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Sample records for inactive ileal segments

  1. Primary Segmental Volvulus Mimicking Ileal Atresia

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    Rao, Sadashiva; B Shetty, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intestinal volvulus in the absence of malrotation is a rare occurrence and rarer still is the intestinal volvulus in absence of any other predisposing factors. Primary segmental volvulus in neonates is very rare entity, which can have catastrophic outcome if not intervened at appropriate time. We report two such cases, which were preoperatively diagnosed as ileal atresia and intraoperatively revealed to be primary segmental volvulus of the ileum. PMID:26023426

  2. Long segment ileal duplication with extensive gastric heterotopia

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    Jacob Sunitha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital anomalies which can be found at all levels of the alimentary tract. Majority of the duplications present as spherical cysts and usually range from a few millimeters to less than ten centimeters in size. Duplications produce complications such as intestinal obstruction or hemorrhage. A two-month-old infant presented with recurrent episodes of bleeding per rectum. Laparotomy revealed a giant ileal duplicated bowel segment which exhibited extensive gastric heterotopia with focal ulceration.

  3. Detour technique, Dipping technique, or IIeal bladder flap technique for surgical correction of uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture in orthotopic ileal neobladder

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    Mohamed Wishahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground:Uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture (UIAS is a urological complication after ileal neobladder, the initial management being endourological intervention. If this fails or stricture recurs, surgical intervention will be indicated.Design and Participants:From 1994 to 2013, 129 patients were treated for UIAS after unsuccessful endourological intervention. Unilateral UIAS was present in 101 patients, and bilateral in 28 patients; total procedures were 157. The previous ileal neobladder techniques were Hautmann neobladder, detubularized U shape, or spherical shape neobladder.Surgical procedures:Dipping technique was performed in 74 UIAS. Detour technique was done in 60 renal units. Ileal Bladder flap was indicated in 23 renal units. Each procedure ended with insertion of double J, abdominal drain, and indwelling catheter.Results:Follow-up was done for 12 to 36 months. Patency of the anastomosis was found in 91.7 % of cases. Thirteen patients (8.3% underwent antegrade dilatation and insertion of double J.Conclusion:After endourological treatment for uretero-ileal anastomotic failure, basically three techniques may be indicated: dipping technique, detour technique, and ileal bladder flap. The indications are dependent on the length of the stenotic/dilated ureteral segment. Better results for long length of stenotic ureter are obtained with detour technique; for short length stenotic ureter dipping technique; when the stenotic segment is 5 cm or more with a short ureter, the ileal tube flap is indicated. The use of double J stent is mandatory in the majority of cases. Early intervention is the rule for protecting renal units from progressive loss of function.

  4. [Intestinal intussusception due to ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--a case report].

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    Andrei, S; Andrei, A; Tonea, A; Andronesi, D; Preda, C; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion due to intussusception produced by intestinal tumors is a very rare condition. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are also rare digestive neopasias, with an impredictable malignant behavior, which are usually growing outside the intestinal wall, being rarely the initiators of an intestinal intussusception. We present the case of a 59 years old female, admitted in our hospital to elucidate the etiology of her iron deficient anaemia, which developed an intestinal occlusion at the intestinal preparation for colonoscopy. The abdominal CT scan performed in emergency conditions highlighted occlusive intestinal tumor complicated with intestinal intussusception. We performed an emergency laparotomy that revealed intestinal occlusion due to ileo-ileal intussusception produced by an ileal tumor. The surgical intervention consisted in segmental ileal enterectomy including the tumor with latero-lateral entero-enteral anastomosis. The patient recovered without complications. The histopathological and immunohisto-chemical examinations established the diagnose of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor with high risk malignant behavior, therefore the patient was guided in the oncological department for specific treatment and oncological surveillance.

  5. Impaired absorption of marked oligopeptide Glycine-I Tyrosine-Glycine after successful autologous-allotopic ileal mucosa transplantation in beagles.

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    Beiler, H A; Steinorth, J; Witt, A; Mier, W; Mohammed, A; Waag, K L; Zachariou, Z

    2004-10-01

    After establishing a method for ileal mucosa transplantation in an animal model, the authors investigated the absorptive capacity for oligopeptides of the transplanted mucosa. In 14 beagle dogs the authors transplanted ileal mucosa in a vascularized demucosed segment of the transverse colon. The colonic wall-ileal mucosa complex then was integrated in the ileal continuity. Six animals were lost owing to operative complications. Absorptive capacity for oligopeptides was measured in the remaining 8 animals with the iodine 131 (131I)-marked tripeptide glycine-tyrosine-glycine before and 4 weeks after transplantation. The results were compared and analyzed with the Student's t test for matched pairs. Blood concentrations of the marked tripeptide with P value less than .05 were considered as a significant reduction in the absorptive capacity of the transplanted ileal mucosa. After fixation with glutaraldehyd graft, uptake of the colonic wall-ileal mucosa complex was evaluated histologically in 8 animals. In all 8 animals, a 100% graft uptake was verified in all sections. Fifteen minutes after application of 15 MBc Glycine-131I-Tyrosine-Glycine there was no significant difference in the absorption between normal and transplanted ileal mucosa. After 30 minutes, the absorption of the transplanted ileal mucosa showed a tendency (P < .1) for an impaired uptake of the marked tripeptide. However, 60 minutes after application the difference in the absorptive capacity of the transplanted ileal mucosa was significant (P < .05). Autologous allotopic ileal mucosa transplantation is feasible; however, an impaired absorption of oligopeptides of the transplanted mucosa 4 weeks after transplantation could be observed.

  6. Isolated ileal perforation in infancy: a lethal initial presentation of Hirschsprung’s disease

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    Fadi Iskandarani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ileal perforation, as a fatal initial presentation of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA in infancy is reported. A 10-week-old boy, was brought to the emergency department with symptoms of complicated intestinal obstruction. He looked ill, was lethargic, markedly dehydrated and had a severely distended abdomen. An abdominal X-ray revealed multiple air fluid levels seen in a distended small intestine. During exploratory laparotomy the ileum was massively dilated with distal segment perforation. Ileal perforation repair was performed. A totally collapsed microcolon was identified. Biopsies were taken from the high rectum, sigmoid and hepatic flexure. Appendectomy and ileostomy were performed. All biopsies, as well as the appendix, showed absence of ganglion cells. Despite this procedure the patient progressively deteriorated and later died due to sepsis. Ileal perforation in infants is a rare, but potentially fatal initial presentation of TCA. Early detection is essential to prevent life-threatening complications.

  7. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

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    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  8. Sexual Function after Non-Nerve-Sparing Radical Cystoprostatectomy: A Comparison between Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion and Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder Substitution

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    M.A Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the erectile function (EF and sexual desire (SD in men after radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP who had either an ileal conduit urinary diversion or orthotropic ileal neobladder substitution. Materials and Methods Eighty one sexually active men with bladder cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. After RCP according to patients' preferences they underwent either ileal conduit urinary diversion (n = 41 or orthotropic ileal neobladder substitution (n = 40. EF and SD were assessed using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire. Patients were assessed at 4-week before surgery and were followed up at 1, 6, and 12-month postoperatively using the same questionnaire. Results Postoperatively the EF and SD domains deteriorated significantly in both groups, but in a small proportion of the patients submitted to ileal neobladder they gradually improved with time (P = 0.006. At 12-month postoperative period, 4 (9.8% and 14 (35.0% patients in ileal conduit and ileal neobladder groups were able to achieve erections hard enough for vaginal penetration and maintained their erection to completion of intercourse, respectively (P = 0.006. Among patients in the ileal conduit and ileal neobladder groups, additional 4 (9.8% and 7 (17.1% patients were able to get some erection, but were unable to maintain their erection to completion of intercourse (P = 0.02. At 12-month follow up period 24.4% of the ileal conduit and 45.0% of the ileal neobladder patients rated their sexual desire very high or high (P = 0.01. Conclusion When performed properly, orthotopic ileal neobladder substitution after RCP offers better long-term results in terms of EF and SD.

  9. Atraumatic splenic rupture and ileal volvulus following cocaine abuse.

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    Ballard, David H; Smith, J Patrick; Samra, Navdeep S

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old male with an atraumatic splenic rupture, hemoperitoneum, and ileal volvulus following acute cocaine intoxication. Computed tomography showed a "whirl sign", a subcapsular splenic hematoma with suspected peripheral laceration, and diffuse hemoperitoneum. At laparotomy, the spleen was confirmed to be the source of bleeding and was removed. A nonreducible volvulus was found at the distal ileum, and this segment of small bowel was removed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

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    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...... and the night of d 6 of every period, ileal digesta were collected for a total of 12 h. The IAAend and the SID were determined by linear regression analysis between cAID and total dietary CP and AA.ResultsThere exist linear relationships between cAID and total CP and AA (P ... to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared...

  11. Spontaneous ileal perforation complicating low anorectal malformation

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    TiJesuni Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorectal malformation is a common anomaly in neonates. Although colorectal perforations have been reported as a complication, ileal perforation is rarely encountered. This is a report of a 2-day-old boy presenting with a low anorectal malformation, complicated with ileal perforation, necessitating laparotomy and ileal repair. Anoplasty was done for the low anomaly. Early presentation and prompt treatment of anorectal malformations is important to prevent such potential life threatening complication.

  12. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

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    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  13. Effects of synbiotics on ileal microbiota

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    Shunichiro Komatsu

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis of a substantial number of samples from surgically resected intestines showed an abundance of obligate anaerobes as a characteristic feature of the ileal mucus microbiota. Our results also indicated that the synbiotics intervention induced a prominent reduction in Enterobacteriaceae in the ileal microbiota.

  14. Single-Access Laparoscopic Surgery for Ileal Disease

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    Mohamed Moftah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Single-access laparoscopic surgery (SALS can be effective for benign and malignant diseases of the ileum in both the elective and urgent setting. Methods. Ten consecutive, nonselected patients with ileal disease requiring surgery over a twelve month period were included. All had a preoperative abdominopelvic computerized tomogram. Peritoneal access was achieved via a single transumbilical incision and a “surgical glove port” utilized as our preferred access device. With the pneumoperitoneum established, the relevant ileal loop was located using standard rigid instruments. For ileal resection, anastomosis, or enterotomy, the site of pathology was delivered and addressed extracorporeally. Result. The median (range age of the patients was 42.5 (22–78 years, and the median body mass index was 22 (20.2–28 kg/m2. Procedures included tru-cut biopsy of an ileal mesenteric mass, loop ileostomy and ileotomy for impacted gallstone extraction as well as ileal (=3 and ileocaecal resection (=4. Mean (range incision length was 2.5 (2–5 cm. All convalescences were uncomplicated. Conclusions. These preliminary results show that SALS is an efficient and safe modality for the surgical management of ileal disease with all the advantages of minimal access surgery and without requiring a significant increase in theatre resource or cost or incurring extra patient morbidity.

  15. Physiology and pathophysiology of the ileal brake in humans

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    Vu, My Kieu

    2007-01-01

    The ileal brake is an intraluminal nutrient-triggered feedback control from the distal to the proximal gut with fat being the most potent trigger. Peptide YY (PYY) is one of the hormonal mediators of the ileal brake. Effects of the fat induced ileal brake on proximal small intestine, postprandial

  16. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

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    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  17. CT manifestations of ileal dysgenesis

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    Oberhelman, Amy P.; Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Keating, James P. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rollins, Michael D.; Dillon, Patrick A. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Ileal dysgenesis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in the distal ileum in the region of the vitelline duct. The CT appearance of this lesion, although not previously described to our knowledge, is characteristic. We report a patient with ileal dysgenesis who had an abdominal CT scan to evaluate chronic iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy. Recognition of this lesion by pediatric radiologists is important; so that surgical treatment, which is simple and effective, can be initiated quickly. (orig.)

  18. CT manifestations of ileal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhelman, Amy P.; Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H.; Keating, James P.; Rollins, Michael D.; Dillon, Patrick A.

    2007-01-01

    Ileal dysgenesis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in the distal ileum in the region of the vitelline duct. The CT appearance of this lesion, although not previously described to our knowledge, is characteristic. We report a patient with ileal dysgenesis who had an abdominal CT scan to evaluate chronic iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy. Recognition of this lesion by pediatric radiologists is important; so that surgical treatment, which is simple and effective, can be initiated quickly. (orig.)

  19. Sonographic diagnosis of fetal intestinal volvulus with ileal atresia: a case report.

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    Yu, Wang; Ailu, Cai; Bing, Wang

    2013-05-01

    Fetal intestinal volvulus is a rare life-threatening condition usually manifesting after birth with most cases being associated with intestinal malrotation. It appears on prenatal sonography (US) as a twisting of the bowel loops around the mesenteric artery, leading to mechanical obstruction and ischemic necrosis of the bowel. We report a case of intrauterine intestinal volvulus with ileal atresia, suspected when US revealed a typical "whirlpool" sign at 37 weeks' gestation, with a segment of markedly distended bowel loops and small amount of fetal ascites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

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    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  1. Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity.

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    De Franco, Antonio; Di Veronica, Alessandra; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Roberto, Italia; Marzo, Manuela; De Pascalis, Barbara; De Vitis, Italo; Papa, Alfredo; Bock, Enrico; Danza, Francesco M; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guidi, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively assess microvascular activation in the thickened ileal walls of patients with Crohn disease (CD) by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and evaluate its correlation with widely used indexes of CD activity. This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors examined 54 consecutively enrolled patients (mean age, 35.29 years; age range, 18-69 years; 39 men, 15 women) with endoscopically confirmed CD of the terminal ileum. Ileal wall segments thicker than 3 mm were examined with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced US and a second-generation US contrast agent. The authors analyzed software-plotted time-enhancement intensity curves to determine the maximum peak intensity (MPI) and wash-in slope coefficient (β) and evaluated their correlation with (a) the composite index of CD activity (CICDA), (b) the CD activity index (CDAI), and (c) the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD, evaluated in 37 patients) for the terminal ileum. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman rank test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPI and β coefficients were significantly increased in the 36 patients with a CICDA indicative of active disease (P<.0001 for both), the 33 patients with a CDAI of at least 150 (P<.032 and P<.0074, respectively), and the 26 patients with an SES-CD of at least 1 (P<.0001 and P<.002, respectively). ROC analysis revealed accurate identification (compared with CICDA) of active CD with an MPI threshold of 24 video intensity (VI) (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 83%) and a β coefficient of 4.5 VI/sec (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 83%). Contrast-enhanced US of the ileal wall is a promising method for objective, reproducible assessment of disease activity in patients with ileal CD. © RSNA, 2011

  2. The influence of copper concentration and source on ileal microbiota.

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    Pang, Y; Patterson, J A; Applegate, T J

    2009-03-01

    Copper is normally supplemented in poultry diets as a growth promotant and antimicrobial. However, there are conflicting reports about the growth benefits and little information about how Cu affects the microbiota in the intestinal tract of poultry. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted with broilers to determine the effects of Cu source and supplementation on ileal microbiota. The influence of Cu on growth of lactobacilli and Escherichia coli in media inoculated with ileal contents was determined in the first study. When Cu sulfate pentahydrate was supplemented to the cultures, quadratic increases in lactobacilli to graded concentrations of Cu up to 125 mg/kg and quadratic decreases in E. coli up to 250 mg/kg of Cu were observed after 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. However, when tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC) was supplemented, neither linear nor quadratic responses to graded concentrations of dietary Cu were observed on number of lactobacilli or number of E. coli. The effects of Cu and Cu source on ileal microbiota and growth performance in broiler chickens were determined in the second study. Bird performance was not affected by Cu source or concentration. The bacterial culture enumeration results revealed that supplementation with 187.5 mg/kg of Cu from Cu sulfate pentahydrate and TBCC had no effect on number of ileal lactobacilli of birds. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of ileal microbial communities revealed that neither Cu supplementation nor source had effects on the number of bacterial species predominant in the ileal digesta or associated with the ileal mucosa. Supplementation with TBCC supplementation significantly increased the similarity coefficients of microbiota in the ileal mucosa compared with cross-products of all individuals. This suggests that TBCC may alter the intestinal microbiota, yet this shift had no effect on bird performance.

  3. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  4. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  5. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystoprostatectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion for a Kidney Transplant Recipient

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    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008. His hospital course at time of transplant was complicated by low-level BK virus viremia. Interestingly his trans-urethral bladder tumor resection specimen at time of bladder cancer diagnosis stained positive for SV40. His native kidneys were anuric so bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in a staged fashion 2 weeks prior to RARC. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12-mm assistant trocar is placed 1 cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the stapled enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: identification of native ureters bilaterally (removed en bloc with the bladder specimen; identification of the transplanted ureter at the right bladder dome; posterior bladder and prostate dissection along Denonvilliers’ fascia; development of the space of Retzius; ligation and transection of the bladder and prostate vascular bundles; apical prostate dissection and transection of urethra; left pelvic lymphadenectomy; ilium resection for creation of the ileal conduit; stapled enteric anastomosis; ureteroileal anastomosis; maturation of the ileal conduit stoma. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 443 minutes (7.4 hours. Estimated blood loss was 250 cc. Length of hospital stay was 5 days. The patient

  6. Ileal perineurioma as a cause of intussusception

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    Sheila Cristina Lordelo Wludarski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Perineuriomas are rare tumors composed of cells resembling those of the normal perineurium. It usually occurs in subcutaneous, soft-tissue or intraneural locations. Very few reports in the literature have described perineuriomas in the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, colon and jejunum. CASE REPORT: We report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of ileal perineurioma that was manifested clinically as intestinal obstruction due to intussusception. Ileal perineurioma has not previously been reported at this anatomical location

  7. Comparison of ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility of dry dog foods

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    Hendriks, W.H.; Thomas, G.; Bosch, G.; Fahey, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets were compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and total tract

  8. ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT detects heart metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors.

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    Calissendorff, Jan; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the myocardium are rare and generally seen in patients with widespread metastatic NET disease. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the frequency of intracardiac metastases in ileal NET patients examined by (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT and to describe the cases in detail. All (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT examinations performed at the Karolinska University Hospital since 2010 until April 2012 were reviewed. In all, 128 out of 337 examinations were in patients with ileal NETs. Four patients had seven myocardiac metastases, yielding a frequency of 4.3 % in patients with ileal NETs. One patient had cardiac surgery while three were treated with somatostatin analogs. The cardiac metastases did not affect the patients' activity of daily life. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT is an established imaging modality in identifying cardiac metastases in ileal NETs. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical value of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT in detecting cardiac metastases in both ileal and non-ileal NETs.

  9. Management of ileal pouch prolapse with endoscopic hot snare

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    Xian-rui Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouch prolapse is a complication following the creation of restorative proctocolectomy. There is a paucity of information in the literature pertaining to its management. An ileal J pouch patient with dyschezia presented to our Pouch Center. Under sedation, pouchos- copy was performed with a gastroscope. We detected an anterior distal pouch mucosal prolapse, 1.5 cm in diameter, blocking the anal canal. The prolapsed mucosa was excised with hot snare under a retroflex view. There was no bleeding or perforation. The entire procedure took 25 minutes. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home 30 minutes after post-procedural observation. The patient reported the resolution of the dyschezia symptom. The histopathological examination of excised specimen showed small bowel mucosa and sub-mucosa with changes compatible with mucosal prolapse. En- doscopic hot snare appears to be feasible in the management of pouch mucosal prolapse. Resumo: O prolapso da bolsa ileal é uma complicação que pode surgir após a criação da proctoco- lectomia restauradora. As informações na literatura são escassas quanto ao tratamento. Um paciente com bolsa ileal em “J” e apresentando disquezia deu entrada em nosso centro médico. Sob sedação, realizamos uma endoscopia da bolsa ileal. Detectamos uma bolsa distal anterior com prolapso da mucosa, com 1,5 cm de diâmetro, bloqueando o canal anal. O prolapso da mucosa foi retirado com alça diatérmica sob visão retroflexa. Não houve san- gramento ou perfuração. A duração de todo o processo foi de 25 minutos. O paciente tolerou bem o procedimento e recebeu alta após 30 minutos de observação pós-procedimento. O paciente relatou a resolução do sintoma de disquezia. O exame histopatológico do espéci- me extirpado mostrou a mucosa e submucosa do intestino delgado com alterações com- patíveis com o prolapso da mucosa. A alça diatérmica endoscópica parece ser viável no

  10. Congenital segmental dilatation of jejunoileal region in a newborn: Unusual clinical and radiologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjai M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental dilatation of the ileum is one of the uncommon causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We present a case of slow transit of bowel contents leading to suspicion of functional bowel obstruction in a new born, which on exploration turned out to be a case of segmental dilatation of the jejuno-ileal region. The clinical and radiological evaluation was suggestive of hypomotility disorder of gut, resulting in diagnostic dilemma and delayed surgical intervention.

  11. Inaction inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, M.; Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, E.; Tykocinski, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Inaction inertia occurs when bypassing an initial action opportunity has the effect of decreasing the likelihood that subsequent similar action opportunities will be taken. This overview of the inaction inertia literature demonstrates the impact of inaction inertia on decision making. Based on

  12. [Prevention of side effects and complications after operation for partial ileal bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchuk, K K; Sedletskiĭ, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Side effects and complications of the application of partial ileal bypass used for dislipidemia were analyzed in 162 patients with atherosclerosis. It was shown, that the partial ileal bypass operation could lead to the development of series of undesirable side effects such as diarrhea, hypovitaminosis B12, off-state intestine enteritis. The application of modification of partial ileal bypass such as formation of ileo-ileoanastomosis 5-6 cm long near ileocecal valve with the maintenance of its functions disposed the diarrhea and minimized the risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 after operation. It is possible to prevent the development of enteritis of off-state loop of the small intestine by using microanastomosis between off-state and functioning iliac intestine. The partial ileal bypass operation didn't influence on body weight, wouldn't increase the risk of stone formation in the gallbladder and kidneys. The risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 is minimal after operation.

  13. A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history of radiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, who was admitted to our clinic for intermittent sub occlusive symptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be the cause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings were consistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. Celsius.

  14. An incidentaloma at ileal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2012-02-01

    The authors report the case of a primary small bowel lymphoma discovered incidentally in a 33-year-old male following ileal intubation at colonoscopy. The patient subsequently underwent curative treatment with chemotherapy. This case not only highlights the importance of routine ileoscopy but also the successful use of chemotherapy in a disease for which the optimal treatment modality has not been well characterized.

  15. An unusual case of giant ileal diverticulum–A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ju Koh

    Full Text Available Small bowel diverticulosis is rare with an incidence of 1–2% in the general population. It is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that ranges from obscure to overt bleeding. Large ileal diverticula are extremely rare and bleeding complications can result in high overall mortality.A young gentleman presented with persistent per-rectal bleeding and drop in hemoglobin level. He was recently diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and was undergoing chemotherapy. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a giant ileal diverticulum. In view of on-going bleeding, he underwent double balloon enteroscopy which revealed active bleeding from an ulcer within the giant ileal diverticulum and successful hemostasis was performed with hemostatic clips.Small bowel diverticulosis though uncommon has to be considered during workup for gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is a modern approach towards small bowel diverticular bleeding that is effective and less invasive. Keywords: Enteroscopy, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Small bowel diverticula, Case report

  16. Paradoxical Impact of Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis on Male and Female Fertility in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachler, Frederik R; Brandsborg, Søren B; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Birth rates in males with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have not been studied. This study aimed to estimate birth rates in males and females with ulcerative colitis and study the impact of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This was a retrospective registry-based cohort study that was performed over a 30-year period. Records for parenting a child from the same period were cross-linked with patient records, and birth rates were calculated using 15 through 49 years as age limits. All data were prospectively registered. All patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 1980 and 2010 were identified in Danish national databases. The primary outcomes measured were birth rates in females and males with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We included 27,379 patients with ulcerative colitis (12,812 males and 14,567 females); 1544 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (792 males and 752 females). Patients with ulcerative colitis have slightly reduced birth rates (males at 40.8 children/1000 years, background population 43.2, females at 46.2 children/1000 years, background population 49.1). After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, males had increased birth rates at 47.8 children/1000 years in comparison with males with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (40.5 children/1000 years), whereas females had reduced birth rates at 27.6 children/1000 years in comparison with females with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (46.8 children/1000 years). Only birth rates were investigated and not fecundability. Furthermore, there is a question about misattributed paternity, but this has previously been shown to be less than 5%. Ulcerative colitis per se has little impact on birth rates in both sexes, but ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery leads to a reduction in birth rates in females and an increase in birth rates in males. This has clinical

  17. Endoscopic management of anastomotic bleeding in the ileal pouch with staples removal and clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-rui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative pouch bleeding is a rare but detrimental complication following ileal pouch surgery. It is usually self-limited, however continuous bleeding requires inter- vention. There is limited published data on its management. Design: Ileoscopy via stoma for loop ileostomy and pouchoscopy via anus for ileal pouch were performed under sedation for the purpose of diagnosis and management of postop- erative bleeding. Results: Ileoscopy demonstrated a large, long blood clot in the lumen of efferent limb, but no sign of active bleeding was identified. Pouchoscopy showed that lumen of pouch body as well as afferent limb was filled with maroon-colored liquid stool. Pouch and neo-terminal ileum mucosa was normal. Two dislodged staples at the anastomotic line with sharp tips towards the lumen were found, with activating bleeding at one site. The staples were re- moved by biopsy forceps, and active bleeding was successfully controlled by the deploy- ment of one endoclip. Conclusions: We reported the first case that postoperative pouch bleeding, which was caused by dislodged staples, was successfully managed by endoscopic removal of the staples com- bined with clipping. Resumo: Objetivo: O sangramento pós-operatório da bolsa ileal é uma complicação rara, mas prejudi- cial após abordagem cirúrgica da bolsa ileal. Esse sangramento é geralmente autolimitado, porém, requer intervenção quando contínuo. Não há dados publicados sobre o tratamento. Método: Ileoscopia através de estoma para ileostomia em alça e endoscopia via ânus para a bolsa ileal foram realizadas sob sedação para diagnóstico e tratamento do sangramento pós-operatório. Resultados: A ileoscopia demonstrou um grande e longo coágulo sanguíneo no lúmen do ramo eferente, mas nenhum sinal de sangramento ativo foi identificado. A endoscopia da bolsa ileal mostrou que os lumens do corpo da bolsa e ramo aferente estavam cheios de fe- zes líquidas de cor marrom. A

  18. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.

  19. Giant ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp: a rare cause of intestinal intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ogata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp is a rare non-neoplastic lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception caused by an inflammatory fibroid polyps is uncommon. The authors report a case of a 75 year-old female patient presenting with ileal obstruction due to intussusception of a polypoid lesion. The patient underwent surgical treatment and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.Os pólipos fibroides inflamatórios são raras lesões não neoplásicas do trato gastrointestinal e a intussuscepção devido a essa entidade é incomum. Os autores relatam um caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 75 anos, que apresentou obstrução ileal devido a uma intussuscepção por lesão polipoide. A paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico, sendo diagnosticado pólipo fibroide inflamatório do íleo.

  20. Gut luminal endogenous protein: implications for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2012-08-01

    The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of stomal variceal hemorrhage from an ileal conduct: Case report and brief literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Shin Jae; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Man Deuk [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Young [Institute of Gastroenterology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Variceal bleeding is an unusual complication of ileal conduits. We report a case in which recurrent stomal variceal hemorrhage from an ileal conduit for bladder cancer was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) using microcoils and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Therefore, PTO can be one treatment option to prevent recurrent stomal variceal bleeding from ileal conduits.

  2. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%)

  3. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hewitson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV. Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA, was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.

