level was positively associated with the degree of myocardial damage. IDM/DXS administration led to a significant decrease of operation-induced increase of NE levels, which may be associated with the protective effects of IDM/DXS. Lastly, we found that the administration of IDM/DXS did not induce the risk of ductus arteriosus closure or slow down fetal growth. Our results indicate that IDM/DXS promotes a better gestational outcome at least partially by reducing stress response during and after the operation of IUBAV in the goat model. IDM/DXS may be a useful application in human patients during IUBAV intervention.

  17. Protective effects of indomethacin and dexamethasone in a goat model with intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kaiyu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty (IUBAV has been used for critical aortic stenosis. However, it is necessary to determine the fetal impairments such as preterm birth after this approach and to find a way to prevent or reduce them. Methods In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic value of indomethacin (IDM and dexamethasone (DXS on reducing the preterm birth rate in experimental goats after IUBAV. Results Our results indicated that the administration of IDM/DXS significantly reduced the rate of premature birth. IDM/DXS treatment led to preservation of myocardial ultrastructure with less damage, and amelioration of the fetal and placental circulation. Furthermore, we found that norepinephrine (NE level was positively associated with the degree of myocardial damage. IDM/DXS administration led to a significant decrease of operation-induced increase of NE levels, which may be associated with the protective effects of IDM/DXS. Lastly, we found that the administration of IDM/DXS did not induce the risk of ductus arteriosus closure or slow down fetal growth. Conclusions Our results indicate that IDM/DXS promotes a better gestational outcome at least partially by reducing stress response during and after the operation of IUBAV in the goat model. IDM/DXS may be a useful application in human patients during IUBAV intervention.

  18. Effects of indomethacin on ovarian leukocytes during the periovulatory period in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarradas Esteban

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the effects of indomethacin (IM, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and the role of prostaglandins on the accumulation of leukocytes in the rat ovary during the periovulatory period. Adult cycling rats were injected sc with 1 mg of IM in olive oil or vehicle on the morning of proestrus. Some animals were killed at 16:00 h in proestrus. On the evening (19:00 h of proestrus, IM-treated rats were injected with 500 micrograms of prostaglandin E1 in saline or vehicle. Animals were killed at 01:30 and 09:00 h in estrus. There was an influx of macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils into the theca layers of preovulatory follicles, and of neutrophils and eosinophils into the ovarian medulla from 16:00 h in proestrus to 01:30 h in estrus. All these changes, except the accumulation of neutrophils in the theca layers of preovulatory follicles, were blocked by IM treatment. At 09:00 h in estrus, large clusters of neutrophils were observed in IM-treated rats, around abnormally ruptured follicles. The accumulation of leukocytes was not restored by prostaglandin supplementation, despite the inhibition of abnormal follicle rupture and restoration of ovulation in these animals. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in leukocyte accumulation in the ovary during the periovulatory period, and that the inhibitory effects of IM on the influx of leukocytes are not dependent on prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.

  19. Anti-plasticizing effect of amorphous indomethacin induced by specific intermolecular interactions with PVA copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Aikawa, Shohei; Kashima, Yousuke; Kikuchi, Junko; Ida, Yasuo; Tanino, Tadatsugu; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of how poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVA copolymer) stabilizes an amorphous drug was investigated. Solid dispersions of PVA copolymer, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA) with indomethacin (IMC) were prepared. The glass transition temperature (Tg)-proportion profiles were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). General Tg profiles decreasing with the IMC ratio were observed for IMC-PVP and IMC-PVPVA samples. An interesting antiplasticizing effect of IMC on PVA copolymer was observed; Tg increased up to 20% IMC ratio. Further addition of IMC caused moderate reduction with positive deviation from theoretical values. Specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between IMC and PVA copolymer were revealed by infrared spectra. The indole amide of IMC played an important role in hydrogen bonding with PVA copolymer, but not with PVP and PVPVA. X-ray diffraction findings and the endotherm on DSC profiles suggested that PVA copolymer could form a semicrystalline structure and a possibility of correlation of the crystallographic nature with its low hygroscopicity was suggested. PVA copolymer was able to prevent crystallization of amorphous IMC through both low hygroscopicity and the formation of a specific intermolecular interaction compared with that with PVP and PVPVA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Optimizing indomethacin-loaded chitosan nanoparticle size, encapsulation, and release using Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Kalam, Mohd; Khan, Abdul Arif; Khan, Shahanavaj; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-06-01

    Indomethacin chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were developed by ionotropic gelation and optimized by concentrations of chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP) and stirring time by 3-factor 3-level Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimal concentration of chitosan (A) and TPP (B) were found 0.6mg/mL and 0.4mg/mL with 120min stirring time (C), with applied constraints of minimizing particle size (R1) and maximizing encapsulation efficiency (R2) and drug release (R3). Based on obtained 3D response surface plots, factors A, B and C were found to give synergistic effect on R1, while factor A has a negative impact on R2 and R3. Interaction of AB was negative on R1 and R2 but positive on R3. The factor AC was having synergistic effect on R1 and on R3, while the same combination had a negative effect on R2. The interaction BC was positive on the all responses. NPs were found in the size range of 321-675nm with zeta potentials (+25 to +32mV) after 6 months storage. Encapsulation, drug release, and content were in the range of 56-79%, 48-73% and 98-99%, respectively. In vitro drug release data were fitted in different kinetic models and pattern of drug release followed Higuchi-matrix type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  2. Early loss of Xist RNA expression and inactive X chromosome associated chromatin modification in developing primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Napoles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The inactive X chromosome characteristic of female somatic lineages is reactivated during development of the female germ cell lineage. In mouse, analysis of protein products of X-linked genes and/or transgenes located on the X chromosome has indicated that reactivation occurs after primordial germ cells reach the genital ridges.We present evidence that the epigenetic reprogramming of the inactive X-chromosome is initiated earlier than was previously thought, around the time that primordial germ cells (PGCs migrate through the hindgut. Specifically, we find that Xist RNA expression, the primary signal for establishment of chromosome silencing, is extinguished in migrating PGCs. This is accompanied by displacement of Polycomb-group repressor proteins Eed and Suz(12, and loss of the inactive X associated histone modification, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27.We conclude that X reactivation in primordial germ cells occurs progressively, initiated by extinction of Xist RNA around the time that germ cells migrate through the hindgut to the genital ridges. The events that we observe are reminiscent of X reactivation of the paternal X chromosome in inner cell mass cells of mouse pre-implantation embryos and suggest a unified model in which execution of the pluripotency program represses Xist RNA thereby triggering progressive reversal of epigenetic silencing of the X chromosome.

  3. A Direct Comparison of Anti-ulcer Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Rat: A Controlled Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indomethacin increases generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS which have a crucial role in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Coenzyme Q10 has an antioxidant activity on mitochondria and cell membranes and protects lipids from oxidation and is essential for stabilizing biological membranes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD acts as one of the defense mechanisms against free radicals. When the generation of ROS overwhelms, the antioxidant defense, lipid peroxiation of cell membrane occurs and cause cell damage. Materials and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats were divided into A and B groups. The rats in group A were then further divided into three subgroups of 6 animals each and received one of the following treatments: Animals in the first subgroup received saline. Animals in the second subgroup received saline and indomethacin. Animals in the third subgroup received vitamin C and indomethacin. The rats in group B were also further divided into 3 subgroups of 6 rats each and treated with one of the following treatments: Animals in first subgroup received 1% Tween 80 as vehicle. Animals In second subgroup received 1% Tween 80 and indomethacin. Animals in third subgroup received CoQ10 and indomethacin. Four hours after the last treatment, animals were killed and the stomachs removed were cut and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Ulcer indexes were determined and SOD activity measured in plasma                                                             Results: Pretreatment with both vitamin C and coenzyme Q10 was associated with attenuation of ulcer index and increased SOD activity compared with animals treated with indomethacin alone (P

  4. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  5. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

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    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  6. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  7. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  8. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

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    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  9. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  10. The Influence of Pressure on the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate of Amorphous Indomethacin

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    Korbinian Löbmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of a drug and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling indomethacin (IND, a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and the final compacts were visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND–PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage of the amorphous form might be underestimated. It is thus suggested that for a reasonable interpretation of the IDR, surface properties of the different analyzed samples should be investigated and for amorphous samples the IDR should be measured also as a function of the compression pressure used to prepare the solid sample for IDR testing.

  11. Dissimilar effects of chronic treatment with aspirin, flubiprofen and indomethacin on renal prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilley, C.P.; McGiff, J.C.; Quilley, J.

    1986-01-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) excretion is not sustained during long-term aspirin administration. The authors compared the effects of 9d treatment of SHR rats with aspirin (A), 200 mg/kg/d s.c., flubiprofen (F), 2.5 mg/kg/12h s.c., and indomethacin (I), 2.5 mg/kg/12 s.c. on excretion of radioimmunoassayable PGE 2 and PGF/sub 2α/. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C] arachidonic acid (AA) by renal papillae was also examined. In vehicle-treated control rats (C) PGF/sub 2α/ excretion varied from 32.2 +/- 6.2 (mean +/- SEM) to 41.6 +.- 7.3 ng/6h, 3-fold higher than that of PGE 2 . Within 6h of administration all 3 drugs reduced excretion of PGF/sub 2α/ and PGE 2 to less than 20% and 35% of C rats. Although urinary concentrations of PGF/sub 2α/ and PGE 2 in A-treated rats remained depressed, a 2-fold increase in urine volume resulted in excretion rates similar to C rats. In contrast, urine volume in I- and F-treated rats was unaffected while PGF/sub 2α/ and PGE 2 excretion rates in I-treated rats were 50''% of C rats and were also lower than control in F-treated rats. Paradoxically, metabolism of AA to PGs by by renal papillae dissected on day 10, 2-4h after the last drug dose, was markedly inhibited by A (PGF/sub 2α/ by 62% and PGE 2 by 82%), but unaffected by I and F. As the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors differ on in vivo and indices of PG production, their intended action should be verified by measuring PG levels in biological fluids

  12. Protective effect of Holothurian intestine against indomethacin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xuejing; Zhang, Cuiping; Gao, Hua; Niu, Qinghui; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zibin

    2017-06-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Holothurian intestines (HI) on NSAIDs-induced gastric mucosal damage and the possible mechanism. At first, 60 male Wistar rats were induced of gastric lesions with indomethacin (IDM, 30 mg kg-1). The rats were pretreated for 15 consecutive days with saline, sucralfate, or HI (0.4 g kg-1d-1, 0.8 g kg-1d-1 and 1.6 g kg-1d-1) prior to IDM treatment, followed by evaluations of macroscopic damage and microscopic features; and investigation of the levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress parameters, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total hexosamine in tissues. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in the gastric tissue were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathological gastric ulcer indexes, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α) and lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in HI-treated groups, whereas the levels of protective factors (TGF-β, GSH, SOD activity and PGE2) were significantly elevated especially in the group with HI 1.6 g kg-1d-1 ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HI groups ( P < 0.05). The study investigates that holothurian intestines may act as a kind of marine medicine which have protective effect on IDM-induced gastric ulcer, which could be a dietary preventive agent for the prevention of gastric damage.