  4. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  5. Large Intraluminal Ileal Hematoma Presenting as Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yun Jung; Nam, So Hyun; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Intraluminal small bowel hematoma has been rarely reported in children, as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. We present a case of an intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child. Computed Tomography (CT) indicated a large intraluminal hyperdense lesion in the distal ileum as the cause of small bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic mass-like lesion with multiple septa in the distal ileum. Small bowel obstruction due to a complicated cystic mass was provisionally diagnosed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass suggested a submucosal ileal hematoma. Although intraluminal small bowel hematoma is rare in children, it can present as an intraluminal cystic mass and should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. The US and CT findings of submucosal ileal hematoma could be useful for the diagnosis of such cases in the future

  6. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Clinical surgical Experiences with 51-ileal pouches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Juan D; Castano, Rodrigo; Arismendi, Ivan R

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch (IP) has become an established surgery for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and poliposis syndromes. The authors report the results of 8-year experience of restorative proctocolectomy and IP. Chart review was performed for 51 patients undergoing IP from 1994 through 2002. Preoperative histopathologic diagnoses were ulcerative colitis (n=39), poliposis syndromes (n=10), 2 Crohn diseases and 1 patient with colorectal cancer and extended resection. Information was obtained regarding patient demographics, type and duration of diseases, previous operations, and indications for surgery. Early (within 30 days after surgery) and late complications were noted. Follow-up included an annual function, physical examination, and biopsies of the pouch and anal transitional zone when were indicated. Of the 51 patients (24 women) with mean follow-up time of 44,5 months (range 12 -108 months), histopathologic diagnoses of ulcerative colitis were changed for Crohn's disease in 2 patients. The overall mortality rate was 2% (1 patient) one death was related to perineal sepsis 45 months after ileal pouch. The overall morbidity rate was 65% (73 complications in 33 patients; early 39%; late 49%) the mean hospitalary stance was 8, 9 days (range 6-25 days). Small bowel obstruction, septic complication and reoperation rates were 36%, 22% and 26%, respectively. The most frequent late complication was pouchitis (31,8%). The ileal pouch was removed in 1 patient, and it is functional in 50 (98%). There was a satisfactory index with 82% with excellent-good results, and 16% and 2% with regular and bad results. Restorative proctocolectomy with an IP is a safe procedure, with low mortality and major morbidity rates. Although total morbidity rate is appreciable, functional results generally are good and patient satisfaction is acceptable

  9. Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abol-Enein, Hassan A.; Abdul-Muhsin, Ausama S.; Alhallaq, Yousuf M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, preoperative findings and postoperative follow-up data were reviewed. In 200 patients aged 29-75 years, with a mean age of 55.84-/+ 8.91 years, the ileal conduit was chosen as a method of urinary diversion, due to one of the following patient or surgical factors; 50 (25%) cardiopulmonary co-morbidities, 27(13.5%) liver cirrhosis, 20 (10%) impaired renal function, 18 (9%) poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and 3 (1.5%) morbid obesity. Frozen section pathological examination showed carcinoma invasion of the urethra in 26 (13%) and prostate stroma in 16 (8%) male patients. Severe adhesions and difficulty cystectomy were encountered in 25 (12.5%) patients. Tumor was found at or close to the bladder neck in 13 (6.5%) female patients and 2 (1%) patients were found to have short mesentery. The mean follow up period was 90.02 -/+ 22.63 months. Fatality rate was 2%. Twenty-three (11.5%) patients had early complications, while 36 (23.7%) patients had late complications. Ileal conduit is still the best urinary diversion method in many patients who have bladder cancer with associated chronic medical disease or certain surgical factors that render other urinary diversion methods more difficult carry more postoperative morbidity and mortality or both. (author)

  10. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. PMID:24644380

  11. Interposition of ileal j-pouch for rectum reconstruction in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-03-01

    The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases.

  12. Investigations on ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klüss, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Kwella, M.; Kuhla, S.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets a slaughter trial was conducted. 224 German Landrace piglets of both genders were allocated to four different feeding regimes (with or without avilamycin, 3 resp. 8 % crude fibre content). At predefined times pre- and postweaning piglets were

  13. Segregation of B lymphocytes into stationary apoptotic and migratory proliferating subpopulations in agglomerate cultures with ileal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, N; McClure, S; McCullagh, P

    2001-09-01

    The B lymphocyte-epithelial cell interactions that define the microenvironment of the ileal Peyer's patch, the primary B lymphocyte organ of the fetal lamb, have been replicated in tissue culture. Mixed suspensions of ileal epithelial cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts from fetuses of 63-103 days of gestation organized into macroscopically visible agglomerates within 72 h. These agglomerates contained translucent spherical cavities and were enclosed within a marginal cell layer and surrounded by an expanding corona of emigrating cells. The lining of the cavities and the marginal layer consisted of well-differentiated, polarized columnar ileal epithelial cells. One population of B lymphocytes in the initial mixed suspension differentiated into two discrete populations reproducing the characteristics of intact fetal ileal Peyer's patches. B cells apposed to follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) within agglomerates underwent apoptosis. The other population of emigrant B cells proliferated and expressed the BAQ44A differentiation marker. Differentiation of ileal epithelial cells into FAE, typical of Peyer's patches, was markedly accelerated. The mutually inductive influences of intestinal epithelial cells and B lymphocytes in these agglomerates replicate normal mid-gestational fetal development of the mucosal immune system and afford new opportunities for its further investigation.

  14. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  15. Development of an In Vivo and In Vitro Ileal Fermentation Method in a Growing Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; de Haas, Edward S; Moughan, Paul J

    2018-02-01

    Substantial microbial fermentation may occur mainly in the lower small intestine (SI) of human adults, but there is no established methodology to determine this. The study aimed to develop a combined in vivo and in vitro methodology for ileal fermentation based on the pig as an animal model for digestion in human adults. Several aspects of a combined in vivo/in vitro ileal fermentation assay were evaluated. Male 9-wk-old pigs (n = 30; mean ± SD body weight: 23 ± 1.6 kg) were fed a human-type diet (143, 508, 45, 49, and 116 g/kg dry matter diet of crude protein, starch, total lipid, ash, and total dietary fiber) for 15 d. On day 15, pigs were killed, and the last third of the SI was collected to prepare an ileal digesta-based inoculum. Terminal jejunal digesta (last 50 cm of the second third of the SI) were collected as substrate for the assay to test the form of substrate (fresh or freeze-dried), origin (location in jejunum or SI) of the substrate, storage of the inoculum, incubation time (1.2-6.8 h), pH of the medium, and inoculum concentration (6-26 mg inoculum/100 mg substrate). The group of donor pigs used to prepare the inoculum, form of the substrate, origin of the substrate, origin of the inoculum (location in the SI), storage of the inoculum, incubation time, and inoculum concentration did not influence the in vitro ileal organic matter (OM) fermentability (P > 0.05). The in vitro ileal OM fermentability decreased when the pH of the medium increased from 5.5 to 7.5 (31% to 28%; P ≤ 0.05). Predicted (in vivo/in vitro) apparent ileal OM digestibility was similar to the value measured in vivo. Thirty-percent of the terminal jejunal digesta OM was fermented in the ileum. Fiber fermentation in the ileum can be studied using the optimized in vivo/in vitro ileal fermentation method.

  16. Bacterial fermentation of fructo-oligosaccharides and resistant starch in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, M.S.; Katan, M.B.; Salemans, J.M.J.I.; Laere, van K.M.J.; Gerichhausen, M.J.W.; Rozendaal, M.J.; Nagengast, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with large bowel disease may undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, in which the colon is removed and part of the distal ileum is used to construct a pelvic reservoir. Competence of the ileal pouch to ferment carbohydrates is associated with the absence of pouchitis. However, the extent to

  17. Digestibilidade ileal e perdas endógenas de aminoácidos de dietas com óleo de soja para suínos em crescimento Ileal digestibility and endogenous losses of amino acids in soybean oil diets to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Caperuto de Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de óleo de soja sobre as perdas endógenas e a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos em dietas para suínos em crescimento. Foram testadas quatro dietas isoprotéicas, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formuladas segundo as exigências para essa fase e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5% e 0,25% de óxido crômico como indicador de indigestibilidade. Dezesseis suínos canulados (cânula T simples, com 48,0 ± 6,0 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com base no peso dos animais. Não houve efeito dos níveis óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente de glutamato, glicina, arginina, alanina, prolina, tirosina, histidina e lisina. Observaram-se efeito linear da suplementação com níveis de óleo de soja nos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de serina e treonina e efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de valina, fenilalanina, total de aminoácidos não-essenciais e total de aminoácidos essenciais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de arginina e tirosina também apresentaram efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja. Melhores valores de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos não-essenciais e essenciais são obtidos com adição de 2,8 a 3,0% de óleo de soja à dieta de suínos em crescimento.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different levels of soybean oil on endogenous losses, apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs diets. Four isoprotein corn and soybean meal based diets meeting the nutritional requirements for this phase, supplemented with crescent levels of soybean oil, (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 were evaluated. Chromic oxide (0

  18. Successful Embolization of Bleeding Ileal Varices with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate via a Recanalized Paraumbilical Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Oka, Shojiro; Fukumoto, Genki; Otani, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Naoko; Kawabata, Kazuna; Namikawa, Mio; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kimura, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-23

    A 48-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia and severe anemia. She had been hospitalized many times over the past year for hematochezia of unknown etiology. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated ileal varices, which were fed by several ileal veins. These feeding veins were selectively embolized with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) via a recanalized paraumbilical vein. The paraumbilical vein instead of the portal vein was punctured to decrease the risk of bleeding complications because she had coagulopathy and ascites. We consider antegrade embolization of ileal varices with NBCA to be a feasible and effective treatment. Access via a paraumbilical vein is an alternative to the transhepatic approach.Level of Evidence Level V, case report.

  19. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  20. Functional Evaluation of Modified T Pouch as Ileal Neo bladder Ortho topic Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the functional results of ortho topic modified T pouch ileal neo bladder, incorporating serous- lined extra mural ileal anti reflux technique for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: From September 1998 through November 2001,42 patients of mean age 49 years (range 45-54) having invasive bladder carcinoma underwent radical cystectomy and ortho topic ileal neo bladder urinary diversion, the modified T pouch. Thirty-three patients were males while the remaining 9 were females. The mean follow up was 24 months (range 18-42). Preoperative unior bilateral ureteral dilatation was noted in 13/42 (30.9%) patients). Follow up included clinical examination, laboratory, radiological and uro dynamic investigations. Early postoperative complications were recorded in 3 cases, that were managed conservatively. Day and night continence were achieved in 34/42 (81 %) and 29/42 (69%) patients, night enuresis in 2 (4.8%),while satisfactory day and night continence were noted, respectively. Upper urinary tract (UUT) remained unchanged or improved in all cases. No need for clean intermittent catherization (CIC). No evidence of reflux was detected. Pressure at maximum capacity (average 17 cm H 2 O at 600 ml). Mean flow rate was 17.6 ml/sec (range 15-24). Pelvic cancer recurrence was recorded in 5 patients at mean 24 months, respectively. Modified T pouch has an excellent functional criteria as an ortho topic ileal neo bladder reservoir. It is absolutely indicated in short and/or massively dilated ureter

  1. GATA4 Is Sufficient to Establish Jejunal Versus Ileal Identity in the Small IntestineSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayla A. Thompson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4 is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent. Results: We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15, which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases. Conclusions: Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4’s function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into

  2. Robotic-Assisted Live Donor Ileal Segmentectomy for Intestinal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Wu, MD, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Every effort should be made to optimize surgical techniques and to minimize potential morbidity rates associated with live donor operations. Advances in a minimally invasive approach by robotic surgery to donor nephrectomy have raised the possibility of applying this technique to live donor bowel resections for intestinal transplantation. Methods. We report the first 5 consecutive cases of a robotic-assisted live donor ileal segmentectomy. We describe the technical aspects of the procedure, discuss the rationale for considering this option, and evaluate potential advantages of this approach. Results. We found that this new approach is associated with less postoperative discomfort, a shorter hospital length of stay, and a faster recovery of bowel function compared to our previous open surgery. Conclusions. Our initial experience suggests that robotic surgery is a safe and feasible procedure for live donor ileal resection for intestinal transplantation and is a useful alternative to conventional open surgery.

  3. Pouch failures following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, A; Erichsen, R; Brandsborg, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients with ulc......BACKGROUND: The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a procedure offered to patients with ulcerative colitis who opt for restoration of bowel continuity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of pouch failure and ascertain risk factors associated with failure. METHOD: 1,991 patients......-anal anastomosis from Denmark, where pouch surgery is centralized, females had a higher risk of pouch failure. Of modifiable factors, low hospital volume and non-diversion were associated with a higher risk of pouch failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Case Study: Small bowel perforation secondary to ileal tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intestinal tuberculosis, other common causes of ileal perforation include typhoid ... Barré syndrome are the same as those for any other critically ill patient. .... Grade II protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): An estimated body ... of > 2 litres/24 hours, current clinical practice guidelines on its ..... Recognizing malnutrition in adults:.

  5. Digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de aminoácidos de farinhas de carne e ossos para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibility of meat and bone meals amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 52,5 ± 5,1 kg. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples no íleo terminal, e, após 20 dias de recuperação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao término das duas primeiras repetições, os tratamentos foram redistribuídos para evitar que o mesmo animal recebesse a mesma dieta em duas repetições consecutivas. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica as farinhas de carne e ossos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina, das diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos variaram de 54,87 a 74,80; 62,62 a 81,19 e 72,35 a 85,46%, respectivamente, e a variação entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira foram de 57,00 a 76,08; 66,26 a 83,07 e 73,76 a 86,39%, respectivamente, para a lisina, treonina e metionina. As farinhas de carne e ossos apresentaram grande variação, em função das diferentes amostras, quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes e verdadeiros dos aminoácidos.The experiment was carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids from six different meat and bone meals. Twelvecrossbred swines, castrated males, averaging 52.5 ± 5.1 kg initial weight, were used. The animals were previously submitted to the simple T canula surgery implantation at the terminal ileum and, after twenty days of recovery period, they were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with six treatments, four replicates and one animal per

  6. Segmental reversal of distal small intestine in short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grave, Pernille Kock; Thomsen, Sabrina Valentin; Clark, Pia Susanne

    2018-01-01

    were the influence on cell proliferation and mucosal architecture shown by histological analysis. Methods: Sixteen piglets underwent a 60% resection of the distal small intestine and were randomized into two groups. Group 1 short bowel syndrome alone (SBS) (n = 8) and group 2 with reversal of a distal...... small intestinal segment (SBS-RS) (n = 8). Body weight was measured daily and the pigs were euthanized after 1 month. Crypt depths, villus heights and muscle layers thicknesses were measured. For the evaluation of microvilli of the brush border of the epithelium and cell proliferation...... was found in the SBS group and increase in the thickness of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers in the SBS-RS group. In the distal ileal segment the longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in the SBS group. Otherwise, no significant changes were found. Conclusion: Reversal of a 20-cm...

  7. Organic Solute Transporter α-β Protects Ileal Enterocytes From Bile Acid–Induced InjurySummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney B. Ferrebee

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Ileal bile acid absorption is mediated by uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, and export via the basolateral heteromeric organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of enterocyte bile acid stasis in Ostα-/- mice, including the temporal relationship between intestinal injury and initiation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Methods: Ileal tissue morphometry, histology, markers of cell proliferation, gene, and protein expression were analyzed in male and female wild-type and Ostα-/- mice at postnatal days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30. Ostα-/-Asbt-/- mice were generated and analyzed. Bile acid activation of intestinal Nrf2-activated pathways was investigated in Drosophila. Results: As early as day 5, Ostα-/- mice showed significantly increased ileal weight per length, decreased villus height, and increased epithelial cell proliferation. This correlated with premature expression of the Asbt and induction of bile acid–activated farnesoid X receptor target genes in neonatal Ostα-/- mice. Expression of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-1 and Nrf2–anti-oxidant responsive genes were increased significantly in neonatal Ostα-/- mice at these postnatal time points. Bile acids also activated Nrf2 in Drosophila enterocytes and enterocyte-specific knockdown of Nrf2 increased sensitivity of flies to bile acid–induced toxicity. Inactivation of the Asbt prevented the changes in ileal morphology and induction of anti-oxidant response genes in Ostα-/- mice. Conclusions: Early in postnatal development, loss of Ostα leads to bile acid accumulation, oxidative stress, and a restitution response in ileum. In addition to its essential role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis, Ostα-Ostβ functions to protect the ileal epithelium against bile acid–induced injury. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus: GSE99579. Keywords: Ileum

  8. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with ileal perforation in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, B M; Kassim, F; Annuar, N M; Lim, C S; Ghazali, A K; Murad, Z

    1992-08-01

    A renal transplant patient presented with ileal perforation due to histoplasmosis 3 years after transplantation. Mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs were also affected by the disease. She was successfully treated with amphotericin B followed by ketoconazole.

  9. Digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de vísceras para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibilities of poultry by-products amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar as digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira de cinco diferentes farinhas de vísceras. Foram utilizados 10 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 34,11 ± 3,88 kg, previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao final das duas primeiras repetições, os mesmos animais foram redistribuídos e utilizados novamente nas repetições subseqüentes. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica uma das cinco farinhas de vísceras. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina das diferentes farinhas de vísceras apresentaram variação de 63,40 a 74,01; 63,17 a 79,13 e 72,60 a 81,11%, respectivamente, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeiros apresentaram variação de 64,38 a 74,88; 64,31 a 80,60 e 73,07 a 81,64%, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the apparent and true ileal digestibilities of amino acids from five different poultry by-product. Ten crossbreed swines, castrated males, averaging 31.11 ± 3.88 kg were used in the experiment. The animals were previously submitted to the surgery for simple T canula implantation and, then, allotted to a randomized block design with five treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. At the end of the first and second replicates, these animals were allotted again to the treatments and used in the third and fourth replicates. The treatments consisted of a free protein diet based on sugar, starch, vegetable oil and rice peel and one of the five poultry by-product as protein source in the diet. The coefficients of apparent ileal

  10. How I do it: the stapled ileal J pouch at restorative proctocolectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2011-12-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following proctocolectomy is the preferred option for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. However, it remains a procedure associated with morbidity and mortality. Pelvic sepsis, pouch fistulae, and anastomotic dehiscence predispose to pouch failure. We report our experience with an adaptation for the formation of the stapled ileal J pouch using the GIA™ 100 stapling device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, USA). When creating the J pouch, we remove the bevelled plastic protector from the thin fork of the stapling device, allowing the staple line to be completed to the tip of the stapled efferent limb of the pouch, thereby minimizing potential blind ending in the efferent limb and injury to the transverse staple line.

  11. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  12. Inflammation drives dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in murine models of ileal Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Craven

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn's Disease (CD is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis.We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI; 0.1 mg/mouse, or high dose indomethacin (HDI; 1 mg/mouse. The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype.Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8 and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% gram + Firmicutes to >95% gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2(-/-, and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2(-/- mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion.Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD.

  13. Inflammation drives dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in murine models of ileal Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Melanie; Egan, Charlotte E; Dowd, Scot E; McDonough, Sean P; Dogan, Belgin; Denkers, Eric Y; Bowman, Dwight; Scherl, Ellen J; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn's Disease (CD) is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis. We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI; 0.1 mg/mouse), or high dose indomethacin (HDI; 1 mg/mouse). The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype. Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8) and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% gram + Firmicutes to >95% gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2(-/-), and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2(-/-) mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion. Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD.

  14. Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-08-07

    The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed

  15. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Influence Microflora in Ileal Digesta and Correlate Well with Blood Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are used widely in consumer and industrial products, however, their influence on gut microbiota and metabolism and their mutual interactions are not fully understood. In this study, the effects of ZnO NPs on ileal bacterial communities, plasma metabolites, and correlations between them were investigated. Hens were fed with different concentrations of ZnO NPs [based on Zn; 0 mg/kg (control, 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg] for 9 weeks. Subsequently, ileal digesta and blood plasma were collected for analysis of microflora and metabolites, respectively. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of ileal digesta microbiota was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The predominant bacterial community in the ileum belongs to the phylum Firmicutes. The richness of the bacterial community was negatively correlated with increasing amounts of ZnO NPs (r = -0.636, P < 0.01; when ZnO NP levels were at 100 mg/kg, microbiota diversity was significantly decreased (P < 0.05. The community structure determined by LEfSe analysis indicated that Bacilli, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria were changed, and Lactobacillus was reduced by ZnO NPs. Moreover, metabolism as analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR indicated that glucose, some amino acids, and other metabolites were changed by ZnO NPs. Choline, lactate, and methionine were positively correlated with bacterial richness. In summary, ZnO NPs could influence the levels of microflora in ileal digesta, particularly Lactobacillus. Furthermore, the richness of the microbiota was related to changes in choline, lactate, and methionine metabolism.

  16. Adenocarcinoma in a Koff Urinary Ileal Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Sherman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of an ileal conduit as a means of treatment for bladder cancer or dysfunction is widely used and understood. However, long term surveillance of that conduit has not been strongly established and set forth as a means of screening. We present a 76yo female with a history of neurogenic bladder secondary to paraplegia who underwent the formation of a “Koff” pouch as a conduit. Nineteen years later she presents with hematuria and was found to have adenocarcinoma originating in her conduit.

  17. Malrotation with midgut volvulus associated with perforated ileal duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of the alimentary tract is an important surgical condition. It may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. An important complication of this entity is perforation of the normal or abnormal gut. Malrotation with midgut volvulus can be a surgical emergency. We present a patient, who presented as malrotation with midgut volvulus associated with perforated ileal duplication. The patient was successfully managed.

  18. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...

  19. Inflammation Drives Dysbiosis and Bacterial Invasion in Murine Models of Ileal Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Melanie; Egan, Charlotte E.; Dowd, Scot E.; McDonough, Sean P.; Dogan, Belgin; Denkers, Eric Y.; Bowman, Dwight; Scherl, Ellen J.; Simpson, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn’s Disease (CD) is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis. Methods We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI;0.1 mg/mouse), or high dose indomethacin (HDI;1 mg/mouse). The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype. Results Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8) and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% Gram + Firmicutes to >95% Gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2−/−, and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2−/− mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion. Conclusions Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD. PMID:22848538

  20. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  1. The features of fecal and ileal mucosa-associated microbiota in dairy calves during early infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman eDerakhshani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD, a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049 and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068 in MAP-infected versus control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe; several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we

  2. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  3. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalt, J C; Gallardo, C; Polycarpo, G V; Budiño, F E L; Rogiewicz, A; Berto, D A; Trindade Neto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Most of amino acid (AA) digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR), with or without multicarbohydrase (MC) and phytase (Phy) supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine) collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age). A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein) was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (pdigestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (pdigestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.

  4. Early Transcriptomic Changes in the Ileal Pouch Provide Insight into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Pouchitis and Ulcerative Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong; Dalal, Sushila; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Hubert, Nathaniel; Raffals, Laura H.; Dolan, Kyle; Weber, Christopher; Messer, Jeannette S.; Jabri, Bana; Bendelac, Albert; Eren, A. Murat; Rubin, David T.; Sogin, Mitch; Chang, Eugene B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) only involves the colonic mucosa. Yet, nearly 50% of patients with UC who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop UC-like inflammation of the ileal pouch (pouchitis). By contrast, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop pouchitis far less frequently. We hypothesized that pathogenic events associated with the development of UC are recapitulated by colonic-metaplastic transcriptomic reprogramming of the UC pouch. Methods: We prospectively sampled pouch and prepouch ileum mucosal biopsies in patients with UC with ileal pouch anal anastomosis 4, 8, and 12 months after their pouch was in continuity. Mucosal samples were also obtained from patients with FAP. Transcriptional profiles of the UC and FAP pouch and prepouch ileum were investigated via RNA sequencing and compared with data from a previously published microarray study. Results: Unlike patients with FAP, subjects with UC exhibited a large set of differentially expressed genes between the pouch and prepouch ileum as early as 4 months after pouch functionalization. Functional pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in the UC pouch revealed an enhanced state of immune/inflammatory response and extracellular matrix remodeling. Moreover, >70% of differentially expressed genes mapped to published inflammatory bowel diseases microarray data sets displayed directional changes consistent with active UC but not with Crohn's disease. Conclusions: The UC pouch, well before histologic inflammation, already displays a systems-level gain of colon-associated genes and loss of ileum-associated genes. Patients with UC exhibit a unique transcriptomic response to ileal pouch creation that can be observed well before disease and may in part explain their susceptibility to the development of pouchitis.

  5. A case report of Ileal duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Suh, J H; Choi, B S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-10-15

    Since Frankel reported the congenital anomalous intestinal duplication incidentally during autopsy in 1883, about 228 cases has been reported on the literatures. In our severance hospital, one case of ileal duplication was found, and was confirmed by pathology and surgery. This patient of duplication usually reveals the symptoms of abnormal distension, pain and palpable abdominal mass, and sometimes the symptoms of intestinal obstruction. On x-ray flate abdomen, huge occupying mass displaces intestinal gas pattern to left side. Barium enema study reveals elongation and displacement of ileum by large extrinsic mass. And cecum is also displaced upward. On the IVP, this extrinsic mass is not related to kidneys. Also, the literature was reviewed.

  6. Taeniasis: A possible cause of ileal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settesoldi, Alessia; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tarantino, Ottaviano

    2017-12-16

    Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp. infestation resistant to albendazole and Helicobacter pylori -associated duodenal ulcers.

  7. The effect of ileal interposition surgery on enteroendocrine cell numbers in the UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Vrang, Niels

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat.......To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat....

  8. Influence of forage inclusion in the diet on ileal and total tract digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Carlson, Dorthe; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the ileal and total tract digestibility of 3 forages (clover–grass, clover–grass silage, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum)–barley (Hordeum vulgare) silage) supplemented to a basal diet. A total of 24 pigs, adapted to eating forages by supplementing a basal feed...... throughout the whole experiment. The intake of forages was low and quite variable and on average accounted for only 10 to 12% of the DMI. Ileal digestibility of protein estimated by collection from the T-cannula was higher (P = 0.031) than the digestibility estimated by the slaughter technique indicating...... in the diet as forage reduced (P pea– barley silage. In organic slaughter pig production, the overall energy supply from these forages is limited, but they may play an important role in satiety...

  9. Interaction between Ca++-channel antagonists and α2-adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileal cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeidan, F.R.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El-Sabban, M.E.; Sharp, G.W.G.; Donowitz, M.

    1986-01-01

    An interaction between Ca ++ -channel antagonists and the α 2 -adrenergic receptor on active electrolyte transport was demonstrated in rabbit ileum. Clonidine, an α 2 -agonist, stimulated NaCl absorption apparently by Ca ++ -channel antagonism since it inhibited 45 Ca ++ uptake across the basolateral membrane and decreased total ileal calcium content. This stimulation was inhibited by the Ca ++ -channel antagonists dl- and l-verapamil and cadmium but not by nifedipine. The binding of 3 H-yohimbine, a specific α 2 -adrenergic antagonist, was studied on purified ileal cell membranes using a rapid filtration technique. dl-Verapamil and Cd ++ inhibited the specific binding of 3 H-yohimbine over the same concentration range in which they affected transport. In contrast, nifedipine had no effect on binding, just as it had no effect on clonidine-stimulated NaCl absorption. These data demonstrate that there is an interaction between Ca ++ -channels and α 2 -adrenergic receptors in ileal basolateral membranes. Some Ca ++ -channel antagonists alter α 2 -adrenergic binding to the receptor and α 2 -agonist binding leads to changes in Ca ++ entry. A close spatial relationship between the Ca ++ -channel and the α 2 -receptor could explain the data

  10. Presence of transient hydronephrosis immediately after surgery has a limited influence on renal function 1 year after ileal neobladder construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Takuma; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Koie, Takuya; Hosogoe, Shogo; Matsumoto, Teppei; Soma, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-08-31

    Urinary tract obstruction and postoperative hydronephrosis are risk factor for renal function deterioration after orthotopic ileal neobladder construction. However, reports of relationship between transient hydronephrosis and renal function are limited. We assess the influence of postoperative transient hydronephrosis on renal function in patients with orthotopic ileal neobladder construction. Between January 2006 and June 2013, we performed radical cystectomy in 164 patients, and 101 received orthotopic ileal neobladder construction. This study included data available from 64 patients with 128 renal units who were enrolled retrospectively. The hydronephrosis grade of each renal unit scored 0-4. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the grade of hydronephrosis: control, low, intermediate, and high. The grade of postoperative hydronephrosis was compared with renal function 1 month and 1 year after surgery. There were no significant differences in renal function before surgery between groups. One month after surgery, the presence of hydronephrosis was significantly associated with decreased renal function. However, 1 year after urinary diversion hydronephrosis grades were improved significantly, and renal function was comparable between groups. Postoperative hydronephrosis at 1 month had no significant influence on renal function 1 year after ileal neobladder construction. Limitations include retrospective design, short follow-up periods, and a sample composition. The presence of transient hydronephrosis immediately after surgery may have limited influence on renal function 1 year after ileal neobladder construction.

  11. Measurement of true ileal calcium digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens using the direct method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M N; Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study that is presented herein was to determine the true ileal calcium (Ca) digestibility in meat and bone meal (MBM) for broiler chickens using the direct method. Four MBM samples (coded as MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4) were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, particle size distribution and bone to soft tissue ratio. The Ca concentrations of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 71, 118, 114 and 81 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding geometric mean particle diameters and bone to soft tissue ratios were 0.866, 0.622, 0.875 and 0.781 mm, and 1:1.49, 1:0.98, 1:0.92 and 1:1.35, respectively. Five experimental diets, including four diets with similar Ca concentration (8.3 g/kg) from each MBM and a Ca and phosphorus-free diet, were developed. Meat and bone meal served as the sole source of Ca in the MBM diets. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was incorporated in all diets as an indigestible marker. Each experimental diet was randomly allotted to six replicate cages (eight birds per cage) and offered from d 28 to 31 post-hatch. Apparent ileal Ca digestibility was calculated by the indicator method and corrected for ileal endogenous Ca losses to determine the true ileal Ca digestibility. Ileal endogenous Ca losses were determined to be 88 mg/kg dry matter intake. True ileal Ca digestibility coefficients of MBM-1, MBM-2, MBM-3 and MBM-4 were determined to be 0.560, 0.446, 0.517 and 0.413, respectively. True Ca digestibility of MBM-1 was higher (P 0.05) to that of MBM-3. True Ca digestibility of MBM-2 was similar (P > 0.05) to MBM-3 and MBM-4, while that of MBM-3 was higher (P digestibility in feed ingredients and that Ca in MBM is not highly available as often assumed. The variability in true Ca digestibility of MBM samples could not be attributed to Ca content, percentage bones or particle size. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Dadalt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of amino acid (AA digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR, with or without multicarbohydrase (MC and phytase (Phy supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age. A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05 and SID of histidine (p = 0.05, arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05. BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05. There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.

  14. Laparoscopic management of terminal ileal volvulus caused by Meckel's diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthis, A; Hakeem, A; Safranek, P

    2015-04-01

    Complications from a Meckel's diverticulum include diverticulitis, bleeding, intussusception, bowel obstruction, a volvulus, a vesicodiverticular fistula, perforation or very rarely as a tumour. We report a case where a Meckel's diverticulum presented with a terminal ileal volvulus in a 32-year-old man without the presence of a typical vitelline band or axial torsion of the diverticulum causing the volvulus. It was successfully managed laparoscopically.

  15. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA in meat meal (MM, and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM. Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM.

  16. Membrane fluidity increases during apoptosis of sheep ileal Peyer's patch B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourd'heuil, D.; Aspinall, A.; Reynolds, J.D.; Meddings, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate specific plasma membrane structural changes associated with apoptosis, whole cells and purified plasma membranes of apoptotic B cells from the ileal Peyer's patch of sheep were analyzed for their 'membrane fluidity'. The ileal Peyer's patch of sheep provided a large number of B cells required for plasma membrane isolation (>5 x 10 9 ). As the incidence of apoptosis increased with time of culture, the fluidity of purified plasma membranes, as measured with the fluorophore DPH (diphenylhexatriene), increased. To evaluate this phenomenon with intact cells, B cells at different apoptotic stages were fractionated on discontinuous Percoll gradients. Similar results were obtained using the fluorophore TMA-DPH (trimethylammoniumdiphenylhexatriene), which has been shown to localize specifically to the plasma membrane. Functionally, the increase in plasma membrane fluidity associated with apoptosis may represent either a mechanism to cycle phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet, mediating phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells, or a consequence of this event. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. ILEAL DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN PIG FEEDS AND ITS USE IN DIET FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cszaba Szabo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four protein sources (soybean meal, sunflower meal, pea and fish meal as the main protein source were investigated on fattening performance, carcass and meat quality traits and body composition of pigs. Eight animals per treatment received the diets from 30 to 105 kg live weight at a level of 3.0 times maintenance requirement of energy. Diets were formulated on the basis of ileal digestible protein and amino acid content of feedstuffs. Protein sources resulted similar fattening performance from 30-105 kg body weight. From 30 to 60 kg soybean treatment had lowest performance. The protein source treatments did not alter the body composition, lean meat percentage, liver weight and meat quality (intramuscular fat content, pH 45 min and 24 hours after slaughter, drip loss, meat lightness and hue measured 24 hours and 4 days after slaughter. It can be concluded that protein sources can be replaced without affecting overall fattening performance, carcass and meat quality and body composition if diet formulation is based on the ileal digestible amino acid contents of feedstuffs. However the lower performance of the soybean treatment in the first phase may indicate that ileal digestible Lys content of heat treated protein sources may not characterise the feedstuffs well enough. It may be that young pigs are more sensitive to unavailable lysine by the way.

  18. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  19. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  20. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices

  1. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices.

  2. Socioeconomic Determinants of Physical Inactivity among Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Narimasa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Half of Japanese workers are physically inactive, but there are no studies on the relation between the leisure-time physical inactivity of Japanese workers and their socioeconomic status. The proportion of female workers who are physically inactive has been larger than that of male workers. Objectives: Using micro-data from nationwide surveys in Japan, this study explored the gender differences in socioeconomic determinants of leisure-time physical inactivity. Methods: We first es...

  3. Perforated ileal duplication cyst with haemorrhagic pseudocyst formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In Sun; Hwang, Woo Chul; Namkung, Sook

    2003-01-01

    Duplication cysts of the gastrointestinal tract are rare congenital abnormalities. Ectopic gastric mucosa, which can be found in duplications, may cause peptic ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation. We report a 1-year-old boy with a perforated ileal duplication cyst with haemorrhagic pseudocyst formation caused by peptic ulceration of the duplication cyst. It presented a snowman-like appearance consisting of a small, thick-walled, true enteric cyst and a large, thin-walled haemorrhagic pseudocyst on US and CT. It is an unusual manifestation of a duplication cyst, which has not been reported in the English language literature. (orig.)

  4. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Olayiwola; Ragland, Darryl

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA) digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG), and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS) in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD) were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower ( P  digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater ( P  digestibility values for traditional and high-protein corn distillers' dried grains coproducts for use in formulating swine diets. Amino acid digestibility was generally higher in HP-DDG than in other tested co-products of the dry grind processing of corn for ethanol.

  5. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Roos, de N.M.; Bouwman, C.A.; Laarhoven, van C.J.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food

  6. Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Myrelid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.

  7. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ghahramani; Saeed Yazdani; Saeed Derakhshani; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Reza Jalli; Bita Geramizadeh; Ali Reza Safarpour; Salar Rahimikazerooni; Seyed Vahid Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve do...

  8. Measurement of true ileal digestibility of phosphorus in some feed ingredients for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the true ileal digestibility of P in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each ingredient (wheat and sorghum: 236.5, 473, 709.5, and 946 g/kg; soybean meal and corn DDGS: 135, 270, 405, and 540 g/kg) to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 16 cages each (5 birds per cage). A total of 320 21-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to the 16 test diets with 4 replicates per diet. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of P were determined by the indicator method and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficients. The results showed that the apparent ileal P digestibility coefficients of wheat-based diets were not influenced (P>0.05) by increasing dietary P concentrations, whereas those of diets based on sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS differed (Pdigestibility in broilers fed diets with soybean meal and corn DDGS linearly (Pdigestibility coefficients of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 0.464, 0.331, 0.798, and 0.727, respectively. Ileal endogenous P losses in birds fed diets with wheat, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were estimated to be 0.080, 0.609, and 0.418 g/kg DMI, respectively. In birds fed sorghum-based diets, endogenous P losses were estimated to be negative (-0.087 g/kg DMI). True digestible P contents of wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were determined to be 1.49, 0.78, 5.16, and 5.94 g/kg, respectively. The corresponding nonphytate P contents in wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, and corn DDGS were 1.11, 0.55, 2.15, and 4.36 g/kg, respectively. These differences between digestible P and nonphytate P contents may be suggestive, at least in part, of overestimation of P digestibility under the calcium-deficient conditions

  9. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present...... literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...... of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...

  10. The inaction effect in the psychology of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Bos, Kees; van Dijk, Eric; Pieters, Rik

    2002-03-01

    Previous research showed that decisions to act (i.e., actions) produce more regret than decisions not to act (i.e., inactions). This previous research focused on decisions made in isolation and ignored that decisions are often made in response to earlier outcomes. The authors show in 4 experiments that these prior outcomes may promote action and hence make inaction more abnormal. They manipulated information about a prior outcome. As hypothesized, when prior outcomes were positive or absent, people attributed more regret to action than to inaction. However, as predicted and counter to previous research, following negative prior outcomes, more regret was attributed to inaction, a finding that the authors label the inaction effect. Experiment 4, showing differential effects for regret and disappointment, demonstrates the need for emotion-specific predictions.

  11. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  12. Aspectos técnicos da interposição ileal com gastrectomia vertical como possível opção ao tratamento do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Technical aspects of ileal interposition with sleeve gastrectomy as a possible option for the treatment of type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2010-06-01

    mortalidade, factível cirurgicamente pela via laparoscópica e passível de ser ofertada como opção operatória ao tratamento da diabetes mellitus tipo 2.INTRODUCTION: There is an evidence that the best results in terms of resolution of diabetes in morbidly obese patients are achieved with bilio-pancreatic bypass, especially the duodenal switch. These operations are characterized by partial gastrectomy and the rapid transit of food into the distal ileum through derivation of a significant segment of small intestine. The idea of performing the technique presented here was based on these principles. METHOD: The procedures are usually performed laparoscopically, after establishment of a pneumoperitoneum at 12-15 mmHg and introduction of six trocars. The patient is initially positioned in 30° reverse Trendelenburg with the surgeon on the right side of the patient. The sleeve gastrectomy is performed using the anatomical distal trifurcation of the anterior vagus nerve as a reference. The devascularization of the greater curvature is performed and extends to the oesophagogastric junction. With an intra-gastric calibration tube of 20 mm positioned along the lesser curvature, gastric resection starts at the proximal antrum with linear stapler up to oesophagogastric angle. An invaginating running suture is also performed. To perform the ileal interposition in the proximal jejunum, it is divided 20-30 cm distally with a 45-mm linear stapler. The cecum is identified and the distal ileum transected 30cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. A 170 to 200 cm of ileum was measured proximally along the anti-mesenteric border using a 10-cm marked atraumatic grasper, and transected with a 45-mm linear stapler. This segment of ileum is interposed in an isoperistaltic way into the proximal jejunum, previously divided. Next are perform three side-to-side enteroanastomosis. The first enteroanastomosis is the ileo-ileostomy, then the jejuno-ileostomy and finally, the ileo-jejunostomy. All three

  13. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated in humans, and further studies are required to substantiate this hypothesis, which could expand our knowledge of the potential link between lifestyle-related diseases and muscle oxidative capacity. Furthermore, even though a large body of literature reports the effect of physical training on muscle oxidative capacity, the adaptations that occur with physical inactivity may not always be opposite to that of physical training. Thus, it is concluded that studies on the effect of physical inactivity per se on muscle oxidative capacity in functional human skeletal muscle are warranted.

  14. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  15. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F. Donahue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parastomal hernia, defined as an “incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma”, is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%–76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates.

  16. The Effect of Exogenous Protease in Broiler Diets on the Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and on Protease Activity in Jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a mono-component commercial serine protease supplement in broiler diets on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and protease activity. A total of 150 male (28 d old ROSS 308 were randomly placed into 30 battery pens and divided into 5 treatment groups with 6 replicates each. The experiment was performed for 7 days. Five dietary treatments were used: 2 standard protein diets without (SP and with protease (SP + P formulated 20.7 % CP, 2 lower-protein diets (19.9 % CP without (LP and with protease (LP + P and one lower‑protein diet with protease and with doubled rapeseed meal (RSM content (SP-RSM + P compared with the other treatments. Lower-protein diets were formulated with a 4 % decrease in the relative CP value compared with the standard protein diet. Enzyme protease was added to the diets at a concentration of 200 ppm (15,000 PROT units per kg. The diets contained 0.3 % Cr2O3 to facilitate the estimation of apparent AA digestibility and overall apparent ileal crude protein digestibility. Mono-component protease had no effect on apparent ileal AA digestibility or jejunum protease activity if diets contained the same level of RSM. The supplement of exogenous protease did not affect (P > 0.05 the apparent ileal AA digestibility coefficients if a higher RSM level was used. The CP level influenced (P < 0.05 only the coefficients of the apparent ileal AA digestibility of Pro and Arg. The RSM level (P < 0.01 had significant effects on protease activity in the jejunum.

  17. Ileal Diverticulitis as a Cause of Right Lower Quadrant Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kothadia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare clinical disease of the small bowel. The incidence of small bowel diverticulitis varies from 0.3 to 2.3 % in the general population. Complications of this rare clinical entity are often confused with other causes of acute abdomen such as acute appendicitis, perforated peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease or ischemic bowel disease. Case Presentation We describe a 65-year-old male with a history of ileal diverticulosis who presented with acute abdomen and was subsequently found to have perforated ileal diverticulitis with abscess formation. Conclusions The case, differential diagnosis, imaging studies, complications and management of this rare clinical disease are discussed.

  18. Double ileal stenosis following the blunt trauma abdomen in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pratap Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of blunt abdominal trauma has increased in recent years; however, relatively little attention has been paid to instances of its sequelae, especially in childhood. Small bowel stricture following a history of abdominal trauma is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction and there have been few reports examining its occurrence. We are presenting here a case of posttraumatic double ileal stenosis in a 4-year female child.

  19. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  20. Effects of corn gluten feed inclusion at graded levels in a corn-soybean diet on the ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the effect of the inclusion of corn gluten feed (CGF) on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy in growing pigs. The study was performed using 16 barrows (weight, 45.3 ± 4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T cannula at the terminal ileum. There were four treatments: a corn-soybean diet without CGF and three corn-soybean diets containing increasing levels of CGF (65, 130, and 195 g/kg). Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design, four blocks with four pigs each (one pig per treatment). The trend of the response (linear or quadratic) was determined using orthogonal contrasts, and when a linear effect was determined, a linear equation was obtained. Results The results showed that the inclusion up to 195 g/kg of CGF in the corn-soybean diet did not diminish the ileal digestibility (apparent and standardized) of protein and amino acids (P > 0.05), except that of phenylalanine, cystine, and proline. A linear decrease (P digestibility of phenylalanine (0.011 and 0.015 percentage units, respectively), cystine (0.048 and 0.043 percentage units, respectively), and proline (0.045 and 0.047 percentage units, respectively) was noted. Similarly, ileal digestibility of dry matter and energy were adversely affected (reduced by 0.028 and 0.025 percentage units, respectively, per gram of CGF increment in the diet). A significant (P digestibility with increase in CGF amount in the diet was observed for energy (0.027 percentage units), dry matter (0.027 percentage units), crude protein (0.020 percentage units), and neutral detergent fiber (0.041 percentage units) per gram of CGF added to the diet. Conclusion CGF did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein and most amino acids but reduced the ileal and total tract digestibility of energy. PMID:25279142

  1. Closure of leak at the tip of the “J” after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis using a novel over-the-scope clipping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: leaks from the body or the tip of the J-pouch can occur after restorative proctocolecotmy. Although it may follow an indolent clinical course, it often requires surgical repair or pouch revision. Here we describe a novel endoscopic approach to close the leak at the tip of the J pouch. Design: pouchoscopy was performed under sedation and endoscopic over-the-scope clipping system was used for the management of a leak from the tip of a J-pouch. Results: under sedation, a pouchoscopy was performed and the deep tip of “J” leak was detected with a guidewire, along with water-contrasted pouchogram. The contained cavity from the leak was cleaned with hydrogen peroxide and 50% dextrose. Debridement of the epithelialized mouth of the leak was performed with an endoscopic cytology brush. Then endoscopic over-the-scope clipping system was used and the leak defect was completely closed. There was no bleeding or perforation. The entire procedure took 25 min. The patient continued to do well and reported resolution of the low back pain symptom. Conclusion: we reported the first case in the literature that a leak from the tip of a J-pouch was endoscopically occluded using a novel over-the-scope clipping system. Resumo: Objetive: vazamentos do corpo da bolsa e da extremidade da bolsa ileal em J podem ocorrer após proctocolectomia restauradora. Embora possam apresentar um curso clínico indolente, muitas vezes requerem procedimentos abdominais. Desenho: endoscopia da bolsa ileal foi realizada sob sedação e clipagem endoscópica usando o sistema “over-the-scope” foi utilizada para fechar um vazamento na extremidade da bolsa ileal em “J”. Resultados: sob sedação, uma endoscopia de bolsa ileal foi realizada e a extremidade profunda do vazamento da bolsa ileal em “J” foi detectada com um fio-guia. A cavidade que continha o vazamento foi limpa com peróxido de hidrogênio e 50% de dextrose. Desbridamento da borda epitelizada do

  2. Shifting the Physical Inactivity Curve Worldwide by Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore M; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Brown, Wendy J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program. Absolute and relative gender differences were calculated for countries according to four HDI categories. The potential effects of increasing women's activity levels on achievement of the WHO physical inactivity target were computed. Overall inactivity prevalence was higher in women (27%) than in men (20%). Women were more inactive than men in all except eight countries. Absolute gender differences [median 7.5% (range -10.1 to 33.2)] did not vary by HDI category, but there was a small negative correlation between relative gender difference in inactivity and HDI (rho -0.19; p = 0.02), which was mostly influenced by three outlier countries with low HDI. A decrease in inactivity levels of 4.8% points among women across the world would achieve the WHO target of reducing global levels of inactivity by 10%. Gender differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity were highly variable, both within and across categories of HDI. Interventions which result in small changes in inactivity prevalence in women would achieve the 2025 WHO global target for inactivity, without any change to the prevalence in men.

  3. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P digestibility values for broilers were higher (P digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Imaging QRS complex and ST segment in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Bang, Lia E; Szathmary, Vavrinec

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction creates regions of altered electrical properties of myocardium resulting in typical QRS patterns (pathological Q waves) and ST segment deviations observed in leads related to the MI location. The aim of this study was to present a graphical method for imaging...... the changes in the sequence of depolarization and the ST segment deviations in myocardial infarction using the Dipolar ElectroCARdioTOpography (DECARTO) method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Simulated ECG data corresponding to intramural, electrically inactive areas encircled by transmural areas with slowed impulse...... propagation velocity in anteroseptal and inferior locations were used for imaging the altered sequence of depolarization and the ST vector. The ECGs were transformed to areas projected on the image surface so as to image the process of ventricular depolarization based on the orientation and magnitude...

  5. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM, canola meal (CM or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS that were either adequate (19% or marginal (15% in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.

  6. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  7. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  8. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (Pdigestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (Pdigestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (Pdigestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (Pdigestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (Pdigestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (Pdigestibility marker. In contrast, there were no clear improvements in AA digestibility from phytase supplementation for SBM. Phytase effects on AID or SID of AA were dependent on the digestibility marker used in diets when CM was used as the protein source but not when SBM was used as the protein source. Therefore, AA digestibility response to phytase supplementation may depend on the protein being evaluated as well as the choice of digestibility marker.

  9. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  10. [Transit-slowing anastomosis by 180 degree axial rotation of the upper intestinal segment after massive resection of the small intestine. Preliminary note on an experimental study in the adult dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomao, J; Bosgiraud, F; Vayre, P

    1976-01-01

    After massive resection of 85 p. cent of the small intestine in the dog, there occurs diarrhoea and malabsorption. These consequences may be palliated by an oblique end-to-end anastomosis with 180 rotation on the intestinal axis of the jejunal sugment above in relation to the ileal segment below. The authors noted slowing of the transit in the 10 operated dogs. The experimental conditions and the results obtained suggest that the technic may be applicable in man.

  11. Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8- to 14-kg pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; van Milgen, Jaap; Sloth, Niels Morten

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose–response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets. I...

  12. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Does lead use the intestinal absorptive pathways of iron? Impact of iron status on murine 210Pb and 59Fe absorption in duodenum and ileum in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsenhans, Bernd; Janser, Heinz; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schuemann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Absorption of 210 Pb increases much less than that of 59 Fe in murine duodena. → 210 Pb-absorption is almost equally high in murine duodenal and ileal segments. → 59 Fe absorption is much lower in ileal than in duodenal segments. → There must be an additional DMT1-independet pathway for intestinal Pb absorption. -- Abstract: Background: Human isotope studies and epidemiological trials are controversial as to whether lead absorption shares the absorptive pathways of iron and whether body lead content can be reduced by iron supplementation. Aim: To compare the impact of iron-deficiency on 59 Fe- and 210 Pb-absorption rates in duodenal and ileal segments. Methods: 59 Fe- and 210 Pb-absorption was determined in ligated duodenal and ileal segments from juvenile and adult iron-deficient and iron-adequate C57Bl6 wild-type mice (n = 6) in vivo at luminal concentrations corresponding to human exposure (Fe: 1 and 100 μmol/L; Pb: 1 μmol/L). Results and discussion: 59 Fe-absorption increased 10-15-fold in iron-deficient duodena from adult and adolescent mice. Ileal 59 Fe-absorption was 4-6 times lower than in iron-adequate duodena showing no adaptation to iron-deficiency. This in accordance to expectation as the divalent metal transport 1 (DMT1) shows low ileal expression levels. Juvenile 59 Fe-absorption was about twice as high as in adult mice. In contrast, duodenal 210 Pb-absorption was increased only 1.5-1.8-fold in iron-deficiency in juvenile and adult mice and, again in contrast to 59 Fe, ileal 210 Pb-absorption was as high as in iron-adequate duodena. Conclusions: The findings suggest a DMT1-independent pathway to mediate lead absorption along the entire small intestine in addition to DMT1-mediated duodenal uptake. Ileal lead absorption appears substantial, due the much longer residence of ingesta in the distal small intestine. Differences in lead-solubility and -binding to luminal ligands can, thus, explain the conflicting findings regarding the

  14. Pulmonary and Ileal Tuberculosis Presenting as Fever of Undetermined Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surewad, Gajanan; Lobo, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with prolonged fever with no obvious focus on either history or clinical examination. High-resolution computerized tomography of the chest revealed the ‘tree-in-bud’ sign in the right lung and necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes. Barium meal showed multiple ileal strictures. The child was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy for six months. At follow-up six months later, the child had gained weight and had no signs of intestinal obstruction. Tuberculosis is a common cause of fever of undetermined origin and should be investigated for especially in countries with a high prevalence. PMID:25478420

  15. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  16. Imaging and retention measurements of selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine, and the carbon 14 glycochol breath test to document ileal dysfunction due to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Olmos, R.; Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B.; Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ( 75 Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75 Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75 Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption ( 75 Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75 Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75 Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75 Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)

  17. Long Term Inactive Well Program requirements : interim directive ID 97-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the petroleum industry have agreed that industry must take proactive measures to reduce the number of long term inactive wells in Alberta. This interim directive outlines the requirements of the Long Term Inactive Well Program, and provides a schedule for industry to reduce the number of inactive wells. EUB estimates that there are currently 35,000 inactive wells in Alberta, 10,000 of which have been inactive for more than 10 consecutive years. These wells pose a financial risk to the Abandonment Fund which was established to help fund the abandonment of orphan wells. The Long Term Inactive Well Program was created based on the recommendations of a joint government/industry committee, and will operate for five years. 5 tabs

  18. Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N; Noe, Joshua D; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B; Griffiths, Anne M; Crandall, Wallace V; Mack, David R; Baker, Susan S; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  20. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  1. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Silva, Shana Ginar da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  2. Stone risk after bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Poulsen, A L; Steven, K

    2000-01-01

    : The participants were 23 male patients who had undergone bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir and 25 healthy men. All subjects had sterile urine at the time of urine collection. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatinine, citrate, oxalate, and ammonia in 24-h urine samples...... were measured. Estimates of ion activity products of calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), brushite (Bru), and magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) in urine were calculated according to Tiselius. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 24-h urinary volume between patients...

  3. A case of asymptomatic ileal duplication cyst associated with acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya İpek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplications of the alimentary tract are infrequent anomalies. They are most frequently located in the terminal ileum, and majority of them became symptomatic before the age of 2. Presenting symptoms may include abdominal mass, intestinal obstruction, intussusception, rectal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis is usually difficult, intra-abdominal duplications are usually diagnosed during surgical explorations of above complications. We presented a 12-year-old girl with asymptomatic ileal duplication cyst associated with non-complicated acute appendicitis, whose imaging studies at admission were compatible with complicated perforated appendicitis.

  4. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Lammers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for

  5. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  6. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojkovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5 need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy?Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5 back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%.Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months. 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  7. Functional and Clinical Outcome of Ileal (Studer) Neo-bladder Reconstruction: Single Centre Experience from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, S. M.; Ather, M. H.; Abbas, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the medium and long-term outcome of orthotopic continent urinary diversion with ileal (Studer) neo-bladder following radical cystectomy. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 1998 to September 2010. Methodology: Thirty eight patients underwent radical cystectomy for invasive bladder tumor with ileal neo-bladder (Studer type) reconstruction. Peri-operative and late complications, functional outcome of neo-bladder, urinary continence, metabolic and upper urinary tract status and overall survival were evaluated in all patients. Results: A total of 29 patients (23 males and 6 females) with mean age of 59 +- 12 years were included for the final analysis. The mean duration of surgery (both radical cystectomy and urinary diversion) was 520 +- 70 minutes. Perioperative complication rate was 24% (n=7) with surgical site infection in 4 patients, sepsis in 1 patient and 2 had ureteroileal leak. At 6 months follow-up, 22 patients were fully continent while 7 patients had minimal stress / nocturnal incontinence. The continence rate was 93% (n=27) at one year follow-up. The mean capacity of neo-bladder at 6 months was 384 +- 66 mLs. The late complication rate was 17% (n=5). Three patients developed anastomotic stricture requiring transurethral incision of neo bladder neck, one formed stone in neo-bladder and one developed incision hernia. All patients had preserved renal functions on follow-up. The survival rate was 80% (n=23) at a median follow-up of 66.4 +- 36 months. Two patients developed local recurrence and four developed distant metastasis. Conclusion: Studer ileal neo-bladder is a safe and effective option for urinary diversion in select patients with good oncological and functional outcomes comparable to contemporary literature, even in a low volume center. (author)

  8. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Lee, Dong Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction.