  13. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer coating for selective extraction of indomethacin from biological samples by electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiabi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamini, Yadollah, E-mail: yyamini@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seidi, Shahram; Ghahramanifard, Fazel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-24

    In the present work, an automated on-line electrochemically controlled in-tube solid-phase microextraction (EC-in-tube SPME) coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for the selective extraction and preconcentration of indomethacin as a model analyte in biological samples. Applying an electrical potential can improve the extraction efficiency and provide more convenient manipulation of different properties of the extraction system including selectivity, clean-up, rate, and efficiency. For more enhancement of the selectivity and applicability of this method, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer coated tube was prepared and applied for extraction of indomethacin. For this purpose, nanostructured copolymer coating consisting of polypyrrole doped with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was prepared on the inner surface of a stainless-steel tube by electrochemical synthesis. The characteristics and application of the tubes were investigated. Electron microscopy provided a cross linked porous surface and the average thickness of the MIP coating was 45 μm. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer coated tubes, the special selectivity for indomethacin was discovered with the molecularly imprinted coated tube. Moreover, stable and reproducible responses were obtained without being considerably influenced by interferences commonly existing in biological samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.07–2.0 μg L{sup −1} in different matrices. This method showed good linearity for indomethacin in the range of 0.1–200 μg L{sup −1}, with coefficients of determination better than 0.996. The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSD%, n = 3) were respectively in the range of 3.5–8.4% and 2.3–7.6% at three concentration levels of 7, 70 and 150 μg L{sup −1}. The results showed that the proposed method can be successfully applied for selective analysis of indomethacin in biological samples. - Graphical abstract: An automated on

  15. Effect of Plasticizer Type on Tensile Property and In Vitro Indomethacin Release of Thin Films Based on Low-Methoxyl Pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensak Jantrawut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed the interests of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP together with plasticizers for the preparation of elastic thin films. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol: Gly; sorbitol: Sor; propylene glycol: PG; and polyethylene glycol 300: PEG 300 and concentrations (20–40% w/w on mechanical and thermal properties of LMP films as well as on in vitro release of indomethacin were evaluated. Without any plasticizer, a brittle LMP film with low tensile strength and % elongation at break was obtained. Addition of plasticizers from 20% to 40% caused reduction in the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values, whereas percent elongation was increased. Forty percent Gly-plasticized and PG-plasticized films were selected to deliver indomethacin in comparison with non-plasticized film. No significant difference in indomethacin release profiles was displayed between the films. The analysis of indomethacin release model indicated that more than one drug release mechanism from the film formulation was involved and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. Even though indomethacin incorporated in non-plasticized film showed similar release profile, Gly or PG should be added to enhanced film flexibility and decrease film brittleness.

  16. The interaction between Helicobacter pylori culture filtrate and indomethacin: effects on the integrity of human gastric antral mucosa and its prostaglandin E2 production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A S; Kelly, R W; Gemmell, C G; Lee, F D; Russell, R I

    1990-06-01

    Histopathological methods and radioimmunoassay were used to assess the microstructure and prostaglandin E2 production by paired specimens of human gastric antral mucosa; the specimens were studied after 48 h of incubation in base-line tissue culture medium, Helicobacter pylori culture filtrate, H. pylori culture control fluid, indomethacin, and H. pylori culture filtrate plus indomethacin. When applied alone, the filtrate did not affect the structure of the mucosal tissue or its prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In the overall group (n = 21), specimens incubated with the mixture of H. pylori filtrate and indomethacin had a median histological grade of 1 and prostaglandin E2 of 29 pg/mg tissue, compared to 2 pg/mg (P = 0.04) and 60 pg/mg (P = 0.0007) respectively, in specimens incubated with indomethacin alone. These results indicate that an interaction may exist between indomethacin and a factor contained in H. pylori culture filtrate. Such interaction is damaging to the human gastric antral mucosa, and its understanding might have therapeutic implications.

  17. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  18. A single daily meal at the beginning of the active or inactive period inhibits food deprivation-induced fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Natsumi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Ryosuke; Ando, Midori; Nakamura, Kaai; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-07-01

    Food deprivation (FD) induces hepatic steatosis in both rodents and humans. Although body composition, age, and sex influence hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels after FD, whether feeding patterns affect FD-induced liver TG increases is unknown. We hypothesized that restricted feeding (RF) of 1 meal per day during the active or inactive period (especially the inactive period) augments FD-induced elevation of liver TGs because RF in the inactive period impairs the circadian rhythm. Triglyceride levels and the expression of genes related to TG metabolism in the liver were examined by a bioassay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In the first experiment, when compared to nonfasted mice, mice that fasted for 24 hours showed a 1.5-fold (FD starting during the inactive period) to 3-fold (FD started during the active period) increase in liver TG levels. This experiment showed that TG levels depend upon the starting time of FD. In the second experiment, mice were given free access to food for 3 hours at the beginning of either the inactive ("supper-only") or the active ("breakfast-only") period for 2 weeks. Restricted feeding inhibited the FD-induced increases in liver and serum TG levels, serum free fatty acids, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake in the liver, including fatty acid transport protein 1 (Fatp1) and 4 (Fatp4). Unexpectedly, compared to free feeding, RF during the active or inactive period resulted in resistance to FD-induced fatty liver. This is the first study to demonstrate that feeding patterns affect FD-induced TG accumulation in the mouse liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, ameliorates the hypertensive and perivascular fibrotic actions of cyclosporine in rats: Role of endothelin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mahelm@hotmail.com [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University (Egypt); Helmy, Maged W. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University (Egypt); Ali, Rabab M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2015-04-01

    The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) is used with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in arthritic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether NSAIDs modify the deleterious hypertensive action of CSA and the role of endothelin (ET) receptors in this interaction. Pharmacologic, protein expression, and histopathologic studies were performed in rats to investigate the roles of endothelin receptors (ET{sub A}/ET{sub B}) in the hemodynamic interaction between CSA and two NSAIDs, indomethacin and celecoxib. Tail-cuff plethysmography measurements showed that CSA (20 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 10 days) increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR). CSA hypertension was associated with renal perivascular fibrosis and divergent changes in immunohistochemical signals of renal arteriolar ET{sub A} (increases) and ET{sub B} (decreases) receptors. While these effects of CSA were preserved in rats treated concomitantly with indomethacin (5 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}), celecoxib (10 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) abolished the pressor, tachycardic, and fibrotic effects of CSA and normalized the altered renal ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} receptor expressions. Selective blockade of ET{sub A} receptors by atrasentan (5 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) abolished the pressor response elicited by CSA or CSA plus indomethacin. Alternatively, BQ788 (ET{sub B} receptor blocker, 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) caused celecoxib-sensitive elevations in SBP and potentiated the pressor response evoked by CSA. Together, the improved renovascular fibrotic and endothelin receptor profile (ET{sub A} downregulation and ET{sub B} upregulation) mediate, at least partly, the protective effect of celecoxib against the hypertensive effect of CSA. Clinically, the use of celecoxib along with CSA in the management of arthritic conditions might provide hypertension-free regimen. - Highlights: • Chronic CSA causes hypertension and renal perivascular fibrosis in rats.

  20. Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia I; Mahmoud, Mona F; Wink, Michael; El-Shazly, Assem M

    2014-05-01

    Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  2. Influence of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbini, Alessandra; Censi, Roberta; Martena, Valentina; Hoti, Ela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Malaj, Ledjan; Di Martino, Piera

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin (IDM). IDM, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug poorly soluble in water, underwent two different crystallization methods: crystallization by solvent evaporation under reduced pressure at 50.0°C (method A), and crystallization by cooling of solution from 50.0 to 5.0°C (method B). In both cases, several aqueous ethanolic solutions of IDM of different pHs were prepared. pHs were adjusted by adding acidic solutions (HCl 2M) or alkali (NaOH or NH4OH 2M) to an aqueous ethanolic solution of IDM. Thus, several batches were recovered after crystallization. The chemical stability of IDM was verified through (1)H NMR and mass spectroscopy (FIA-ESI-MS), that revealed that IDM degraded in strong alkali media (pH ≥ 12). Crystals obtained under different crystallization conditions at pHs of 1.0, 4.5, 7.0, 8.0, 10.0 and chemically stable were thus characterized for crystal habit by scanning electron microscopy, for thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry, and for solid state by X-ray powder diffractometry. Under the Method A, IDM always crystallized into pure metastable alpha form when solutions were acidified or alkalized respectively with HCl and NH4OH. On the contrary, in presence of NaOH, IDM crystallized under a mixture of alpha and sodium trihydrate form, because the presence of the sodium counter ion orientates the crystallization towards the formation of the trihydrate salt. Under the method B, at pH of 1.0, IDM crystallized under the alpha form; at pH 4.5, IDM crystallized under the form alpha in presence of some nuclei of gamma form; at pH 7.0, 8.0, and 10.0 for NH4OH, IDM crystallized under the most stable polymorph gamma form, whereas in presence of NaOH, a mix of alpha, and salt forms was formed whatever the pH of the solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of indomethacin on regulation of juxta-articular bone blood-flow during joint tamponade. An experimental study in puppies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, Henrik Lykke; Holm, I E; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins are vasoactive substances which are assumed to play a major role in bone metabolism and bone repair. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of indomethacin on the control of epiphyseal bone blood-flow. By means of simultaneous intra-osseous pressure (IOP......) and regional blood flow (RBF) measurements in the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE), aspects of vascular control mechanisms in the distal femoral epiphysis were investigated during knee joint tamponade (50% of mean arterial pressure) before and after administration of indomethacin 7.5 mg/kg. Six dogs aged 3...