  9. LIFETIME PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG CANCER RISK AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; LaMonte, Michael J; Ray, Andrew D; Joseph, Janine M; Al Qassim, Emad; Eng, Kevin H; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the independent associations of physical inactivity with cancer endpoints have been mounting in the epidemiological literature, in part due to the high prevalence of physical inactivity among cancer patients and to evidence that inactivity associates with carcinogenesis via pathways independent of obesity. Yet, physical inactivity is not currently recognized as a well-established risk or prognostic factor for lung cancer. As such, we examined the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with lung cancer risk and mortality in a hospital-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: The analyses included data from 660 lung cancer patients and 1335 matched cancer-free controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk, and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the association between lifetime physical inactivity and mortality among lung cancer cases. Results: We observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk: [Odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.81]; the association remained significant among never smokers (OR=3.00, 95% CI:1.33-6.78) and non-smokers (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.79-3.02). We also observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer mortality [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71]; the association remained significant in non-smokers (HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.16-1.95). These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity is an independent risk and prognostic factor for cancer. Additional research utilizing prospectively collected data is needed to substantiate the current findings.

  10. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  11. Inactive Publics: The Forgotten Publics in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Notes that recent public relations theory has largely ignored inactive publics, stakeholder groups that demonstrate low levels of knowledge and involvement in the organization or its products, services, candidates, or causes, but are important to an organization. Examines the nature of inactive publics and proposes a model that locates inactive…

  12. Estimation of the endogenous N proportions in ileal digesta and faeces in 15N-labelled pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1987-01-01

    4 castrated male pigs 40 kg fitted with simple 'T' cannulas in the terminal ileum were given 15 N-labelled ammonium salts, added to a low protein diet, for 6 days. Excretion of 15 N in urine and feces was monitored daily throughout the labelling and subsequent experimental periods. During the experimental period the pigs were given a diet based on wheat and fish meal, supplemented with varying levels of partially hydrolyzed straw meal to give crude fiber contents ranging from 40 to 132 g/kg. After adaptation to the particular levels of straw meal, feces and ileal digesta were collected during successive 24 h periods. N digestibility values were determined by the chromium oxide ratio method. The retention of 15 N-labelled non-specific N was 0.46 of the dose given. The validity of using urine values as a measure of 15 N abundance in endogenous N was demonstrated by the similarity of 15 N abundance in urine immediately before slaughter at the end of the experiment and in the digestive secretory organs thereafter. The average amount of endogenous N passing the terminal ileum was 3.4 g/day or 0.30-0.50 of total ileal N flow. This was not affected by dietary fiber level. The proportion of fecal N which was of endogenous origin was similar to that in ileal digesta, suggesting similar utilization of endogenous and residual dietary N by hindgut bacteria. Half the endogenous N entering the large intestine was reabsorbed there. Increasing dietary crude fiber from 40 to 132 g/kg increased fecal endogenous N excretion from 1.3 to 2.0 g/animal and day. (author)

  13. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  14. Ureteric catheterization via an ileal conduit: technique and retrieval of a JJ stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, T M; Kellett, M J

    2004-11-01

    Retrograde ureteric catheterization of a patient with an ileal conduit is difficult, because guide wires and catheters coil in the conduit. A modified loopogram, using a Foley catheter as a fulcrum through which catheters can be advanced to the ureteric anastomosis, is described. This technique was used to remove a JJ stent, which had been inserted previously across a stricture in one ureter, the stent crossing from one kidney to the other.

  15. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and the nutritive value of the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P

  16. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  17. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference.

  18. Synchronous association of rectal adenocarcinoma and three ileal carcinoids: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. CONCLUSION: During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.

  19. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  20. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  1. Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis supplementation in diets with low- and high-protein content on ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, Chanwit; Burbach, Katharina; Tomforde, Georgina; Hartinger, Thomas; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Heinritz, Sonja; Seifert, Jana; Wiltafsky, Markus; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder-Kuon, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus spp. seem to be an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters for improving animals' health and performance. However, there is little information on the effect of Bacillus spp. in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on the ileal digestibility and microbiota composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus spp. supplementation to low- (LP) and high-protein diets (HP) on ileal CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition. Eight ileally cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 28.5 kg were randomly allocated to a row-column design with 8 pigs and 3 periods of 16 d each. The assay diets were based on wheat-barley-soybean meal with two protein levels: LP (14% CP, as-fed) and HP diet (18% CP, as-fed). The LP and HP diets were supplemented with or without Bacillus spp. at a level of 0.04% (as-fed). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was determined. Bacterial community composition from ileal digesta was analyzed by Illumina amplicon sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial design using the GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The supplementation with Bacillus spp. did not affect both AID and SID of CP and AA in growing pigs. Moreover, there was no difference in AID of CP and AA between HP and LP diets, but SID of cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline was lower ( P  digestibility, whereas LP diet may reduce the flow of undigested protein to the large intestine of pigs.

  2. Successful endoscopic treatment of fecalith blocking sinus in a patient with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ulcerative colitis patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis can develop various mechanical complications. Among them is presacral sinus resulting from chronic anastomotic leak. Methods: We present a symptomatic patient with a large fecalith blocking the sinus which was successfully treated with Doppler ultrasound guided endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy along with fecalith extraction. Results: A 67-year-old female presented with a 4-month history of perianal pain and urgency. Pouchocopy showed a 3-cm deep wide-mouthed anastomotic sinus, the orifice of which was blocked by a large hard fecalith. Removal of the fecalith using RothNet, Tripod, or Basket were made but failed. Then needle knife was applied to cut the orifice to enlarge the opening of the sinus. One month later, the patient returned and the fecalith was successfully removed with two Baskets and two Rothnets. Six months after fecalith extraction, pouchoscopy showed a compartalized distal pouch sinus with two cavities, which was treated by two sessions of Doppler ultrasound guided endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy. Six months following the treatment, the sinus was completed healed. The patient tolerated all procedures well without any complication. Conclusion: Fecalith blocking pouch anastomotic sinus is a rare complication in patients with restorative proctocolectomy. In our case, this surgical complication was successfully treated with a carefully planned, stepwise endoscopy approach. Resumo: Experiência: Pacientes com colite ulcerativa tratados por proctocolectomia restauradora com anastomose bolsa ileal-anal podem ser acometidos por diversas complicações mecânicas. Entre elas, cita-se o seio pré-sacral resultante de vazamento crônico pela anastomose. Métodos: Apresentamos uma paciente sintomática com um grande fecálito bloqueando o seio, com tratamento bem-sucedido com sinusotomia por bisturi-agulha guiado por

  3. Hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch--anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Mariniello, Maria Donatella; Furbetta, Niccolò; Pisano, Roberta; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Caprili, Giovanni; Marciano, Emanuele; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have reported minimally invasive total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We herein report a novel hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic technique for patients with FAP and UC. Between February 2010 and March 2014, six patients underwent hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The abdominal colectomy was performed laparoscopically with hand assistance through a transverse suprapubic incision, also used to fashion the ileal pouch. The proctectomy was carried out with the da Vinci Surgical System. The IPAA was hand-sewn through a trans-anal approach. The procedure was complemented by a temporary diverting loop ileostomy. The mean hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) time was 154.6 (±12.8) min whereas the mean robotic time was 93.6 (±8.1) min. In all cases, a nerve-sparing proctectomy was performed, and no conversion to traditional laparotomy was required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 13.2 (±7.4) days. No anastomotic leakage was observed. To date, no autonomic neurological disorders have been observed with a mean of 5.8 (±1.3) bowel movements per day. The hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic approach to total proctocolectomy with IPAA has not been previously described. Our report shows the feasibility of this hybrid approach, which surpasses most of the limitations of pure laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Further experience is necessary to refine the technique and fully assess its potential advantages.

  4. Short-term outcomes after incontinent conduit for gynecologic cancer: comparison of ileal, sigmoid, and transverse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbaa, Zaid M; Janco, Jo Marie T; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Cliby, William A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the overall rates of significant incontinent conduit-related complications and compare rates between conduit types. This was a retrospective review of 166 patients who underwent incontinent urinary diversion from April 1993 through April 2013. Patients were categorized by conduit type-ileal, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon. Significant conduit-related complications were assessed at 30 and 90days after surgery. Significant conduit-related complication was defined as any of the following: ureteral stricture, conduit leak, conduit obstruction, conduit ischemia, ureteral anastomotic leak, stent obstruction requiring intervention via interventional radiology procedure or reoperation, and renal failure. A total of 166 patients underwent formation of an incontinent urinary conduit, most commonly during exenteration for gynecologic malignancy. There were 129 ileal, 11 transverse colon, and 26 sigmoid conduits. The overall significant conduit-related complication rate within 30days was 15.1%. Complication rates for ileal, transverse and sigmoid conduits were 14.7%, 0%, and 23.1%, respectively (Fisher's exact test, p=0.24). By 90days, the Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of significant complications were 21.8% overall, and 22.3%, 0%, and 28.9%, respectively, by conduit type (log-rank test, p=0.19). The most common significant conduit-related complications were conduit or ureteral anastomotic leaks and conduit obstructions. By 1 and 2years following surgery, the Kaplan-Meier estimated overall rate of significant conduit-related complication increased to 26.5% and 30.1%, respectively. Our study suggests that there are multiple appropriate tissue sites for use in incontinent conduit formation, and surgical approach should be individualized. Most significant conduit-related complications occur within 90days after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pouchitis-Associated Iritis (Uveitis Following Total Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch-to-Anal Anastomosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.

  6. Synchronous association of rectal adenocarcinoma and three ileal carcinoids: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell Jill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. Case presentation The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. Conclusion During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.

  7. The metabolite beta-aminoisobutyric acid and physical inactivity among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Ammann, Thomas; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Lai, Silvia; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Chiappini, Maria Grazia; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), and represents a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a contraction-induced myokine, the plasma levels of which increase with exercise and are inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether physical inactivity and clinical parameters relate to plasma BAIBA levels in this patient population. Adult patients on HD were included, and the presence of physical inactivity was assessed. BAIBA levels were measured in these patients and in healthy individuals. We assessed barriers to physical activity, including 23 items regarding psychophysical and financial barriers. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometer. Nonparametric tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-nine patients on HD were studied; 49% were physically active and 51% were inactive. Of the patients, 43 reported barriers to physical activity and 61% of inactive patients reported three or more barriers. BAIBA levels were lower in patients on HD with respect to controls (P HD patients as active and inactive, both groups showed significantly lower BAIBA levels versus controls (P = 0.0005, P HD showed increased BAIBA levels compared with diabetic patients (P HD endorsing the two most frequent barriers showed lower BAIBA levels than those not reporting these barriers (P = 0.006). Active patients showed higher intracellular water (%) (P = 0.008), and active and inactive patients showed significant correlation between total body muscle mass and handgrip strength (P = 0.04, P = 0.005, respectively). Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among patients on HD and BAIBA correlates with barriers to physical activity reported by inactive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical outcome of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease undergoing partial ileal bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. It may be homozygous or heterozygous. In homozygous patients, LDL-cholesterol levels range from 500 to 1000mg/dL and coronary artery disease is precocious, usually manifesting itself between the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. The diagnosis is often made by the presence of xanthoma tuberosum and tendinous xanthomas that appear between the 1st and 2nd decades of life. The use of high doses of statins or even unusual procedures (apheresis, partial ileal bypass surgery, liver transplantation, gene therapy, or both, is necessary for increasing survival and improving quality of life, because a reduction in cholesterol levels is essential for stabilizing the coronary artery disease and reducing xanthomas. We report our experience with 3 patients with xanthomatous familial hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease, who underwent partial ileal bypass surgery. Their follow-up over the years (approximately 8 years showed a mean 30% reduction in total cholesterol, with a significant reduction in the xanthomas and stabilization of the coronary artery disease.

  9. The axon guidance molecule semaphorin 3F is a negative regulator of tumor progression and proliferation in ileal neuroendocrine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercherat, Cécile; Blanc, Martine; Lepinasse, Florian; Gadot, Nicolas; Couderc, Christophe; Poncet, Gilles; Walter, Thomas; Joly, Marie-Odile; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Roche, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, frequently metastatic, raising difficult clinical and therapeutic challenges due to a poor knowledge of their biology. As neuroendocrine cells express both epithelial and neural cell markers, we studied the possible involvement in GI-NETs of axon guidance molecules, which have been shown to decrease tumor cell proliferation and metastatic dissemination in several tumor types. We focused on the role of Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) in ileal NETs, one of the most frequent subtypes of GI-NETs. SEMA3F expression was detected in normal neuroendocrine cells but was lost in most of human primary tumors and all their metastases. SEMA3F loss of expression was associated with promoter gene methylation. After increasing endogenous SEMA3F levels through stable transfection, enteroendocrine cell lines STC-1 and GluTag showed a reduced proliferation rate in vitro. In two different xenograft mouse models, SEMA3F-overexpressing cells exhibited a reduced ability to form tumors and a hampered liver dissemination potential in vivo. This resulted, at least in part, from the inhibition of mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. This study demonstrates an anti-tumoral role of SEMA3F in ileal NETs. We thus suggest that SEMA3F and/or its cellular signaling pathway could represent a target for ileal NET therapy. PMID:26447612

  10. Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Contributes to Physical Inactivity in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Devarakonda, Kavya; O'Neal, Timothy J; Skirzewski, Miguel; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kaplan, Alanna R; Liow, Jeih-San; Guo, Juen; Rane, Sushil G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-07

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring G i signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice. Surprisingly, although mice with low D2Rs were less active, they were not more vulnerable to diet-induced weight gain than control mice. We conclude that deficits in striatal D2R signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity, but inactivity is more a consequence than a cause of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  12. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  13. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C T; van de Mheen, H; Mackenbach, J P

    1998-12-01

    In this study we aim to explain educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity in terms of psychosocial and material factors. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline of the Dutch GLOBE study in 1991, including 2598 men and women, aged 15-74 years. Physical inactivity during leisure time was defined as not participating in any activity, such as sports, gardening, walking or cycling. Psychosocial factors included in the study were coping resources, personality, and stressors. Material factors were financial situation, employment status, and living conditions. Logistic regression models were used to calculate educational differences in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was more prevalent in lower educational groups. Psychosocial factors related to physical inactivity were locus of control, parochialism, neuroticism, emotional social support, active problem focussing, optimistic and palliative coping styles. Material factors associated with physical inactivity were income, employment status and financial problems. All correlates of physical inactivity were unequally distributed over educational groups, except optimistic and palliative coping. Personality and coping style were the main contributors to the observed educational differences in physical inactivity. That is to say, parochialism, locus of control, neuroticism and active problem focussing explained about half of elevated odds ratios of physical inactivity in the lower educational groups. The material factors, equivalent income and employment status explained about 40% of the elevated odds ratios. Psychosocial and material correlates together reduced the odds ratios of lower educational groups by on average 75%. These results have practical consequences for the design of more effective interventions to promote physical activity. In particular, personality and coping style of risk groups, such as lower educational groups, should be taken into consideration at the future

  14. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity maps can help guide policy and program

  15. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  16. Evolution of robot-assisted orthotopic ileal neobladder formation: a step-by-step update to the University of Southern California (USC) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sameer; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Berger, Andre K; Sehgal, Shuchi; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish; Desai, Mihir M

    2017-01-01

    To describe our, step-by-step, technique for robotic intracorporeal neobladder formation. The main surgical steps to forming the intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder are: isolation of 65 cm of small bowel; small bowel anastomosis; bowel detubularisation; suture of the posterior wall of the neobladder; neobladder-urethral anastomosis and cross folding of the pouch; and uretero-enteral anastomosis. Improvements have been made to these steps to enhance time efficiency without compromising neobladder configuration. Our technical improvements have resulted in an improvement in operative time from 450 to 360 min. We describe an updated step-by-step technique of robot-assisted intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder formation. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  18. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  19. Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, C.A.; Tamminga, S.; Boer, H.; Jong, de E.J.; Visser, G.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 ± 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the 15N-isotope dilution technique (15N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content

  20. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  1. Neonatal Bartter syndrome associated with ileal atresia and cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of neonatal Bartter syndrome presenting with severe hyperkalemia is reported in a preterm child born to consanguineous parents. This child also had ileal atresia, and meconium plugs were found at laparotomy. The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was subsequently made on genetic testing. Despite full intensive care management and surgical interventions, he died of respiratory failure after 70 days. This is the first reported case of such conglomeration of pathologies in a newborn child. Second, in highlighting this case we want clinicians to be aware that a subtype of neonatal Bartter syndrome can present with initial hyperkalemia so that an erroneous diagnosis of pseudohypoaldosteronism is not made when this is seen in combination with hyperkalemia and hyperrenin hyperaldosteronism.

  2. Does N-acetylcysteine have an effect on acetylcholine-induced contractions and histopathological changes on isolated rat ileum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, E.; Yavuzer, Sema A.; Ocakcioglu, B.; Ergun, A.; Can, B.; Saran, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the action of N-acetyllcysteine (NAC) on rat isolated ileal contractility and to determine the effects of NAC on histopathological changes on ileal tissue. The study took place at the Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey, January 2003. Adult Wistar rats were used in all experiments. Two groups were designed. The experimental group, to which NAC 0.5 g/Kg/day was administered orally by adding to their water for 7 days, and the control group to which only saline was administered. At the end of experimental periods, one cm pieces of terminal ileum segments were removed for testing ileal contractility, and one cm pieces of ileum segments were removed for histopathological experiments. The acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction was recorded, and the ileal tissue examined using light and electron microscopic techniques for histopathological changes. The average peak amplitude of Ach-induced contraction recorded in standard tyrode solution of the experimental group was decreased significantly when compared to the control group in standard and calcium-free tyrode solution. On histopathological findings, there were swollen mitochondria with disturbed cristae in ileal muscle. Our data suggest that the NAC in the present experiment decreased the ACh-induced contractility on rat-isolated ileum. (author)

  3. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Adeola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG, and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower (P < 0.05 than that in DDG, which was also lower (P < 0.05 than that in HP-DDG. There were no differences in AID of Met among DDG, DDGS and HP-DDGS, but was greater (P < 0.05 in HP-DDG than in DDG or DDGS. The AID of Thr in HP-DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that in DDGS but not different from that in DDG or HP-DDGS. The branched-chain AA Ile and Leu had greater (P < 0.05 AID in HP-DDG than in DDG, DDGS or HP-DDGS, and there was no difference among DDG, DDGS, and HP-DDGS. The AID of Trp in DDG and DDGS or HP-DDG and HP-DDGS were not different, but the AID of Trp in HP-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS. The greatest SID of the indispensable AA was in HP-DDG. Except for Arg and Lys in which DDG had greater (P < 0.05 digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS but there was no difference between that of DDG and HP-DDGS. Only His, Ile, and Met had lower (P < 0.05 SID in HP-DDGS than HP-DDG within the indispensable AA. The SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, Ser and Tyr were lower (P < 0.05 in DDGS than in HP-DDG. There SID of dispensable AA in DDG was not different from that of HP-DDGS. The current study provided

  4. Composition of Ileal Bacterial Community in Grazing Goats Varies across Non-rumination, Transition and Rumination Stages of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhen Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, eighteen Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42 and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase and xylanase was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA revealed that each age group harboured its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P < 0.01 from d 0 to 70. At the phylum level, abundances of Cyanobacteria (P = 0.018 and TM7 (P = 0.010 increased linearly, abundances of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.075 and Fibrobacteres (P = 0.076 tended to increase linearly, whist Proteobacteria abundance tended to decline quadratically (P = 0.052 with age. At the genus level, Enterococcus (30.9%, Lactobacillus (32.8% and Escherichia (2.0% dominated at d 0, while Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, SMB53 and Fibrobacter surged in abundance after d 20. The highest amylase activity was observed at d 42, while xylanase activity increased quadratically (P = 0.002 from d 28 to 70. Correlation analysis indicated that abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus and p-75-a5 positively correlated with enzyme activity. Collectively, ileal bacteria in grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity.

  5. Retrograde axonal transport of 125I-nerve growth factor in rat ileal mesenteric nerves. Effect of streptozocin diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.E.; Plurad, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Grabau, G.G.; Yip, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    The retrograde axonal transport of intravenously (i.v.) administered 125 I-nerve growth factor ( 125 I-NGF) was examined in mesenteric nerves innervating the small bowel of rats with streptozocin (STZ) diabetes using methods described in detail in the companion article. The accumulation of 125 I-NGF distal to a ligature on the ileal mesenteric nerves of diabetic animals was 30-40% less than in control animals. The inhibition of accumulation of 125 I-NGF in diabetic animals was greater at a ligature tied 2 h after i.v. administration than at a ligature tied after 14 h, which suggests that the diabetic animals may have a lag in initiation of NGF transport in the terminal axon or retardation of transport at some site along the axon. The 125 I-NGF transport defect was observed as early as 3 days after the induction of diabetes, a time before the development of structural axonal lesions, and did not worsen at later times when dystrophic axonopathy is present. Both the ileal mesenteric nerves, which eventually develop dystrophic axonopathy in experimental diabetes, and the jejunal mesenteric nerves, which never develop comparable structural alterations, showed similar 125 I-NGF transport deficits, suggesting that the existence of the transport abnormality does not predict the eventual development of dystrophic axonal lesions. Autoradiographic localization of 125 I-NGF in the ileal mesenteric nerves of animals that had been diabetic for 11-13 mo demonstrated decreased amounts of 125 I-NGF in transit in unligated paravascular nerve fascicles. There was, however, no evidence for focal retardation of transported 125 I-NGF at the sites of dystrophic axonal lesions

  6. [Investigation of the healing process of invaginated anastomoses in animal experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, Géza; Barna, Tibor; Tóth, Imre; Bráth, Endre; Gyáni, Károly; Incze, Dénes; Mikó, Irén

    2003-04-01

    The telescopic anastomosis technique is not frequently used method, but its history could have been followed in the surgical literature since the beginning of the XXth century. Authors can use this technique successfully in their clinical practice performing esophago-gastrostomies, esophago-jejunostomies and ileo-colostomies. They would like to show the healing process of these kind of anastomoses in experimental work, using animal subjects, as data regarding this aspect is not found in the literature. The healing process of esophago-gastrostomies, and ileo-colostomies performed on dogs have been examined. 1. The invaginated esophageal or ileal segment (up to 30 mm length of submerged part) has not suffered from ischaemic damage. 2. The invaginated esophageal or ileal segment has been covered by the mucosa of the stomach or colon. 3. The physical strength of the anastomosis has arised gradually based this on the measured bursting pressure values. 4. The quality of the healing process has not depended on the length of the invaginated esophageal or ileal segment (up to 30 mm length of submerged part).

  7. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  8. 80,000 Inactive Oil Wells: A Blessing or a Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Muehlenbachs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For a century, oil and gas wells have been Alberta’s economic pride. That there could be a hidden cost in maintaining these wells past their productive life is difficult to imagine, much less accept. The financial burden of abandoning a well officially is no doubt why Alberta producers delay doing so as long as possible. Turning a blind eye, they routinely keep non-producing wells in a state of “inactive” suspension and refuse to rule out the possibility that someday oil prices or technology, or both, will change significantly enough to make those wells profitable again. In most cases that will never happen, but the province plays along anyway: It enforces no limit on how long a well can be kept inactive before it must be reactivated or abandoned. While a convenience for well owners, there is no benefit to Albertans. They are exposed to the risk of thousands of inactive wells becoming a hazardous threat to public safety. The longer a well is inactive, the higher the likelihood that its owner may no longer be around to arrange and pay for its official abandonment, a process whereby wells are permanently sealed using regulated methods that insure they cause no environmental damage. Oil and gas producers come and go. Periodic price shocks, like the one that recently ravaged the sector, drive companies into insolvency. When the owner of an inactive well is no longer around to pay for its abandonment costs, the well becomes orphaned. Alberta’s permissive policies have led to a situation where there are now more than 80,000 inactive wells in the province. Some have been inactive for decades. If the possibility existed that they could eventually become economical, those wells might be considered a blessing. However, the simulations that model scenarios where prices are substantially higher or where production technology is significantly improved, clearly show that the vast majority of these wells will never be reactivated, no matter how

  9. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002-2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002-2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73-1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels.

  11. Clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household domains among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, G F; Nahas, M V; de Sousa, T F; Mota, J; Hallal, P C; Peres, K G

    2013-06-01

    To identify the clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household contexts, and the sociodemographic factors associated with the clustering of inactive behaviour in different domains among Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional population-based study. The study was performed in Florianopolis, capital of Santa Catarina, one of the southern states of Brazil, from September 2009 to January 2010. Adults aged 20-59 years were interviewed. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as non-participation in specific physical activities, using a validated Brazilian questionnaire. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified by the ratio between observed prevalence and expected prevalence of 16 different combinations. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the analysis of sociodemographic factors associated with clustering of physical inactivity. Of the 1720 interviewees, the greatest differences between the observed and expected proportions were observed in simultaneous physical inactivity in the leisure and household domains for men, and physical inactivity in the leisure domain alone for women (59% and 88%, respectively); these differences were higher than expected if the behaviours were independent. Physical inactivity in two or more domains was observed more frequently in men and in individuals with a higher per-capita family income. Ageing was associated with physical inactivity in three or four domains. Physical inactivity was observed in different domains according to gender. Men and older individuals with a higher per-capita family income were more likely to exhibit physical inactivity when all domains were considered together. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  13. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  14. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by retrograde transcaval coil embolization of an ileal vein-to-right gonadal vein portosystemic shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishie, Akihiro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Fukuya, Tatsuro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Yoshimitsu, Takahiro; Hirakata, Hideki; Okuda, Seiya; Masuda, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    A 43-year-old non-cirrhotic woman suffered from encephalopathy caused by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt between the ileal vein and inferior vena cava via the right gonadal vein. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization with stainless steel coils was performed by the retrograde systemic venous approach. Encephalopathy improved dramatically

  15. Nitrogen utilization in pigs fed diets with soybean and rapeseed products leading to different ileal endogenous nitrogen losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Wasilewko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) balance was determined in 36 pigs (BW 24 to 30 kg) fed diets inducing different ileal endogenous N losses (ENL). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced ENL may be indicative of a higher recycling of endogenous proteins that will induce a greater urinary N loss and a lower efficiency of

  16. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  17. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM and amino acid (AA composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg fed N-free diets (NFD formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01 but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028 IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs.

  19. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  20. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  1. Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) with a low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.; Berg, J.W.O. van den

    1995-01-01

    In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) (200 g/kg) with a low (< .1% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equivalents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and

  2. Antibiotic inclusion in the diet did not alter the standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio for growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with or without an antibiotic. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG, ADFI, G:F and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the opti...

  3. Xylanase Increased the Ileal Digestibility of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Concentration of Low Molecular Weight Non-Digestible Carbohydrates in Pigs Fed High Levels of wheat DDGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, Shukun; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains...... with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, l-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS—a control diet or 1 of 3 diets...

  4. Market segmentation in (In)action: Marketing and 'yet to be installed' role of big and social media data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pridmore, J. (Jason); Hämäläinen, L.E. (Lalu Elias)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMarketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to

  5. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  6. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Ileal Patch in Delayed Primary Repair of Penetrating Colon Injuries: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Abbasi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.

  8. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  9. Functional Assessment of the Hautmann Ileal Neobladder with Chimney Modification Using Uroflowmetry and a Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion reconstruction is essential after radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction is accepted as a fine option. This study included 51 patients, who underwent radical cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction by a Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification from 2006 to 2014. Functional outcomes were evaluated using a questionnaire and uroflowmetry. Perioperative complications were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 36.1 months. Eighty-six percent of patients voided without clean intermittent catheterization (CIC assistance. CIC was used 1-2x per day or every time they voided in 8% and 6% of patients, respectively, and 71% of patients were continent. The percentages of patients who used 1, 2, 3-4, and ≥5 pads per day were 15%, 6%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Daytime and nighttime continence were achieved in 86% and 69% of patients, respectively. Daily mucus leakage was reported in 69% of patients. The mean maximum neobladder capacity, voided volume, postvoid residual volume, and maximum flow rate were 413.2 mL, 370.6 mL, 43.7 mL, and 20.8 mL/s, respectively. Eighteen early and 5 late complications developed in 13 and 5 patients, respectively. Reoperations were needed in 7 patients. The Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification provided satisfactory results regarding functional outcomes.

  10. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs.

  11. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  12. Long-term functional outcomes after radical cystectomy with ileal bladder substitute: does the definition of continence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedberg, Fredrik; Ahlgren, Göran; Baseckas, Gediminas; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Håkansson, Ulf; Lindquist, Sara; Löfgren, Annica; Patschan, Oliver; Siller, Carina; Sjödahl, Gottfrid

    2017-02-01

    Functional outcomes after ileal bladder substitution reflect the expectations of future patients at a particular centre. The aim of this study was to use validated questionnaires and a pad-weighing test to investigate functional outcomes after neobladder reconstruction at long-term follow-up in patients at a single centre. During 2005 - 2015, 75 patients received a Studer ileal bladder substitute at the Department of Urology, Malmö. Forty-six of these patients were alive for follow-up and were evaluated using the pad-weighing test and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Five of 37 evaluable patients (14%) were considered fully continent, reporting a pad-weighing test result of 0 g and an ICIQ-UI-SF score of 0. The median ICIQ-UI-SF score was 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-11], and seven patients (17%) were continent according to the ICIQ-UI-SF score only. In the pad-weighing test, 28 out of 37 patients (76%) reported 0 g day-time leakage whereas only 12 out of 37 patients (32%) reported 0 g night-time leakage. At follow-up, nine out of 39 (23%) of evaluable male patients were potent. The median ICIQ-UI-SF score was significantly lower during the second half of the study period [4 (IQR 0-8) vs 10 (IQR 6-14); p = .003]. The inverse applied to the median IIEF score [5 (IQR 3-12) vs 2 (IQR 1-4); p = .02]. Functional outcomes at long-term follow-up after radical cystectomy and Studer ileal bladder substitute were at best modest in this series. Better outcomes during the second half of the study period might be explained by improved patient selection and a refined surgical technique, but possibly also by longer follow-up of patients during the first half of the period resulting in a more pronounced time-dependent decline in functional outcomes.

  13. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  14. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  15. Luminally-polarized mural and vascular remodeling in ileal strictures of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Ko, Huaibin Mabel; Torres, Joana; Panchal, Hinaben J; Cai, Zhenjian; Wagner, Mathilde; Sands, Bruce E; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Cho, Judy; Taouli, Bachir; Harpaz, Noam

    2018-03-16

    Intestinal stricture, a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD), results from fibromuscular remodeling and expansion of the intestinal wall. The corresponding microanatomical alterations have not been fully described, hindering progress toward understanding their pathogenesis and devising appropriate treatments. We used tissue-specific staining and quantitative digital histomorphometry for this purpose. Serial histological sections from 37 surgically-resected ileal strictures and adjacent non-strictured controls from patients with CD were evaluated after staining for smooth muscle actin, collagen (Sirius red) and collagen types I, III and V. Overall mural thickening in strictures was increased 2.4±0.3-fold compared with non-strictured regions of the same specimens. The muscular layer most altered was the muscularis mucosae (MM). Compared with the inner and outer layers of the MP which were expanded 2.1±0.2- and 1.4±0.1-fold, respectively, the MM was expanded 22.1±3.6-fold, reflecting the combined effects of architectural disarray, an 11.6±1.4-fold increase smooth muscle content, and elaboration of pericellular type V collagen. In contrast, the architecture of the MP was preserved and pericellular collagen was virtually absent; rather, fibrosis in this layer was limited to expansion of the intramuscular septa by collagen types I and III. The muscular arteries and veins within the strictured submucosa frequently exhibited eccentric, luminally-oriented adventitial mantles comprising hyperplastic myocytes and extracellular type V collagen. We conclude that the fibromuscular remodeling which results in CD-associated ileal strictures predominantly involves the MM and submucosal vasculature in a luminally-polarized fashion and suggests that mucosal-based factors may contribute to stricture pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  17. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  18. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  20. The Ileal W-Shaped Neo bladder Following Radical Cystectomy for Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: Experience and Results of 50 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, M.; Helmy, A.; Amin, A.; Aboul Kassem, H.

    2003-01-01

    The optimal urinary bladder substitute for patients undergoing radical cystectomy is still controversial. The ideal reservoir should provide a large storage capacity at low pressure achieving effective continence with less frequency and minimal renal reflux. In this study we present our experience with W-shaped ileal neo bladder following radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: Between April 1995 and September 1999, a total of 50 male patients underwent lower urinary tract reconstruction following radical cysto prostatectomy by means of ileal W-shaped neo bladder. All patients had invasive bladder cancer proved by preoperative cystoscopy. Their mean age was 45.5 years. The median neo bladder pouch capacity was 420 ml; daytime continence rate was 89.4%, while nighttime continence was noticed in 53.3% of cases. The uretero intestinal anastomoses were performed employing Le Duc technique in all patients. Renal units remained normal in 25 out of 30 evaluated patients. Dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and the ureter, either unilateral or bilateral occurred in 5/30 of patients (16.6%). These were due to stricture at the urethro or uretero-pouch anastomosis that needed transurethral urethrotomy or revision of the anastomosis; however, renal functions were maintained in all patients. There were three postoperative mortalities (6%) and the early postoperative complications included urinary leakage (6%), prolonged ileus (10%) and deep venous thrombosis (4%). Late complications related to the neo bladder were acceptable including metabolic acidosis (2%). The ileal W-shaped neo bladder is a good choice for male patients after radical cystectomy, provided that there is no evidence of prostatic or urethral tumor invasion

  1. Physical inactivity among older adults across Europe based on the SHARE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos; Figueiredo, Daniela; Teixeira, Laetitia; Poveda, Verónica; Paúl, Constança; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2017-01-20

    Regular physical activity is one of the key components of a healthy lifestyle. It is associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in later life and with increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of, and factors related to, physical inactivity among older adults across Europe. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used data from participants aged 55 or older in Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) database, a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database covering health, socioeconomic status, and social and family networks. Individuals included in this study were classified as physically active or physically inactive. Clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were evaluated for their association with physical inactivity. From the total of 58,489 individuals in SHARE, we selected 19,298 people age 55 or older (mean age 67.8 ± 8.9 years; 11,430 (59.2%) female). The overall prevalence of inactivity among individuals age 55 or older in the 16 included countries was 12.5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity varied between countries, ranging from 4.9% (Sweden) to 29% (Portugal). Increasing age, depression, physical limitations, poor sense of meaning in life, social support and memory loss were significant variables associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity can be explained by physical, cognitive and psychological conditions. Interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among older people are needed to address this diversity of factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Examination of race disparities in physical inactivity among adults of similar social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Bleich, Sara N; Ford, Jean G; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB; N=1350) Study and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; N = 67790). Respondents who reported no levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity, during leisure time, over a usual week were considered physically inactive. After controlling for confounders, Blacks had higher adjusted odds of physical inactivity compared to Whites in the national sample (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-1.51). In EHDIC-SWB, Blacks and Whites had a similar odds of physical inactivity (OR = 1.09; 95% CI .86-1.40). Social context contributes to our understanding of racial disparities in physical inactivity.

  3. Impact of PRRSV infection and dietary soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and endogenous amino acid losses in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry and increasing soybean meal (SBM) during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) ...

  4. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity...... and mortality. Methods: Participants included 6806 women with a primary diagnosis of invasive EOC. In accordance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. We utilised Cox proportional hazard models...... to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) representing the associations of inactivity with mortality censored at 5 years. Results: In multivariate analysis, inactive women had significantly higher mortality risks, with (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.52) and without (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 1...

  5. Comparison of the endogenous ileal and faecal amino acid excretion in the dog (Canis familiaris) and the rat (Rattus rattus) determined under protein-free feeding and peptide alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, W H; Sritharan, K; Hodgkinson, S M

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the endogenous ileal excretions of nitrogen and amino acids under protein-free and peptide alimentation by the dog and rat. Two diets were prepared, one that was devoid of protein and the other containing 23% enzyme hydrolysed casein. Chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. A total of 10 mixed breed dogs were fed hourly either a protein-free or enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet for a total of 10 days. A faecal sample was obtained from each dog on day 9 while digesta was obtained from the terminal 20 cm of the ileum directly after euthanasia on day 10. A total of 12 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received the same diets as the dogs. A faecal sample from each rat was obtained on day 7 while ileal digesta samples were obtained on day 8. The endogenous ileal excretions of most amino acids were greater in the dogs and rats that received the enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet compared with those receiving the protein free diet. Whereas the pattern of endogenous amino acid excretion was similar in the rats and dogs, the dogs excreted a significantly greater amount of nitrogen (1.91 vs. 2.27 and 1.63 vs. 4.12 g/kg dry matter intake for the protein-free and peptide alimentation method, respectively) and all amino acids except for glycine, isoleucine and leucine. Endogenous ileal amino acid excretions are higher in dogs compared to omnivorous animals such as rats and pigs but similar to the carnivorous cat.

  6. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  7. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  8. Impact of diet composition on ileal digestibility and small intestinal morphology in early-weaned pigs fitted with a T-cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluess, J; Schoenhusen, U; Souffrant, W B; Jones, P H; Miller, B G

    2010-04-01

    Piglets, separated from their dam at 12 days of age and fed a milk substitute hourly, were used as a model for suckling. Animals were fitted with a terminal ileal T-cannula and a jugular vein catheter. At 28 days of age, half of the pigs had a dietary change to a cereal-based weaner diet fed as slurry, and the others remained on milk substitute. Animals were labelled by oral administration of 15N-labelled yeast for 10 days (days 15 to 25). Blood samples were taken twice a day to monitor 15N enrichment of the blood plasma. Diets included polyethylenglycol (PEG 4000) to allow calculation of apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and individual amino acids. Ileal bacterial nitrogen was calculated from D-alanine content of the digesta. Furthermore, small intestinal (SI) villus height and crypt depth were measured. Feed intake was increased by the dietary change. The total nitrogen flow was 3.2 ± 0.4 g/day and 5.9 ± 0.4 for the milk and weaner diet, respectively. Endogenous nitrogen flow at the terminal ileum was similar for both groups (milk diet 2.4 ± 0.4 v. weaner diet 2.2 ± 0.3 g/day), whereas the bacterial nitrogen content (0.08 ± 0.01 g/day milk diet v. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/day weaner diet, P diet v. 3.29 ± 0.12 g/day weaner diet, P diet group. The ileal apparent digestibility coefficient of protein was 0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 for the milk replacer and the weaner diet, respectively. Morphology measurements made along the SI at 25%, 50% and 75% were similar between piglets fed milk replacer and those fed a cereal-based weaner diet. The only statistical effect (P diet group. In conclusion, pigs, following a dietary change analogous to weaning, lack the capacity to fully digest a standard weaner diet. This may result in an increased nutrient content entering the large intestine and an altered microbiota. In the absence of a period of anorexia, often associated with traditional weaning, we saw no evidence of villous atrophy, but report here a significant crypt

  9. Prolapse of inverted ileal loops through a patent vitellointestinal duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Agarwal, Nitin; Singh, Poonam; Dhaneria, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 2-month-old girl child who presented with sudden increase in size of a polypoidal lesion into a large, ‘Y’-shaped reddish, prolapsing lesion, discharging gaseous and faecal matter at her umbilicus. The lesion was diagnosed as a prolapse of inverted ileal loops through the PVID. The child had no associated congenital anomalies. A transumbilical exploration was performed, followed by wedge resection and anastomosis. The child tolerated the procedure well and the postoperative course was uneventful. If the omphalomesenteric duct fails to obliterate a range of congenital defects related to the umbilicus, it can become clinically apparent. Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest of these defects but is most often asymptomatic. PVID is the most common symptomatic anomaly of the patent omphalomesenteric duct and requires prompt surgical correction to avoid complications. PMID:26494719

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

  11. Effect of dietary acidification in broiler chickens: 1. Growth performance and nutrients ileal digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Khooshechin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.

  12. Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Inactivity in a Scandinavian Population: A Basis for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Schelin, Maria E C

    2016-11-01

    Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insufficiently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 42% of participants were classified as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defined by specific factors associated with physical inactivity could be an efficient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.

  13. Accumulation of Domain-Specific Physical Inactivity and Presence of Hypertension in Brazilian Public Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system. 963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis. Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]). The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

  14. Effect of dietary nutrients on ileal endogenous losses of threonine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, leucine and protein in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C

    2018-04-01

    An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This

  15. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jané; Norman, Rosana; Lambert, Estelle V; Groenewald, Pam; Schneider, Michelle; Bull, Fiona; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2007-08-01

    To quantify the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in persons 15 years or older, by age group and sex, in South Africa for 2000. The global comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology of the World Health Organization was followed to estimate the disease burden attributable to physical inactivity. Levels of physical activity for South Africa were obtained from the World Health Survey 2003. A theoretical minimum risk exposure of zero, associated outcomes, relative risks, and revised burden of disease estimates were used to calculate population-attributable fractions and the burden attributed to physical inactivity. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. South Africa. Adults >or= 15 years. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, breast cancer, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overall in adults >or= 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17,037 (95% uncertainty interval 11,394 - 20,407), or 3.3% (95% uncertainty interval 2.2 - 3.9%) of all deaths in 2000, and 176,252 (95% uncertainty interval 133,733 - 203,628) DALYs, or 1.1% (95% uncertainty interval 0.8 - 1.3%) of all DALYs in 2000. Compared with other regions and the global average, South African adults have a particularly high prevalence of physical inactivity. In terms of attributable deaths, physical inactivity ranked 9th compared with other risk factors, and 12th in terms of DALYs. There is a clear need to assess why South Africans are particularly inactive, and to ensure that physical activity/inactivity is addressed as a national health priority.

  16. Binding sites for 3H-LTC4 in membranes from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicosia, S.; Crowley, H.J.; Oliva, D.; Welton, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leutriene (LTC4) is one of the components of Slow Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis (SRS-A) and is a potent constrictor of guinea pig ilea. The contraction is likely to be a receptor-mediated process. Here the authors report the existence of specific binding sites for 3 H-LTC4 in a crude membrane preparation from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle. At 4 degrees C in the presence of 20 mM Serine-borate, binding increases linearly with protein concentration, reaches equilibrium in 10 minutes, and is reversible upon addition of 3 x 10(-5) M unlabelled LTC4. The dissociation curve is consistent with the existence of more than one class of binding site. Ca++ and Mg++ greatly enhance the binding of 3 H-LTC4 at equilibrium. In the presence of 5 mM CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 not only LTC4 (IC50 10(-7)M), but also LTD4 and the SRS-A antagonist FPL 55712 can compete with 3 H-LTC4 for its binding sites. FPL 55712 only displaces 60-70% of the total amount bound, while LTC4 displaces 90-95%. These studies indicate that multiple classes of binding sites exist for 3 H-LTC4 in guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle, and that at least part of these binding sites might be related to the ability of LTC4 to contract guinea pig ilea

  17. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  18. Physical inactivity of adults and 1-year health care expenditures in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codogno, J.S.; Turi, B.C.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Monteiro, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between physical inactivity in different domains and direct public healthcare expenditures in adults and to identify whether the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains would contribute to increased public healthcare. Methods: The sample composed

  19. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  20. Portal hypertensive enteropathy diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and demonstration of the ileal changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carella Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recent data suggest that mucosal abnormalities can occur even in the duodenum, jejunum, and distal ileum of cirrhosis patients. We present a case of portal hypertensive enteropathy in a cirrhosis patient shown by capsule endoscopy and the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on the ileal pictures. Case presentation An 83-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital for anemia and a positive fecal occult blood test. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed small varices without bleeding signs and hypertensive gastropathy. Colonoscopy was negative. To rule out any other cause of bleeding, capsule endoscopy was performed; capsule endoscopy revealed severe hyperemia of the jejunum-ileal mucosa with active bleeding. Because of the persistence of anemia and the frequent blood transfusions, not responding to β-blocker drugs or octreotide infusion, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. Anemia improved quickly after the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and no further blood transfusion was necessary in the follow-up. The patient developed portal encephalopathy two months later and was readmitted to our department. We repeated the capsule endoscopy that showed a significant improvement of the gastric and ileal mucosa without any signs of bleeding. Conclusion Hypertensive enteropathy is a rare condition, but it seems more common with the introduction of capsule endoscopy in clinical practice. This case shows that the jejunum can be a source of bleeding in cirrhosis patients, and this is the first demonstration of its resolution after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement.

  1. Adenocarcinoma in the anal canal after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis using a double-stapled technique: report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is

  2. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  3. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish A Madnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA.

  4. Quality of life after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: an evaluation of diet and other factors using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Although functional results after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are excellent, imperfections of function do occur. In this setting, quality-of-life assessment is an invaluable tool in determining overall therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the impact of dietary restrictions, preoperative diagnosis (ulcerative colitis vs. familial adenomatous polyposis), and pregnancy (after pouch insertion) on quality of life. METHODS: After ethical approval, 64 patients were reviewed (mean age, 31 (range, 15-54) years). Long-term quality of life in patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was assessed using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life instrument or Fazio score. The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score is a novel quality-of-life instrument specifically designed for patients with ileal pouches. Stool frequency and continence were recorded to establish the functional status of this group. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (95.3 percent) complained of some form of dietary restriction and adopted a fixed dietary regimen. All such patients felt that a breach of this regimen would impinge significantly on their quality of life. Late eating and alcohol were associated with diarrhea, whereas smoking was not. Constipation was infrequently reported. The mean Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of patients with ulcerative colitis (0.81 +\\/- 0.13) was greater than that of patients with ulcerative colitis and a background of pouchitis (0.78 +\\/- 0.16; P = 0.042). Whereas postoperative stool frequency in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis was always higher than the preoperative level (4 vs. 2 movements per day; P = 0.04), the Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of this group was lower than that of ulcerative colitis patients (0.77 vs. 0.81; P = 0.047). The Cleveland Global Quality of Life score of females who had had pregnancies after pouch formation was 0.70, significantly lower (P = 0.039) than that of ulcerative colitis patients, although pouch function was

  5. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  6. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Li, Xiao; Staudt, Amanda

    2017-11-03

    Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009). An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  7. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  8. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  9. Effect of limestone particle size and calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio on true ileal calcium digestibility of limestone for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M N; Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone particle size and calcium (Ca) to non-phytate phosphorus (P) ratio on the true ileal Ca digestibility of limestone for broiler chickens. A limestone sample was passed through a set of sieves and separated into fine (digestibility of Ca was calculated using the indicator method and corrected for basal endogenous losses to determine the true Ca digestibility. The basal ileal endogenous Ca losses were determined to be 127 mg/kg of dry matter intake. Increasing Ca:non-phytate P ratios reduced the true Ca digestibility of limestone. The true Ca digestibility coefficients of limestone with Ca:non-phytate P ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 were 0.65, 0.57 and 0.49, respectively. Particle size of limestone had a marked effect on the Ca digestibility, with the digestibility being higher in coarse particles (0.71 vs. 0.43).

  10. Morphologic and Biochemical Changes in Dogs After Portacaval Shunt Plus Bile Fistula or Ileal Bypass: Failure of Bile Fistula or Ileal Bypass to Prevent Hepatocyte Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon S.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Hayashida, Nobuo; McNamara, Donald J.; Parker, Thomas S.; Russell, William J. I.; Francavilla, Antonio; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    External biliary fistula (BF) or ileal bypass (IB) was performed in dogs at the time of or 2 weeks after portacaval shunt (PCS). The pathologic changes in the dog livers 2 to 4 weeks later were compared to those caused by PCS alone. Histopathologic differences between PCS alone vs. PCS plus BF or IB could not be found. Thus, the experiments did not confirm recent observations by others in rats that BF prevents or reverses the hepatic injury of PCS. As estimated by plasma mevalonic acid determinations, the increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis that is characteristic after BF or IB was suppressed in animals with PCS. BF and IB reduced but did not eliminate the postprandial elevation in serum bile acid that occurs after PCS. The findings have possible relevance in planning the treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia with the combined use of PCS and IB. PMID:6862371

  11. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  12. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  13. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF AXIAL MOTOR IMPAIRMENT TO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Mon S; Hou, Jyhgong Gabriel; Collins, Robert L; Protas, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and activity limitations in persons with PD. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of persons with mild to moderate PD (N=90). Associations among axial motor features, limb motor signs, the Physical Activity Scale for Elders (PASE), the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and level of ADL dependency were studied. A composite score of axial motor features included the following UPDRS items: speech, rigidity of the neck, arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability. A composite score of limb motor signs included the following UPDRS items: tremor at rest of all extremities, action tremor, rigidity of all extremities, finger taps, hand movement, rapid alternating hand movements and foot tapping. Results Axial motor features of PD were significantly correlated with physical inactivity (pphysical inactivity. After controlling for age, gender, disease duration and comorbidity, axial motor features contributed significantly to physical inactivity, decreased ADL and increase in ADL dependency, whereas the limb motor signs did not. Conclusions Axial motor impairment contributed to physical inactivity and decreased ability to perform ADLs in persons with PD. PMID:26368837

  15. Market Segmentation in (In)Action: Marketing and 'Yet to Be Installed' Role of Big and Social Media Data

    OpenAIRE

    Pridmore, Jason; Hämäläinen, Lalu Elias

    2017-01-01

    textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to differing marketing orientations, beginning with relationship marketing and moving towards exp...

  16. Addressing physical inactivity in Omani adults: perceptions of public health managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Ruth M; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q; Reeves, Marina M; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2014-03-01

    To explore barriers and solutions to addressing physical inactivity and prolonged sitting in the adult population of Oman. Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews that took place from October 2011 to January 2012. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process; later interviews explored emerging themes. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed and continued until data saturation; this occurred by the tenth interviewee. Thematic content analysis was carried out, guided by an ecological model of health behaviour. Muscat, Oman. Ten mid-level public health managers. Barriers for physical inactivity were grouped around four themes: (i) intrapersonal (lack of motivation, awareness and time); (ii) social (norms restricting women's participation in outdoor activity, low value of physical activity); (iii) environment (lack of places to be active, weather); and (iv) policy (ineffective health communication, limited resources). Solutions focused on culturally sensitive interventions at the environment (building sidewalks and exercise facilities) and policy levels (strengthening existing interventions and coordinating actions with relevant sectors). Participants' responses regarding sitting time were similar to, but much more limited than those related to physical inactivity, except for community participation and voluntarism, which were given greater emphasis as possible solutions to reduce sitting time. Given the increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman and the Arabian Gulf, urgent action is required to implement gender-relevant public health policies and programmes to address physical inactivity, a key modifiable risk factor. Additionally, research on the determinants of physical inactivity and prolonged sitting time is required to guide policy makers.

  17. Phytase modulates ileal microbiota and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Anna; Bedford, Michael R; Świątkiewicz, Sylwester; Żyła, Krzysztof; Józefiak, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Phytase is well studied and explored, however, little is known about its effects on the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract. In total, 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to four experimental groups. The dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 complete factorial design, with the factors being adequate (PC) or insufficient calcium (Ca) and digestible phosphor (dP)(NC) and with or without 5000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of Escherichia coli 6-phytase. The gastrointestinal tract pH values, ileal microbial communities and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the digesta were determined. The reduction in Ca and dP concentration significantly affected pH in the crop and caeca, and addition of phytase to the NC resulted in a pH increase in the ileum. The reduction in Ca and dP concentration significantly lowered, while phytase supplementation increased ileal total bacterial counts. Additionally, the deficient diet reduced butyrate- but increased lactate-producing bacteria. The addition of phytase increased Lactobacillus sp./Enterococcus sp. whereas in case of Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale cluster, Bifidobacterium sp. and Streptococcus/Lactococcus counts, a significant Ca and dP level x phytase interaction was found. However, the recorded interactions indicated that the effects of phytase and Ca and dP levels were not consistent. Furthermore, the reduction of Ca and dP level lowered Clostridium perfringens and Enterobacteriaceae counts. The analysis of fermentation products showed that reducing the Ca and dP content in the diet reduced total SCFA, DL-lactate, and acetic acid in the ileum whereas phytase increased concentrations of these acids in the NC group. This suggests that P is a factor which limits fermentation in the ileum. It may be concluded that phytase plays a role in modulating the gut microbiota of chicken, however, this is clearly linked with the levels of P and Ca in a diet.

  18. Bile acid flux through portal but not peripheral veins inhibits CYP7A1 expression without involvement of ileal FGF19 in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Quan; Guo, Grace L; Honda, Akira; Shi, Daniel; Saumoy, Monica; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong

    2014-08-15

    It was proposed that CYP7A1 expression is suppressed through the gut-hepatic signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, which is initiated by activation of farnesoid X receptor in the intestine rather than in the liver. The present study tested whether portal bile acid flux alone without ileal FGF19 could downregulate CYP7A1 expression in rabbits. A rabbit model was developed by infusing glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) through the splenic vein to bypass ileal FGF19. Study was conducted in four groups of rabbits: control; bile fistula + bovine serum albumin solution perfusion (BF); BF + GDCA (by portal perfusion); and BF + GDCA-f (by femoral perfusion). Compared with only BF, BF + GDCA (6 h portal perfusion) suppressed CYP7A1 mRNA, whereas BF + GDCA-f (via femoral vein) with the same perfusion rate of GDCA did not show inhibitory effects. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in ileal FGF19 expression and portal FGF19 protein levels, but an equivalent increase in biliary bile acid outputs in both GDCA perfusion groups. This study demonstrated that portal bile acid flux alone downregulated CYP7A1 expression with diminished FGF19 expression and protein levels, whereas the same bile acid flux reaching the liver through the hepatic artery via femoral vein had no inhibitory effect on CYP7A1. We propose that bile acid flux through the portal venous system may be a kind of "intestinal factor" that suppresses CYP7A1 expression. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V; Graugaard, Christian; Frisch, Morten

    2011-07-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting. To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex. We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women. Obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men ≥102 cm; women ≥88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85). In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier

  20. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-04-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. © 2015 Chaligné et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  2. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  3. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  4. Recurrent Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Ileal GIST Diagnosed by Video Capsule Endoscopy—A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST in the ileum is an extremely rare cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB. Case Report. An 89-year-old man was admitted with melana. He had extensive PMH of CAD post-CABG/AICD, AAA repair, chronic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lung cancer after resection, and recurrent GIB. Prior EGDs, colonoscopies, and upper device-assisted enteroscopy showed duodenal ulcer, A-V malformation s/p cauterization, and angioectasia. On admission, Hb was 6.0 g/dL. An endoscopic capsule study showed an ulcerated tumor in the ileum. CT showed no distant metastasis. The lesion was resected successfully and confirmed as a high-grade GIST. The patient was discharged with no further bleeding. Discussion. Early diagnosis for patients with ileal GIST is often challenging. Video capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy could be useful diagnostic tools. Surgical removal is the first line for a resectable GIST. Imatinib has become the standard therapy. Conclusion. This is a unique case of an ileal GIST in a patient with recurrent GIB which was diagnosed by video capsule. Complicated medical comorbidities often lead to a significant delay in diagnosis. Therefore, we recommend that if GIB does not resolve after appropriate treatments for known causes, the alternative diagnosis for occult GIB must be considered, including malignancy such as GIST.

  5. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  6. Separation of digesta fractions complicates estimation of ileal digestibility using marker methods with Cr2O3 and Co-EDTA in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marker methodologies to measure ileal and total tract digestibilities of diets varying in content and degradability of dietary fiber in broiler chickens were evaluated. Chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and cobalt-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Co-EDTA) were used as markers of solid and soluble

  7. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  9. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002?2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n?=?196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. ...

  10. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30 min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:24681155

  11. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  12. Anaesthetic Management of a patient with Myasthenia Gravis and Small Bowel Intussusception for Jejuno-Ileal Anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting voluntary skeletal muscles. The altered sensitivity of acetylcholine receptors to muscle relaxants and concomitant treatment with anticholinesterase in these patients affect their anaesthetic management. Patients who have undergone bowel anastomosis and are on regular anticholinesterase treatment are susceptible to anastomotic leaks. We report successful anaesthetic management of class I myasthenic patient with coexisting small bowel intussusception operated for jejuno-ileal anastomoses using regional, inhalational and intravenous (i.v anaesthesia based on train of four responses, and avoiding the use of reversal (anticholinesterase.