  4. Patent ductus arteriosus and indomethacin treatment as independent risk factors for plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Irena; Ebani, Edward; Rosenberg, Jamie B; Lin, Juan; Angert, Robert M; Mian, Umar

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or indomethacin treatment are associated with plus disease or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Charts were reviewed for gestational age, birth weight, birth head circumference, birth length, maternal characteristics, gender, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurologic comorbidities, PDA and its treatments, gastrointestinal comorbidities, blood transfusions, and sepsis. Main outcome measures were increased rates of plus disease or ROP requiring treatment. A total of 450 premature infants screened for ROP in a mid-sized, urban neonatal intensive care unit were included. On univariate analysis, gestational age, birth weight, birth head circumference, birth length, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurologic comorbidities, PDA and its treatments, gastrointestinal comorbidities, and sepsis were significantly correlated to plus disease and ROP requiring treatment. PDA was significantly associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, neurologic comorbidities, sepsis, and blood transfusions (P < .0001). With type 3 multivariate analysis, only gestational age and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were independent risk factors for ROP. PDA and indomethacin were associated with plus disease and ROP requiring treatment on univariate analysis but this was not significant after adjusting for other risk factors. PDA was also strongly related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and blood transfusions, which may explain its effect on ROP. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Synthesis and characterisation of chitosan crosslinked-β-cyclodextrin grafted silylated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled release of Indomethacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anirudhan, T.S.; Dilu, D.; Sandeep, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a novel hydrogel, chitosan crosslinked β-cyclodextrin grafted silylated magnetic nanoparticle (CTSCD-g-SilylMNP) was synthesised as a drug delivery system onto which Indomethacin (IND) drug was loaded. Characterisation of the drug delivery system was carried out by Tunnelling electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Dynamic light scattering and a Vibrating sample magnetometer. Swelling behaviour, in vitro drug release kinetics, and encapsulation efficiency of CTSCD-g-SilylMNP were studied. Swelling behaviour varied according to pH. In vitro release studies revealed that CTSCD-g-SilylMNP demonstrated a swelling and diffusion controlled release. Dependence of pH was also studied. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) at different percentages of drug loadings was studied. The results collectively suggest that the hydrogel has promising application in the field of controlled drug release. The biodegradability also adds to the advantage. - Highlights: • A novel hydrogel chitosan crosslinked β-cyclodextrin grafted silylated magnetic nanoparticles (CTS–CD-g-SilylMNP) were synthesised. • Chitosan would increase the biocompatibility and swellability of the material. • Indomethacin drug was loaded onto CTS–CD-g-SilylMNP. • The swelling behaviour,drug release and encapsulation efficiency of the hydrogel were studied. • CTS–CD-g-SilylMNP can be used as a promising drug delivery system

  6. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  7. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  8. HIV-1 reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name "retrovirus" derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT.

  9. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  10. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  11. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-12-28

    To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 (-)) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe gastric inflammation

  12. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  13. Effect of indomethacin on regulation of juxta-articular bone blood-flow during joint tamponade. An experimental study in puppies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, Henrik Lykke; Holm, I E; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    -4 months were investigated in fentanyl anaesthesia. Knee joint tamponade resulted in a significant increase in IOP and calculated venous resistance in the DFE, while no significant changes in regional blood-flow or arterial resistance were encountered. Administration of indomethacin did not affect...

  14. Effects of RU486 and indomethacin on meiotic maturation, formation of extracellular matrix, and progesterone production by porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagyová, Eva; Scsuková, S.; Kalous, Jaroslav; Mlynarčíková, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-14 ISSN 0739-7240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : RU486 * indomethacin * oocyte * granulosa * progesterone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2014

  15. Reverse logistics - a framework

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, M.P.; Dekker, R.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  16. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral fact...

  17. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  19. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  20. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  1. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  2. Inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation are differentially expressed following intermittent vs. sustained neural apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal motor output known as inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF, respectively). We hypothesized that, similar to other forms of respiratory plasticity, iPMF and iHMF are pattern sensitive. Central respiratory neural activity was reversibly reduced in ventilated rats by hyperventilating below the CO2 apneic threshold to create brief intermittent neural apneas (5, ∼1.5 min each, separated by 5 min), a single brief massed neural apnea (7.5 min), or a single prolonged neural apnea (30 min). Upon restoration of respiratory neural activity, long-lasting (>60 min) iPMF was apparent following brief intermittent and prolonged, but not brief massed, neural apnea. Further, brief intermittent and prolonged neural apnea elicited an increase in the maximum phrenic response to high CO2, suggesting that iPMF is associated with an increase in phrenic dynamic range. By contrast, only prolonged neural apnea elicited iHMF, which was transient in duration (apnea all elicited a modest transient facilitation of respiratory frequency. These results indicate that iPMF, but not iHMF, is pattern sensitive, and that the response to respiratory neural inactivity is motor pool specific. PMID:23493368

  3. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  4. Formulation optimization of indomethacin gels containing a combination of three kinds of cyclic monoterpenes as percutaneous penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, K K; Takayama, K; Isowa, K; Okabe, K; Nagai, T

    1994-09-01

    A computer optimization technique based on response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of a hydrogel formulation containing indomethacin as a model drug. As the penetration enhancer, a combination of three cyclic monoterpenes, limonene, menthol, and cineole, was employed. Pharmacokinetic parameters, from an in vivo percutaneous absorption study on rats of model formulations prepared according to the composite experimental design for five factors, were determined as prime response variables. The skin damage evoked by each formulation was microscopically judged and graded as the response variable concerning skin safety. The response variables were predicted by multiple regression equations comprising combinations of the five formulation factors. The regression equations for the response variables assembled as a simultaneous optimization problem based on the generalized distance function. The simultaneous optimum was predicted as a function of individual optima within a 95% confidence region. The predicted response values for the optimum formulation have been successfully validated in a repeated in vivo percutaneous absorption study.

  5. Indomethacin inhibits the increased airway responsiveness to histamine following inhalation of C5a des Arg in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, N; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1986-08-01

    It has been shown that inhalation of C5a des Arg increases rabbit airway responsiveness to histamine and that this is associated with an influx of neutrophils into the airway walls. This study was undertaken to see if the augmented response to histamine can be blocked by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Spontaneously breathing, anesthetised rabbits were studied in a volume displacement plethysmograph and pulmonary resistance (R1) was measured using the electrical subtraction technique. Histamine does response curves (HDR) were generated by measuring R1 after serial nubulisation of saline and histamine (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml). Aerosols of either saline or C5a des Arg (1.5 ug/ml) were then inhaled by the animals over a time period of 2 min. An HDR was then repeated 4 hours later. In 9 rabbits the inhalation of C5a des Arg resulted in an upward shift of the repeat HDR: the area under the HDR was significantly greater than under the first HDR (p less than 0.05). In 6 rabbits the repeat HDR 4 hours after saline was shifted downwards (N.S.) indicating some degree of tachyphylaxis. When rabbits were pretreated with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) the repeat HDR following either C5a des Arg (n = 7) or saline (n = 6) were also shifted downwards i.e., the increased airway responsiveness noted after C5a des Arg was abolished. There was no significant difference in baseline saline R1 during the first or second HDR in any group. These results suggest that the increased airway responsiveness following nebulisation of C5a des Arg may be due to release from neutrophils of products of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway.

  6. Controlled Release of Indomethacin from Smart Starch-Based Hydrogels Prepared Acrylic Acid and b-Cyclodextrin as a Nanocarrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghasemzadeh Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release of drugs can reduce the undesired effects of drug level fluctuations, and diminish the side effects as well as improve the therapeutic outcome of the drugs. In recent year, the scope of the drug delivery systems has been greatly expanded by the development of various hydrogels. The present work has focused on the design of a pH sensitive drug delivery system (DDS based on starch, acrylic acid (AA and β-cyclodextrins for controlled delivery of indomethacin. The hydrogels were prepared via graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA onto starch and β-cyclodextrins backbones by a free radical polymerization technique. Cyclodextrins are able to form water-soluble complexes with many lipophilic water-insoluble drugs. In aqueous solutions, the drug molecules located in the central cavity of the cyclodextrin are in a dynamic equilibrium with free drug molecules. The interaction of drug with the polymer was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the hydrogels have good porosity and provided high surface area for the loading and release of drugs. Drug release behavior was carried out at physiological conditions of phosphate buffer, pH 8. In basic pH (like the intestine medium the hydrogels released the indomethacin, but in acidic pH (like the stomach medium there was no tendency to drug release. By increasing the amount of cyclodextrin, the rate of drug loading and release increased due to the dynamic equilibrium and interaction between the loaded drug and the cyclodextrin. This study has demonstrated that the hydrogel matrices are potentially suitable for controlled-release systems.

  7. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  8. Inactive enzymatic mutant proteins (phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase as sugar binders for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Ashok

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon dioxide fixation bioprocess in reactors necessitates recycling of D-ribulose1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for continuous operation. A radically new close loop of RuBP regenerating reactor design has been proposed that will harbor enzyme-complexes instead of purified enzymes. These reactors will need binders enabling selective capture and release of sugar and intermediate metabolites enabling specific conversions during regeneration. In the current manuscript we describe properties of proteins that will act as potential binders in RuBP regeneration reactors. Results We demonstrate specific binding of 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA and 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3PGAL from sugar mixtures by inactive mutant of yeast enzymes phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase. The reversibility in binding with respect to pH and EDTA has also been shown. No chemical conversion of incubated sugars or sugar intermediate metabolites were found by the inactive enzymatic proteins. The dissociation constants for sugar metabolites are in the micromolar range, both proteins showed lower dissociation constant (Kd for 3-phosphoglycerate (655–796 μM compared to 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (822–966 μM indicating higher affinity for 3PGA. The proteins did not show binding to glucose, sucrose or fructose within the sensitivity limits of detection. Phosphoglycerate mutase showed slightly lower stability on repeated use than enolase mutants. Conclusions The sugar and their intermediate metabolite binders may have a useful role in RuBP regeneration reactors. The reversibility of binding with respect to changes in physicochemical factors and stability when subjected to repeated changes in these conditions are expected to make the mutant proteins candidates for in-situ removal of sugar intermediate metabolites for forward driving of specific reactions in enzyme-complex reactors.