  13. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  14. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  15. Efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible lysine and threonine for whole body protein deposition in growing pigs is reduced when dietary casein is replaced by wheat shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libao-Mercado, A J; Leeson, S; Langer, S; Marty, B J; de Lange, C F M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effect of dietary inclusion level of wheat shorts (WS; a high nonstarch poly-saccharide-containing feed ingredient) and casein (CS; a control) on the efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys (kLys) and Thr (kThr) for whole body protein deposition (PD) in the growing pig, 2 separate N-balance studies were conducted with either Lys or Thr as first-limiting AA in cornstarch-based diets. For the Lys study, a basal diet (L-basal) was formulated to contain 0.24 g of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys per MJ of DE, to which 0.095 or 0.19 g of SID Lys per MJ of DE were added using either CS (L-CS2 or L-CS3, respectively) or WS (L-WS2 or L-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to L-CS3 but to which 6% pectin (L-pectin) was added as a source of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides. For the Thr study, the basal diet (T-basal) was formulated to contain 0.14 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE, to which 0.055 or 0.11 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE were added from CS (T-CS2 or T-CS3, respectively) or from WS (T-WS2 and T-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to T-CS3 but to which 6% pectin was added (T-pectin). Increasing SID Lys intake from CS did not influence kLys for PD (P > 0.10), whereas increasing SID Lys intake from WS reduced kLys for PD (P = 0.001; 89 vs. 79%). Inclusion of 6% pectin had no effect on kLys for PD (P > 0.10). Increasing SID Thr intake from CS also did not influence kThr for PD (P > 0.10), whereas kThr for PD was reduced at the greatest dietary inclusion level of WS (P 0.10). The inefficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys intake for PD may be attributed to nonreactive Lys in WS. The negative impact of including high levels of WS in the diet of pigs on kThr seems to be associated with fiber content of WS; it was not related to increased endogenous ileal AA losses at the distal ileum. The impact of dietary AA source on the use of ileal digestible Lys and Thr for PD, or other body functions, is

  16. Barrier-beliefs about physical activity in active and inactive adults : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Adrie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Perceived barriers are often a reason why people do not start physical activity or relapse to inactivity. From a psychological perspective, barriers can be seen as beliefs about what is obstructing people’s behavior. To understand inactivity and relapse from physical activity, this study

  17. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The effect of drying method temperature, collection method, and marker type on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in 21-day-old broilers fed corn-soybean meal-barley based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olojede, O C; Ford, M J; Jacob, J P; Ao, T; Pescatore, A J; Adedokun, S A

    2018-06-01

    For accurate estimation of nutrient digestibility, an ideal drying and sampling method is required to preserve the quality of the digesta. A standard corn-soybean meal (corn-SBM) broiler starter diet was fed from d 0 to 10 before birds were placed on the experimental diets until d 21. One hundred and sixty-eight male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of two drying methods (freeze-dryer vs. forced air-oven) and two drying temperatures (40 vs. 55°C) (Exp 1), while ninety-six chicks were used to evaluate the effect of flushing and squeezing as well as marker types (titanium vs. chromium) on apparent ileal DM, N, Ca, P, and AA digestibility (Exp 2). There were seven (Exp 1) or eight (Exp 2) replicate cages per treatment with 6 birds/cage. Digesta from the distal two thirds of the ileum was obtained from birds following euthanasia on d 21 by squeezing (Exp 1) and squeezing or flushing (Exp 2). Samples collected were stored in the freezer at -20°C until they were either freeze-dried (FD) or oven-dried (OD) at 40 or 55°C. There were no interactions between the drying methods and drying temperatures (Exp 1) on apparent ileal DM, N, and AA digestibility. Met had the highest (92.3%) while Cys had the lowest (73.8%) digestibility value. In Exp 2, no interaction between sampling methods and marker types was observed. The effect of sampling methods was not significant except for Arg and Met where squeezing resulted in higher (P digestibility values. Furthermore, apparent ileal His, Ile, Cys, Ser, and Tyr digestibility tended to be higher (P digestibility. Likewise, marker type did not influence apparent ileal AA digestibility values.

  19. Career transitions of inactive nurses: a registration database analysis (1993-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa

    2011-02-01

    One important strategy to address nursing shortages is to tap into the pool of licensed nurses who are not currently working in nursing and induce them to return to the nursing labour market. However, there is a paucity of research examining their likelihood of return to the active labour market. Analyze the career transitions of nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario but not working in the province's nursing labour market to determine the proportion of these nurses rejoining the active nursing workforce and examine the variation by inactive sub-category and age group. Quantitative analysis of a linked longitudinal database for all those registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario for the years 1993-2006. Registration records of all 215,687 nurses registered at any time in those years were merged by their unique registration number. Each nurse was placed for each year into an employment category. Two groups of nurses were defined: active (registered, working in nursing in Ontario) and inactive (registered, not working in nursing in Ontario). Inactive nurses were then sub-categorized into five mutually exclusive sub-categories: 'not working and seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and seeking nursing employment', 'not working and not seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and not seeking nursing employment' and 'working outside Ontario'. One-year career movements of nurses were tracked by generating 13 year-to-year transition matrixes. In the short-term, inactive nurses seeking a nursing job had the highest average rate of return to the active workforce (27.3-30.8%), though they might become high risk of leaving the profession if they do not find employment in a timely manner. Inactive nurses not seeking nursing employment are a heterogeneous group, and include nurses on leave who are likely to subsequently rejoin the active workforce should appropriate opportunities arise. The proportion of nurses rejoining the

  20. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tall oil fatty acid inclusion in the diet improves performance and increases ileal density of lactobacilli in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, K; Jurgens, G; Vuorenmaa, J; Apajalahti, J

    2018-04-20

    1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment. In both trials, TOFA improved body weight gain at all time points (P TOFA formulations (silica carrier and palm oil coating) were tested and showed performance effects similar to liquid TOFA. 3. Ileal digesta of the broiler chickens was analysed for total eubacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 35. TOFA significantly increased total eubacteria and lactobacilli density on day 14 (P TOFA (P 250 mg/l. The in vitro results were thus in line with in vivo observations. 5. The mechanisms behind the bacterial shifts and their role in performance improvement are unknown. Further purification of TOFA components is needed to identify the effective agents.

  2. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  3. Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41.4 ± 2.98 kg body weight] adapted (44-d feeding) to diets containing either 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) of kiwifruit fiber (KFf) (25 KFf) or 50 g/kg DM of KFf (50 KFf) and then again after receiving a fiber-free diet (n = 14) for a further 7 d. Pigs were used as a model for adult humans for digestion in the upper digestive tract (mouth to the terminal ileum). The ileal digesta (either unfractionated or fractionated into crude mucin and microbial fractions) were fermented in vitro for 24 h with the use of a fresh human fecal inoculum to predict SCFA production in the human hindgut. SCFAs of nondietary origin were the main source (65%) of total SCFAs predicted to be produced in the human hindgut. The contribution of SCFAs from KFf was only 26% of the total SCFAs, and that from total dietary material was 35%. The higher contribution of nondietary material to total predicted SCFA production was observed at both dietary fiber concentrations. Predicted SCFA intake from dietary fiber was 76 and 105 mmol/kg diet DM intake for the diets containing 25 KFf and 50 KFf, respectively, and from the nondietary substrates it was 178 and 280 mmol/kg diet DM intake, respectively. A considerable proportion of the SCFAs produced in the human hindgut seems to be derived from the fermentation of nondietary substrates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years....... In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low...

  5. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  6. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Johanna G; Volkers, Karin M; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H; Goossens, Richard H M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-28

    Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors that influence the amount of inactivity. The aim of this review was to review setting-related factors (including the social and physical environment) that may contribute to the amount of older adults' physical inactivity in a wide range of residential care settings (e.g., nursing homes, assisted care facilities). Five databases were systematically searched for eligible studies, using the key words 'inactivity', 'care facilities', and 'older adults', including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Additional studies were selected from references used in articles included from the search. Based on specific eligibility criteria, a total of 12 studies were included. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Based on studies using different methodologies (e.g., interviews and observations), and of different quality (assessed quality range: 25-100%), we report several aspects related to the physical environment and caregivers. Factors of the physical environment that may be related to physical inactivity included, among others, the environment's compatibility with the abilities of a resident, the presence of equipment, the accessibility, security, comfort, and aesthetics of the environment/corridors, and possibly the presence of some specific areas. Caregiver-related factors included staffing levels, the available time, and the amount and type of care being provided. Inactivity levels in residential care settings may be reduced by improving several features of the physical environment and with the help of caregivers. Intervention studies could be performed in order to gain more insight into causal effects of improving setting-related factors on

  7. ILEAL HERNIATION THROUGH THE FORAMEN OF WINSLOW: OVEREATING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INTERNAL HERNIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.

  8. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Postsurgical recurrence of ileal Crohn's disease: an update on risk factors and intervention points to a central role for impaired host-microflora homeostasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    A pressing need exists to identify factors that predispose to recurrence after terminal ileal resection for Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and to determine effective prophylactic strategies. This review presents an up-to-date summary of the literature in the field and points to a role for bacterial overproliferation in recurrence.

  10. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  12. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  13. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  14. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  15. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2014-06-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Zheng, Zhonghui; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2014-07-22

    Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11-18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p physical activity (No PA) in males [0-2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0-2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24-2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with grade and decreased with socioeconomic status. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors were prevalent in Chinese adolescents. Further support, including parental guidance and the provision of

  17. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  18. Changes in the diversity of pig ileal lactobacilli around weaning determined by means of 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzcyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Smidt, H.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    Our study aimed to provide a comprehensive characterization of changes in porcine intestinal Lactobacillus populations around the time of weaning based on 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA was extracted from the ileal contents of piglets at weaning

  19. The effects of smoking and physical inactivity on advancing mortality in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the rate advancement period (RAP) by which deaths for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality is advanced by smoking and physical inactivity among U.S. adults aged 18 years or more who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were followed to December 31, 2006. Mortality status was determined using the underlying cause of death. Cox regression was used to calculate the advanced time of deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among exposed adults relative to their nonexposed counterparts. Deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were advanced by 7.9 and 5.1 years among current smoker adults. For physically inactive adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were 4.0 and 2.4 years, respectively. The joint effects of current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity resulted in early all-cause and CVD-specific deaths of 14.2 and 12.2 years. For current smokers, physically inactive, and overweight adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific deaths were 7.9 and 8.9 years, respectively. Our findings suggest that smoking and physical inactivity could significantly advance the time of death associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality by at least 2.4 years among U.S. adults. Moreover, the advancement death period for the joint effects of smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity could be at least 7.9 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  1. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  2. Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Cheng, Minna; Zhang, Hao; Ke, Ting; Chen, Yisheng

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P physical inactivity in either sex (OR = 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

  3. Shallow high-resolution geophysical investigation along the western segment of the Victoria Lines Fault (island of Malta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Panzera, Francesco; Vassallo, Maurizio; Bozionelos, George; Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The Victoria Lines Fault (island of Malta) is a >15 km-long and N260°-striking segmented normal fault-system, which is probably inactive since the late Pliocene. In the westernmost part, the Fomm Ir-Rih segment displays comparable geologic throw and escarpment height ( 150-170 m), moreover its hangingwall hosts thin patches of Middle Pleistocene clastic continental deposits (red beds), which are poorly preserved elsewhere. We acquired two seismic transects, by collecting ambient vibration recordings, processed by using horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios, complemented by one high-resolution 2-D refraction tomography survey crossing this fault where it is locally covered by red beds and recent colluvial deposits. We found a resonance peak at 1.0 Hz in the hangingwall block, whereas clear peaks in the range 5.0-10.0 Hz appear when approaching the subsurface fault, and we relate them to the fractured bedrock within the fault zone. The best-fit tomographic model shows a relatively high-Vp shallow body (Vp 2200-2400 m/s) that we relate to the weathered top of the Miocene Upper Coralline Limestone Fm., bounded on both sides by low-Vp regions (230 m/s above the weathered top-bedrock. Our results depict a clear seismic signature of the Victoria Lines Fault, characterized by low seismic velocity and high amplification of ground motion. We hypothesize that, during the Middle Pleistocene, faulting may have affected the basal part of the red beds, so that this part of the investigated complex fault-system may be considered inactive since 0.6 Myr ago.

  4. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  5. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with head and neck cancer: a hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Alexis J; Cannioto, Rikki A; Etter, John Lewis; Kim, Jae; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; Callahan, Emily; Khachatryan, Edgar; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Brian Szender, J; Singh, Anurag K; Danziger, Iris; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-10-01

    Despite mounting epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association between recreational physical activity and cancer risk, evidence associated with head and neck cancer is scant. We conducted a case-control analysis to examine the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We utilized data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Participants included 246 patients with HNSCC and 504 cancer-free controls who received medical services at RPCI between 1990 and 1998. Participants were considered physically inactive if they did not participate in any regular, weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime, prior to diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the association between lifetime physical inactivity and HNSCC risk. We observed a significant positive association between recreational physical inactivity and HNSCC risk (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.87-3.99, p physical inactivity associates with HNSCC independent of BMI. In addition, physical inactivity may be a modifiable risk factor among never smokers. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an independent risk factor for cancer.

  6. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were...... found in 14% of the respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds for being physically inactive were almost doubled in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes 1.74 (95% CI 1.32-2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of depressive symptoms almost doubles the likelihood of physical inactivity...

  7. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  8. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  9. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  10. Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willing, B.; Halfvarson, J.; Dicksved, J.; Rosenquist, M.; Jarnerot, G.; Engstrand, L.; Tysk, C.; Jansson, J. K

    2008-08-15

    Large inter-individual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease. To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and influence of genotype, we studied the mucosaassociated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n=6) or concordant (n=4) for Crohn's disease. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal Crohn's had a dramatically lower abundance (P<0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P<0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with Crohn's localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, distinct from colonic Crohn's disease and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of Crohn's and eventually customized treatment.

  11. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  12. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  13. Early adulthood determinants of mid-life leisure-time physical inactivity stability and change: Findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Power, Chris

    2018-07-01

    Physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Knowledge is needed of influences on inactive lifestyles. We aimed to establish whether early adult factors predict subsequent inactivity patterns in mid-adulthood. Leisure-time inactivity (activity frequencyphysical status, mental function, social, family and neighbourhood circumstances with four 33-50y patterns (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating or improving) using multinomial logistic regression with and without adjustment for childhood factors (e.g. social class). Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33y and 50y (∼31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. Factors associated with persistent vs never inactive were: limiting illness (relative risk ratio (RRR):1.21(1.04,1.42) per number of ages exposed (0,1 or 2 times across ages 23y and 33y), obesity (1.33(1.16,1.54) per number of ages exposed), height (0.93(0.89,0.98) per 5cm), depression (1.32(1.19,1.47) per number of ages exposed); education (1.28(1.20,1.38) per decrease on 5-point scale) and neighbourhood (1.59(1.37,1.86) in 'industrial/local authority housing areas' and 1.33(1.12,1.58) in 'growth/metropolitan inner areas' vs 'suburbs, service, rural or seaside areas'). Associations were broadly similar for inactivity deterioration. Industrial/local authority housing areas (0.75(0.61,0.91)) and longer obesity exposure (0.78(0.64,0.95)) were associated with lower RRRs for improvement. Number of children was associated with improvement, although associations varied by age. Associations remained after adjustment for childhood factors. Several early adult factors are associated with inactivity persistence and deterioration; fewer with improvement. Obesity duration and neighbourhood lived in during young adulthood had long-lasting associations with inactivity patterns in mid-life. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term morbidity and quality of life from a randomized clinical trial of close rectal dissection and total mesorectal excision in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, S. A. L.; Gardenbroek, T. J.; Aarts, M.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Tanis, P. J.; Buskens, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior rectal dissection during ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) can be performed in the total mesorectal excision (TME) or close rectal dissection (CRD) plane. The aim of this study was to compare morbidity and quality of life (QoL) in patients having TME or CRD during proctectomy followed by

  15. A population-based survey on physical inactivity and leisure time physical activity among adults in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanamee, Sanhapan; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Wattanapisit, Apichai; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Thaikla, Kanittha; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-01-01

    Reducing physical inactivity among the population is a challenge for many nations. Targeting leisure time physical activity (LTPA) may be useful in increasing overall physical activity as it is assumed it is associated with a higher degree of free choice and personal preference than physical activity at work and during travel. The study explored the prevalence of physical inactivity and focused on the overall level of energy expenditure and energy level spent during leisure time among those who were physically inactive and assessed the stages of change for LTPA among those who were physically inactive. A population-based survey was conducted in 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect the data on physical activity. Sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) were defined as ≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity PA or ≥75 min/week of vigorous-intensity PA or ≥600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes/week. Weighted analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity, the total energy expenditure and expenditure during LTPA as well as stages of change among the physically inactive population. A total of 1744 people (808 men and 936 women), aged 15 to 64 years, participated in the study. We estimated that a quarter (26%) of the population were physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more commonly found among women than men in most age groups. LTPA contributed a small proportion of overall PA. On average, physically inactive men spent 132.8 MET-minutes/week and inactive women spent 208.2 MET-minutes/week in overall PA which is well below the 600 MET-minutes/week recommend by the World Health Organization. Around 75% of physically inactive people had no intention of engaging in regular LTPA. About a quarter of the investigative population were physically inactive. Most physically inactive members of the population

  16. Decomposing socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity: the case of Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Almorox, Eduardo; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2016-07-12

    Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and entails a substantial economic burden for health systems. Also, the analysis of inequality in lifestyles for young populations may contribute to reduce health inequalities during adulthood. This paper examines the income-related inequality regarding leisure-time physical inactivity in Spanish children. In this cross-sectional study based on the Spanish National Health Survey for 2011-12, concentration indices are estimated to measure socioeconomic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity. A decomposition analysis is performed to determine the factors that explain income-related inequalities. There is a significant socioeconomic gradient favouring the better-off associated with leisure-time physical inactivity amongst Spanish children, which is more pronounced in the case of girls. Income shows the highest contribution to total inequality, followed by education of the head of the household. The contribution of several factors (education, place of residence, age) significantly differs by gender. There is an important inequity in the distribution of leisure-time physical inactivity. Public policies aimed at promoting physical activity for children should prioritize the action into the most disadvantaged subgroups of the population. As the influence of determinants of health styles significantly differ by gender, this study points out the need of addressing the research on income-related inequalities in health habits from a gender perspective.

  17. Assessment of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students, south-western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, N J; Aboelyazed, A E; Hassanein, M A; Khalil, S N; Aftab, R; Gaballa, I I; Mahfouz, A A

    2014-10-20

    Physical inactivity is a public health problem in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students in King Khalid University. A total of 1257 students (426 males and 831 females) were recruited. The Arabic short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Overall, 58.0% of the students were physically inactive. Only 13.4% of the students performed vigorous physical activity, 14.8% moderate-intensity physical activity and 29.9% walking activities which met World Health Organization criteria of health-enhancing physical activities. The prevalence of inactive leisure time was 47.5%. The independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership of sports clubs and being a medical student. The top reported barrier to physical activity among inactive students was time limitations (51.3%). Overcoming perceived barriers may increase physical activity among students.

  18. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  20. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  1. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  2. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  3. Clustering of Physical Inactivity in Leisure, Work, Commuting, and Household Domains: Data From 47,477 Industrial Workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Giovâni F; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Shana Ginar; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Oliveira, Elusa S; Barros, Mauro V; Nahas, Markus V

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity in each domain (leisure, work, commuting, and household) is not completely independent. This study aimed to describe the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains and its association with sociodemographic factors among Brazilian industrial workers. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District collected via questionnaires between 2006 and 2008. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as nonparticipation in specific physical activities. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified using the ratio of the observed (O) and expected (E) percentages of each combination. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors with the outcome. Among the 44,477 interviewees, most combinations exceeded expectations, particularly the clustering of physical inactivity in all domains among men (O/E = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30; 1.44) and women (O/E = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.36; 1.60). Physical inactivity in 2 or more domains was observed more frequently in women, older age groups, individuals living without a partner, and those with higher education and income levels. Physical inactivity tends to be observed in clusters regardless of gender. Women and workers with higher income levels were the main factors associated with to be physically inactive in 2 or more domains.

  4. Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Kassean, Hemant Kumar; Tsala Tsala, Jacques Philippe; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of physical inactivity among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data from 17,928 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 24 universities in 23 countries. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 41.4 %, ranging from 21.9 % in Kyrgyzstan to 80.6 % in Pakistan. In multivariate logistic regression, older age (22-30 years), studying in a low- or lower middle-income country, skipping breakfast and lack of social support were associated with physical inactivity. In men, being underweight, being overweight or obese, not avoiding fat and cholesterol, not having severe depression symptoms, low beliefs in the health benefits of physical activity, low personal control and knowledge of exercise-heart link, and in women, not trying to eat fibre, low personal mastery and medium personal control were additionally associated with physical inactivity. Four in each ten students are physically inactive, calling for strategic interventions by relevant professionals in higher educational institutions.

  5. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  6. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Linda S; Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  7. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for

  8. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H.; Goossens, Richard H. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors

  9. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  10. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of loperamide and delay of bowel motility on bile acid malabsorption caused by late radiation damage and ileal resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R. (Nederlands Kanker Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B. (Nederlands Kanker Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1991-05-01

    Selenium-75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ({sup 75}Se-HCAT) was used during loperamide administration in seven patients suspected of having bile acid malabsorption due to late radiation damage and small-bowel resection in order to document the aetiology of ileal dysfunction and to adjust therapeutic mamagement. In two patients with ileal resection up to 50 cm and in one patient without resection, a reduction of bowel motility by loperamide resulted in marked normalization of the {sup 75}Se-HCAT retention measurements. Sequential scintigraphic {sup 75}Se-HCAT imaging demonstrated a significant improvement in the {sup 75}Se-HCAT reabsorption and recirculation, accompanied in one case by prolongation of colonic retention of the radiopharmaceutical. In four patients with more than 80 cm resection, the {sup 75}Se-HCAT test was abnormal during loperamide administration. In two of these patients for whom baseline values were available, no improvement in the pattern of {sup 75}Se-HCAT absorption was observed. In conclusion, the first results of loperamide {sup 75}Se-HCAT in patients suspected of having bile acid malabsorption and abnormal baseline {sup 75}Se-HCAT are promising. Intervention with loperamide is easy and seems to improve the clinical value of the test with direct therapeutic implications. Sequential {sup 75}Se-HCAT imaging is essential for interpreting changes in the {sup 75}Se-HCAT retention measurements. (orig.).

  13. Ileal Transposition Surgery Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic GK Rats: Possible Involvement of FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemin Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ileal transposition (IT surgery has been reported to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a powerful metabolic regulator. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of IT surgery on metabolism and its possible relationship with the FGF21 signaling pathway in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.Methods: Ten-week-old male GK rats were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of a 10 cm ileal segment to the proximal jejunum (IT group or sham surgery without the ileum transposition (Sham-IT group. Rats in the no surgery group did not receive any surgical intervention. Six weeks later, body weight, fat mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin were measured. The expression of the FGF21 signaling pathway and white adipose tissue (WAT browning-related genes in the WAT and liver were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and western blot.Results: IT surgery significantly decreased the body weights and FBG levels and increased the insulin sensitivity of GK rats. The total WAT mass of the IT rats showed a 41.5% reduction compared with the Sham-IT rats, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin of the IT rats decreased by 26.3 and 61.7%, respectively (all P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and its co-receptor β klotho (KLB in the perirenal WAT (pWAT of the IT rats were 1.4- and 2.4-fold that of the Sham-IT rats, respectively, and the FGFR1 protein levels were 1.7-fold of the Sham-IT rats (all P < 0.05. In accordance with the pWAT, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the epididymal WAT (eWAT of the IT rats notably increased to 3.0- and 3.9-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. Furthermore, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 protein levels in the eWAT and pWAT of the IT rats also increased to 2.2- and 2.3-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. However, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the

  14. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  15. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  16. Specific binding component of the 'inactive' stereoisomer (S,S)-[125I]IQNB to rat brain muscarinic receptors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Sheila F.; McRee, R. Carter; Cohen, Victor I.; Sood, Virendar K.; Zeeberg, Barry R.; Reba, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    In vivo nonspecific binding can be estimated using the inactive stereoisomer of a receptor radioligand. However, the binding of the inactive stereoisomer may be partially specific. Specific binding of the inactive (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB was estimated from the inhibition induced by a competing nonradioactive ligand. This technique differed from the usual approach, since it was used to study the inactive rather than the active stereoisomer. The results indicate that there is substantial specific binding for (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB

  17. Application of inactive cycle stopping criteria for Monte Carlo Wielandt calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, H. J.; Kim, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Wielandt method is incorporated into Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation as a way to speed up fission source convergence. To make the most of the MC Wielandt method, however, it is highly desirable to halt inactive cycle runs in a timely manner because it requires a much longer computational time to execute a single cycle MC run than the conventional MC eigenvalue calculations. This paper presents an algorithm to detect the onset of the active cycles and thereby to stop automatically the inactive cycle MC runs based on two anterior stopping criteria. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to a slow convergence problem. (authors)

  18. Comparative estimation of inevitable endogenous ileal flow of amino acids in Pekin ducks under varying dietary or physiological conditions and their significance to nutritional requirements for amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, D O

    2017-10-01

    In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg. Four floor pens of eight 85-day-old ducks were randomly allocated to each diet. Similar diets were mixed in experiment 2 but corn cob meal replaced cellulose as the fiber source. A high SO (HSO) series was also formed by increasing the SO level from 40 g/kg in the basal series to 100 g/kg. Thus the LCF series was concurrently classified as low SO (LSO) series to control SO effect. Each of the eventual 9 diets were fed to 5 floor pens of ten 65-day-old ducks. Ileal AA flow was measured after a 5 day feeding period in both experiments. Linear regression was calculated between ileal flow and dietary intake of individual AA. The IEIF interpreted as the y-intercept of each linear function responded neither to elevated ingestion of each CF type nor to SO level. Age and DMI had no effect on IEIF computed in relation to BW, but wide discrepancies resulted when related to DMI. Overall IEIF of AA varied between 14.3 to 129.8 mg/kg BW d-1. These flows were established in model computations to account for 10 to 64% of the recommended intake of limiting AA. In conclusion the ileal inevitable flow is constant within the dietary/age conditions investigated. However it is modulated by feed intake and accounts for a significant portion of total amino acid requirement. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  1. Back and neck pain prevalence and their association with physical inactivity domains in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabottolo, Catarina Covolo; Pinto, R Z; Oliveira, C B; Zanuto, E F; Cardoso, J R; Christofaro, D G D

    2017-09-01

    Back pain affects people of all ages. This may be associated with physical inactivity, and in the case of physical activity in different domains, the relationship with back pain is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of low back and neck pain and investigate their association in different domains of physical inactivity. 1011 randomly selected students participated in this study. Neck and back pain were assessed using the Nordic questionnaire, whereas the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire was used to measure physical activity domains. Separate Binary Logistic Regression models were performed to investigate the association of physical activity domains with neck or back pain. 17.4% of the students reported cervical pain, while 18.0% reported low back pain. Older adolescents had a higher prevalence of cervical pain (24.4%) than younger adolescents (11.9%) (p value pain, being 25.1% in older adolescents and 12.4% in younger (p value pain in the cervical region [OR 0.67 (0.44-0.99)] or back pain [OR 0.60 (0.40-0.91)]. Being inactive in occupational activities was associated with cervical pain [OR 1.49 (1.06-2.10)]. Being inactive in the sports environment presented a marginal relationship with pain in the cervical region [OR 1.41 (0.99-2.02)]. The prevalence of neck and low back pain was higher in older adolescents and physical inactivity in the sporting context and occupational activities could be a risk factor to increase the chances of back pain.