  9. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  10. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  11. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  12. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  13. The treatment of radioactive aqueous wastes by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    Experiments were carried out to determine the rejection factors for the more important radionuclides found in aqueous wastes, to study activity deposition within reverse osmosis modules, and to obtain experience in active operation of a reverse osmosis facility. It was found that reverse osmosis is likely to be useful in aqueous radioactive waste treatment when a wide range of contaminants rather than a specific radioactive species must be removed. There appeared to be no barrier to active operation, although greater confidence in the reliability of pumps and membranes is needed. The rejection of trace quantities of radioisotopes such as Cs + or Sr ++ could be predicted from the behaviour of similar inactive ions. Activity present as polyvalent ions or colloidal aggregates is highly rejected by the membrane. Activity may be deposited onto the membrane with insoluble or scaling compounds, and is greatest on areas of the membrane shielded from the sweeping action of the liquor flow

  14. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  15. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  16. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  18. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  19. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  20. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  1. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  2. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  3. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  4. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  5. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  6. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  7. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  8. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  9. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  11. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  12. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  13. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  14. The effect of premedication with ibuprofen and indomethacin on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Ashouri, Rezvan; Rekabi, Ali Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Pardakhti, Abbas; Askarifard, Sara; Abbott, Paul V

    2010-09-01

    Achieving pulp anesthesia with irreversible pulpitis is difficult. This study evaluated whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs assist local anesthesia. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 150 patients (50 per group) with irreversible pulpitis were given placebo, 600 mg ibuprofen, or 75 mg indomethacin 1 hour before local anesthesia. Each patient recorded their pain score on a visual analog scale before taking the medication, 15 minutes after anesthesia in response to a cold test, during access cavity preparation and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analyzed by the chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Overall success rates for placebo, ibuprofen, and indomethacin were 32%, 78%, and 62%, respectively (p irreversible pulpitis. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Amorphous Indomethacin and Its Amorphous Solid Dispersions with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) Studied Using (13)C Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoda; Xiang, Tian-Xiang; Anderson, Bradley D; Munson, Eric J

    2015-12-07

    Hydrogen bonding interactions in amorphous indomethacin and amorphous solid dispersions of indomethacin with poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate), or PVP/VA, were investigated quantitatively using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Indomethacin that was (13)C isotopically labeled at the carboxylic acid carbon was used to selectively analyze the carbonyl region of the spectrum. Deconvolution of the carboxylic acid carbon peak revealed that 59% of amorphous indomethacin molecules were hydrogen bonded through carboxylic acid cyclic dimers, 15% were in disordered carboxylic acid chains, 19% were hydrogen bonded through carboxylic acid and amide interactions, and the remaining 7% were free of hydrogen bonds. The standard dimerization enthalpy and entropy of amorphous indomethacin were estimated to be -38 kJ/mol and -91 J/(mol · K), respectively, using polystyrene as the "solvent". Polymers such as PVP and PVP/VA disrupted indomethacin self-interactions and formed hydrogen bonds with the drug. The carboxylic acid dimers were almost completely disrupted with 50% (wt) of PVP or PVP/VA. The fraction of disordered carboxylic acid chains also decreased as the polymer content increased. The solid-state NMR results were compared with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations from the literature. The present work highlights the potential of (13)C solid-state NMR to detect and quantify various hydrogen bonded species in amorphous solid dispersions as well as to serve as an experimental validation of MD simulations.

  16. NGF protects endothelial cells from indomethacin-induced injury through activation of mitochondria and upregulation of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K; Hoa, Neil; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels are critical for delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs and play a crucial role in the regeneration of blood vessel following tissue injury. ECs are also major targets of injury by a variety of noxious factors [e.g., ethanol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac], especially in gastric mucosa that has direct exposure to these agents. In this study, we investigated whether nerve growth factor (NGF) can protect gastric microvascular ECs (GECs) from injury by indomethacin (INDO) and the mechanisms involved. GECs were isolated from rat gastric mucosa and pre-treated with either vehicle or NGF (100ng/ml) for 30min to 4h followed by treatment with vehicle or 0.25mM INDO for 4h. 1) cell viability using Calcein AM live cell tracking dye, 2) mitochondrial structure and function using MitoTracker, molecular probe that stains mitochondria in live cells in a manner dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), 3) in vitro angiogenesis - endothelial tube formation on Matrigel, 4) expression and subcellular localization of NGF receptor, TrkA, and 5) expression of IGF-1 protein. Treatment with INDO reduced GEC viability and in vitro angiogenesis and induced mitochondrial injury and MMP depolarization. NGF pre-treatment protected GECs from INDO-induced injury preventing both INDO-induced MMP depolarization and reduced in vitro angiogenesis. The NGF high affinity receptor, TrkA, was localized in GECs to both cell membrane and mitochondria. NGF treatment of GECs also resulted in increased IGF-1 protein expression. 1) NGF protects GECs against IND-induced injury. 2) Mitochondria are major targets of both INDO-induced injury and NGF afforded protection of GECs. 3) TrkA expression in the mitochondria of GECs indicates that the protection afforded by NGF is partly mediated by its direct action on mitochondria. 4) NGF prevents MMP depolarization and increases

  17. Indomethacin-Induced Apoptosis in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells Involves Upregulation of Bax and Translocation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Independent of COX-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Aggarwal

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has been shown to exert a chemopreventive effect in esophageal and other gastrointestinal tumors. The precise mechanism by which this occurs, however, is unknown. While the inhibition of COX-2 as a potential explanation for this chemopreventive effect has gained a great deal of support, there also exists evidence supporting the presence of cyclooxygenase-independent pathways through which NSAIDs may exert their effects. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis of 29 Barrett's epithelial samples and 60 esophageal adenocarcinomas demonstrated abundant expression of the COX-2 protein in Barrett's epithelium, but marked heterogeneity of expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas. The three esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines, Flo-1, Bic-1, Seg-1, also demonstrated varying expression patterns for COX-1 and COX-2. Indomethacin induced apoptosis in all three cell lines, however, in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. In Flo-1 cells, which expressed almost undetectable levels of COX-1 and COX-2, in Seg-1, which expressed significant levels of COX-1 and COX-2, indomethacin caused upregulation of the pro-apoptosic protein Bax. The upregulation of Bax was accompanied by the translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, activation of caspase 9. Pre-treatment of both cell lines with the specific caspase 9 inhibitor, z-LEHD-FMK, as well as the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, blocked the effect of indomethacin-induced apoptosis. These data demonstrate that induction of apoptosis by indomethacin in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells is associated with the upregulation of Bax expression and mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation, does not correlate with the expression of COX-2. This may have important implications for identifying new therapeutic targets in this deadly disease.

  18. Protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens Linn. leaves on indomethacin and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tarique, Mohd.; Siddiqui, Hefazat H.; Khushtar, Mohd.; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Background: The search for an ideal and new antiulcer drug has been extended to herbals for novel molecules that decrease the incidence of relapse and afford better protection. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens (RGE) Linn. leaves on indomethacin (IND) and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of all the six groups were deprived of food for 24 h. The...

  19. Central Administration of Indomethacin Mitigates the Injury-Induced Upregulation of Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Content in the Zebra Finch Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Alyssa L; Brownrout, Jenna L; Saldanha, Colin J

    2017-08-01

    Injury to the vertebrate brain causes neuroinflammation, characterized in part by increases in prostaglandins. In rodents and songbirds, brain injury also induces the transcription and translation of aromatase in reactive astrocytes around the site of damage. Interestingly, this induction is more rapid in female zebra finches relative to males. Induced aromatization is neuroprotective, as inhibition of aromatase and estrogen replacement, increases and decreases the extent of damage, respectively. Although the consequences of induced astrocytic aromatization are intensely studied, little is known about what factors induce aromatase. Inflammation is sufficient to induce astrocytic aromatase suggesting that the link between inflammation and aromatase expression may be causal. To test this hypothesis, adult male and female zebra finches received bilateral mechanical injuries through which either the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin or vehicle was administered into contralateral hemispheres. Subjects were killed either 6 or 24 hours after injury. In both sexes, an enzyme immunoassay for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) revealed that indomethacin decreased PGE2 relative to the contralateral hemisphere at both time points, suggesting that the dose and mode of administration used were successful in affecting neuroinflammation locally. Indomethacin reduced aromatase expression and 17β-estradiol (E2) content at 6 hours but not 24 hours following injury in females. However, in males, the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on aromatase and E2 was apparent at 24 but not 6 hours after treatment. These data suggest that COX activity, perhaps via consequent prostaglandin secretion, may induce aromatase expression and central E2, an effect that is detectable in temporally distinct patterns between sexes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  20. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Hussein O B; Adaja, Matthew C; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Musa O

    2015-03-01

    Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of five rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distilled water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. Carica papaya seed extract significantly (Ppapaya extract. In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  2. A study of 131iodine-labeling of histamine-indomethacin: its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoxiu; Zhang, Guoxu; Zhang, Caixia; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Ruihao

    2013-03-26

    In our research,we study the effect of 131iodine-labeled histamine-indomethacin (131I-His-IN). We focus on its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer. 131I-His-IN was administered by garage to the mice. At different timepoints, we made autoradiography (ARG) slices to observe the distribution of 131I-His-IN in the cellular, and the sliced samples underwent hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining for observation of tumor necrosis. Before treatment, the groups of mice underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans ,and they were then given physiologic saline, iodine 131 (131I), indomethacin (IN), Histamine-indomethacin (His-IN), and 131I-His-IN, respectively, three times daily for seven days. Seven days later, all the mice underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT scans again. We calculated the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the region of interest (ROI) and tumor inhibition rate at the same time. In ARG groups, black silver particle was concentrated in the nucleus and cytoplasm. 131I-His-IN mainly concentrated in tumor tissues. At 8 hours after 131I-His-IN, the radioactivity uptake in tumor tissue was higher than in other organs (F=3.46, Peffect and monitoring of disease prognosis.

  3. Combined treatment with fenretinide and indomethacin induces AIF-mediated, non-classical cell death in human acute T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojka-Osinska, Anna, E-mail: hojka@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Ziolo, Ewa, E-mail: ziolo@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Rapak, Andrzej, E-mail: rapak@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of fenretinide and indomethacin induces a high level of cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic pathway is caspase-independent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jurkat cells undergo AIF-mediated cell death. -- Abstract: Currently used cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy have a similar mechanism of action and low specificity. Applied simultaneously, they show an additive effect with strong side effects. Clinical trials with the use of different agents in cancer therapy show that the use of these compounds alone is not very effective in fighting cancer. An alternative solution could be to apply a combination of these agents, because their combination has a synergistic effect on some cancer cells. Therefore, in our investigations we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid-fenretinide when combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-indomethacin on the process of apoptosis in the acute human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. We demonstrate that treatment with the combination of the tested compounds induces the death of cells, that is peculiar and combines features of apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic cell death. In detail we observed, cell membrane permeabilization, phosphatydylserine exposure, no oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, no caspase-3 activation, but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Taken together these results indicate, that Jurkat cells after treatment with a combination of fenretinide and indomethacin undergo AIF-mediated programmed cell death.

  4. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF....../kg NOLAG. 50 mg/kg NOLAG, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily for 4 days, also caused an attenuated CBF response to CO2, but the inhibitory effect was significantly less than with acute NOLAG administration in the paCO2 range of 61-90 mmHg. Infusion of L-arginine, 1 g/kg/h, prevented the effect of 7......, but raising paCO2 above this level did not result in further increases in CBF. This effect could not be prevented by L-arginine. When combining 7.5 mg/kg NOLAG with 10 mg/kg indomethacin, the response to hypercapnia was totally blocked. The results suggest that NOLAG and indomethacin act through different...

  5. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  6. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  7. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  8. The in Vitro Release of Indomethacin from Suppositories: Effects of Bases and Comparison of Different Dissolution Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji; Hori, Seiichi; Kawata, Tsubasa; Kogure, Sanae; Matsumoto, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    The suitability of apparatuses for the quality control of indomethacin (IND, 50 mg) compounded suppositories was evaluated and the effects of the type of suppository base on release profiles was investigated. The release characteristics of hydrophilic and lipophilic suppositories containing IND were compared using four types of dissolution methods: basket (RB), paddle (PD), dialysis tubing (DT) and flow-through cell (FTC). The release process was evaluated using the following model independent parameters: the mean dissolution time (MDT), cumulative percent of drug released (Q) at the end of the sampling time, and dissolution efficiency (DE). The fastest and most reproducible release profiles were observed for a hydrophilic base (macrogols), which resulted in more than 90% of the drug being released in 30 min using PD, RB and FTC. After 90 min, 90% of the total amount of the drug was released from a mixture of hydrophilic bases with a lipophilic base (macrogols and hard fat) in compendial dissolution methods and the mixture base was the second fastest only to the hydrophilic base. The slowest release profiles in each method were observed for the lipophilic base (hard fat). Poor drug release from any type of suppository base was noted using DT. Based on the results of the present study, FTC may be regarded as an adequate technique allowing sufficient discriminating power for the quality control of IND compounded suppositories.

  9. In-line monitoring and interpretation of an indomethacin anti-solvent crystallization process by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Eun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Cho, Young-Sang; Choi, Guang Jin

    2011-11-28

    PAT (process analytical technology) has been emphasized as one of key elements for the full implementation of QbD (quality-by-design) in the pharmaceutical area. NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) has been studied intensively as an in-line/on-line monitoring tool in chemical and biomedical industries. A precise and reliable monitoring of the particle characteristics during crystallization along with a suitable control strategy should be highly encouraged for the conformance to new quality system of pharmaceutical products. In this study, the anti-solvent crystallization process of indomethacin (IMC) was monitored using an in-line NIRS. IMC powders were produced via anti-solvent crystallization using two schemes; 'S-to-A' (solvent-to-antisolvent) and 'A-to-S' (antisolvent-to-solvent). In-line NIR spectra were analyzed by a PCA (principal component analysis) method. Although pure α-form IMC powder was resulted under A-to-S scheme, a mixture of the α-form and γ-form was produced for S-to-A case. By integrating the PCA results with off-line characterization (SEM, XRD, DSC) data, the crystallization process under each scheme was elucidated by three distinct consecutive steps. It was demonstrated that in-line NIRS, combined with PCA, can be very useful to monitor in real time and interpret the anti-solvent crystallization process with respect to the polymorphism and particle size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE COOLING RATE AND THE BLEND RATIO ON THE PHYSICAL STABILTIY OF CO-AMORPHOUS NAPROXEN/INDOMETHACIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the b......Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method...... and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios. The samples were analyzed using XRPD...... than samples prepared by intermediate cooling and slow cooling. Intermediate cooling was subsequently used to prepare co-amorphous NAP/IND at different blend ratios. In a previous study, it was postulated that the equimolar (0.5:0.5) co-amorphous blend of NAP/IND is most stable. However, in the present...

  11. Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification after Surface and Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study Using Anterolateral Approach and Indomethacin Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO in two homogeneous groups of patients that received surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA and conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-nine patients undergoing 42 hip resurfacing procedures and 41 primary cementless THAs through an anterolateral approach received a 10-day course of 150 mg/die of indomethacin postoperatively. The median surgical time was 190 minutes and 156 minutes, respectively (. At a minimum 1-year followup, the development of HO was assessed on standard X-ray using Brooker grading. Ectopic bone formation was detected in five cases (11.9%, two Brooker grade I and three grade II in the SRA group and in 14 hips (34.1%, 12 grade I and two grade II treated with conventional THA, but the difference was not significant (. No clinically relevant periprosthetic ossification (Brooker III or IV occurred in both groups. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the incidence of HO after SRA was lower than conventional THA. More extensive soft tissue trauma, bone debris, and longer operative time in hip resurfacing are not likely to be absolute risk factors for HO. Further investigations including larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Radioprotective effects of combination broncho-vaxom, a macrophage activator, and indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin production. Relationship to myelopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorocko, P.; Mackova, N.O. [Safarik Univ., Faculty ofSciences, Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Kosice (Slovakia)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the bacterial extract broncho-vaxom (BV; radioprotective immunomodulator; 500 {mu}g/mouse i.p., -24 h) and indomethacin (INDO; inhibitor of prostaglandin production; 2x40 {mu}g/mouse i.m., - 24 h and - 3 h) on the post-irradiation recovery of hemopoietic functions in mice were investigated. Both agents were administered either alone or in combination. Endogenous spleen colony formation was increased in all treatment groups, with combination-treated mice exhibiting the greatest effects. Similarly, 24 h after combined administration of BV and INDO (i.e. at the time of presumed irradiation) to the non-irradiated mice granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) numbers were greater in the bone marrow and spleen. Also, as determined by hydroxyurea injection, there was an increase in the number of GM-CFC in the S-phase of the cell cycle in the bone marrow. However, GM-CFC in the spleen of combination pretreated mice was not stimulated to significant proliferation as compared to GM-CFC in the spleen of mice injected with BV alone. Combined modality treatment was also more effective than single agent treatments in accelerating bone marrow cellularity and GM-CFC regeneration, but not in accelerating GM-CFC regeneration in the spleen. Combined administration of BV and INDO to mice prior to lethal irradiation exerted and additional radioprotective effect and protected 95% of the C57B1/6 mice. (au) 42 refs.

  13. Sensitization of colon cancer cell lines to butyrate-mediated proliferation inhibition by combined application of indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfi, Peter; Neogrady, Zsuzsa; Amberger, Albert; Margreiter, Raimund; Csordas, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on histone deacetylase-mediated proliferation inhibition. In the colon cancer cell line HT29 butyrate-mediated proliferation inhibition was enhanced by the additional presence of indomethacin (IM) and/or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). Sensitisation to butyrate-mediated proliferation inhibition was abolished by the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, however, only IM-induced cell detachment was prevented by the caspase inhibitor but not that induced by NDGA or NDGA plus IM. In contrast to the parental cell line HT29, in the methotrexate-resistant sub-lines HT29-12 and HT29-21, IM counteracted butyrate-mediated proliferation inhibition, which was abrogated by NDGA. In all the investigated cell lines, proliferation inhibition was most effectively achieved under the combined application of butyrate with IM and NDGA, suggesting that inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) isoenzymes is needed for proliferation inhibition by NSAIDs in tumour cells.

  14. Formulating food protein-stabilized indomethacin nanosuspensions into pellets by fluid-bed coating technology: physical characterization, redispersibility, and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Chen, Lingyun; Yin, Lifang; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology. Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated. The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much faster than that of the raw crystals. Fluid-bed coating technology has potential for use in the solidification of drug nanosuspensions.

  15. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other factors. Success rates may be as high as 80 percent or as low as near 40 percent depending on your circumstances. Tubal ligation reversal is abdominal surgery, which carries a risk of infection, bleeding and ...

  17. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  18. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  19. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  20. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  1. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  2. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...

  3. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  4. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  5. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  6. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  7. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  9. Bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibition protects mice against enteropathy induced by indomethacin, ketoprofen or diclofenac: mode of action and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Kyle S; Zhang, Carmen; Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Redinbo, Matthew R; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2014-01-01

    1.  We have previously demonstrated that a small molecule inhibitor of bacterial β-glucuronidase (Inh-1; [1-((6,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)thiourea]) protected mice against diclofenac (DCF)-induced enteropathy. Here we report that Inh-1 was equally protective against small intestinal injury induced by other carboxylic acid-containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin (10 mg/kg, ip) and ketoprofen (100 mg/kg, ip). 2.  Inh-1 provided complete protection if given prior to DCF (60 mg/kg, ip), and partial protection if administered 3-h post-DCF, suggesting that the temporal window of mucosal protection can be extended for drugs undergoing extensive enterohepatic circulation. 3.  Pharmacokinetic analysis of Inh-1 revealed an absolute bioavailability (F) of 21% and a short t1/2 of <1 h. This low F was shown to be due to hepatic first-pass metabolism, as confirmed with the pan-CYP inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole. 4.  Using the fluorescent probe 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, we demonstrated that Inh-1 did not interfere with hepatobiliary export of glucuronides in gall bladder-cannulated mice. 5.  These data are compatible with the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase-mediated cleavage of NSAID glucuronides in the small intestinal lumen can protect against NSAID-induced enteropathy caused by locally high concentrations of NSAID aglycones.

  10. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and antiulcerogenic activity of Aframomum pruinosum seeds on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Nanfack Nana, Blandine; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Tchuenteu Tchuenguem, Roland; Nguepi, Eveline

    2017-12-01

    Peptic ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting mankind. Although there are many products used for its treatment, most of these products produce severe adverse reactions requiring the search for novel compounds. Some Afromomum species are used traditionally to cure acute gastritis. To evaluate the antiulcer activity of the methanol extract of Aframomum pruinosum Gagnepain (Zingiberaceae) seeds against two major etiologic agents of peptic ulcer disease; Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The anti-Helicobacter activity of A. pruinosum was evaluated using the broth microdilution method. After oral administration of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, gastric ulcerated animals were divided into control group and five other groups: three groups that recieved respectively 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of plant extract, the fourth group received Maalox (50 mg/kg) and the fifth group, Misoprostol (100 μg/kg), respectively, for 5 days. Ulcer areas, gastric mucus content and nitric oxide gastric levels of animals were assessed 24 h after this treatment. A. pruinosum extract shows a moderate anti-Helicobacter activity with an MIC value of 128 μg/mL. A. pruinosum extract, like Misoprostol and Maalox, markedly reduces the % of ulcerated area from 8.15 ± 0.33 to 1.71 ± 0.44% (500 mg/kg). It also increased significantly mucus and NO gastric production with respective values of 4.44 ± 1.35 and 965.81 ± 106.74 μmol/g (500 mg/kg). These findings suggest that A. pruinosum methanol extract possesses antiulcer properties as ascertained by the comparative decreases in ulcer areas, increase of mucus and NO gastric production.