  2. Subjective neighborhood assessment and physical inactivity: An examination of neighborhood-level variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen

    2018-06-01

    Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIV. Hypothesis: The ileal Peyer patches (IPP) are the major source of primary, undiversified IgA antibodies in newborn piglets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Santiago-Mateo, K.; Wertz, N.; Sun, X.; Šinkora, Marek; Francis, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, December (2016), s. 340-351 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germfree animals * Ileal Peyers patches * Immunoglobulin A Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  4. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  5. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  6. Self-reported physical inactivity and health complaints: a cross-sectional study of Lithuanian adolescent schoolgirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdas Malinauskas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical inactivity and health complaints in relation to posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms, behavioral and nutritional factors, and sense of coherence (SOC in eighth-grade girls enrolled in secondary schools in Kaunas, Lithuania. A random sample of girls (N = 862 was interviewed anonymously on health complaints, physical activity level, PTS symptoms, Antonovsky’s SOC scale, health behaviors, and dietary patterns. All health complaints were significantly associated with physical inactivity. Crude odds ratio (OR for physical inactivity and health complaints was 1.67 (95%CI: 1.09-2.56; after adjusting for PTS symptoms, the OR decreased to 1.57 (95%CI: 0.95-2.45; further adjustment for smoking, daily alcohol intake, daily consumption of fresh vegetables, and SOC decreased the OR to 1.25 (95%CI: 0.76-2.04. The effect of PTS symptoms and sense of coherence remained stable after all adjustments. The significant association between physical inactivity and health complaints was mediated by PTS symptoms.

  7. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  8. Dyspeptic symptoms and delayed gastric emptying of solids in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóbrega Ana Carolina Mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Crohn’s disease (CD have been shown to present dyspeptic symptoms more frequently than the general population. Some of these symptoms could be related to motility disorders to some degree. Then, we propose to investigate whether gastric emptying of solids in patients with inactive CD is delayed and to determine the relationships between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in inactive CD. Methods Twenty-six patients with inactive Crohn’s disease, as defined by a Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI 13C octanoic acid coupled to a solid meal and answered a validated questionnaire (The Porto Alegre Dyspeptic Symptoms Questionnaire to assess dyspeptic symptoms. Patients with scores ≥ 6 were considered to have dyspepsia. The control group was composed by 19 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Results Patients with CD had a significantly longer t 1/2 and t lag (p Conclusion Delayed gastric emptying in inactive Crohn’s disease patients seems to be associated with dyspeptic symptoms, particularly vomiting, even without any evidence of gastrointestinal obstruction.

  9. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  10. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...... did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data...

  11. Midgut pain due to an intussuscepting terminal ileal lipoma: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abbasakoor, Noormuhammad O

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of intussusception in adults is rare. The condition is found in 1 in 1300 abdominal operations and 1 in 100 patients operated for intestinal obstruction. The child to adult ratio is 20:1. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Irish Caucasian woman was investigated for a 3-month history of intermittent episodes of colicky midgut pain and associated constipation. Ileocolonoscopy revealed a pedunculated lesion in the terminal ileum prolapsing into the caecum. Computed tomography confirmed a smooth-walled, nonobstructing, low density intramural lesion in the terminal ileum with secondary intussusception. A laparoscopic small bowel resection was performed. Histology revealed a large pedunculated polypoidal mass measuring 4 x 2.5 x 2 cm consistent with a submucosal lipoma. She had complete resolution of her symptoms and remained well at 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: This case highlights an unusual cause of incomplete small bowel obstruction successfully treated through interdisciplinary cooperation. Ileal lipomas are not typically amenable to endoscopic removal and require resection. This can be successfully achieved via a laparoscopic approach with early restoration of premorbid functioning.

  12. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( digestible AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( digestibility (SID) of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, and quadratically increased ( digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  13. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: Protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Baertsch, N.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  14. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  15. Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua Z; Moon, Yeseon P; Kulick, Erin R; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-01-01

    Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regression was performed to examine the associations between physical inactivity and future gait speed adjusted for confounders. Among 711 participants with MRI and gait speed measures (62% women, 71% Hispanic, mean age 74.1 ± 8.4), the mean gait speed was 1.02 ± 0.26 m/s. Physical inactivity was associated with a greater odds of gait speed in the lowest quartile (Physical inactivity is associated with slower gait speed independently of osteoarthritis, grip strength, and subclinical ischemic brain injury. Modifying sedentary behavior poses a target for interventions aimed at reducing decline in mobility. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion for neurogenic bladders and related conditions. Morbidity and better quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhri, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Jacqmin, D; Lang, H; Saussine, C

    2015-05-01

    To assess morbidity and functional consequences of laparoscopic cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion: in neurologic patients. We reviewed the records of forty-two patients (ten men and thirty-two women) who underwent surgery between August 2007 and October 2013. The median age of the patient was 54 years old (range between 21-79 years). A laparoscopic cystectomy was performed followed by a short laparotomy to perform the ileal conduit urinary diversion. Records were reviewed to retrieve the indications and describe the postoperative and functional course. Patients and GPs were interviewed during phone calls to appreciate the quality of life by the PGII scale in order to assess the functional outcome. The operation was performed on 42 patients, of whom 18 had multiple sclerosis, nine a post-traumatic neurogenic bladder. Among the total population, 10 patients (23.81%) required a transfusion of at least one packed red blood cells (1-7). The overall rate of early complications was 35.71%. Belated complications were seen in 52.38% of the population. The median duration of hospital stay was 16 days (range between 9-70 days). The median follow up was 34 months (range between 1-76 months). For patients, the PGII scale rating had a median value of 6 (2-7). All referring physicians described a better functional status. The laparoscopic cystectomy can make postoperative course smoother for the neurological patients. However, the surgeon must weigh individually the benefit of performing the operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of multi-carbohydrase and phytase on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and apparent metabolizable energy in canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Dadalt, J C; Kiarie, E; Trindade Neto, M A

    2017-09-01

    Two assays were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of canola meal (CM) fed to broiler chicks without or with a multi-carbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 30,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet). Assay 1 determined apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (AME) by the difference method. Assay 2 determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by the index method. Two reference diets (RD) - an 85% corn based and a 5% casein-cornstarch diet fortified with vitamins and minerals - were made for assays 1 and 2, respectively. For each assay, the test diets were made by mixing RD and CM 7:3 wt/wt basis and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. A total of 245 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) was allocated to 5 treatments to give 7 replicates (7 birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day zero to 10 followed by assay 1 fed from d 11 to 18 and assay 2 fed from d 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on d 15 to18, and all birds were slaughtered on d 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P  0.05) between MC and Phy on AMEn; however, MC and Phy individually improved AMEn retention. Enzymes interacted (P < 0.05) on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Met, Thr, Ala, Asp, Gln, and Gly. In this context, feeding a combination of MC and Phy resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, His, Met, and Thr relative to single activity or control. Both enzymes improved (P < 0.05) SID of Lys independently. The combination of carbohydrase and Phy may be an effective strategy to improve amino acid utilization in CM for poultry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  19. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  20. Spinal TNFα is necessary for inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broytman, Oleg; Baertsch, Nathan A; Baker-Herman, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    A prolonged reduction in central neural respiratory activity elicits a form of plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a ‘rebound’ increase in phrenic burst amplitude apparent once respiratory neural activity is restored. iPMF requires atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) activity within spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus to stabilize an early transient increase in phrenic burst amplitude and to form long-lasting iPMF following reduced respiratory neural activity. Upstream signal(s) leading to spinal aPKC activation are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that spinal tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is necessary for iPMF via an aPKC-dependent mechanism. Anaesthetized, ventilated rats were exposed to a 30 min neural apnoea; upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude (42 ± 9% baseline; P phrenic motor nucleus prior to neural apnoea blocked long-lasting iPMF (2 ± 8% baseline; P > 0.05). Intrathecal TNFα without neural apnoea was sufficient to elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; 62 ± 7% baseline; P < 0.05). Similar to iPMF, TNFα-induced pMF required spinal aPKC activity, as intrathecal delivery of a ζ-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (PKCζ-PS) 35 min following intrathecal TNFα arrested TNFα-induced pMF (28 ± 8% baseline; P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that: (1) spinal TNFα is necessary for iPMF; and (2) spinal TNFα is sufficient to elicit pMF via a similar aPKC-dependent mechanism. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced respiratory neural activity elicits iPMF via a TNFα-dependent increase in spinal aPKC activity. PMID:23878370

  1. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Nguyen, Binh; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pratt, Michael; Lawson, Kenny D

    2017-10-01

    To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts. Studies that examined the economic consequences of physical inactivity in a population/population-based sample, with clearly stated methodologies and at least an abstract/summary written in English. Of the 40 eligible studies, 27 focused on direct healthcare costs only, 13 also estimated indirect costs and one study additionally estimated household costs. For direct costs, 23 studies used a population attributable fraction (PAF) approach with estimated healthcare costs attributable to physical inactivity ranging from 0.3% to 4.6% of national healthcare expenditure; 17 studies used an econometric approach, which tended to yield higher estimates than those using a PAF approach. For indirect costs, 10 studies used a human capital approach, two used a friction cost approach and one used a value of a statistical life approach. Overall, estimates varied substantially, even within the same country, depending on analytical approaches, time frame and other methodological considerations. Estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity is an area of increasing importance that requires further development. There is a marked lack of consistency in methodological approaches and transparency of reporting. Future studies could benefit from cross-disciplinary collaborations involving economists and physical activity experts, taking a societal perspective and following best practices in conducting and reporting analysis, including accounting for potential confounding, reverse causality and

  2. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  3. Efeito da adição de enzimas em dietas de frangos de corte à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre a digestibilidade ileal de nutrientes Effect of enzymes supplementation in corn soybean meal broiler diets on ileal digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Atencio Tejedor

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos, utilizando pintos de corte Avian Farm, no período de 8 a 18 dias de idade, foram realizados para se avaliar o efeito de enzimas microbianas sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD ileal aparente da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB, da energia bruta (EB, do fósforo (P e do cálcio (Ca de dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja com diferentes níveis de Ca e P disponível (Pd. Óxido crômico (0,5% foi adicionado às dietas a fim de se estimar o fator de indigestibilidade. Todas as aves foram abatidas aos 19 dias, para a coleta da digesta. O primeiro experimento foi realizado em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2, com seis repetições contendo 10 aves. As dietas foram formuladas contendo dois níveis de Ca e Pd normal (1%Ca/0,45%Pd e baixo (0,70%Ca/0,32%Pd x dois níveis de enzima fitase (0 e 1 kg/t de ração. O segundo experimento foi realizado em arranjo fatorial 2 x 3, sendo dois níveis de Ca e Pd normal (1%Ca/0,45%Pd e baixo (0,70%Ca/0,32Pd% e três combinações de enzimas: complexo multienzimático (CM com fitase (Fit: 0 kg/t para o controle, 2 kg/t (CM e 2 kg/t mais 1 kg/t de fitase (CM+Fit, com seis repetições, contendo 10 aves cada. No experimento 1, a adição de fitase melhorou a digestibilidade ileal da MS (5,2%, PB (2,4% e EB (3,8%. Interação significativa foi observada na digestibilidade do Ca e P, sendo que adição da fitase melhorou a digestibilidade do Ca e P em ambos níveis de Ca e P. No segundo experimento, a adição do CM melhorou o CD da PB, P e Ca em 3; 4,7; e 7,8%, respectivamente. A associação do CM+fitase mostrou efeito aditivo no aproveitamento do Ca e P. Interação foi observada para o CD da EB, a adição do CM melhorou a digestibilidade em ambos níveis de Ca e Pd, entretanto o CM+fitase melhorou o CD da EB apenas no nível baixo de Ca e P.Two experiments, using 8 to 18 days old Avian -Farm male broiler chicks, were conducted to evaluate the effect of microbial enzymes on the ileal

  4. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  5. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina

    2016-08-04

    Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %). The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects) regression models. Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99) in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00) and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98), respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding) of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual-level analyses. Adjustment for multiple covariates did not change these associations. Higher education is associated with lower odds of leisure-time physical inactivity during the three-decade follow

  6. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  7. Predictors of physical inactivity in men and women with type 2 diabetes from the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret M; Davey, Janice; Wackers, Frans J Th; Chyun, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine changes in physical inactivity from baseline to 5 years and to identify factors associated with and predictive of physical inactivity among individuals with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study. DIAD was a prospective randomized screening trial that assessed the prevalence of silent ischemia in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were recruited from diabetes and primary care practices at 14 centers throughout the United States and Canada. This is a secondary data analysis of the physical activity data (type and hours/week) collected. No intervention was conducted. In all subjects, physical inactivity rose from 24% at baseline to 33% at 5 years (S = 28.93; P physical inactivity as well as in factors predictive of physical inactivity at 5 years. Important factors associated at both time points included lower level of education, current employment, presence of peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and indicators of overweight/obesity. Baseline physical inactivity was strongly predictive of physical inactivity at 5 years (odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 2.36-4.54; P physical inactivity. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  9. Lifetime physical inactivity is associated with increased risk for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Cannioto, Rikki; Soh, Kah Teong; Alquassim, Emad; Almohanna, Hani; Dunbar, Zachary; Joseph, Janine M; Balderman, Sophia; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-03-27

    Although physical activity is a well-established risk factor for several cancer types, studies evaluating its association with lymphoma have yielded inconclusive results. In such cases where physical activity is not clearly associated with cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner, investigators have begun examining physical inactivity as an independent exposure of interest. Associations of self-reported, lifetime physical inactivity with risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a hospital-based case control study using data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participants included 87 patients with HL and 236 patients with NHL as well as 348 and 952 cancer-free controls, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimating the association between physical inactivity and lymphoma risk. We observed significant, positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and risk of both HL (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15-3.15) and NHL (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.82). The current analysis provides evidence for a positive association between physical inactivity and risk of both HL and NHL. These results add to a growing body of research suggesting that lifetime physical inactivity may be an important independent, modifiable behavioral risk factor for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of pertechnetate sup 99m Tc for abdominal scanning in localising an ileal duplication cyst: Case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouffe, P.; Venel, H.; Meuriot, S.; Marchandise, X. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France). Service Associe de Medecine Nucleaire); Spyckerelle, C. (Centre Hospitalier Feron Vrau, 59 - Lille (France). Service de Pediatrie A)

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with periumbilical postprandial pain and some melena. Physical examination was normal. All investigations were negative except pertechnetate Tc 99m abdominal scan which showed a very large and horn-shaped focus of high activity in the right flank. An ileal duplication was resected. It was lined by antral gastric muscosa with a large ulcer. The patient was treated successfully. Interest in abdominal pertechnetate scan is discussed. (orig.).

  11. Leisure-time physical inactivity and association with body mass index: a Finnish Twin Study with a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Waller, Katja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Kujala, Urho M; Ropponen, Annina

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the stability and change of leisure-time physical inactivity in adult men and women during a 35-year follow-up. We also analysed the impact of long-term physical inactivity on the development of body mass index (BMI). : In this population-based cohort study, 5254 Finnish twin individuals (59% women) participated in four surveys in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011. Mean age at baseline was 23.9 years. Individual long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was categorized into seven classes varying from 'persistently inactive' to 'persistently active'. We used the multivariate multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model and paired-sample t-test in the analyses. Co-twin control design was used for examining within-pair associations. : Of men 11%, and of women 8%, were persistently inactive. Among both sexes, the mean BMI slope trajectories were steeper among the persistently inactive and those who became inactive than among those who were persistently active. Overall, the inactive participants gained 1.4 kg/m 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.7] more in weight than did the active participants from 1975 to 2011. Among twin pairs discordant for LTPA, the corresponding difference was 1.4 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.0) in dizygotic pairs and 0.68 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.05 to1.3) in monozygotic pairs. Over a 35-year time span from young adulthood, persistently inactive participants and those who had become inactive had greater weight increases than those who were persistently active. This association was also found in twin-pair analyses, although attenuated in monozygotic pairs. This may support the importance of LTPA in weight management, although further causal inference is required. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Anoj Kumar; Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Patra, R.P.; Vikas Kumar; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes about the experience gained during the radiation monitoring of inactive scrap generated at various nuclear facilities. This type surveillance is carried out to prevent the spread of radioactivity in public domain and also as requirement by regulatory authorities. The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that no radioactive material reaches public domain. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Inactive scraps (metallic and non metallic) generated from various nuclear facilities of BARC, Trombay is dispatched to Trombay Village Store (TVS) for temporary storage before auction to the public. The monitoring at the facility includes visual inspection and radiation measurement before loading the scrap in the truck. An online PC based monitoring system and portable monitoring instruments in the range (nSv/h-µSv/h) are used to carry out radiation monitoring of inactive scrap loaded in a vehicle. Radioactive source of high activity with potential for serious environmental hazard has not been detected, but few cases of presence of radioactive/contaminated material (MS plate/equipments with low level of 137 Cs contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. Implementation of strict regulatory measures and radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities can minimize the probability of radioactive material reaching the public domain. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of radioactivity in scrap if any. (author)

  13. Model and Reduction of Inactive Times in a Maintenance Workshop Following a Diagnostic Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Beda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of maintenance workshops in manufacturing factories are hierarchical. This arrangement permits quick response in advent of a breakdown. Reaction of the maintenance workshop is done by evaluating the characteristics of the breakdown. In effect, a diagnostic error at a given level of the process of decision making delays the restoration of normal operating state. The consequences are not just financial loses, but loss in customers’ satisfaction as well. The goal of this paper is to model the inactive time of a maintenance workshop in case that an unpredicted catalectic breakdown has occurred and a diagnostic error has also occurred at a certain level of decision-making, during the treatment process of the breakdown. We show that the expression for the inactive times obtained, is depended only on the characteristics of the workshop. Next, we propose a method to reduce the inactive times.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnam, M H; Shell, W E [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-08-27

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. /sup 125/I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 ..mu..g equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnam, M.H.; Shell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. 125 I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 μg equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity. (Auth.)

  16. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  17. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  18. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  19. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  20. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with bladder and renal cancer risk: A hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; Guterman, Lauren Beryl; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; LaMonte, Michael J; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Szender, James Brian; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-08-01

    Recreational physical inactivity has been gaining recognition as an independent epidemiological exposure of interest in relation to cancer endpoints due to evidence suggesting that it may associate with cancer independent of obesity. In the current analyses, we examined the associations of lifetime recreational physical inactivity with renal and bladder cancer risk. In this hospital-based case-control study, we identified N=160 renal cancer patients, N=208 bladder cancer patients, and N=766 age frequency-matched controls without cancer. Participants self-reporting never participating in any regular/weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime were classified as physically inactive. Utilizing unconditional multivariable logistic regression analyses, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to represent the associations between lifetime physical inactivity and renal and bladder cancer risk. In multivariable logistic regression models, we observed significant positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and renal cancer and bladder cancer risk: odds ratio=1.77 (95% CI: 1.10-2.85) and odds ratio=1.73 (95% CI: 1.13-2.63), respectively. Similar associations also persisted among individuals who were not obese for both renal and bladder cancer: odds ratio=1.75 (95% CI: 1.03-2.98) and odds ratio=1.70 (95% CI: 1.08-2.69), respectively. In this case-control study, we observed evidence of a positive association between renal and bladder cancer with lifetime recreational physical inactivity. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an important independent risk factor for cancer. However, additional studies using a larger sample and prospectively collected data are needed to substantiate the current findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  2. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  3. Level trend analysis summary report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities have produced liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that is radioactive and/or hazardous. Storage tanks have been used to collect and store these wastes. Most of the collection system, including the tanks, is located below the ground surface. Many of the systems have been removed from service (i.e., are not inactive) but contain residual amounts of waste liquid and sludges. A plan of action has been developed by DOE to ensure that environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive tanks system are minimized. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) does not require any type of testing or monitoring for the inactive LLLW tanks that are removed from service but does require waste characterization of tanks contents, risk characterization of tanks removed from service, and remediation of the inactive tanks and their contents. This report is form information only and is not required by the FFA. It includes a description of the methodology and results of level trend analyses for the Category D tanks listed in the FFA that currently belong to the Environmental Restoration Program

  4. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  5. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  6. Relation between body mass index, physical inactivity and use of prescription drugs: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, I E J; Klungel, O H; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Verschuren, W M M; Bemelmans, W J E

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal complaints, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer and depression. However, few data are available on the specific types of medication associated with obesity and physical inactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) and physical inactivity with use of specific classes of prescription drugs, and the interaction between BMI and physical inactivity. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a population-based longitudinal study. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1703 men and 1841 women, examined between 1998 and 2002, for whom drug-dispending data were available from the PHARMO database. Drugs were coded according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Body weight was measured during the physical examination. Physical activity was assessed using an extensive questionnaire. Persons were defined as a user of a certain drug class if they filed at least one prescription in the year around (+/-6 months) the examination. Compared with normal weight persons (BMI 18.5-25 kg m(-2)), obese persons (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) had a higher use of prescription drugs of several drug classes, especially cardiovascular drugs (OR (95% CI): 3.83 (2.61-5.64) in men and 2.80 (2.03-3.86) in women) and diabetes drugs (OR (95% CI): 5.72 (2.32-14.14) in men and 3.92 (1.80-8.54) in women). In women, physical inactivity was also associated with higher use of certain drug classes, such as drugs for blood and blood-forming organs (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.22-3.65)) and musculoskeletal drugs (OR (95% CI): 2.07 (1.45-2.97)), whereas in men this was not the case. We found no interaction between BMI and physical inactivity with respect to use of prescription drugs. In both men and women, obesity was associated with a higher use of several types of prescription drugs, whereas physical inactivity was only

  7. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  8. 40 CFR 61.151 - Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. 61.151 Section 61.151 Protection... inactive waste disposal sites for asbestos mills and manufacturing and fabricating operations. Each owner...

  9. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Piirtola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. Methods This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945–1957 (59 % women, of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %. The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (<1.5 metabolic equivalent hours/day was first analysed for each survey. Then, the role of education was investigated for 15-year and 35-year inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects regression models. Results Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99 in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00 and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98, respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual

  10. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  11. Single-segment and double-segment INTACS for post-LASIK ectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare single segment and double segment INTACS rings in the treatment of post-LASIK ectasia. In this interventional study, 26 eyes with post-LASIK ectasia were assessed. Ectasia was defined as progressive myopia regardless of astigmatism, along with topographic evidence of inferior steepening of the cornea after LASIK. We excluded those with a history of intraocular surgery, certain eye conditions, and immune disorders, as well as monocular, pregnant and lactating patients. A total of 11 eyes had double ring and 15 eyes had single ring implantation. Visual and refractive outcomes were compared with preoperative values based on the number of implanted INTACS rings. Pre and postoperative spherical equivalent were -3.92 and -2.29 diopter (P=0.007. The spherical equivalent decreased by 1 ± 3.2 diopter in the single-segment group and 2.56 ± 1.58 diopter in the double-segment group (P=0.165. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 2.38 ± 1.93 diopter which decreased to 2.14 ± 1.1 diopter after surgery (P=0.508; 0.87 ± 1.98 diopter decrease in the single-segment group and 0.67 ± 1.2 diopter increase in the double-segment group (P=0.025. Nineteen patients (75% gained one or two lines, and only three, who were all in the double-segment group, lost one or two lines of best corrected visual acuity. The spherical equivalent and vision significantly decreased in all patients. In these post-LASIK ectasia patients, the spherical equivalent was corrected better with two segments compared to single segment implantation; nonetheless, the level of astigmatism in the single-segment group was significantly better than that in the double-segment group.

  12. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  13. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  14. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  15. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  16. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  17. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid 131 I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 μg inactive potassium-iodide ( 127 I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after 131 I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective 131 I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, 131 I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective 131 I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 ± 0.93 days) was significantly (p 131 I half-life M2 (4.65 ± 0.79 days). Effective 131 I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive 127 I (r = -0.79): Administration of 127 I was beneficial in patients with an effective 131 I half-life M1 of 131 I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific 131 I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific 131 I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for 131 I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for 131 I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for 131 I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A. Conclusion: The administration of 600 μg inactive iodide for three days during radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and an unexpectedly short half-life of <3 or 4 days was a safe

  18. Effects of active and inactive phospholipase D2 on signal transduction, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepp, Stewart M; Chahal, Manpreet S; Xie, Yuhuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Brauner, Daniel J; Hallman, Mark A; Robinson, Stephanie A; Han, Shujie; Imai, Masaki; Tomlinson, Stephen; Meier, Kathryn E

    2008-09-01

    The phosphatidylcholine-using phospholipase D (PLD) isoform PLD2 is widely expressed in mammalian cells and is activated in response to a variety of promitogenic agonists. In this study, active and inactive hemagglutinin-tagged human PLD2 (HA-PLD2) constructs were stably expressed in an EL4 cell line lacking detectable endogenous PLD1 or PLD2. The overall goal of the study was to examine the roles of PLD2 in cellular signal transduction and cell phenotype. HA-PLD2 confers PLD activity that is activated by phorbol ester, ionomycin, and okadaic acid. Proliferation and Erk activation are unchanged in cells transfected with active PLD2; proliferation rate is decreased in cells expressing inactive PLD2. Basal tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as is phosphorylation of Akt; inactive PLD2 has no effect. Expression of active PLD2 is associated with increased spreading and elongation of cells on tissue culture plastic, whereas inactive PLD2 inhibits cell spreading. Inactive PLD2 also inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and serum-induced invasion. Cells expressing active PLD2 form metastases in syngeneic mice, as do the parental cells; cells expressing inactive PLD2 form fewer metastases than parental cells. In summary, active PLD2 enhances FAK phosphorylation, Akt activation, and cell invasion in EL4 lymphoma cells, whereas inactive PLD2 exerts inhibitory effects on adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor formation. Overall, expression of active PLD2 enhances processes favorable to lymphoma cell metastasis, whereas expression of inactive PLD2 inhibits metastasis.

  19. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide and peptide YY from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of vagally induced gastric acid secretion in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A; Petersen, H; Orskov, C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 7-36 amide and peptide YY (PYY) from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion in man. It is not clear, however, by which mechanism(s) they inhibit acid secretion. In dogs the inhibitory effect of PYY on acid secretion...

  1. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  2. Impact of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakubo, Sho; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Hotta, Ryo; Bae, Seongryu; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the combination of subjective sleep quality and physical activity is associated with cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional data on 5381 older adults who participated in part of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes were analyzed. We assessed general cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination, and also assessed story memory, attention, executive function and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Functional Assessment Tool. Physical activity was assessed using two questionnaires, and participants were categorized as active or inactive. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and participants were categorized as having poor (PS) or good sleep quality (GS). Participants in the inactive + PS group had worse performances than those in the active + GS group in all cognitive measures (Mini-Mental State Examination: P = 0.008, story memory: P = 0.007, other cognitive measures: P performances than those in the inactive + GS and active + PS groups in the trail-making test, part B, and the symbol digit substitution test (P performances than in the active + GS in the trail-making test, part B, and the symbol digit substitution test (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Inactivity and poor sleep quality were associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. The combination of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity also worsened cognitive performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1823-1828. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  4. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  5. Determinação das perdas endógenas e da digestibilidade ileal da proteína e dos aminoácidos em suínos utilizando-se duas técnicas Use of different techniques to determine endogenous losses and ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidimara Feregueti Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos digestíveis de um extrato protéico de levedura utilizando-se duas técnicas - dieta isenta de proteína (DIP e dieta com caseína hidrolisada enzimaticamente (CHE - para determinação das perdas endógenas de proteína, aminoácidos e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio de 35 kg, submetidos previamente a cirurgia para implantação da cânula T simples. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (dieta com CHE; dieta isenta de proteína (DIP; e dieta com 23% do extrato protéico de levedura - ingrediente teste, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. As perdas endógenas de ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, lisina, arginina e serina diferiram entre as dietas; os maiores valores foram obtidos nos animais que receberam a dieta com CHE. O maior valor de perda endógena do aminoácido glicina foi determinado nos animais alimentados com a dieta DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de metionina, treonina, triptofano e serina determinados pelas perdas endógenas utilizando-se a dieta CHE foram superiores àqueles determinados utilizando a dieta DIP. As quantidades das secreções protéicas e de aminoácidos obtidas pela técnica da CHE foram maiores que as determinadas pela técnica da DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira da proteína foram menores e os dos aminoácidos, maiores, quando determinados pela técnica CHE.The objective of this study was to determine the true ileal digestibility coefficients of the protein and digestible amino acid of a yeast protein extract using two techniques - diet without protein (DIP and diet with enzime-hydrolysed casein (CHE - for the determination of protein amino acid and nitrogen losses. Twelve half-breed barrows were used, with average weight of 35

  6. Accounting for segment correlations in segmented gamma-ray scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification

  7. Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical activity and their role in the development of health conditions is an ongoing topic of research. This debate paper presents arguments in favour and against the statement: “Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?” The paper finishes with recommendations for future research in the field of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and public health.

  8. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Suchyta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7, the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1.

  9. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  10. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  11. Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: the epidemic has arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, A R; Lauder, W; Jones, M C; Kirk, A; Agyemang, C; Bhopal, R S

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of, and trends in, physical inactivity and diabetes in adult West African populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases. Journal hand searches and examination of citations of relevant articles were also undertaken. To be included, studies had to be population based, use clearly defined criteria for measuring diabetes and physical inactivity, present data that allowed calculation of the prevalence of diabetes or physical inactivity, and sample adult participants. Studies retrieved were appraised critically. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random effect model. Twenty-one reports were retrieved for diabetes and 15 reports were retrieved for physical in/activity. Most studies (10 for diabetes and six for physical activity) were conducted solely among urban populations. The prevalence of diabetes in West Africa was approximately 4.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-9.0] in urban adults and 2.6% (95%CI 1.5-4.4) in rural adults, and was similar in men and women [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.36, 95%CI 0.96-1.92]. Cumulative time trend analyses suggested an increase in the prevalence of diabetes among adults in urban West Africa, from approximately 3.0% (95%CI 1.0-7.0) to 4.0% (95%CI 2.0-9.0) in the past 10 years. The prevalence of inactivity in West Africa was 13% (95%CI 9.0-18.0). An association was found between physical inactivity and being older (> or = 50 years) (PR 1.82, 95%CI 1.36-2.44), female gender (PR 1.62, 95%CI 1.41-1.87) and urban residence (PR 2.04, 95%CI 1.58-2.63). Diabetes and physical inactivity are important public health issues in urban West Africa, with similar prevalences to wealthy industrialized countries. There is an urgent need for policy makers, politicians and health promotion experts to put measures in place to encourage active lifestyles and control diabetes in urban West Africa.

  12. An efficient algorithm for removal of inactive blocks in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H.; Ertekin, T. (Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    In the efficient simulation of reservoirs having irregular boundaries one is confronted with two problems: the removal of inactive blocks at the matrix level and the development and application of a variable band-width solver. A simple algorithm is presented that provides effective solutions to these two problems. The algorithm is demonstrated for both the natural ordering and D4 ordering schemes. It can be easily incorporated in existing simulators and results in significant savings in CPU and matrix storage requirements. The removal of the inactive blocks at the matrix level plays a major role in effecting these savings whereas the application of a variable band-width solver plays an enhancing role only. The value of this algorithm lies in the fact that it takes advantage of irregular reservoir boundaries that are invariably encountered in almost all practical applications of reservoir simulation. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Hydrophilic segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and monodisperse amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)

  14. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  16. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  17. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  18. The influence of narrow-leafed lupin seed fermentation on their chemical composition and ileal digestibility and microbiota in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworska, Anita; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a controlled fermentation process of blue lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Neptun), monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the fermentation on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids in growing pigs, compared with raw lupin seeds. The fermentation with bacteria and yeast was conducted for 24 h at 25ºC under aerobic conditions. Seed fermentation increased the contents of CP, fibre, fat and ash and most of the analysed amino acids but reduced the levels of the nitrogen-free extractives. Furthermore, fermentation decreased the contents of raffinose family oligosaccharides and phytic acids but increased the alkaloid content. The AID was estimated on three barrows (mean initial body weight 25 kg), surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. The pigs received three diets, each for 6 d, within three experimental periods (3 × 3 Latin Square design). The diets contained soybean meal (Group SBM), raw lupin seeds (Group RL) or fermented lupin seeds (Group FL) as solely protein sources. Fermentation had a positive impact on the AID of CP and methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine (p fermented lupin seeds did not affect the microbial status of the ileal digesta. Moreover, ammonia content in the caecal digesta did not differ between Groups RL and FL, although it was significantly higher than in Group SBM. It can be concluded that the fermentation process modified the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilisation of the fermentation product in animal diets compared to raw seeds.

  19. Thermal inactivation of ileal loop-reactive Clostridium perfringens type A strains in phosphate buffer and beef gravy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J G; Peeler, J T; Twedt, R M

    1977-09-01

    The thermal resistance of spore crops produced from each of two ileal loop-reactive strains of Clostridium perfringens type A was determined in two suspending vehicles consisting of 0.067 M (pH 7.0) phosphate buffer and a commercial beef gravy. D115.6 values obtained in buffer and enumerated after pretreatment with sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate and recovery in plating medium containing lysozyme were two- to threefold greater than those obtained without this treatment. D115.6 values obtained with beef gravy were less than those obtained in buffer with or without lysozyme; however, the D98.9 and D104.4 values were 1.3 to 2 times greater than those obtained in buffer with lysozyme. The z values were within the ranges reported by previous investigators.

  20. A retraining program for inactive physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Sakai, F J; Selzer, A

    1969-11-01

    During the past two years a pilot project was conducted in which 19 inactive physicians were retrained in preparation for resumption of active practice. The initial program consisted of a flexible training program of six months to one year patterned after conventional internship-residency concepts. During the second year the program was modified by providing an initial condensed indoctrination period of two months' duration especially designed for this purpose, followed by a preceptorship type of training. The project was considered successful in permitting trainees to enter some form of active medical work, or to enroll in formal specialty training. The observations made by the faculty of the program and its accomplishments are discussed in the light of the effort expended and the cost of the project.

  1. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  2. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  3. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  4. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  5. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) comprise a new group of E. coli species named from their distinctive ability to adhere to and invade the intestinal epithelium. The AIEC strains have been associated to the ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), and the impact of AIEC in the pathogenesis...... of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls...... and comprised: 1) incubation of tissue (inclusive of mucous) with 107 bacteria or buffer for 1 hour, 2) removal of non-adhered bacteria by extensive washing, and 3) absolute quantification of tissue-adhered LF82 and indigenous E. coli by a pre-validated assay including quantitative real-time PCR. Selective...

  6. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  7. Performance Analysis of Segmentation of Hyperspectral Images Based on Color Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Agarwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a fundamental approach in the field of image processing and based on user’s application .This paper propose an original and simple segmentation strategy based on the EM approach that resolves many informatics problems about hyperspectral images which are observed by airborne sensors. In a first step, to simplify the input color textured image into a color image without texture. The final segmentation is simply achieved by a spatially color segmentation using feature vector with the set of color values contained around the pixel to be classified with some mathematical equations. The spatial constraint allows taking into account the inherent spatial relationships of any image and its color. This approach provides effective PSNR for the segmented image. These results have the better performance as the segmented images are compared with Watershed & Region Growing Algorithm and provide effective segmentation for the Spectral Images & Medical Images.

  8. The effects and mechanism of action of methane on ileal motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y M; Lee, Y J; Hussain, Z; Lee, Y H; Park, H

    2017-09-01

    Methane has been associated with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, slowing intestinal transit time by augmenting contractile activity. However, the precise mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect of methane on contractile activity, and whether such effects are mediated by nerve impulses or muscular contraction. We connected guinea pig ileal muscle strips to a force/tension transducer and measured amplitudes of contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1, 2, 8, 16 Hz) following methane infusion in the presence of tetradotoxin (TTX), atropine, guanethidine, or GR 113808. We then performed calcium imaging using Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM in order to visualize changes in calcium fluorescence in response to EFS following methane infusion in the presence of TTX, atropine, or a high K + solution. Methane significantly increased amplitudes of contraction (PMethane-induced increases in amplitude were inhibited when lower-frequency (1, 2 Hz) EFS was applied following atropine infusion (PMethane significantly increased calcium fluorescence, while this increase was attenuated following atropine infusion (Pmethane infusion. The actions of methane on the intestine are influenced by the cholinergic pathway of the enteric nervous system. Our findings support the classification of methane as a gasotransmitter. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An initial study of the behaviour under repository conditions of inactive components of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    This review extends the appreciation of repository behaviour to include the inactive components of wastes and their degradation products. These materials include a wide range of metals and organics, sludges and decommissioning wastes. The effect of degradation products on the solubility of long-lived radionuclides and any active daughters and their sorption on surfaces of the repository are assessed. Research requirements are identified that may help to improve significantly the assessment of the effects of inactive materials. Data required to improve the quality of inventory data on nuclear wastes are listed. (author)

  10. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  11. The relationship between coping, health competence and patient participation among patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Seema; Jedel, S; Hood, M M; Mutlu, E; Swanson, G; Keshavarzian, A

    2014-05-01

    Coping is an integral part of adjustment for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease but has not been well described in the literature. This study explored the relationship between coping, perceived health competence, patient preference for involvement in their treatment, depression and quality of life, particularly among patients with inactive disease (in remission). Subjects (n=70) with active and inactive IBD completed questionnaires, including the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Health Competence Scale and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The Harvey Bradshaw Index measured disease activity. Patients with inactive IBD demonstrated significantly more interest in participating in their treatment (pperceived health competence (p=.001), less depressive symptoms (pperceived control of their health, and exhibit less depression symptoms. Our findings may increase awareness of the importance of identifying coping strategies for IBD patients, including those in remission. © 2013.

  12. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  13. Digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos de alimentos utilizados em dietas pré-iniciais para leitões, determinada pelo método do sacrifício Ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs used in pre-starter diets determined by the slaughter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Romão Apolônio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal, aparente e verdadeira, dos aminoácidos de alimentos, como: leite em pó, soro de leite, soja micronizada, soja extrusada e plasma suíno, comumente utilizados na formulação de dietas pré-iniciais para leitões, pela técnica do sacrifício. Foram utilizados 96 leitões mestiços com 40 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As dietas foram formuladas para fornecer 7% de PB para o soro de leite e 13% para os demais alimentos, sendo o alimento avaliado a única fonte de proteína. Foi utilizada uma dieta isenta de proteína para determinação da perda endógena de aminoácidos. Os animais foram abatidos sete horas após a ingestão das dietas experimentais, sendo a digesta ileal coletada para formação de uma amostra composta de digesta de oito animais, obtendo-se duas amostras por tratamento. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais foram obtidos no soro de leite, leite em pó e soja extrusada, sendo os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira encontrados na soja micronizada. A treonina foi o aminoácido essencial que apresentou menor coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira em todos os alimentos avaliados. A metionina foi o aminoácido que apresentou maior coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira no soro de leite, na soja extrusada, na soja micronizada e no plasma suíno, enquanto a lisina foi o de maior coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira no leite em pó. O menor coeficiente de digestibilidade da lisina foi obtido na soja micronizada.This study was carried out to determine ileal digestibilities in feedstuffs used in diets for piglets by the slaughter technique. The apparent and true digestibilities for skimmed milk powder, milk whey, extruded soybean, micronized soybean and swine plasma were

  14. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inactive Mineral Filler as a Stiffness Modulus Regulator in Foamed Bitumen-Modified Recycled Base Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyński, Przemyslaw; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of a cold recycled mix test with a foam bitumen including the addition of the inactive mineral filler as a dust of basalt. Basalt dust was derived from dedusting system by extraction of aggregates in the mine. Assessment of the impact of a basalt dust on the properties of a recycled base layer was carried out in terms of the amount of mineral filler (basalt) in the composition of the mineral mixture. This experiment involved a dosing of mineral filler in range from 5 to 20% with steps of 7.5% in the mineral mixture composition. The foamed bitumen was performed at optimum foaming process settings (ie. bitumen temperature, air pressure) and at 2.5% of the water content. The amount of a hydraulic binder as a Portland cement was 2.0%. The evaluation of rheological properties allowed to determine whether the addition of inactive mineral fillers can act as a stiffness modulus controller in the recycled base layer. The analysis of the rheological properties of a recycled base layer in terms of the amount of inactive fillers was performed in accordance with given standard EN 12697-26 Annex D. The study was carried out according to the direct tension-compression test methodology on cylindrical samples. The sample was subjected to the oscillatory sinusoidal strain ε0 < 25με. Studies carried out at a specific temperature set-points: - 7°C, 5°C, 13°C, 25°C and 40°C and at the frequency 0.1 Hz, 0.3 Hz, 1 Hz, 3 Hz, 10 Hz and 20 Hz. The obtained results allow to conclude that the use of an inactive filler can reduce the stiffness of an appropriate designed mixes of the cold recycled foundation. In addition, the analysis of the relation E‧-E″ showed a similar behaviour of a recycled base, regardless of the amount of inactive fillers in the mix composition, at high temperatures/high frequency of induced load.

  16. Segmental vitiligo with segmental morphea: An autoimmune link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.

  17. Sexual Function and Body Image are Similar after Laparoscopy-Assisted and Open Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is performed in patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis where the majority of patients are sexually active. Laparoscopic surgery is becoming the preferred technique for most colorectal interventions, and we examined posto...... better body image among laparoscopy-treated women, the two surgical techniques seem equal with respect to postoperative sexual function....... postoperative sexual function and body image compared to those after open surgery IPAA. METHODS: Patients treated with IPAA in the period from October 2008 to March 2012 were included. Evaluation of sexual function, body image, and quality of life was performed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI......), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), the Body Image Questionnaire (BIQ), and the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). RESULTS: We included 72 patients (38 laparoscopy-assisted and 34 open). Response rate was 74 %. There were no differences in demographics, functional outcome...

  18. Market Segmentation in Business Technology Base: The Case of Segmentation of Sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Riscarolli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality. 

  19. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  20. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  1. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  2. Why segmentation matters: Experience-driven segmentation errors impair "morpheme" learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2015-09-01

    We ask whether an adult learner's knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners' ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner's native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner's native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in non-asthmatic Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Jaisuresh, Krishna Swamy; Agrawal, Vinita

    2014-03-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with sensory motor polyneuropathy and rapidly progressive renal failure. Investigations revealed marked peripheral eosinophilia and elevated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune cre-scentic glomerulonephritis with interstitial eosinophil infiltrates. He had no history of asthma. Computed tomography of the chest and X-ray of the paranasal sinuses were normal. On Day 1, the patient developed ileal perforation. Resected ileal segments showed small vessel vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils. A diagnosis of non-asthmatic variant of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Renal recovery was achieved in 12 weeks with a combination therapy of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. The patient has been relapse-free for 12 months on oral prednisolone therapy.

  4. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  5. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of a randomized-controlled trial on low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise for inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Postema, Klaas; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Purpose: To investigate effects and working mechanisms of low-intensity aerobic wheelchair exercise on fitness, (upper-body) health and active lifestyle in inactive persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A multicenter randomized-controlled trial (RCT) in 40 inactive manual

  7. Physical Inactivity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…

  8. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  9. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  10. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2007-07-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid {sup 131}I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 {mu}g inactive potassium-iodide ({sup 127}I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after {sup 131}I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective {sup 131}I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, {sup 131}I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 {+-} 0.93 days) was significantly (p <0.01) shorter than the effective {sup 131}I half-life M2 (4.65 {+-} 0.79 days). Effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive {sup 127}I (r = -0.79): Administration of {sup 127}I was beneficial in patients with an effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 of <3 or 4 days. Patients from Group A with high initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific {sup 131}I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for {sup 131}I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for {sup 131}I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A

  12. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  13. Conformational constraining of inactive and active States of a seven transmembrane receptor by metal ion site engineering in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; David, Ralf; Oerlecke, Ilka

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular part of transmembrane segment V (TM-V) is expected to be involved in the activation process of 7TM receptors, but its role is far from clear. Here, we study the highly constitutively active CXC-chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (ORF74-HHV8), in which a metal ion ...

  14. Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Xylopia Aethiopica on Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary:Intestinal fluid and glucose absorption was studied in jejunal and ileal segments in Xylopia aethiopica fed rats using inverted sac ... dose and high dose groups received oral administration of Xylopia aethiopica extract at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg ..... activity of essential oil of Xylopia Aethiopica.Afr. J. Tradit ...

  15. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  16. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  17. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  18. Performance, digestibility and morphometry of ileal villi of rabbits fed with levels of inclusion of “Lithothamnium” Desempenho, digestibilidade e morfometria da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão de “Lithothamnium”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential of seaweed meal (Lithothamnium sp in the nutrition of rabbits it were realized analysis of the presence of trace elements in the composition of Lithothamnium, a performance test with determination of apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein and energy and morphometric analysis of the ileal villi of rabbits fed with diets at different levels of inclusion (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%. We used 60 New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes, at 30 days of age.The experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, a control and the other with the different levels of inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. to replace the inert (bentonite from the control diet ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and twelve repetitions. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis model with pre-defined by the statistical program SAEG. The results showed that the inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. in different concentrations did not interfere in the variables studied: intake, digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein and energy, weight gain, carcass yield and weight of edible offal. However, it was verified that the level of inclusion of 1.0% interfere in a negative way in the length and width of villi.Com o intuito de avaliar o potencial da farinha de algas marinhas (Lithothamnium sp na nutrição de coelhos, realizaram-se análises de presença de elementos traço na composição do Lithothamnium, um ensaio de desempenho com determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína e energia e análise morfométrica da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com dietas de diferentes níveis de inclusão (0,25%; 0,50%; 0,75% e 1,00%. Foram utilizados 60 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco, de ambos os sexos, com 30 dias de idade. As dietas experimentais foram isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, uma controle e as demais

  19. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  20. Robot-Assisted Excision of a Pararectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Patient with Previous Ileal Neobladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ploumidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of therapy. Pararectal lesions are considered to be technically difficult and pose in some cases a challenge. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first robotic-assisted pararectal GIST excision. A 43-year-old man was referred to our center with pararectal GIST recurrence, despite treatment with targeted therapy. Eleven years ago, he underwent extensive abdominal surgery including cystoprostatectomy with ileal neobladder diversion due to GIST resection in the rectoprostatic space. Robot-assisted surgical resection was successfully performed without the need for temporary colostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful, and the pathology report confirmed a GIST recurrence with negative surgical margins and pelvic lymph nodes free of any tumor. Robotic-assisted pelvic surgery can be extended to incorporate excision of pararectal GISTs, as a safe, less invasive surgical alternative with promising oncological results and minimal injury to adjacent structures.

  1. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  2. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  3. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  4. Peripheral aneurysm rupture in a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, Christoph; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John F. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Mohan, Aarthi R. [Department of Chest Medicine, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    We describe a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with sudden haemothorax, due to a ruptured internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm 7 years after the corticosteroid treatment was terminated. The unusual imaging findings and the treatment with embolization are discussed with a view to the role of a regular vascular screening in this patient group. (orig.)

  5. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  6. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  7. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  8. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  9. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  10. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  11. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  12. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors for obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Natasha; Kantomaa, Marko; Glover, Vivette; Tammelin, Tuija; Laitinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom-obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity

  13. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  14. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  15. Why segmentation matters: experience-driven segmentation errors impair “morpheme” learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    We ask whether an adult learner’s knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners’ ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner’s native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner’s native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. PMID:25730305

  16. Meconial peritonitis in a rare association of partial ileal apple-peel atresia with small abdominal wall defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Insinga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal atresia type III B (apple peel and gastroschisis are both congenital malformations who require early surgical correction in neonatal age. Their association is very rare. We present the case of a full term infant with partial apple peel ileal atresia and a small defect of the anterior abdominal wall, complicated by in utero intestinal perforation and subsequent meconial peritonitis. We observed a partial atresia of small intestine, with involvement of terminal ileus savings of jejunum and a large part of the proximal ileum, small anterior abdominal wall defect with herniation of few bowel loops, intestinal malrotation. Paralytic ileus and infections are the main causes of morbidity and mortality at neonatal age. In our case, in spite of the mild phenotype, prognosis has been complicated by the onset of functional bowel obstruction, caused by chemical peritonitis resulting from contact with either amniotic fluid and meconium.

  17. Segment-Tube: Spatio-Temporal Action Localization in Untrimmed Videos with Per-Frame Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Le Wang; Xuhuan Duan; Qilin Zhang; Zhenxing Niu; Gang Hua; Nanning Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the recent spatio-temporal action localization efforts with tubelets (sequences of bounding boxes), we present a new spatio-temporal action localization detector Segment-tube, which consists of sequences of per-frame segmentation masks. The proposed Segment-tube detector can temporally pinpoint the starting/ending frame of each action category in the presence of preceding/subsequent interference actions in untrimmed videos. Simultaneously, the Segment-tube detector produces per-fr...

  18. Literature Review: Double-Barrelled Wet Colostomy (One Stoma) versus Ileal Conduit with Colostomy (Two Stomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jason; Hamid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of a traditional ileal conduit (IC) with separate colostomy technique compared to the outcomes of a double-barrelled wet colostomy (DBWC) technique. The former technique results in the formation of two stomas, and the latter results in the formation of one stoma. PubMed was searched electronically for articles on DBWC. Fifteen articles were retrieved and of them 13 were included in the literature review (350 patients). Of the articles, 3 directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy. Review of 13 DBWC articles demonstrated perioperative mortality ranging between 0 and 11.1% and postoperative complications ranging from 0 to 100%. Three of the studies directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy; median operating times and length of stay were shorter in DBWC patients (p colostomy technique, as it requires only one stoma. This literature review supports the use of the technically less challenging DBWC technique as a viable alternative to the traditional IC with colostomy technique. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Temporal differential proteomes of Clostridium difficile in the pig ileal-ligated loop model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavan Janvilisri

    Full Text Available The impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI on healthcare is becoming increasingly recognized as it represents a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea. A rising number of CDI cases and outbreaks have been reported worldwide. Here, we developed the pig ileal-ligated loop model for semi-quantitative analysis comparing temporal differential proteomes in C. difficile following in vivo incubation with in vitro growth using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ. Proteins retrieved from the in vitro cultures and the loop contents after 4, 8, and 12 h in vivo incubation were subjected to in-solution digestion, iTRAQ labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and statistical analyses. From a total of 1152 distinct proteins identified in this study, 705 proteins were available for quantitative measures at all time points in both biological and technical replicates; 109 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. With analysis of clusters of orthologous group and protein-protein network interactions, we identified the proteins that might play roles in adaptive responses to the host environment, hence enhancing pathogenicity during CDI. This report represents the quantitative proteomic analysis of C. difficile that demonstrates time-dependent protein expression changes under conditions that mimic in vivo infection and identifies potential candidates for diagnostic or therapeutic measures.

  20. Rectal bladder-type: ileum-sigma-rectum pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajka, K.; Mikszewicz, A.; Stachurski, L.; Perkowski, D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a method of creating rectal bladder by using the proximal part of rectum, the distal part of sigma and a 40 cm long segment of detubularized ileum. Ureters were attached to the proximal end of ileal segment by Wallace-I technique. Initially the retrograde pyelonephritis was to be prevented by intussuscepting a 4 cm long part of the uretero-ilea anastomosis and by positioning isoperistaltically a 15-16 cm long part of the ileal segment. Because of the insufficiency of such a mechanism, in 4 latest cases the intussuscepted segment was increased to 8 cm. 8 patients suffering from stage T3a and T3b invasive carcinoma of the bladder were treated by this procedure. The ureteral stens were led out via the rectal tube. They were removed days after the operation. The whole post-operative period was uneventful. The patients were under close follow-up from 5 to 22 months. Three of them died due to a progression of the disease. All the patients had 3-4 watery stools a day and one at night. Check-ups performed three and six months after the operation revealed a proper out flow of contrast medium from kidneys and a reduction in the dilatation of ureters. In one case the kidney that failed to function before the procedure, restored its secretion afterwards. The contrast medium reached colon descendens only when more than 350 ml of it were infused into the rectal bladder. (author)

  1. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Dolman, Koert M.; Rossum, Marion A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K trans ), extravascular space fractional volume (V e ) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep ) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  2. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  3. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  4. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-05-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents.

  5. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  6. The association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity adjusted for individual attributes: evidence from a Japanese occupational cohort survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity, adjusting for individual time-invariant attributes. We used data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey, which included 31 025 observations of 9871 individuals. Focusing on the evolution of job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity within the same individual over time, we employed fixed-effects logistic models to examine the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity. We compared the results with those in pooled cross-sectional models and fixed-effects ordered logistic models. Fixed-effects models showed that the odds ratio (OR) of physical inactivity were 22% higher for those with high strain jobs [high demands/low control; OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.43] and 17% higher for those with active jobs (high demands/high control; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34) than those with low strain jobs (low demands/high control). The models also showed that the odds of physical inactivity were 28% higher for those with high effort/low reward jobs (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) and 24% higher for those with high effort/high reward jobs (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43) than those with low effort/high reward jobs. Fixed-effects ordered logistic models led to similar results. Job stress, especially high job strain and effort-reward imbalance, was modestly associated with higher risks of physical inactivity, even after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes.

  7. The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M

    2011-06-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., "go," "energy") yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., "rest," "still") among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes toward a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared with inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. The Time for Doing is Not the Time for Change: Effects of General Action and Inaction Goals on Attitude Retrieval and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., “go,” “energy”) yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., “rest,” “still”) among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes towards a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared to inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. PMID:21639651

  9. Technique of Robotic-assisted Total Proctocolectomy with Lymphadenectomy and Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Transverse Colitic Cancer of Ulcerative Colitis, Using the Single Cart Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Tsunekazu; Maeda, Koutarou; Masumori, Koji; Katsuno, Hidetoshi; Matsuoka, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Robotic surgery offers advantages for operating in a narrow space such as inside the pelvis. We report on the technique of robotic-assisted laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with lymphadenectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis with transverse colitic cancer, using the single cart position. A 46-year-old female patient was diagnosed with colitic cancer of the transverse colon during the surveillance of ulcerative colitis. Six port sites were used. Mobilization of the left-sided colon through to the rectum and mobilization of the transverse colon with lymphadenectomy around the middle colic artery were performed using the robotic surgical system. After rectal mobilization was conducted near the anus, the right side of the colon was mobilized and the ileum resected laparoscopically. Thereafter, a mucosectomy of the proctorectum was carried out through a trans-anal approach, and a hand-sewn J-pouch was performed. Finally, a diverting ileostomy was constructed through the right lower abdomen. The operative time was 460 minutes, including the console time of 361 minutes. The amount of blood loss was 76 g. The patient was discharged on postoperative day nine. Pathological results demonstrated that the depth of the lesion was T3, and the positive lymph node was 1 of 115 retrieved lymph nodes. There were no complications or mortality. Robotic-assisted total proctocolectomy and lymphadenectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for transverse colitic cancer of ulcerative colitis was performed safely using the single cart position.

  10. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie, E-mail: slhawley@uw.edu [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  11. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E K p > 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate

  12. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  13. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  14. [The continent ileostomy--indication and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säuberli, H; Akovbiantz, A; Hahnloser, P

    1982-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with conventional ileostomy cures patients with severe ulcerative colitis, however ileostomy appliances had to be