  11. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin induces heterogeneity in lipid membranes: potential implication for its diverse biological action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, indomethacin (Indo, has a large number of divergent biological effects, the molecular mechanism(s for which have yet to be fully elucidated. Interestingly, Indo is highly amphiphilic and associates strongly with lipid membranes, which influence localization, structure and function of membrane-associating proteins and actively regulate cell signaling events. Thus, it is possible that Indo regulates diverse cell functions by altering micro-environments within the membrane. Here we explored the effect of Indo on the nature of the segregated domains in a mixed model membrane composed of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl-choline (di16:0 PC, or DPPC and dioleoyl phosphatidyl-choline (di18:1 PC or DOPC and cholesterol that mimics biomembranes.Using a series of fluorescent probes in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET study, we found that Indo induced separation between gel domains and fluid domains in the mixed model membrane, possibly by enhancing the formation of gel-phase domains. This effect originated from the ability of Indo to specifically target the ordered domains in the mixed membrane. These findings were further confirmed by measuring the ability of Indo to affect the fluidity-dependent fluorescence quenching and the level of detergent resistance of membranes.Because the tested lipids are the main lipid constituents in cell membranes, the observed formation of gel phase domains induced by Indo potentially occurs in biomembranes. This marked Indo-induced change in phase behavior potentially alters membrane protein functions, which contribute to the wide variety of biological activities of Indo and other NSAIDs.

  12. Development of a selective molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid-phase extraction for indomethacin from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Ya-Hui; Wei, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Anping

    2008-08-01

    A selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for indomethacin (IDM) from water samples was developed. Using IDM as template molecule, acrylamide (AM) or methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker, and bulk or suspension polymerization as the synthetic method, three molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized with a rebinding experiment. It was found that the MIP of AM-EDMA produced by bulk polymerization showed the highest binding capacity for IDM, and so it was chosen for subsequent experiments, such as those testing the selectivity and recognition binding sites. Scatchard analysis revealed that at least two kinds of binding sites formed in the MIP, with the dissociation constants of 7.8 micromol L(-1) and 127.2 micromol L(-1), respectively. Besides IDM, three structurally related compounds--acemetacin, oxaprozin and ibuprofen--were employed for selectivity tests. It was observed that the MIP exhibited the highest selective rebinding to IDM. Accordingly, the MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction and enrichment of IDM in water samples. The extraction conditions of the MISPE column for IDM were optimized to be: chloroform or water as loading solvent, chloroform with 20% acetonitrile as washing solution, and methanol as eluting solvent. Water samples with or without spiking were extracted by the MISPE column and analyzed by HPLC. No detectable IDM was observed in tap water and the content of IDM in a river water sample was found to be 1.8 ng mL(-1). The extraction efficiencies of the MISPE column for IDM in spiked tap and river water were acceptable (87.2% and 83.5%, respectively), demonstrating the feasibility of the prepared MIP for IDM extraction.

  13. Indomethacin and cromolyn sodium alter ozone-induced changes in lung function and plasma eicosanoid concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1988-04-01

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were given either indomethacin (IN), cromolyn sodium (CS), or no drug (ND) and then exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O3) for 1 hr. At 2 or 24 hr postexposure, ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) were measured, and in separate groups of animals, plasma eicosanoids (EC) were measured. Both drugs blocked the increase in flow resistance noted at 2 hr after O3 and prevented O3-induced increases in the wet lung weight to body weight ratio seen at 2 and 24 hr in the ND group. In the ND animals O3 also decreased total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV). IN as well as CS blocked reductions in FRC and RV at both 2 and 24 hr after O3. TLC was reduced by both drug treatments in air- and O3-exposed animals. CS treatment also decreased VC in all groups. IN blocked reductions in VA after O3 but did not prevent decreases in DLCO. CS blocked reductions in both VA and DLCO after O3, but the drug decreased DLCO in air-exposed animals. The prostaglandins PGF2 alpha and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were largely unaffected by O3 exposure or drug treatment. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was not affected by O3, but both drugs significantly increased PGE1 in all exposure groups. Effects on plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were variable although in most groups TxB2 was lower than in the O3-exposed ND groups. Although our findings suggest that both drugs block some effects of O3 exposure on the lungs and on plasma EC concentrations, the degree to which EC contribute to O3-induced pulmonary effects is not clearly apparent.

  14. Different effects of silica added internal or external on in vitro dissolution of indomethacin hot-melt extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yulong; Yuan, Meng; Deng, Yueyang; Ke, Xue; Ci, Tianyuan

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect on the dissolution behavior when silica was added in different ways. The solid dispersion was prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) using indomethacin (IND) as a model drug and Kollidon VA64 as a carrier. In order to change the dissolution behavior, the silica was added during or after the HME respectively, to obtain the corresponding silica internal-added solid dispersion (InSD) and silica external-added solid dispersion (ExSD). According to the results, the internal-added silicon dioxide could reduce the dissolution rate from 66.91%/h to 24.12%/h and the water infiltration rate from 0.37mm/h to 0.16mm/h in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 6.8, so the formulation of InSD had a significant sustained release effect. But the infiltration rate of the ExSD was increased to 13.22mm/h when silica was added external, and the density of VA64 in the powder was decreased from 541.87mg/cm3 to 141.87mg/cm3, leading to a weak resistance to the external force, and the powder was easy to be dispersed after wetted by water so that the formulation of ExSD had a relatively higher dissolution rate. This phenomenon was more visible when the phosphate buffer solution was changed to pH 5.6 in which the API was more difficult to be dissolved. Accordingly, different addition ways of aerosil would change release behavior of the HME preparation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected...... to the start-up of elongation for three Hencky strain units and subsequently the reversed flow. The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept agrees with the experiments. In the experiments the Hencky strain at which the str~ss becomes zero (the recovery strain......) in the reversed flow has been identified. The recovery strain is found to increase with elongational rate, and has a maximum value of approximately 1.45. The Doi Edwards model using any stretch evolution equation is not able to predict the correct level of the recovery strain....

  16. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  17. NSAIDs diclofenac, indomethacin, and meloxicam highly upregulate expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2 induced by X-irradiation in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yoshihiko; Murata, Yasuhiko; Shiga, Soichiro; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2016-10-28

    It is well known that radiation exposure to the heart and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Some NSAIDs are also known to act synergistically with ionizing radiation and have radio-sensitizing effects in radiotherapy. These evidences suggest that NSAIDs may affect the risk of MI after radiation exposure to the heart. In the present study, we investigated effects of NSAIDs on radiation-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules and COX-2, which are associated with inflammation and an increased risk of MI, in human endothelial cells. Effects of NSAIDs on radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and COX-2 were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As NSAIDs, diclofenac, etodolac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meloxicam, and rofecoxib were used. Irradiation with 10 Gy increased expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2, but it did not affect expression of VCAM-1 or E-selectin. All the NSAIDs upregulated radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2. The extent of upregulation varied depending on the types of NSAIDs. Indomethacin, diclofenac, and meloxicam highly upregulated radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2. The extent of upregulation was not related to the degree of COX-2 selectivity. An NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 suppressed radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1, but it did not suppress upregulated expression of ICAM-1 or COX-2 by combination treatment with X-irradiation and meloxicam, suggesting the existence of NF-κB-independent pathways for ICAM-1 and COX-2 induction. Indomethacin, diclofenac, and meloxicam highly upregulated radiation-induced expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2 in HUVECs, which suggests that use of these NSAIDs may increase the effects of ionizing radiation and affect the risk of MI after radiation exposure to the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-operative rectal indomethacin for reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazouki, A.; Cheraghali, R.; Saeedimotahhar, H.; Jesmi, F.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-operative indomethacin suppository on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study: Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 2010 to September 2012. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patients, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomly divided into case and control groups. Sixty-five patients received indomethacin suppository and 70 patients received rectal placebo in the case and control groups respectively. All patients underwent the same protocol in laparoscopic surgery and anesthesia, then nausea and vomiting was recorded after 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively and compared between the two groups. Independent-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Patients' nausea was statistically lower in the case group at the 1st hour (43.1 vs. 92.9%), 6th hour (20.0 vs. 68.6%) and 12th hour (7.7 vs. 24.3%) after surgery (for all periods, P < 0.001). Fewer patients in the case group experienced vomiting at the first (13.8 vs. 51.4%) and 6th hour (0 vs. 20%) after surgery (for both P < 0.001). The use of pethidine was also statistically less in the case group in the same hours after surgery (for all of them, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Rectal indomethacin before laparoscopic cholecystectomy led to lower postoperative nausea and vomiting. (author)

  19. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  20. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  1. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  3. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  4. The structural and electronical factors that contribute affinity for the time-dependent inhibition of PGHS-1 by indomethacin, diclofenac and fenamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouplana, R.; Pérez, C.; Sánchez, J.; Lozano, J. J.; Puig-Parellada, P.

    1999-05-01

    PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It appears that the high degree of selectivity for inhibition of PGHS-2 shown by certain compounds is the result of two mechanisms (time-dependent and time-independent inhibition), by which they interact with each isoform. The fenamic acids can be divided into competitive inhibitors of substrate binding and competitive inhibitors that cause time-dependent losses of cyclooxygenase activity. The cyclooxygenase activity was measured by oxygen consumption following preincubation of the enzyme and the inhibitor for increasing periods of time. The rate constants associated with binding inhibition kinetics and structure-activity relationships were calculated for a large number of fenamates, diclofenac and indomethacin. The KI* values are similar but the individual rate constants are markedly different: KI is two-fold lower, and k2 is six-fold slower for diclofenac than for indomethacin. All the active time-dependent compounds show MEPs with a negative conical surface, with their vertex on the minimum of the carboxyl group, which extends around the first aromatic ring to the central region. The conical surface keeps an open angle of 61° or larger, and a close contact surface with the residues Ala527, Ileu523, Val349, and Ser530, in the zones surrounding the bridging amino group and the chlorine atoms for meclofenamate and diclofenac, or in the region around the carbonyl group for indomethacin. The KI* and IC50 values indicate that the interactions that promote the slow binding kinetics must be examined in relation to the reaction energies of formation (ΔHr) of an ionic bond between the deprotonated carboxylic acid group of acid NSAIDs with the monocationic guanidinum group of Arg120, the free energies of solvation in aqueous solution, and the molecular volumes measured. Presumably indomethacin, diclofenac and meclofenamate cause the enzyme to undergo a subtle conformational change to a

  5. Association of Placebo, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, and Acetaminophen With Closure of Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Souvik; Florez, Ivan D; Tamayo, Maria E; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Zea, Adriana M; Zhang, Yuan; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-03-27

    Despite increasing emphasis on conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, different pharmacotherapeutic interventions are used to treat those developing a hemodynamically significant PDA. To estimate the relative likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure with common pharmacotherapeutic interventions and to compare adverse event rates. The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until August 15, 2015, and updated on December 31, 2017, along with conference proceedings up to December 2017. Randomized clinical trials that enrolled preterm infants with a gestational age younger than 37 weeks treated with intravenous or oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen vs each other, placebo, or no treatment for a clinically or echocardiographically diagnosed hemodynamically significant PDA. Data were independently extracted in pairs by 6 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses. Primary outcome: hemodynamically significant PDA closure; secondary: included surgical closure, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In 68 randomized clinical trials of 4802 infants, 14 different variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen were used as treatment modalities. The overall PDA closure rate was 67.4% (2867 of 4256 infants). A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a significantly higher odds of PDA closure vs a standard dose of intravenous ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.64-8.17; absolute risk difference, 199 [95% CrI, 95-258] more per 1000 infants) and a standard dose of intravenous indomethacin (OR, 2.35 [95% CrI, 1.08-5.31]; absolute risk difference, 124 [95% CrI, 14-188] more per 1000 infants). Based on the ranking statistics, a high dose of oral ibuprofen ranked as the best pharmacotherapeutic option for PDA closure (mean surface under the

  6. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  8. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  9. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  10. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  11. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be so...

  13. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  14. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  15. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...

  16. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  17. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  18. Time-reversal acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Mathias [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: mathias.fink@espci.fr

    2008-10-15

    Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) refocus an incident acoustic field to the position of the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRM's have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from MHz ultrasonics with order centimeter aperture size to hundreds/thousands of Hz in ocean acoustics with order hundred meter aperture size. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations at all scales that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM, the sharper the focus. The relation between the medium complexity and the size of the focal spot is studied in this paper. It is certainly the most exciting property of TRM compared to standard focusing devices. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appears wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse in a refocusing quality that does not depend of the TRM aperture. In this paper, we investigate the time-reversal approach in various media of increasing complexity and we discuss the link existing between time-reversal approach and local helioseismology where Green's functions can be extracted from diffusive noise.

  19. Dinitroglyceryl and diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolated nitric oxide donor ester prodrugs of aspirin, indomethacin and ibuprofen: synthesis, biological evaluation and nitric oxide release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Chowdhury, Morshed Alam; Dong, Ying; Das, Dipankar; Yu, Gang; Velázquez, Carlos A; Suresh, Mavanur R; Knaus, Edward E

    2009-06-01

    A new group of hybrid nitric oxide (NO) releasing anti-inflammatory (AI) ester prodrugs (NONO-NSAIDs) wherein a 1,3-dinitrooxy-2-propyl (12a-c), or O(2)-acetoxymethyl-1-[2-(methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (14a-c), NO-donor moiety is directly attached to the carboxylic acid group of aspirin, indomethacin or ibuprofen were synthesized. NO release from the dinitrooxypropyl, or diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, ester prodrugs was increased substantially upon incubation in the presence of l-cysteine (12a-c) or rat serum (14a-c). The ester prodrugs (12a-c, 14a-c), which did not inhibit the COX-1 isozyme, exhibited modest inhibitory activity against the COX-2 isozyme. The NONO-NSAIDs 12a-c and 14a-c exhibited in vivo AI activity that was similar to that exhibited by the parent drug aspirin, indomethacin or ibuprofen when the same oral dose (micromol/kg) was administered. These similarities in oral potency profiles suggest these NONO-NSAIDs act as classical prodrugs that require metabolic activation by esterase-mediated hydrolysis. Hybrid NO-donor/anti-inflammatory prodrugs of this type (NONO-NSAIDs) offer a potential drug design concept targeted toward the development of anti-inflammatory drugs with reduced adverse gastrointestinal effects.

  20. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Chieng, Norman

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to characterize the structural behaviour of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems (1 : 1 molar ratio) prepared by quench cooling, co-evaporation and ball milling. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and DSC were used to characterise the samples. Structural relaxation (i.e. molecular mobility) behaviour was obtained from the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relationship. A glass transition temperature (Tg ), on average 20 °C higher than the predicted Tg (calculated from the Fox equation), was observed in all samples. The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). The estimated relaxation times by the DSC-KWW method suggest that different preparative methods resulted in a variation of structural characteristics. Despite the differences in molecular mobility, all sample remained co-amorphous for up to 7 months. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. P2Y purinoceptor and nucleotide receptor-induced relaxation of precontracted bovine aortic collateral artery rings: differential sensitivity to suramin and indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, G F; McKechnie, K; Dainty, I A; Boarder, M R

    1994-02-01

    We have examined a series of adenine nucleotides and UTP for their ability to cause relaxation of precontracted bovine aortic collateral artery rings. The overall rank order of agonist potency for relaxation was 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2MeSATP) > adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) > UTP > ADP > ATP. These responses were endothelium-dependent. Interaction studies showed that responses to the selective P2Y purinoceptor agonist 2MeSATP, and to ADP, were mediated by different receptors from those mediating responses to UTP. Suramin, a P2 purinoceptor antagonist that binds to diverse sites for ATP, produced a concentration-dependent shift in the agonist concentration-effect curve to 2MeSATP, with a pKB of 5.45 +/- 0.15 and a slope of 0.94 +/- 0.09. Suramin produced a small, nonsignificant shift in the UTP response curve and had little effect on responses to ATP. Indomethacin (2.8 x 10(-6) M) had no effect on concentration-effect curves to UTP but almost abolished the relaxations produced by 2MeSATP and ADP. The concentration-effect curves to ATP and ATP gamma S showed a significant (P effects of indomethacin show that these receptors differentially modulate the release of cyclooxygenase-derived mediators of relaxation.

  2. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to characterize the structural behaviour of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems (1 : 1 molar ratio) prepared by quench cooling, co-evaporation and ball milling. METHODS: Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and DSC were used to characterise....... The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared...... by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). CONCLUSION: The estimated relaxation times by the DSC...

  3. Who Are the "Lazy" Ants? The Function of Inactivity in Social Insects and a Possible Role of Constraint: Inactive Ants Are Corpulent and May Be Young and/or Selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed

  5. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  6. 37 CFR 11.19 - Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...

  7. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  8. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  9. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  10. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  11. Comparison of Static Balance in Active and Inactive Adult and Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.

  12. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-11 - Financial statements of an inactive registrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  14. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  16. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  17. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged

  18. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...

  19. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  20. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  1. Living near the port area is associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  2. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  3. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  4. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  5. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  6. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  7. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  8. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  9. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  10. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  11. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  12. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  13. Wheelchair-Specific Fitness of Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  14. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  15. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  16. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  18. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  19. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  20. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  1. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  2. The effect of prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha and indomethacin on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin in stripped soleus muscles of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, B; Budohoski, L; Lozeman, F J; Challiss, R A; Newsholme, E A

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandins E1 and E2 increased the sensitivity of glycolysis to insulin in the isolated stripped soleus muscle of the rat, but prostaglandin F2 alpha had no effect. Indomethacin, which inhibits prostaglandin formation, markedly decreased the sensitivity of glycolysis to insulin. These findings suggest that prostaglandins of the E series increase the sensitivity of muscle glycolysis to insulin in vivo. PMID:3888199

  3. Indomethacin reduces glomerular and tubular damage markers but not renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients: a post-hoc analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H de Borst

    Full Text Available Under specific conditions non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used to lower therapy-resistant proteinuria. The potentially beneficial anti-proteinuric, tubulo-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs may be offset by an increased risk of (renal side effects. We investigated the effect of indomethacin on urinary markers of glomerular and tubular damage and renal inflammation. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospective open-label crossover study in chronic kidney disease patients (n = 12 with mild renal function impairment and stable residual proteinuria of 4.7±4.1 g/d. After a wash-out period of six wks without any RAAS blocking agents or other therapy to lower proteinuria (untreated proteinuria (UP, patients subsequently received indomethacin 75 mg BID for 4 wks (NSAID. Healthy subjects (n = 10 screened for kidney donation served as controls. Urine and plasma levels of total IgG, IgG4, KIM-1, beta-2-microglobulin, H-FABP, MCP-1 and NGAL were determined using ELISA. Following NSAID treatment, 24 h -urinary excretion of glomerular and proximal tubular damage markers was reduced in comparison with the period without anti-proteinuric treatment (total IgG: UP 131[38-513] vs NSAID 38[17-218] mg/24 h, p<0.01; IgG4: 50[16-68] vs 10[1-38] mg/24 h, p<0.001; beta-2-microglobulin: 200[55-404] vs 50[28-110] ug/24 h, p = 0.03; KIM-1: 9[5]-[14] vs 5[2]-[9] ug/24 h, p = 0.01. Fractional excretions of these damage markers were also reduced by NSAID. The distal tubular marker H-FABP showed a trend to reduction following NSAID treatment. Surprisingly, NSAID treatment did not reduce urinary excretion of the inflammation markers MCP-1 and NGAL, but did reduce plasma MCP-1 levels, resulting in an increased fractional MCP-1 excretion. In conclusion, the anti-proteinuric effect of indomethacin is associated with reduced urinary excretion of glomerular and tubular damage markers, but not with reduced excretion of renal

  4. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  5. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  6. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  7. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  8. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  9. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  10. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  11. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The stimulatory effect of single-dose pre-irradiation administration of indomethacin and diclofenac on haemopoietic recovery in the spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of the single-dose pre-irradiation administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (0.15 mg/mouse) and diclofenac (0.6 mg/mouse) on the recovery of haemopoiesis in the spleen of whole-body irradiated male mice (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 . It was shown that the administation of these substances 1-24 h prior to sublethal irradiation stimulates the recovery of the proliferation activity of the spleen and the formation of endogenous spleen colonies. These results can be explained as the inhibitory effect of the substances administered on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  13. Protective Effect of Aqueous Plant Extracts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Melissa Officinalis and Mentha x Piperita Against Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Ramadan, L.A.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of glycyrrhiza, Mentha and Melissa were tested for the antiulcerogenic activities against indomethacin induced ulcer in irradiated rats. Animals were irradiated at radiation dose levels 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. The extracts were given orally 3 days after irradiation and the antiulcerogenic as well as the antisecretory and cyroprotective effects of the extracts were determined. All plant extracts produced pronounced antiulcerogenic activities and reduced acid output, increased mucin and decreased pepsin secretion in pyloric ligated rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of the plant extracts was also confirmed histologically. The effect of the plant extract could be party due to their flavonoids content and to their free radical scavenging properties. The stomach is a radiosensitive part of the gastriontestinal tract (Friedman, 1992). It does not tolerate radiation doses that are necessary to control cancer. Hoever, some parts of the stomach are often in the primary treatment field in radiotherapy

  14. Effect of nitric oxide-releasing derivative of indomethacin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, So-Hui; Choi, Eun-Young; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-14

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of NCX 2121, a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of indomethacin, upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators using murine macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, which is one of the pathogens implicated in periodontal diseases. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their relevant mRNA were significantly attenuated by NCX 2121 in RAW264.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 was much more effective than the parental compound indomethacin in reducing these proinflammatory mediators. NCX 2121 triggered induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells exposed to P. intermedia LPS, and its inhibitory influence upon P. intermedia LPS-elicited NO generation was notably blocked by SnPP treatment. NCX 2121 attenuated NF-κB-dependent SEAP release induced by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 did not display inhibitory action towards IκB-α degradation triggered by LPS. Instead, it significantly diminished nuclear translocation as well as DNA-binding action of NF-κB p50 subunit elicited by P. intermedia LPS. Further, NCX 2121 significantly up-regulated SOCS1 mRNA expression in cells challenged with P. intermedia LPS. In summary, NCX 2121 down-regulates P. intermedia LPS-elicited generation of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages in a mechanism that involves anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction as well as decrement of NF-κB activation, which may be associated with SOCS1 expression. NCX 2121 may have potential benefits as a host immunomodulatory agent for the therapy of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  16. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  17. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  18. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  19. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities

  1. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  2. Heraclitus, Seaford and Reversible Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, C; Duschinsky, Robert Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In this essay we identify a characteristic pattern of Heraclitus’ thought and language, the “figure of reversible exchange”. We suggest that this figure allows Heraclitus to propose an ontological structure consisting of two intersecting circuits of relations: a pre-temporal reversible exchange between Being and Becoming and between One and Many, and a temporal reversible exchange within the Many as the very process of Becoming. Against Richard Seaford’s interpretation of Heraclitus’ thought ...

  3. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-01-01

    Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The mo...

  4. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  5. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  6. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.

  7. Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.

  8. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  9. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  10. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  11. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  12. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marquet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target.

  13. Physics of field reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Since the earliest days of fusion research it has been hoped that diamagnetic currents flowing in a plasma could be used to help confine the plasma. Recently this hope has been strengthened both by theoretical advances and by experimental results made possible by technological developments. On the theoretical front analytical treatments and computer simulation studies have demonstrated equilibrium solutions existing both in the fluid limit and in the large-orbit limit. Progress has also been made in determining the conditions required for the stability of field-reversed entities. It appears that configurations of the general form of fat doughnuts, possibly elongated to napkin-ring form, represent stable states. Building on previous experimental work, several investigators have been able to create field-reversed states. One method, based on the ASTRON idea of Christofilos, traps an intense relativistic electron beams (REB) to create a field-reversing current ring. Other approaches use either the reversed field theta pinch technique or REB pulses to create field-reversing diamagnetic currents in a long cylindrical plasma. In the former method, millisecond-long field-reversing electron rings have been achieved; in the latter method field-reversed plasma states lasting 30 to 50 microseconds have been achieved. Another approach under investigation is the Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) created by the tangential injection of high current neutral beams. Plasma states that approach field reversal have been achieved by this technique

  14. Antimicrobial and conformational studies of the active and inactive analogues of the protegrin-1 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2010-02-01

    The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.

  15. Inactive and active states and supramolecular organization of GPCRs: insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; De Benedetti, Pier G.

    2006-08-01

    Herein we make an overview of the results of our computational experiments aimed at gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR functioning either in their normal conditions or when hit by gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations. Molecular simulations of a number of GPCRs in their wild type and mutated as well as free and ligand-bound forms were instrumental in inferring the structural features, which differentiate the mutation- and ligand-induced active from the inactive states. These features essentially reside in the interaction pattern of the E/DRY arginine and in the degree of solvent exposure of selected cytosolic domains. Indeed, the active states differ from the inactive ones in the weakening of the interactions made by the highly conserved arginine and in the increase in solvent accessibility of the cytosolic interface between helices 3 and 6. Where possible, the structural hallmarks of the active and inactive receptor states are translated into molecular descriptors useful for in silico functional screening of novel receptor mutants or ligands. Computational modeling of the supramolecular organization of GPCRs and their intracellular partners is the current challenge toward a deep understanding of their functioning mechanisms.

  16. A mononuclear non-heme manganese(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N; Nam, Wonwoo

    2013-05-01

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal-oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc(3+) ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C-H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal-oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  17. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  18. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  19. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  20. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  1. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  2. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 Europ...... interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.......Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years...

  3. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  4. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  5. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  6. A reversible processor architecture and its reversible logic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a purely reversible computing architecture, Bob, and its instruction set, BobISA. The special features of the design include a simple, yet expressive, locally-invertible instruction set, and fully reversible control logic and address calculation. We have designed an arch...

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  8. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  9. Preferential binding of allosteric modulators to active and inactive conformational states of metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Seetharaman Judith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G protein coupled receptors that play important roles in synaptic plasticity and other neuro-physiological and pathological processes. Allosteric mGluR ligands are particularly promising drug targets because of their modulatory effects – enhancing or suppressing the response of mGluRs to glutamate. The mechanism by which this modulation occurs is not known. Here, we propose the hypothesis that positive and negative modulators will differentially stabilize the active and inactive conformations of the receptors, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we have generated computational models of the transmembrane regions of different mGluR subtypes in two different conformations. The inactive conformation was modeled using the crystal structure of the inactive, dark state of rhodopsin as template and the active conformation was created based on a recent model of the light-activated state of rhodopsin. Ligands for which the nature of their allosteric effects on mGluRs is experimentally known were docked to the modeled mGluR structures using ArgusLab and Autodock softwares. We find that the allosteric ligand binding pockets of mGluRs are overlapping with the retinal binding pocket of rhodopsin, and that ligands have strong preferences for the active and inactive states depending on their modulatory nature. In 8 out of 14 cases (57%, the negative modulators bound the inactive conformations with significant preference using both docking programs, and 6 out of 9 cases (67%, the positive modulators bound the active conformations. Considering results by the individual programs only, even higher correlations were observed: 12/14 (86% and 8/9 (89% for ArgusLab and 10/14 (71% and 7/9 (78% for AutoDock. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that mGluR allosteric modulation occurs via stabilization of different conformations analogous to those identified in rhodopsin where they are induced by

  10. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  11. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity in older people with a history of hip fracture. Data were collected from 60- to 85-year-old (n = 78) community-dwelling people, 0.7-7.5 years after hip fracture. Physical activity was assessed with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). According to the YPAS summary index distribution, the participants were divided into the physically inactive and physically active groups. Musculoskeletal pain in the lower back, hip or knee region was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale. Pain was defined as severe pain if the subject rated the pain 66 mm or over (upper third of the scale) in at least one of the relevant body regions in the lower body. Thirty-three subjects (42%) experienced severe pain in the lower body, of whom 23 (70%) reported severe pain in the operated hip. Twenty-three patients (30%) used pain medication prescribed by a physician. The level of musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher in the physically inactive (62%) than in the physically active (31%) group (p = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that people with severe pain had over three times (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.30-9.39) the risk for physical inactivity compared to those with less or no pain. Multivariate adjustments for balance confidence, time since fracture, number of chronic diseases and type of surgery did not materially change the estimate (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.00-9.30). Pain is an important associated factor of physical inactivity in older people with a hip fracture history. Pain management may be important in restoring and sustaining the level of physical activity after hip fracture. Further prospective and experimental studies are, however, needed to explore the causality between pain and

  12. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  13. REVERSE LOGISTICS IN GLOBALIZATION ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Grabara; Iwona Grabara

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents issues connected with adaptation of modern solutions of reverse logisticsmanagement in enterprise to the concept of sustainable development promoted by the European Union.Nowadays more and more businesses are looking to grow their reverse logistics capabilities in global market.

  14. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.

    Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant

  15. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  16. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...... inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies...... a pointer decreases the reference count. We show reversible implementations of operations on nodes with reference counts. We then show these operations can be used when implementing a reversible functional language RCFUN to the reversible imperative language Janus....

  17. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  18. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  19. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  20. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  1. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  2. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. This document contains appendices to Attachment 3, Groundwater Hydrology Report included are calculations

  3. Mental health and physical inactivity during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study nested in the BRISA cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahasi, Eliana Harumi Morioka; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and physical inactivity in 1,447 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Subjects answered the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stress levels were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. The rate of physical inactivity was lo...

  4. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  5. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  6. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  7. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    Reverse innovation commonly refers to an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Adopting a linear innovation model with the four sequential phases of concept ideation, product development, primary target market introduction, and subsequent...... secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations...

  8. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  9. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  10. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  11. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  12. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  13. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  14. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  15. Enhancement of antinociception by coadminstration of minocycline and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in naïve mice and murine models of LPS-induced thermal hyperalgesia and monoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masocha Willias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID indomethacin, have anti-inflammatory activities and are both used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. However, there are no reports on whether coadministration of these drugs could potentiate each other's activities in alleviating pain and weight bearing deficits during arthritis. Methods LPS was injected to BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (i.p. to induce thermal hyperalgesia. The hot plate test was used to study thermal nociception in naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice with LPS-induced thermal hyperalgesia and to evaluate antinociceptive effects of drugs administered i.p. Monoarthritis was induced by injection of LPS intra-articularly into the right hind (RH limb ankle joint of C57BL/6 mice. Weight bearing changes and the effect of i.p. drug administration were analyzed in freely moving mice using the video-based CatWalk gait analysis system. Results In naïve mice indomethacin (5 to 50 mg/kg had no significant activity, minocycline (25 to 100 mg/kg produced hyperalgesia to thermal nociception, however, coadministration of minocycline 50 mg/kg with indomethacin 5 or 10 mg/kg produced significant antinociceptive effects in the hot plate test. A selective inhibitor of COX-1, FR122047 (10 mg/kg and a selective COX-2 inhibitor, CAY10404 (10 mg/kg had no significant antinociceptive activities to thermal nociception in naïve mice, however, coadministration of minocycline, with CAY10404 but not FR122047 produced significant antinociceptive effects. In mice with LPS-induced hyperalgesia vehicle, indomethacin (10 mg/kg or minocycline (50 mg/kg did not produce significant changes, however, coadministration of minocycline plus indomethacin resulted in antinociceptive activity. LPS-induced RH limb monoarthritis resulted in weight bearing (RH/left hind (LH limb paw pressure ratios and RH/LH print area ratios deficits. Treatment with indomethacin (1 mg/kg or

  16. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  17. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  18. Structural characteristics of active and inactive glutamate dehydrogenases from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes from hyperthermophiles are generally extremely thermostable and lose little or no activity during long periods under a variety conditions. This high stability is very attractive, in that it gives the enzymes potential for use in numerous bioprocesses. My research group has investigated this high stability from the viewpoint of the relationship between function and structure. In this review, I describe the molecular mechanism underlying the extreme stability of unboiled NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum. I also describe the activation of the inactive recombinant enzyme produced in mesophilic Escherichia coli from the viewpoint of the relationship between structure and activity.

  19. Radium-226 in plants and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marple, M.L.; Potter, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake and translocation of contaminants from uranium mill tailings piles and other similar wastes could be an important transport mechanism of these contaminants into the environment. The content of Ra-226, the radionuclide of most concern in this context, was investigated in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination. This study provides a basis for estimating intake levels for herbivores and for evaluating transfer coefficients

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure