Conclusion: AE with an ileal segment provides effective and safe therapeutic outcomes in SCI patients. However, problems with UTI, reservoir calculi and new-onset upper tract urolithiasis still need to be solved.
Buyuktiryaki, Mehmet; Kanmaz, Hayriye G; Okur, Nilüfer; Ates, Ufuk; Sirvan, Ali L; Uras, Nurdan
Spontaneous intestinal perforations are localized perforations without the typical clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of necrotizing enterocolitis. Spontaneous intestinal perforation is a recently defined clinical entity. The best-known risk factor is prematurity. It is seen 2-3% in very low birthweight infants and 5 % of extremely low birthweight infants. Herein we report an extremely low birthweight infant with spontaneous intestinal perforation, segmental absence of intestinal muscle and an ileal web as an underlying cause. We aimed to draw attention to the segmental absence of intestinal muscle which is rare but increasingly reported cause of spontaneous intestinal perforation and the importance of histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Aug 9, 2016 ... Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate the results of using a shorter ileal segment (40 cm only) in reconstructing Studer ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy. Subjects and methods: Radical cystectomy and modified Studer ileal neobladder was performed in 60 patients for invasive bladder cancer. Only 40 cm ...
Pridmore, J. (Jason); Hämäläinen, L.E. (Lalu Elias)
textabstractMarketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to
in the 7–8-cm segment of the ileum as a source of bowel obstruction (Fig. 2a and b). There were prominent macroscopic features in the tumoral ileal segment such as subserosal hematoma and ischemic changes. There was notable tumoral involvement in the mesen- teric lymph nodes adjacent to the invasive bowel.
Beynen, A.C.; Schouten, J.A.; Hoitsma, H.F.W.
Partial ileal bypass (PIB) for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia was introduced 20 years ago. About 110 cases have been described. We know of only 1 case of restoration of intestinal continuity; no details were given. We report here the second case of PIB in the Netherlands; the operation
Full Text Available Intussusception is defined as the telescoping of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract (intussusceptum into an immediately adjacent distal bowel (intussuscipiens. Intussusception is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults. Unlike in children, a lead point is present in 90% of adult cases. The most common causes of small bowel intussusception are benign, usually hamartomas, lipomas, inflammatory polyps, adenomas and leiomyomas, in contrast to the large intestine where malignant tumors, usually adenocarcinomas, are more common. The clinical presentation of adult intussusception is non-specific with variable manifestations, predominantly those of intestinal obstruction, often making the diagnosis a challenge. The onset of symptoms may be acute, intermittent or chronic. We present a rare case of an ileal fibroma presenting with intussusception. A 43-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a history of recurrent abdominal pain. The clinical presentation and CT scan findings led to the diagnosis of ileoileal intussusception. Subsequently she underwent laparotomy which revealed an ileal fibroma as the lead point of the intussusception. Surgical exploration remains essential for diagnosis and treatment since in the majority of cases a pathologic lead point is identified. Ileal fibroma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of the small bowel and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for small bowel intussusception.
Oberhelman, Amy P.; Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Keating, James P. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rollins, Michael D.; Dillon, Patrick A. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)
Ileal dysgenesis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in the distal ileum in the region of the vitelline duct. The CT appearance of this lesion, although not previously described to our knowledge, is characteristic. We report a patient with ileal dysgenesis who had an abdominal CT scan to evaluate chronic iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy. Recognition of this lesion by pediatric radiologists is important; so that surgical treatment, which is simple and effective, can be initiated quickly. (orig.)
Fujimura, Tetsuya; Minowada, Shigeru; Kishi, Hiroichi; Hamasaki, Kimihisa; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi
A 58-year-old man was referred to our hospital with high fever and anuria. Since undergoing a total pelvic exenteration due to bladder-invasive sigmoid colon cancer, urinary tract infections had frequently occurred. We treated with the construction of a bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), and chemotherapy. Although we replaced the PCN with a single J ureteral catheter after an improvement of infection, urinary infection recurred because of an obstruction of the catheter. Urological examinations showed that an ileal conduit-ureteral reflux caused by kinking of the ileal loop was the reason why frequent pyelonephritis occurred. We decided to resect the proximal segment to improve conduit-ureteral reflux for the resistant pyelonephritis. After the surgery, the excretory urogram showed improvement and the urinary retention at the ileal conduit disappeared. Three years after the operation, renal function has been stable without episodes of pyelonephritis. Here we report a case of open repair surgery of an ileal conduit in a patient with severe urinary infection.
Pridmore, J.H.; Hämäläinen, L.E.
textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to differing marketing orientations, beginning with relationship marketing and moving towards exp...
The authors report the case of a primary small bowel lymphoma discovered incidentally in a 33-year-old male following ileal intubation at colonoscopy. The patient subsequently underwent curative treatment with chemotherapy. This case not only highlights the importance of routine ileoscopy but also the successful use of chemotherapy in a disease for which the optimal treatment modality has not been well characterized.
Oleg Viktorovich Kornyushin
Full Text Available High prevalence and insufficient efficacy of medical treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM poses a major challenge for medical care. Generally, only 30% of patients reach therapeutic goals, while remission occurs only in the minority of patients. In the obese (BMI>35 kg/m2, bariatric surgery provides an alternative to pharmacological treatment of T2DM, boosting remission/compensation rate up to 76.8%. A few recent clinical studies explored the anti-diabetic effect of ileal transposition (IT. This type of surgery targets restoration of incretin balance by proximal transposition of ileal segment. In this review, we discuss the salutary mechanisms of IT in T2DM based on the analysis of the pioneering clinical trials.
Rosenkilde, Mette M; David, Ralf; Oerlecke, Ilka
The extracellular part of transmembrane segment V (TM-V) is expected to be involved in the activation process of 7TM receptors, but its role is far from clear. Here, we study the highly constitutively active CXC-chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (ORF74-HHV8), in which a metal ion......-fold). Zn(II) in activating concentrations (100 microM) acted as an allosteric enhancer as it increased the B(max) (7.1-fold), the potency (9.9-fold), the affinity (1.7- and 6.1-fold in competition against agonist and inverse agonist, respectively), and the efficacy (2.5-fold) of CXCL1/GROalpha....... The activating properties of Zn(II) were not due to a metal ion site between the ligand and the receptor because CXCL1/GROalpha analogs in which the putative metal-ion binding residues had been substituted-[H19A] and [H34A]-acted like wild-type CXCL1/GROalpha. Based on the complex action of Zn...
Full Text Available Anorectal malformation is a common anomaly in neonates. Although colorectal perforations have been reported as a complication, ileal perforation is rarely encountered. This is a report of a 2-day-old boy presenting with a low anorectal malformation, complicated with ileal perforation, necessitating laparotomy and ileal repair. Anoplasty was done for the low anomaly. Early presentation and prompt treatment of anorectal malformations is important to prevent such potential life threatening complication.
Full Text Available A rare case of ileal perforation, as a fatal initial presentation of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA in infancy is reported. A 10-week-old boy, was brought to the emergency department with symptoms of complicated intestinal obstruction. He looked ill, was lethargic, markedly dehydrated and had a severely distended abdomen. An abdominal X-ray revealed multiple air fluid levels seen in a distended small intestine. During exploratory laparotomy the ileum was massively dilated with distal segment perforation. Ileal perforation repair was performed. A totally collapsed microcolon was identified. Biopsies were taken from the high rectum, sigmoid and hepatic flexure. Appendectomy and ileostomy were performed. All biopsies, as well as the appendix, showed absence of ganglion cells. Despite this procedure the patient progressively deteriorated and later died due to sepsis. Ileal perforation in infants is a rare, but potentially fatal initial presentation of TCA. Early detection is essential to prevent life-threatening complications.
Full Text Available Purpose Ureteric substitution using the Yang-Monti principle was reported as a modification of simple ileal ureter replacement. In this study, we evaluate its safety, surgical outcome and impact on renal function. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients underwent ileal ureter replacement using the Yang-Monti principle to overcome long ureteric defects. Exclusion criteria included patients with elevated serum creatinine > 1.8 mg/dL, inflammatory bowel syndrome or irradiated bowel. Antireflux implantation into the bladder was performed in 12 patients while 4 patients with intact healthy lower ureters underwent distal ileal-ureteral anastomosis. Follow-up protocol was carried out for up to 3 years in 9 patients. Results No intra-operative or postoperative mortality or significant complications occurred. There were minor complications in the form of urinary leakage that necessitated prolonged ureteric stenting in one patient, superficial wound infection in another one and 3 patients developed treatable urinary tract infection without late harmful effects. During follow up, no excess mucus production or metabolic abnormalities were encountered. All patients had preserved renal function (improved in 13 patients and stabilized in 3 without any evidence of urinary obstruction. Conclusions The reconfigured ileal segment for ureteric substitution is a safe technique with an excellent outcome. It uses short ileal segments for reconstruction of an ileal tube of adequate length and optimal caliber that permits easy antireflux implantation into the bladder so it is not associated with excess mucus production or metabolic abnormalities and offers a durable preservation of renal function without urinary obstruction.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with cystectomy and ileal neobladder for women with interstitial cystitis (IC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five female patients treated during 2000-2005 with the mean age of 45.9 ± 4.4 years were included in this study. All of them had experience suprapubic pain with irritative voiding symptoms and were diagnosed as having IC based on NIDDK criteria for at least 2 years. Conservative treatments had failed to relieve their symptoms; and therefore all of them agreed to undergo a bladder removal. For cystectomy, the urethra was cut 0.5 cm below the bladder neck, proximal to the pubourethral ligament, leaving the endopelvic fascia intact. An ileal segment of 65 cm was used to create the neobladder with the Studer's technique. RESULTS: All patients presented good treatment outcome with regard to both diurnal and nocturnal urinary control without any pain. Quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement of both physical health and mental health. Spontaneous voiding with minimal residual urine was found in 33 cases (94.3%, and the remaining 2 cases (5.7% had spontaneous voiding with residual urine and were placed on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC. Twelve out of 30 cases with sexually active ability had a mild degree of dyspareunia but without disturbance to sexual life. CONCLUSION: Bladder substitution by ileal neobladder for women who suffer from IC can be a satisfactory option after failure of conservative treatment. Resection of the urethra distal to the bladder neck can preserve continence and allow spontaneous voiding in almost all patients.
Gilmara S. Aguiar-Yamaguchi; João-Luiz M. C. Azevedo; Marcelo C. Carlini; Paolo H. B. Lourenco; Wellington Cardia; Maria T. S. Alves; Aparecida E. Hirata; Lucas P. F. F. Leal; Bianca Marigliani; Linda O. A. Bernardes; Karina F. Neves; Rudy N. Rocha; José-Francisco Borborema; João-Luiz C. Azevedo; Otavio C. Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: No therapeutic approach has significantly impacted the progression of diabetes. As early improvement of glicaemic control is observed after bariatric surgeries, there is currently a search for surgical procedures that can promote euglycemia also in non-obese patients. Glicaemic control can be achieved by increasing the blood concentration of GLP-1, a hormone produced by L cells that are more densely concentrated in the terminal ileum. The interposition of ileal segment to a more...
Oyama, T; Fukuda, S; Shimoyama, T; Takahashi, I; Umeda, T; Danjo, K; Saito, D; Chinda, D; Sakamoto, J; Nakaji, S
The effects of cellulose and the interindividual variations on the transit time in the small intestine remain unclear, but no previous study has to date taken these factors into sufficient consideration. We assessed the oro-ileal transit time and the recovery percentage of cellulose in the terminal ileum looking at interindividual variations. Seven healthy males received 100 mL of a dietary fiber-free basal diet with 5 g cellulose and 5 g of polyethylene glycol 4000. The ileal contents were aspirated every 30 min via an experimental tube placed in the terminal ileum to assess the oro-ileal transit time and the recovery percentage of cellulose. The mean percentage (with standard deviation) of the amounts of cellulose collected in the terminal ileum was 98.4%+/- 16.5% (ranging from 67.4% to 114.5%) with a coefficient variation of 16.8%. The average times (in hours) taken for 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of cellulose to reach the terminal ileum were 5.5 +/- 1.1, 6.7 +/- 0.7, 8.5 +/- 1.3, and 8.8 +/- 1.2, respectively, with large interindividual variations. In conclusion, the averaged recovery percentage of cellulose in the terminal ileum was approximately 100%, in accordance with the present generally accepted definition of dietary fiber. However, there were large interindividual variations in the oro-ileal transit time and the percentage of cellulose recovered.
Ileal atresia is an uncommon congenital lesion that results from intra-uterine ischemia and less commonly, from in-utero obstruction like intussusception, malrotation and internal hernia. Multiple atresias are less common and are usually diagnosed within the first 24 hours of life. The age at presentation is one to thirty days.
Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.
Convertino, Victor A.
The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.
Dhibou, Hanane; Bassir, Ahlam; Sami, Nadia; Boukhanni, Lahcen; Fakhir, Bouchra; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf
Ileal atresia is a rare congenital malformation which affects a small percentage of the population, with an incidence of 1 in 5000 cases. It may be suspected and diagnosed by ultrasound at the end of the second and third trimester. Obstetrical and surgical consultation is the key to success here. Eliminating a systemic disease with poor prognosis, fighting to reduce premature births and immediately entrusting the child to the surgeon are the main objectives to achieve. During surgery, the surgeon will determine the type of atresia, its location, single or multiple areas of occlusion and its length; thus surgery depends on etiology. Our study reports an interesting clinical case of ileal atresia diagnosed antenatall.
Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.
Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, Hannelouise
-jejunal transposition, resection of the proximal or distal half of the small intestine, and appropriate sham-operated controls. After two weeks, ileal-jejunal transposition led to pronounced growth of the transposed segment and also of the remaining intestinal segments. Plasma GLP-2 levels increased twofold, whereas...... GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals...... with increased plasma levels of GLP-2, and GLP-2 seems to act in an endocrine as well as a paracrine manner....
Singh, Aditya Pratap; Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun Kumar
Post-electric burn ileal perforation is a rare but severe complication leading to high morbidity and mortality if there is delay in diagnosis and management. We are describing a case of electric current injury of left forearm, chest, and abdominal wall with perforation of ileum in an 8-year old boy. Patient was successfully managed by primary closure of the ileal perforation.
Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids is important for determining balanced homeostasis of protein metabolism in pigs and the true digestibility of dietary protein. In this context, the ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were determined in growing pigs fed guanidinated Nutrisoy protein
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.
BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of
Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this
Typhoid ileal perforation is still prevalent in many developing countries. Despite the advances in The management, the outcome in children is still very poor. To determine the morbidity and mortality of childhood typhoid ileal perforation in a tertiary referral centre in southeast Nigeria Retrospective evaluation of 89 children ...
Puerta, Juan D; Castano, Rodrigo; Arismendi, Ivan R
Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch (IP) has become an established surgery for patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and poliposis syndromes. The authors report the results of 8-year experience of restorative proctocolectomy and IP. Chart review was performed for 51 patients undergoing IP from 1994 through 2002. Preoperative histopathologic diagnoses were ulcerative colitis (n=39), poliposis syndromes (n=10), 2 Crohn diseases and 1 patient with colorectal cancer and extended resection. Information was obtained regarding patient demographics, type and duration of diseases, previous operations, and indications for surgery. Early (within 30 days after surgery) and late complications were noted. Follow-up included an annual function, physical examination, and biopsies of the pouch and anal transitional zone when were indicated. Of the 51 patients (24 women) with mean follow-up time of 44,5 months (range 12 -108 months), histopathologic diagnoses of ulcerative colitis were changed for Crohn's disease in 2 patients. The overall mortality rate was 2% (1 patient) one death was related to perineal sepsis 45 months after ileal pouch. The overall morbidity rate was 65% (73 complications in 33 patients; early 39%; late 49%) the mean hospitalary stance was 8, 9 days (range 6-25 days). Small bowel obstruction, septic complication and reoperation rates were 36%, 22% and 26%, respectively. The most frequent late complication was pouchitis (31,8%). The ileal pouch was removed in 1 patient, and it is functional in 50 (98%). There was a satisfactory index with 82% with excellent-good results, and 16% and 2% with regular and bad results. Restorative proctocolectomy with an IP is a safe procedure, with low mortality and major morbidity rates. Although total morbidity rate is appreciable, functional results generally are good and patient satisfaction is acceptable
Full Text Available The use of an ileal conduit as a means of treatment for bladder cancer or dysfunction is widely used and understood. However, long term surveillance of that conduit has not been strongly established and set forth as a means of screening. We present a 76yo female with a history of neurogenic bladder secondary to paraplegia who underwent the formation of a “Koff” pouch as a conduit. Nineteen years later she presents with hematuria and was found to have adenocarcinoma originating in her conduit.
Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K
Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower
Peter A. Caputo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008. His hospital course at time of transplant was complicated by low-level BK virus viremia. Interestingly his trans-urethral bladder tumor resection specimen at time of bladder cancer diagnosis stained positive for SV40. His native kidneys were anuric so bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in a staged fashion 2 weeks prior to RARC. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12-mm assistant trocar is placed 1 cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the stapled enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: identification of native ureters bilaterally (removed en bloc with the bladder specimen; identification of the transplanted ureter at the right bladder dome; posterior bladder and prostate dissection along Denonvilliers’ fascia; development of the space of Retzius; ligation and transection of the bladder and prostate vascular bundles; apical prostate dissection and transection of urethra; left pelvic lymphadenectomy; ilium resection for creation of the ileal conduit; stapled enteric anastomosis; ureteroileal anastomosis; maturation of the ileal conduit stoma. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 443 minutes (7.4 hours. Estimated blood loss was 250 cc. Length of hospital stay was 5 days. The patient
Full Text Available Aim. Single-access laparoscopic surgery (SALS can be effective for benign and malignant diseases of the ileum in both the elective and urgent setting. Methods. Ten consecutive, nonselected patients with ileal disease requiring surgery over a twelve month period were included. All had a preoperative abdominopelvic computerized tomogram. Peritoneal access was achieved via a single transumbilical incision and a “surgical glove port” utilized as our preferred access device. With the pneumoperitoneum established, the relevant ileal loop was located using standard rigid instruments. For ileal resection, anastomosis, or enterotomy, the site of pathology was delivered and addressed extracorporeally. Result. The median (range age of the patients was 42.5 (22–78 years, and the median body mass index was 22 (20.2–28 kg/m2. Procedures included tru-cut biopsy of an ileal mesenteric mass, loop ileostomy and ileotomy for impacted gallstone extraction as well as ileal (=3 and ileocaecal resection (=4. Mean (range incision length was 2.5 (2–5 cm. All convalescences were uncomplicated. Conclusions. These preliminary results show that SALS is an efficient and safe modality for the surgical management of ileal disease with all the advantages of minimal access surgery and without requiring a significant increase in theatre resource or cost or incurring extra patient morbidity.
Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia
digestible content (cAID) and total crude protein (CP) and AA can be considered as alternative approach to obtain more accurate values for IAAend and SID of AA in cereal grains.MethodsEight hulled barley genotypes were used, with barley being the only source of CP and AA in the assay diets. The diets......BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...... to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared...
Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria
the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...
Mariscal-Landín, Gerardo; Reis de Souza, Tércia Cesária; Bayardo Uribe, Alejandro
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on endogenous amino acids and protein ileal losses; and also apparent ileal digestibility (AID), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and crude protein. Sixteen barrows were fed four protein-free diets containing graded NDF levels in Experiment 1. NDF was a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn leaves (SBCL). Twenty-four barrows were fed diets with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) or casein as protein sources and SBCL or corncobs (CC) as NDF sources in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a linear increase (P protein ileal losses was observed with increased NDF levels, except for arginine, histidine, methionine and proline. In Experiment 2, protein (P Protein and NDF sources significantly affected (P protein, which was higher in casein diets (92.8%) and CC diets (92.7%). NDF source had no effect (P > 0.05) on SID of amino acids. Overall, this study showed that NDF increased endogenous amino acid and protein ileal losses, but did not affect ileal digestibility of amino acids. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M
Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.
Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R
Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and
Rose Marie Azzopardi
Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.
McDougall, Gordon J; Conner, Sean; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Gonzalez-Barrio, Rocio; Brown, Emma M; Verrall, Susan; Stewart, Derek; Moffet, Tanya; Ibars, Maria; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R
The (poly)phenols in ileal fluid after ingestion of raspberries were analyzed by targeted and nontargeted LC-MS(n) approaches. Targeted approaches identified major anthocyanin and ellagitannin components at varying recoveries and with considerable interindividual variation. Nontargeted LC-MS(n) analysis using an orbitrap mass spectrometer gave exact mass MS data which were sifted using a software program to select peaks that changed significantly after supplementation. This method confirmed the recovery of the targeted components but also identified novel raspberry-specific metabolites. Some components (including ellagitannin and previously unidentified proanthocyanidin derivatives) may have arisen from raspberry seeds that survived intact in ileal samples. Other components include potential breakdown products of anthocyanins, unidentified components, and phenolic metabolites formed either in the gut epithelia or after absorption into the circulatory system and efflux back into the gut lumen. The possible physiological roles of the ileal metabolites in the large bowel are discussed.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...
This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical
This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical
... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...
Full Text Available Objective To compare the erectile function (EF and sexual desire (SD in men after radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP who had either an ileal conduit urinary diversion or orthotropic ileal neobladder substitution. Materials and Methods Eighty one sexually active men with bladder cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. After RCP according to patients' preferences they underwent either ileal conduit urinary diversion (n = 41 or orthotropic ileal neobladder substitution (n = 40. EF and SD were assessed using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire. Patients were assessed at 4-week before surgery and were followed up at 1, 6, and 12-month postoperatively using the same questionnaire. Results Postoperatively the EF and SD domains deteriorated significantly in both groups, but in a small proportion of the patients submitted to ileal neobladder they gradually improved with time (P = 0.006. At 12-month postoperative period, 4 (9.8% and 14 (35.0% patients in ileal conduit and ileal neobladder groups were able to achieve erections hard enough for vaginal penetration and maintained their erection to completion of intercourse, respectively (P = 0.006. Among patients in the ileal conduit and ileal neobladder groups, additional 4 (9.8% and 7 (17.1% patients were able to get some erection, but were unable to maintain their erection to completion of intercourse (P = 0.02. At 12-month follow up period 24.4% of the ileal conduit and 45.0% of the ileal neobladder patients rated their sexual desire very high or high (P = 0.01. Conclusion When performed properly, orthotopic ileal neobladder substitution after RCP offers better long-term results in terms of EF and SD.
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...
Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O
More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...
Background: Typhoid ileal perforation is a common complication of typhoid fever, a multi-systemic infection, which is endemic in many developing countries. Objective: This study reviews and compares the incidence, morbidity and mortality at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with other referral centres located in ...
Cavdar, Ikbal; Temiz, Zeynep; Ozbas, Ayfer; Can, Gulbeyaz; Tarhan, Fatih; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin; Akyuz, Nuray
The aim of this study was to determine the sleep quality and the association between sleep quality and quality of life in people with ileal conduit. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was adopted. The study sample comprised 111 people with ileal conduit operated on in urology clinics in a state hospital between January 2011 and May 2014. Six months after the operation, they were called by telephone to participate in the study. Data for the study were collected using a questionnaire form, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Stoma Quality of Life Scale (SQLS). The mean ± SD total PSQI score of the people with ileal conduit was 10.20 ± 2.95, mean total score of SQLS was 43.63 ± 7.21, mean Work/Social Function domain score was 37.27 ± 5.80 and mean Stoma Function domain score was 50.0 ± 12.56. The total sleep quality had a low degree of negative correlation with total SQLS score, a medium degree of negative correlation with Work/Social Function (r = -0.327, p .001). People using a night drainage system had higher sleep quality. This study determined that quality of life and sleep deteriorate in people with ileal conduit. The quality of life decreases when the sleep quality is poor, and decreased quality of life affects quality of sleep in people with ileal conduit.
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...
This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...
Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun
A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.
van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H
Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content
A patient contracted tuberculosis after 2 operations for morbid obesity. The difficulty in diagnosis and treatment is described. Jejuno-ileal bypass is a non-physiological operation, with many reported complications and side effects. Following this short experience the author and his colleagues have now abandoned this operation. Patients suffering from malnutrition as a result of slimming operations should be carefully monitored for tuberculosis.
Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.
Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate
Sergey V. Yarkovoy
Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study
Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin
Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stein, H.H.; Fuller, M.F.; Moughan, P.J.; Seve, B.; Mosenthin, R.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Fernandez, J.A.; Lange, de C.F.M.
Measures of ileal digestibility (ID) are used routinely as estimates of amino acid (AA) bio-availability in pig feed ingredients. Values for ID may be expressed as apparent (AID), standardized (SID), or true (TID). Values for AID are calculated by deducting the total ileal outflow of AA (the sum of
Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a
MARQUES Ruy Garcia
Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.
Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Shin Jae; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Man Deuk [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Young [Institute of Gastroenterology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Variceal bleeding is an unusual complication of ileal conduits. We report a case in which recurrent stomal variceal hemorrhage from an ileal conduit for bladder cancer was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) using microcoils and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Therefore, PTO can be one treatment option to prevent recurrent stomal variceal bleeding from ileal conduits.
Surewad, Gajanan; Lobo, Ivona
A 12-year-old girl presented with prolonged fever with no obvious focus on either history or clinical examination. High-resolution computerized tomography of the chest revealed the ‘tree-in-bud’ sign in the right lung and necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes. Barium meal showed multiple ileal strictures. The child was treated with anti-tuberculous therapy for six months. At follow-up six months later, the child had gained weight and had no signs of intestinal obstruction. Tuberculosis is a common cause of fever of undetermined origin and should be investigated for especially in countries with a high prevalence. PMID:25478420
Full Text Available Segmental dilatation of the ileum is one of the uncommon causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We present a case of slow transit of bowel contents leading to suspicion of functional bowel obstruction in a new born, which on exploration turned out to be a case of segmental dilatation of the jejuno-ileal region. The clinical and radiological evaluation was suggestive of hypomotility disorder of gut, resulting in diagnostic dilemma and delayed surgical intervention.
Kassir, Radwan; Boueil-Bourlier, Alexia; Baccot, Sylviane; Abboud, Karine; Dubois, Joelle; Petcu, Carmen Adina; Boutet, Claire; Chevalier, Ugo; Montveneur, Mathias; Cano, Marie-Isabelle; Ferreira, Romain; Debs, Tarek; Tiffet, Olivier
Introduction Although diverticular disease of the duodenum and colon is frequent, the jejuno–ileal diverticulosis (JOD) is an uncommon entity. The perforation of the small bowel diverticula can be fatal due to the delay in diagnosis. Presentation of case We report the case of a 79-year-old man presenting with generalized abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. Physical examination revealed a severe diffuse abdominal pain. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with oral contrast showed thickening of the distal jejunal loop and thickening and infiltration of the mesenteric fat and the presence of free air in the mesentery suggesting a possible perforation adjacent to the diverticula. A midline laparotomy was performed. The jejunal diverticula were found along the mesenteric border. Forty centimeters of the jejunum were resected. Histopathology report confirmed the presence of multiple jejunual diverticula, and one of them was perforated. The patient tolerated the procedure and the postoperative period was uncomplicated. Discussion The prevalence of small intestinal diverticula ranges from 0.06% to 1.3%. The etiopathogenesis of JOD is unclear, although the current hypothesis focuses on abnormalities in the smooth muscle or myenteric plexus, on intestinal dyskinesis and on high intraluminal pressures. Diagnosis is often difficult and delayed because clinical symptoms are not specific and mainly imaging studies performs the diagnosis. Conclusion Because of the relative rarity of acquired jejuno–ileal diverticulosis, the perforation of small bowel diverticulitis poses technical dilemmas. PMID:25841158
Kim, Sae-Hae; Cho, Byeol-Hee; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Jang, Yong-Suk
The regional specialization of intestinal immune cells is affected by the longitudinal heterogeneity of environmental factors. Although the distribution of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) is well characterized in the lamina propria, it is poorly defined in Peyer's patches (PPs) along the intestine. Given that PP ILC3s are closely associated with mucosal immune regulation, it is important to characterize the regulatory mechanism of ILC3s. Here, we found that terminal ileal PPs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice have fewer NKp46 + ILC3s than jejunal PPs, while there was no difference in NKp46 + ILC3 numbers between terminal ileal and jejunal PPs in antibiotics (ABX)-treated mice. We also found that butyrate levels in the terminal ileal PPs of SPF mice were higher than those in the jejunal PPs of SPF mice and terminal ileal PPs of ABX-treated mice. The reduced number of NKp46 + ILC3s in terminal ileal PPs resulted in a decrease in Csf2 expression and, in turn, resulted in reduced regulatory T cells and enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. Thus, we suggest that NKp46 + ILC3s are negatively regulated by microbiota-derived butyrate in terminal ileal PPs and the reduced ILC3 frequency is closely associated with antigen-specific immune induction in terminal ileal PPs.
Calissendorff, Jan; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik
Metastases from ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to the myocardium are rare and generally seen in patients with widespread metastatic NET disease. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the frequency of intracardiac metastases in ileal NET patients examined by (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT and to describe the cases in detail. All (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT examinations performed at the Karolinska University Hospital since 2010 until April 2012 were reviewed. In all, 128 out of 337 examinations were in patients with ileal NETs. Four patients had seven myocardiac metastases, yielding a frequency of 4.3 % in patients with ileal NETs. One patient had cardiac surgery while three were treated with somatostatin analogs. The cardiac metastases did not affect the patients' activity of daily life. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT is an established imaging modality in identifying cardiac metastases in ileal NETs. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical value of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET/CT in detecting cardiac metastases in both ileal and non-ileal NETs.
Schneider, Wolfgang; Nguyen-Thanh, Phuong; Dralle, Henning; Mirastschijski, Ursula
Vaginal reconstruction has been performed for more than a century. Main complications are vaginal stenosis requiring dilatation, dyspareunia, excessive mucus secretion, and poor aesthetic and functional outcome. Here we report a new operation method modified after Baldwin for intestinal vaginoplasty in a patient with pelvic exenteration after spinal cell carcinoma of the vagina. Because of balanced liquid resorption and mucus secretion with sufficient vessel length in the terminal ileum, this intestinal segment was chosen. A J-pouch of distal ileum was constructed pedicled on the ileocolic artery and accompanying nervous plexus, transferred into the lower pelvis and sutured to the vaginal stump. One year follow-up showed a highly satisfied, sexually active patient, with adequate vaginal size, optimal lubrication and no molesting fecal odor. Terminal ileum J-pouch vaginoplasty is an optimal method for vaginal reconstruction providing a sufficient vaginal lumen and lubrication and thereby restoring patients' sexual life and increasing life quality.
... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...
The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...
Hill, Linda; Scull, John
Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)
Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M
The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the
Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis
New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...
Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti
Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.
deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction
Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan
In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…
Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function
It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...
Villmones, Heidi Cecilie; Haug, Erik Skaaheim; Ulvestad, Elling; Grude, Nils; Stenstad, Tore; Halland, Adrian; Kommedal, Øyvind
The small bowel is responsible for most of the body's nutritional uptake and for the development of intestinal and systemic tolerance towards microbes. Nevertheless, the human small bowel microbiota has remained poorly characterized, mainly owing to sampling difficulties. Sample collection directly from the distal ileum was performed during radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Material from the ileal mucosa were analysed using massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Samples from 27 Caucasian patients were included. In total 280 unique Operational Taxonomic Units were identified, whereof 229 could be assigned to a species or a species group. The most frequently detected bacteria belonged to the genera Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Actinomyces, Solobacterium, Rothia, Gemella and TM7(G-1). Among these, the most abundant species were typically streptococci within the mitis and sanguinis groups, Streptococcus salivarius, Rothia mucilaginosa and Actinomyces from the A. meyeri/odontolyticus group. The amounts of Proteobacteria and strict anaerobes were low. The microbiota of the distal part of the human ileum is oral-like and strikingly different from the colonic microbiota. Although our patient population is elderly and hospitalized with a high prevalence of chronic conditions, our results provide new and valuable insights into a lesser explored part of the human intestinal ecosystem.
van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart
Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) comprise a new group of E. coli species named from their distinctive ability to adhere to and invade the intestinal epithelium. The AIEC strains have been associated to the ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), and the impact of AIEC in the pathogenesis...... of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls....... A second purpose was to assess the probiotic efficacy of E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa. Ileal and colonic specimens were obtained from patients with CD ileitis and controls (n¼10). A model was developed to investigate bacterial adhesion to intestinal biopsies...
Osther, P J; Poulsen, A L; Steven, K
OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to compare urinary biochemical and physicochemical environments in patients who had undergone bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir, and who had no actual urinary infection, with those of healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The partic......OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to compare urinary biochemical and physicochemical environments in patients who had undergone bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir, and who had no actual urinary infection, with those of healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: The participants were 23 male patients who had undergone bladder substitution with the ileal-urethral Kock reservoir and 25 healthy men. All subjects had sterile urine at the time of urine collection. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatinine, citrate, oxalate, and ammonia in 24-h urine samples...
Giarnieri, E; Giovagnoli, M R; Montesani, C; Nagar, C; Pronio, A M; Alderisio, M; Ribotta, G; Vecchione, A
Pouchitis in ileal anal anastomosis represents an important clinical complication after restorative proctocolectomy. Acute and chronic inflammation of the reservoir is a frequent event sometimes associated with villous atrophy and colonic metaplasia. After ileal pouch anastomosis, twenty-one patients affected by ulcerative colitis were studied. An image analyzer CAS 200 (Becton Dickinson) was utilized to evaluate the DNA intranuclear content in every biopsy. In two cases abnormal DNA distribution was observed, and in one case a poliploid pattern was seen. Abnormal DNA distribution was also present in colonic metaplasia. Therefore, image analysis for the detection of DNA aneuploidy may be of additional value together with histologic parameters in follow up, in order to exclude transformation of the ileal mucosa in neoplastic epithelia.
St Clair, Jesse W; Wong, Matthew L
The differential diagnosis for a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis is probably less well known than the differential diagnosis for an anion gap metabolic acidosis. One etiology of a non-anion gap acidosis is the consequence of ileal neobladder urinary diversion for the treatment of bladder cancer. We present a case of a patient with an ileal neobladder with a severe non-anion gap metabolic acidosis caused by a urinary tract infection and ureteroenterostomy. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Part of the ileal neobladder surgery includes ureteroenterostomy and predisposes patients to several clinically significant metabolic derangements, including a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. These patients have an increased chronic acid load, bicarbonate deficit, and hypokalemia, which should be appreciated when resuscitating these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%)
Cayla A. Thompson
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4 is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent. Results: We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15, which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases. Conclusions: Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4âs function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into
Grana, Lucia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Profesor Martin Lagos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: email@example.com; Pedraja, Inigo [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Profesor Martin Lagos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Mendez, Ramiro [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Profesor Martin Lagos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: email@example.com; Rodriguez, Ricardo [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Profesor Martin Lagos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: To describe the computed tomography and ultrasound findings of five cases of small bowel diverticulitis with localized perforation. Material and methods: Our database, from April 2003 to August 2007, was reviewed and five cases of small bowel diverticulitis were identified. Results: Jejuno-ileal diverticulitis with covered perforation usually presents as wall thickening of a small bowel loop and an adjacent inflammatory mass containing air bubbles. Conclusion: Small bowel diverticula are rare and mostly asymptomatic. They become clinically relevant when complications arise, such as diverticulitis. The symptoms of jejuno-ileal diverticulitis are non-specific and the diagnosis is performed mainly by imaging studies.
Grana, Lucia; Pedraja, Inigo; Mendez, Ramiro; Rodriguez, Ricardo
Purpose: To describe the computed tomography and ultrasound findings of five cases of small bowel diverticulitis with localized perforation. Material and methods: Our database, from April 2003 to August 2007, was reviewed and five cases of small bowel diverticulitis were identified. Results: Jejuno-ileal diverticulitis with covered perforation usually presents as wall thickening of a small bowel loop and an adjacent inflammatory mass containing air bubbles. Conclusion: Small bowel diverticula are rare and mostly asymptomatic. They become clinically relevant when complications arise, such as diverticulitis. The symptoms of jejuno-ileal diverticulitis are non-specific and the diagnosis is performed mainly by imaging studies.
Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad
To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maartense, Stefan; Dunker, Michalda S.; Slors, J. Frederick; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Bemelman, Willem A.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate postoperative recovery after hand-assisted laparoscopic or open restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty patients were
Full Text Available In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV. Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA, was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.
Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Sauer, Peter; Schaible, Anja; Stern, Josef; Stiehl, Adolf; Beuers, Ulrich
The high incidence of cholesterol gallstones in patients after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) may be due to an increased loss of bile acids. We aimed to evaluate the kinetics of the primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in these patients. Pool
Ljungmann, K.; Bendixen, A.; Laurberg, S.
INTRODUCTION: Restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the operation of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. However, the procedure is complex with a long learning curve, and carries a risk of both early and late complications...
Steenhagen, E.; Roos, de N.M.; Bouwman, C.A.; Laarhoven, van C.J.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.
Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food
Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.
Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility
Montesani, C; Pronio, A; De Milito, R; Narilli, P; D'Amato, A; Ribotta, G
The immediate results of 37 restorative proctocolectomies are reported comparing morbidity of stapled vs manual procedures. The stapled technique is easier and faster but does not reduce the incidence of leakages and pelvic sepsis related to the ileal pouch. It seems, though, to be more useful in reducing the morbidity related to the ileoanal anastomosis.
Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative pouch bleeding is a rare but detrimental complication following ileal pouch surgery. It is usually self-limited, however continuous bleeding requires inter- vention. There is limited published data on its management. Design: Ileoscopy via stoma for loop ileostomy and pouchoscopy via anus for ileal pouch were performed under sedation for the purpose of diagnosis and management of postop- erative bleeding. Results: Ileoscopy demonstrated a large, long blood clot in the lumen of efferent limb, but no sign of active bleeding was identified. Pouchoscopy showed that lumen of pouch body as well as afferent limb was filled with maroon-colored liquid stool. Pouch and neo-terminal ileum mucosa was normal. Two dislodged staples at the anastomotic line with sharp tips towards the lumen were found, with activating bleeding at one site. The staples were re- moved by biopsy forceps, and active bleeding was successfully controlled by the deploy- ment of one endoclip. Conclusions: We reported the first case that postoperative pouch bleeding, which was caused by dislodged staples, was successfully managed by endoscopic removal of the staples com- bined with clipping. Resumo: Objetivo: O sangramento pós-operatório da bolsa ileal é uma complicação rara, mas prejudi- cial após abordagem cirúrgica da bolsa ileal. Esse sangramento é geralmente autolimitado, porém, requer intervenção quando contínuo. Não há dados publicados sobre o tratamento. Método: Ileoscopia através de estoma para ileostomia em alça e endoscopia via ânus para a bolsa ileal foram realizadas sob sedação para diagnóstico e tratamento do sangramento pós-operatório. Resultados: A ileoscopia demonstrou um grande e longo coágulo sanguíneo no lúmen do ramo eferente, mas nenhum sinal de sangramento ativo foi identificado. A endoscopia da bolsa ileal mostrou que os lumens do corpo da bolsa e ramo aferente estavam cheios de fe- zes líquidas de cor marrom. A
Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.
Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the
Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...
Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming
literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...
Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...
Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten
This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...... content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...
Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth
Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.
Casas, G A; Jaworski, N W; Htoo, J K; Stein, H H
An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in brewers rice, full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), peanut meal, sesame meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, soybean expellers, cassava meal, and bakery meal fed to young growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (initial BW: 14.09 ± 1.48 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 11 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 11 diets and four 7-d periods in each square. Eleven experimental diets were prepared and test ingredients were the sole source of CP and AA in 10 diets and the eleventh diet was a N-free diet used to measure basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.4%) was included in all diets as an indigestible marker and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of CP and AA was greatest (P < 0.05) in brewers rice and sesame meal and least (P < 0.05) in cassava meal. The SID of indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal compared with all other ingredients except brewers rice. Full-fat rice bran had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Met compared with DFRB. The SID of CP and most AA was not different among rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, and soybean expellers. Bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) SID of most AA compared with all other ingredients, with the exception of cassava meal. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal and peanut meal (482.32 and 452.44 g/kg DM, respectively) than in all other ingredients. Soybean expellers had the greatest (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible Lys (22.98 g/kg DM) followed by rapeseed meal (16.11 g/kg DM) and rapeseed expellers (16.17 g/kg DM). Cassava meal and bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP and most AA compared with the other
Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J
Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.
De Philippis, Chiara; Di Chio, Maria Chiara; Sabattini, Elena; Bolli, Niccolo
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is confined to the mediastinum or contiguous nodal areas in most cases. Extramediastinal and abdominal involvement, especially at diagnosis, is extremely rare. Our case describes the first case of histologically proven ileal involvement of PMBCL at diagnosis that led to ileal perforation. Positron emission tomography CT could increase the sensitivity of staging by detecting unusual sites of disease localisation, and could impact clinical management. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Hansen, Carl Frederik; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Vrang, Niels
To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat.......To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat....
Kjaer, M D; Kjeldsen, J; Qvist, N
. Overall pouch failure, defined as pouch excision or a diverting stoma, was seen in 34 (71%) patients, while pouch excision was seen in 23 (48%) of the patients. Patients who developed Crohn's disease had a significantly higher risk of pouch excision, as did patients with an early onset of the fistula...... after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a high risk of pouch failure in patients with complicated pouch-related fistulas. Furthermore, it showed that Crohn's disease and the development of early onset fistulas......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Development of a pouch-related fistula tract is an uncommon but highly morbid complication to restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Pouch failure with permanent ileostomy is reported in 21%-30% of patients, yet the factors contributing to pouch excision...
Full Text Available Introduction. Urinary diversion is very often associated with urinary retention and urinary incontinence. In this study, a surgical modification during cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder is presented. Material and Methods. Female patients enrolled in the study (n-24 were subjected to sacrocolpopexy during the operation. Apart from oncological control, the follow-up consisted of 1-hour inlay test and questionnaires (UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after the operation. In the 12th month after the surgery, the urodynamic pressure-flow test was performed. Outcomes were compared with the control group (n-18 in which sacrocolpopexy was not implemented. Results. The study group was characterised by reduced urinary retention and improved continence. Conclusion. Sacrocolpopexy during cystectomy with orthotopic ileal bladder is a valuable surgical method which provides patients with a better quality of life.
Ryan M. McAdams, MD
Full Text Available Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD, a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations who developed liver failure and was later determined to have GALD. Recognition of clinical and laboratory findings consistent with GALD is essential to promote early treatment, which can enhance neonatal outcomes and impact future pregnancies.
Martin, S T
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following proctocolectomy is the preferred option for patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. However, it remains a procedure associated with morbidity and mortality. Pelvic sepsis, pouch fistulae, and anastomotic dehiscence predispose to pouch failure. We report our experience with an adaptation for the formation of the stapled ileal J pouch using the GIA™ 100 stapling device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, USA). When creating the J pouch, we remove the bevelled plastic protector from the thin fork of the stapling device, allowing the staple line to be completed to the tip of the stapled efferent limb of the pouch, thereby minimizing potential blind ending in the efferent limb and injury to the transverse staple line.
Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid
Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. PMID:24644380
Leila Ghahramani; Saeed Yazdani; Saeed Derakhshani; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Reza Jalli; Bita Geramizadeh; Ali Reza Safarpour; Salar Rahimikazerooni; Seyed Vahid Hosseini
Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve do...
Ghahramani, Leila; Yazdani, Saeed; Derakhshani, Saeed; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Jalli, Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid
The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty). In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically) in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03). Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases.
McAdams, Ryan M.
Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN) that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD), a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with il...
Murrell, Zuri; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Melmed, Gil; Lo, Simon; Targan, Stephan; Fleshner, Phillip
The extent of preoperative small-bowel mucosal inflammation may be an important predictor of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This study examined the value of preoperative wireless capsule endoscopy in predicting outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis or indeterminate colitis. Patients undergoing complete wireless capsule endoscopy before ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were identified. Findings on wireless capsule endoscopy were classified as positive (erosions, ulcers or erythema) or negative. Outcome was assessed prospectively and included no pouchitis, acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, or de novo Crohn disease. Patients with acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, or de novo Crohn disease were considered to have pouch inflammation. The 68 study patients (48 ulcerative colitis; 20 indeterminate colitis) had a median age of 38 years and included 34 males. Median follow-up time after ileostomy closure was 12 months (range, 3-63 months). Wireless capsule endoscopy was positive in 15 patients (22%) and negative in 53 patients (78%). Pouch inflammation was observed in 23 patients (34%), and included 8 patients with acute pouchitis, 3 patients with chronic pouchitis, and 12 patients with de novo Crohn disease. The incidence of acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, de novo Crohn disease, and pouch inflammation in the wireless capsule endoscopy-positive patient group was 7%, 7%, 20%, and 33% compared with 13%, 4%, 17%, and 34% in the wireless capsule endoscopy-negative patient group (all P = NS). There was no statistical association between the results of preoperative wireless capsule endoscopy and outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis or indeterminate colitis. There seems to be little value of wireless capsule endoscopy in the preoperative evaluation of these patients.
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA in meat meal (MM, and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM. Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05 than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM.
Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.
Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal
Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.
Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A
, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...
Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan
The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...
Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.
Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices
Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.
Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices.
Fang Ju Koh
Full Text Available Small bowel diverticulosis is rare with an incidence of 1–2% in the general population. It is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that ranges from obscure to overt bleeding. Large ileal diverticula are extremely rare and bleeding complications can result in high overall mortality.A young gentleman presented with persistent per-rectal bleeding and drop in hemoglobin level. He was recently diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and was undergoing chemotherapy. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a giant ileal diverticulum. In view of on-going bleeding, he underwent double balloon enteroscopy which revealed active bleeding from an ulcer within the giant ileal diverticulum and successful hemostasis was performed with hemostatic clips.Small bowel diverticulosis though uncommon has to be considered during workup for gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is a modern approach towards small bowel diverticular bleeding that is effective and less invasive. Keywords: Enteroscopy, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Small bowel diverticula, Case report
Adesunkanmi, A R; Ajao, O G
To determine the prognostic factors in typhoid ileal perforation, a prospective study was carried out in 50 patients with typhoid ileal perforation confirmed at operation. Attention was paid to pre-operative and post-operative factors. The sex ratio was 4:1 in favour of male, with an age range of 7-42 years and a mean of 19.5 years. The age and sex had no effect on the prognosis. Late presentation, delay in operation, multiple perforations, and drainage of copious quantities of pus and faecal material from the peritoneal cavity adversely affected the incidence of faecal fistula and the mortality rate. The development of faecal fistula significantly affected the mortality rate. Early presentation, single perforation and moderate amounts of pus/faecal matter draining from the peritoneal cavity enhanced the development of wound infection, wound dehiscence and residual intra-abdominal abscess. Fourteen patients (28%) died, 50% of these within the first 5 post-operative days. Seventy-one per cent of the 14 died within 10 days. Thus, surviving for more than 10 post-operative days tends to give a better chance of recovery. In conclusion, this study has attempted to outline those factors with a strong effect on the progression and outcome of typhoid ileal perforation in Nigerian patients.
Htoo, J K; Araiza, B A; Sauer, W C; Rademacher, M; Zhang, Y; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T
Diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs may be associated with the concentration of intestinal microbial metabolites (ammonia, amines, and VFA) that are influenced by dietary CP content. Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of a low-protein, AA-supplemented diet on ileal AA digestibility, growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and concentration of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of pigs weaned at 14 d of age. In Exp. 1, 8 pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were assigned in a crossover design to 2 diets containing 24 or 20% CP using wheat, corn, full-fat soybeans, whey powder, fish meal, and blood plasma as the main ingredients. Supplemental AA were added to the diets to meet the AA standards according to the 1998 NRC recommendations. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed at 2.5 times the ME requirement for maintenance. The reduction of dietary CP decreased (P water. Dietary CP content did not affect growth performance or fecal consistency scores during the 3-wk study, and diarrhea was not observed. The results of these experiments indicate that lowering the dietary CP content combined with supplementation of AA markedly reduced the production of potentially harmful microbial metabolites in cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs without affecting growth performance.
Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant
BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...
Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, Shukun; Arent, Susan
The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains...... with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P fraction in ileal digesta compared with the control diet, and CAX increased the uronic acid-to-xylose ratio of the ileal insoluble NSP fraction (P
Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.
Pronio, A; Montesani, C; Vecchione, A; Giovagnoli, M G; Giarnieri, E; Nardi, F; Nigri, G; Ribotta, G
The pathological changes and the risk of developing cancer in the ileal pouch mucosa of patients who received restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) were studied. The presence or absence of remaining rectal mucosa below the IPAA in both patients with stapled and handsewn IPAA was also examined. Endoscopy of the ileal pouch was performed on 38 patients at 4, 12, 18 and 36 months after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch. Mucosal biopsy specimens were taken from the ileal reservoir in order to assess the histological incidence of inflammation. In 23 patients, biopsies were taken to perform cytometric DNA analysis. Clinical symptoms of pouchitis (over six evacuations in 24 hours, night-time evacuations, leakage of feces, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever) were recorded and correlated with the histological findings. Biopsies were also sampled below the ileo-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in order to identify residual rectal mucosa. Results of histological assessment showed various degrees of chronic inflammation increasing over time (from 42 to 60%) while the presence of both acute and chronic inflammation of the reservoir was less frequent (from 18 to 30%). Villous atrophy was present in 39-68% of patients and the grade of villous atrophy was correlated to the grade of inflammation. Clinical pouchitis was present in 3 to 8% of cases at the different controls and it was always associated with the highest grade of histological inflammation and severe villous atrophy. No significant alteration of the DNA cellular content was observed. Very low incidence of aneuploidy (0.7-1% Ex.R.) has been reported in three cases. However, we found dysplasia in only one patient who underwent surgical treatment for familial polyposis coli. IPAA evaluation showed no residual rectal mucosa in 40% of cases with stapled IPAA; in the remaining 60%, we found a small amount of rectal mucosa (maximum 1 cm). We did not find rectal mucosa after handsewn IPAA
Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L
The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.
Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee
Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.
Alitheen, N; McClure, S; McCullagh, P
The B lymphocyte-epithelial cell interactions that define the microenvironment of the ileal Peyer's patch, the primary B lymphocyte organ of the fetal lamb, have been replicated in tissue culture. Mixed suspensions of ileal epithelial cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts from fetuses of 63-103 days of gestation organized into macroscopically visible agglomerates within 72 h. These agglomerates contained translucent spherical cavities and were enclosed within a marginal cell layer and surrounded by an expanding corona of emigrating cells. The lining of the cavities and the marginal layer consisted of well-differentiated, polarized columnar ileal epithelial cells. One population of B lymphocytes in the initial mixed suspension differentiated into two discrete populations reproducing the characteristics of intact fetal ileal Peyer's patches. B cells apposed to follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) within agglomerates underwent apoptosis. The other population of emigrant B cells proliferated and expressed the BAQ44A differentiation marker. Differentiation of ileal epithelial cells into FAE, typical of Peyer's patches, was markedly accelerated. The mutually inductive influences of intestinal epithelial cells and B lymphocytes in these agglomerates replicate normal mid-gestational fetal development of the mucosal immune system and afford new opportunities for its further investigation.
Full Text Available Objective: Ileal transposition (IT surgery has been reported to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a powerful metabolic regulator. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of IT surgery on metabolism and its possible relationship with the FGF21 signaling pathway in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.Methods: Ten-week-old male GK rats were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of a 10 cm ileal segment to the proximal jejunum (IT group or sham surgery without the ileum transposition (Sham-IT group. Rats in the no surgery group did not receive any surgical intervention. Six weeks later, body weight, fat mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin were measured. The expression of the FGF21 signaling pathway and white adipose tissue (WAT browning-related genes in the WAT and liver were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and western blot.Results: IT surgery significantly decreased the body weights and FBG levels and increased the insulin sensitivity of GK rats. The total WAT mass of the IT rats showed a 41.5% reduction compared with the Sham-IT rats, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin of the IT rats decreased by 26.3 and 61.7%, respectively (all P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and its co-receptor β klotho (KLB in the perirenal WAT (pWAT of the IT rats were 1.4- and 2.4-fold that of the Sham-IT rats, respectively, and the FGFR1 protein levels were 1.7-fold of the Sham-IT rats (all P < 0.05. In accordance with the pWAT, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the epididymal WAT (eWAT of the IT rats notably increased to 3.0- and 3.9-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. Furthermore, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 protein levels in the eWAT and pWAT of the IT rats also increased to 2.2- and 2.3-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. However, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the
Medved, Mario; Truyen, Roel; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo
Segmentation of colon CT images is the main factor that inhibits automation of virtual colonoscopy. There are two main reasons that make efficient colon segmentation difficult. First, besides the colon, the small bowel, lungs, and stomach are also gas-filled organs in the abdomen. Second, peristalsis or residual feces often obstruct the colon, so that it consists of multiple gas-filled segments. In virtual colonoscopy, it is very useful to automatically connect the centerlines of these segments into a single colon centerline. Unfortunately, in some cases this is a difficult task. In this study a novel method for automated colon segmentation and connection of colon segments' centerlines is proposed. The method successfully combines features of segments, such as centerline and thickness, with information on main colon segments. The results on twenty colon cases show that the method performs well in cases of small obstructions of the colon. Larger obstructions are mostly also resolved properly, especially if they do not appear in the sigmoid part of the colon. Obstructions in the sigmoid part of the colon sometimes cause improper classification of the small bowel segments. If a segment is too small, it is classified as the small bowel segment. However, such misclassifications have little impact on colon analysis.
Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto
Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)
Dana K Bagwell
Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention
Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas
Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.
Schnater, J. Marco; van Zalen-Sprock, Rieteke M.; Schaap, Artie H. P.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Aronson, Daniel C.
Ileal atresia is considered to be an acquired anomaly. It is thought to be caused by a mesenteric vascular accident during fetal life which leads to necrosis of downstream tissues. We present a case in which ileal atresia occurred after intrauterine laser coagulation therapy for a twin-to-twin
Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S
Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.
Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne
Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in
Cumming Toby B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs
Mateo, E; García-Tello, A; Ramón de Fata, F; Romero, I; Núñez-Mora, C; Angulo, J C
Probably, laparoscopic radical cystectomy with ileal neobladder and neovesicourethral anastomosis is one of the most complex procedures in minimally invasive surgery. Prospective study carried out in 72 patients surgically treated for invasive bladder neoplasia between January 2008 and October 2013. Patients were undergone to radical cystectomy with ileal neobladder (open approach in 33 patients and laparoscopic approach in 39). The study assessed comparatively surgical outcomes, continence rate and postoperative complications. Mean age was 63.5±9 years (64.3 open vs. 62.7 laparoscopic, P=.46) mean surgery time 323.6±78.7 minutes (321.3 vs. 326.5, P=.77), average hospital stay 14.8 days±8,1 (16.2 vs. 13.6, P=.2), transfusion rate 40.3% (66.7% vs. 17.9%, P<.0001) and complications rate 47.2% (63.6% vs. 33.3%, P=.01). Major complications were reported in 29.1% of cases (39.4% open vs. 20,5% laparoscopic, P=.07). With a mean follow-up rate of 42.5±19.2 months (range 15-70), 50 (69.4%) patients remain alive and free of disease. Continence was evaluated in these patients: total continence rate was 38% (50% vs. 27%, P=.09) and diurnal continence rate 58% (70.8% vs. 46.1%, P=.07). Self-catheterization rate was 8% (4.2% vs. 11.5%, P=.67). Total incontinence rate was 34% (25% vs. 42.3%, P=.19). According to our experience, transfusion rate, number and severity of complications are lower in laparoscopic cystectomy with ileal neobladder. No statistically significant impact on operative time and on hospital stay was observed. In patients undergone to laparoscopic approach, continence rate is lower but not statistically significant. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Lee, Dong Hyeon
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction.
Virgone, C; D'antonio, F; Khalil, A; Jonh, R; Manzoli, L; Giuliani, S
The accuracy of prenatal ultrasound examination in detecting jejunal and ileal atresia has been reported in the literature to be highly variable, at 25-90%. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the accuracy of prenatal ultrasound in detecting non-duodenal small bowel atresia (ND-SBA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, including The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), were searched electronically. The overall detection rate of jejunal or ileal atresia using ultrasound was reported. The accuracy of using polyhydramnios and dilated loops of bowel as diagnostic signs was also explored. Sixteen studies involving 640 fetuses were included in this review. The detection rate of ND-SBA by prenatal ultrasound was highly variable, with values ranging from 10 to 100%, with an overall prediction of 50.6% (95% CI, 38.0-63.2%). When analyzed separately, the detection rates of jejunal and ileal atresia were 66.3%, (95% CI, 33.9-91.8%) and 25.9% (95% CI, 4.0-58.0%), respectively. Both dilated loops of bowel and polyhydramnios as diagnostic signs for ND-SBA provided a low overall detection rate. The diagnostic performance of prenatal ultrasound in identifying ND-SBA is extremely variable. Large studies are needed in order to identify objective and combined criteria for the diagnosis of these anomalies. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein
Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs...... and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.......5%) (p dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were...
Full Text Available Duplications of the alimentary tract are infrequent anomalies. They are most frequently located in the terminal ileum, and majority of them became symptomatic before the age of 2. Presenting symptoms may include abdominal mass, intestinal obstruction, intussusception, rectal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis is usually difficult, intra-abdominal duplications are usually diagnosed during surgical explorations of above complications. We presented a 12-year-old girl with asymptomatic ileal duplication cyst associated with non-complicated acute appendicitis, whose imaging studies at admission were compatible with complicated perforated appendicitis.
Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry
.05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...
Faber, T A; Bechtel, P J; Hernot, D C; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Smiley, S; Fahey, G C
Meat and fish serve as important protein sources in the companion animal diet; however, limited protein digestibility data are available for assessing protein digestibility differences among good-quality protein sources. Beef loin, pork loin, chicken breast, pollock fillet, and salmon fillet were evaluated for composition, protein digestibility, and AA bioavailability using the immobilized digestive enzyme assay, cecectomized rooster assay, and ileally cannulated dog assay. Pollock contained the greatest amount of CP, total essential AA (TEAA), and total nonessential AA (TNEAA; DM basis; 96.9, 38.6, and 50.3%, respectively). Salmon contained the next greatest amounts (92.8, 36.4, and 44.6%), followed by chicken (90.3, 36.1, 43.2%). Beef had the least CP content (82.7%), but had slightly greater TEAA and TNEAA concentrations (33.9, 42.0%) compared with pork (86.2, 33.6, 41.3%). Immobilized digestive enzyme assay values were greatest for pollock fillet (0.71) and least for chicken breast (0.52). Beef loin, pork loin, and salmon fillet were similar (0.63, 0.62, and 0.64, respectively). Standardized TEAA and TNEAA digestibility coefficients, evaluated using the cecectomized rooster assay, were greatest (P protein source. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in ileal digestibility of protein. Values ranged from 88.9% for chicken to 90.5% for pork loin and pollock fillet. Ileal TEAA and TNEAA coefficients were not different among test substrates, with values between 91.7 and 92.7%, and 88.8 and 90.4%, respectively. Total tract CP apparent digestibility values ranged from 94.4 to 94.8%, with no differences noted among treatments. Despite marked differences in composition and predicted and standardized digestibility values, when the protein sources were added to diets at a concentration of approximately 30% (25% of total energy intake), no differences in test protein substrates were noted in either ileal or total tract nutrient digestibility.
Rab, A.Z.U.; Fakir, S.B.; Peethambaran, M.S.
Rupture of abdominal wall with formation of ventral hernia is a rare complication following blunt abdominal trauma. Small intestinal rupture within such a hernial sac, resulting from a subsequent blunt trauma is rarer still. Ventral hernias often go untreated in developing countries because of their seemingly innocuous nature, ignorance and financial constraints. Blunt trauma in patients with hernia warrants a thorough clinical examination along with evaluation for intestinal injury, since even trivial trauma can cause potentially serious intra-peritoneal visceral injury. A case of fatal traumatic ileal perforation in pre-existing post-traumatic ventral hernia (from blunt trauma sustained 10 years earlier) is being reported. (author)
McHugh, Seamus M
BACKGROUND: Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. CONCLUSION: During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.
Joseph J. Pariser
Full Text Available Left ventricular assist device (LVAD is an option for the surgical management of severe heart failure, and radical cystectomy remains the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Given a complicated population in terms of comorbidities and management for patients with an LVAD, there is little experience with major urologic procedures, which require balancing the benefits of surgery with considerable perioperative risks. We report our experience performing the first radical cystectomy with ileal conduit in a patient with an LVAD and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...
Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.
Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…
In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...
Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.
Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna
This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.
Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso
We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...
The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...
Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.
Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.
Full Text Available Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.
Schron, C.M.; Knickelbein, R.G.; Aronson, P.S.; Dobbins, J.W.
In rabbit ileal basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles, an outwardly directed Cl gradient ([Cl] in/out = 60/6 mM) stimulated the initial velocity of 35 SO 4 uptake compared with uptake in the absence of Cl. Under Cl gradient conditions, 35 SO 4 was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that found at equilibrium (overshoot). Chloride gradient-stimulated SO 4 uptake was markedly reduced by inhibitors of anion exchange and was saturable. SO 4 uptake by BLM vesicles was not stimulated by imposition of an inside-positive electrical potential, suggesting that the stimulation by a Cl gradient was not due to an induced electrical potential. Oxalate, nitrate, iodide, and bromide inhibited the initial velocity of Cl gradient-stimulated SO 4 uptake, whereas phosphate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and p-aminohippurate had not effect. When 35 SO 4 uptake by BLM vesicles was compared with that of brush-border membrane vesicles, Cl gradient-stimulated SO 4 uptake was found predominantly in the BLM preparation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for a carrier on the ileal basolateral membrane that mediates Cl-SO 4 exchange
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.
Wang, Hongliang; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Meng; Piao, Xiangshu
The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P digestibility of CP and AAs among barley varieties. It is difficult to predict the SID of most of the amino acids in barely based upon chemical characteristics. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.
Hamid Reza Abbasi
Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.
Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) with a low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs
Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.; Berg, J.W.O. van den
In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) (200 g/kg) with a low (< .1% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equivalents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and
Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko
To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect
Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with or without an antibiotic. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG, ADFI, G:F and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the opti...
Steendam, C.A.; Tamminga, S.; Boer, H.; Jong, de E.J.; Visser, G.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.
Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 ± 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the 15N-isotope dilution technique (15N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content
Simon, K.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Lammers, A.
Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for
Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein
Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p digestibility level (p digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs.
Grala, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Wasilewko, J.
Nitrogen (N) balance was determined in 36 pigs (BW 24 to 30 kg) fed diets inducing different ileal endogenous N losses (ENL). We tested the hypothesis that enhanced ENL may be indicative of a higher recycling of endogenous proteins that will induce a greater urinary N loss and a lower efficiency of
Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...
Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj
fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...
Hugh James Freeman
Full Text Available A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis treated with a proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-to-anal anastomosis developed an erosive and ulcerative pouchitis. Although no ophthalmological manifestations were present before the staged surgical procedures, iritis developed after appearance of the pouchitis. Both conditions subsequently resolved with oral corticosteroids and metronidazole.
Malta, E.; Raper, C.; Tawa, Pauline E.
1 Noradrenaline and 28 imidazolidine (clonidine-like) and imidazoline (oxymetazoline-like) compounds with various phenyl ring substituents have been examined for their ability to inhibit responses to transmural stimulation and exogenous acetylcholine in ileal preparations from reserpine-treated guinea-pigs.
Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)
An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.
Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora
Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups-Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages.
Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas
The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed
Rodríguez López, Marcelo
The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation
Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.
Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.
Huang, Yong; Dalal, Sushila; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Hubert, Nathaniel; Raffals, Laura H.; Dolan, Kyle; Weber, Christopher; Messer, Jeannette S.; Jabri, Bana; Bendelac, Albert; Eren, A. Murat; Rubin, David T.; Sogin, Mitch; Chang, Eugene B.
Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) only involves the colonic mucosa. Yet, nearly 50% of patients with UC who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop UC-like inflammation of the ileal pouch (pouchitis). By contrast, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis develop pouchitis far less frequently. We hypothesized that pathogenic events associated with the development of UC are recapitulated by colonic-metaplastic transcriptomic reprogramming of the UC pouch. Methods: We prospectively sampled pouch and prepouch ileum mucosal biopsies in patients with UC with ileal pouch anal anastomosis 4, 8, and 12 months after their pouch was in continuity. Mucosal samples were also obtained from patients with FAP. Transcriptional profiles of the UC and FAP pouch and prepouch ileum were investigated via RNA sequencing and compared with data from a previously published microarray study. Results: Unlike patients with FAP, subjects with UC exhibited a large set of differentially expressed genes between the pouch and prepouch ileum as early as 4 months after pouch functionalization. Functional pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in the UC pouch revealed an enhanced state of immune/inflammatory response and extracellular matrix remodeling. Moreover, >70% of differentially expressed genes mapped to published inflammatory bowel diseases microarray data sets displayed directional changes consistent with active UC but not with Crohn's disease. Conclusions: The UC pouch, well before histologic inflammation, already displays a systems-level gain of colon-associated genes and loss of ileum-associated genes. Patients with UC exhibit a unique transcriptomic response to ileal pouch creation that can be observed well before disease and may in part explain their susceptibility to the development of pouchitis.
J. C. Dadalt
Full Text Available Most of amino acid (AA digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR, with or without multicarbohydrase (MC and phytase (Phy supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age. A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05 and SID of histidine (p = 0.05, arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05. BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05. There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using crude mortality and morbidity rates for comparing outcomes can be misleading. The aim of the present study was to compare the outcome of various surgical modalities without and with risk adjustment using Physiologic and Operative Severity Scoring for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM score in cases of ileal perforations. Methods Prospective study on 125 patients of ileal perforations. Resection anastamosis (Group I was done in 38 patients, primary repair (Group II in 42 patients and 45 patients had an ileostomy (Group III. The disease severity was assessed in all patients using POSSUM score. The odds of death without and with risk adjustment using POSSUM mortality score were calculated for all groups Results Seventeen patients (14% patients died and 99 (79% developed postoperative complications. Using crude mortality rates Group I appeared to be the best treatment option with only 2 (5% deaths followed by Group II with 5 (12% deaths where as Group III had the worst outcome with 10 deaths (22%. However, Group III (ileostomy patients had higher mean POSSUM mortality and morbidity score (55.55%, 91.33% than Group I (28%, 75.26% and Group II (27%, 73.59%. Taking Group I as the reference (odds ratio, OR1 odds of death were greatest in Group III (OR 5.14, p = 0.043 followed by Group II (OR 2.43, p = 0.306. With risk adjustment using POSSUM mortality score the odds of death decreased in Group III (OR 1.16 p = 0.875. For the whole group, there was a significant association between the POSSUM score and postoperative complications and deaths. Mean POSSUM mortality and morbidity score of those who died (63.40 vs.33.68, p = 0.001 and developed complications (66.32 vs.84.20, p = 0.001 was significantly higher. For every percent increase in severity score the risk of postoperative complications and death increased by 1.10 (p = 0.001 and1.06 (p = 0.001 respectively. Conclusion Despite ileostomy patients having highest
Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene
Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521
Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes
S. D. Harris
Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.
Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen
We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....
Renard, Yohann; de Mestier, Louis; Perez, Manuela; Avisse, Claude; Lévy, Philippe; Kianmanesh, Reza
Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations. PubMed database was searched for articles investigating pancreatic segmentation, including human or animal anatomy, and cadaveric or surgical studies. Overall, 47/99 articles were selected and grouped into 4 main hypotheses of pancreatic segmentation methodology: anatomic, vascular, embryologic and lymphatic. The head, body and tail segments are gross description without distinct borders. The arterial territories defined vascular segments and isolate an isthmic paucivascular area. The embryological theory relied on the fusion plans of the embryological buds. The lymphatic drainage pathways defined the lymphatic segmentation. These theories had differences, but converged toward separating the head and body/tail parts, and the anterior from posterior and inferior parts of the pancreatic head. The rate of postoperative fistula was not decreased when surgical resection was performed following any of these segmentation theories; hence, none of them appeared relevant enough to guide pancreatic transections. Current pancreatic segmentation theories do not enable defining anatomical-surgical pancreatic segments. Other approaches should be explored, in particular focusing on pancreatic ducts, through pancreatic ducts reconstructions and embryologic 3D modelization.
Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low
Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520
Dong, Liang; Yum, Alicia; Nguyen, Joe; Wong, Pat
An in situ gelling, bioadhesive liquid formulation was developed to enhance the bioavailbility (BA) of a polysaccharide, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS). The formulation was tested to determine its bioavailability enhancement in a non-flush/non-ligated rat ileal model. A potent synergistic effect was found with a gelling agent Cremophor and a permeation enhancer sodium salicylate. The absolute bioavailabilities were 1.9%, 4.6%, 6.3% and 46.4%, respectively, for the PPS solution in saline, sodium salicylate/PPS, Cremophor/PPS and Cremophor/sodium salicylate/PPS. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated the approach of utilizing an in situ gelling/bioadhesive liquid carrier to enhancing the bioavailability of a hydrophilic macromolecule at the distal small intestine.
Jørgensen, Henry; Carlson, Dorthe; Lærke, Helle Nygaard
with clover–grass silage from weaning, were fi tted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum at approximate 30 kg BW. For each of the 3 types of forage, 2 balance trials with a 4 wk interval were carried out. Two pigs in each test were fed the basal diet and 6 others were fed the basal diet plus forage......The present investigation aimed to study the ileal and total tract digestibility of 3 forages (clover–grass, clover–grass silage, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum)–barley (Hordeum vulgare) silage) supplemented to a basal diet. A total of 24 pigs, adapted to eating forages by supplementing a basal feed...... some separation of the digesta collected from the T-cannula. The forages had, as expected, a lower total tract DM and energy digestibility than the basal diet (P
Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P
Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886
Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Mariniello, Maria Donatella; Furbetta, Niccolò; Pisano, Roberta; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Caprili, Giovanni; Marciano, Emanuele; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco
Few studies have reported minimally invasive total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We herein report a novel hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic technique for patients with FAP and UC. Between February 2010 and March 2014, six patients underwent hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The abdominal colectomy was performed laparoscopically with hand assistance through a transverse suprapubic incision, also used to fashion the ileal pouch. The proctectomy was carried out with the da Vinci Surgical System. The IPAA was hand-sewn through a trans-anal approach. The procedure was complemented by a temporary diverting loop ileostomy. The mean hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) time was 154.6 (±12.8) min whereas the mean robotic time was 93.6 (±8.1) min. In all cases, a nerve-sparing proctectomy was performed, and no conversion to traditional laparotomy was required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 13.2 (±7.4) days. No anastomotic leakage was observed. To date, no autonomic neurological disorders have been observed with a mean of 5.8 (±1.3) bowel movements per day. The hand-assisted hybrid laparoscopic-robotic approach to total proctocolectomy with IPAA has not been previously described. Our report shows the feasibility of this hybrid approach, which surpasses most of the limitations of pure laparoscopic and robotic techniques. Further experience is necessary to refine the technique and fully assess its potential advantages.
Spiller, R.C.; Brown, M.L.; Phillips, S.F.
Emptying of the terminal ileum was assessed in 15 healthy humans by injecting technetium 99m-diethyltriaminopentaacetic acid into the bowel through a multilumen orocolonic tube. The subsequent arrival of isotope in the colon was quantified by gamma-scintigraphy and colonic filling curves were obtained. Studies were performed during fasting (n = 5) cnd 2.5 h after either a low residue meal (n = 5) or a meal made high in residue (n = 5) by adding 4 g of guar. The time for 50% of the isotope to reach the colon (T50) was significantly accelerated after both meals, being 72 +/- 15 min for the high residue meal and 62 +/- 8 min for the low residue meal, compared with 183 +/- 37 min (p less than 0.01) in the 5 fasting subjects. Although the addition of guar did not alter T50 significantly, it did cause a significant fall in the rate of colonic filling, implying increased isotope dilution. Delay at the ileocolonic junction, as shown by plateaus in the middle of the colonic filling curves, was uncommon. Hold-up was significant in only 2 of 10 postprandial and 2 of 5 fasting studies. Rates of ileocolonic transit could not be related to either a mean ileal motility index or the occurrence of specific ileal motor patterns immediately proximal to the ileocolonic junction. Fasting ileocolonic transit was characteristically erratic but could not be related to interdigestive migrating motor complexes, which were rarely observed in the last 60 cm of ileum. We conclude that ileocolonic transit in humans is related to the rate at which material accumulates in the ileum, being rapid postprandially and slow and erratic during fasting. This method yields consistent results and could be used to define further factors that influence ileocolonic inflow.
Suga, Yasuyo; Takehana, Kenji
S-1 is an oral agent containing tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) that is used to treat various cancers, but adverse effects are frequent. Two pilot clinical studies have suggested that lentinan (LNT; β-1,3-glucan) may reduce the incidence of adverse effects caused by S-1 therapy. In this study, we established a murine model for assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with S-1 and studied the effect of LNT. S-1 was administered orally to BALB/c mice at the effective dose (8.3mg/kg, as tegafur equivalent) once daily (5days per week) for 3weeks. Stool consistency and intestinal specimens were examined. We investigated the effect of combined intravenous administration of LNT at 0.1mg, which is an effective dose in murine tumor models. We also investigated the effect of a single administration of S-1. During long-term administration of S-1, some mice had loose stools and an increase in apoptotic bodies was observed in the ileal crypts. An increase in apoptotic bodies was also noted after a single administration of S-1 (15mg/kg). Prior or concomitant administration of LNT inhibited the increase in apoptotic bodies in both settings. Administration of LNT also increased the accumulation of CD11b + TIM-4 + cells in the ileum, while depletion of these cells by liposomal clodronate diminished the inhibitory effect of LNT on S-1 toxicity. Combined administration of LNT with S-1 led to a decrease in apoptotic bodies in the ileal crypts, possibly because LNT promoted phagocytosis of damaged cells by CD11b + TIM-4 + cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salama, Tamer M S; Sabry, Karim; Ghamrini, Yaser El
Single anastomosis sleeve ileal bypass (SASI) procedure appears as a new metabolic and bariatric surgery based on Santoro's operation, in which a sleeve gastrectomy is followed by a side-to-side gastroileal anastomosis. The study is aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic single anastomosis sleeve ileal bypass with respect to postoperative weight loss and metabolic and nutritional effects on patients. Forty-five morbidly obese patients with a mean age of 31.2 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.2 kg/m 2 underwent SASI bypass. Postoperatively, all patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and during each visit data about their BMI, obesity-related comorbidities, and nutritional status were collected. One year after the surgery, mean BMI decreased to 29.1 kg/m 2 and there was significant decrease in plasma level of fasting blood glucose, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein. On the other hand, there was significant increase in high-density lipoprotein plasma level, whereas hemoglobin and albumin plasma level remained normal. Six months after the surgery, calcium plasma level showed mild decrease in two cases, which was improved with multivitamin tablets. In 93% of our patients, multivitamin supplements were stopped after six months of surgery. Laparoscopic SASI bypass has been shown to be an effective, safe, and simple procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and its associated metabolic consequences. Moreover, it results in minimal postoperative nutritional complications in comparison to other bariatric procedures.
Velloso Lício A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP with many rectal polyps. Pouchitis is one of the more frequent complications after IPAA in UC patients; however, it is rare in FAP. Objective Evaluate pro-apoptotic activity in endoscopically and histological normal mucosa of the ileal pouch in patients with UC and FAP. Methods Eighteen patients (nine with UC and nine with FAP with J pouch after total rectocolectomy were studied. Biopsies were obtained from the mucosa of the pouch and from normal ileum. The specimens were snap-frozen and the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by immunoblot of protein extracts and by immunohistochemistry analysis. FADD, Caspase-8, APAF-1 and Caspase-9 were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot. Results Patients with UC had significantly higher protein levels of Bax and APAF-1, Caspase-9 than patients with FAP, but were similar to controls. The expressions of Bcl-2 and FADD, Caspase-8 were similar in the groups. Immunohistochemistry for Bax showed less intensity of immunoreactions in FAP than in UC and Controls. Bcl-2 immunostaining was similar among the groups. Conclusion Patients with FAP present lower levels of pro-apoptotic proteins in all methods applied, even in the absence of clinical and endoscopic pouchitis and dysplasia in the histological analysis. These findings may explain a tendency of up-regulation of apoptosis in UC patients, resulting in higher rates of progression to pouchitis in these patients, which could correlate with mucosal atrophy that occurs in inflamed tissue. However, FAP patients had low pro-apoptotic activity in the mucosa, and it could explain the tendency to low cell turn over and presence of adenomas in this syndrome.
Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan
Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.
... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...
Salomao, J; Bosgiraud, F; Vayre, P
After massive resection of 85 p. cent of the small intestine in the dog, there occurs diarrhoea and malabsorption. These consequences may be palliated by an oblique end-to-end anastomosis with 180 rotation on the intestinal axis of the jejunal sugment above in relation to the ileal segment below. The authors noted slowing of the transit in the 10 operated dogs. The experimental conditions and the results obtained suggest that the technic may be applicable in man.
Paulo Cesar Pozza
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 52,5 ± 5,1 kg. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples no íleo terminal, e, após 20 dias de recuperação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao término das duas primeiras repetições, os tratamentos foram redistribuídos para evitar que o mesmo animal recebesse a mesma dieta em duas repetições consecutivas. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica as farinhas de carne e ossos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina, das diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos variaram de 54,87 a 74,80; 62,62 a 81,19 e 72,35 a 85,46%, respectivamente, e a variação entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira foram de 57,00 a 76,08; 66,26 a 83,07 e 73,76 a 86,39%, respectivamente, para a lisina, treonina e metionina. As farinhas de carne e ossos apresentaram grande variação, em função das diferentes amostras, quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes e verdadeiros dos aminoácidos.The experiment was carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids from six different meat and bone meals. Twelvecrossbred swines, castrated males, averaging 52.5 ± 5.1 kg initial weight, were used. The animals were previously submitted to the simple T canula surgery implantation at the terminal ileum and, after twenty days of recovery period, they were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with six treatments, four replicates and one animal per
Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.
Özbek, Zühtü; Özkara, Emre; Yağmur, İpek; Arslantaş, Ali
Cervical adjacent segment disease; is the general name ofdisc pathologies that develop in adjacent levels after cervical surgery. If thecervical adjacent segment disease that do not require reoperation and it doesnot cause clinical signs is called radiological cervical adjacent segmentpathology, but those causing radiculopathy, myelopathy or instability is calledclinic cervical adjacent segment pathology. The incidence of cervical adjacentsegment disease in 10-year follow-up is 2.4% -2.9%. Wh...
Abstract: Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is defined as degeneration that develops at mobile segments above or below a fused spinal segment and usually develops after spinal fusion or other back surgeries. Nearly 5 decades ago, the medical findings related to ASD were usually released in case reports as a relatively unusual complication of lumbar or lumbosacral fusions. Since the initial reports, ASD has been found to occur more often than the earlier predictions for its prospect incidence. It...
Ojerskog, B; Myrvold, H E; Nilsson, L O; Philipson, B M; Ahrén, C
Eighteen patients, who previously had been treated surgically for familial polyposis coli with proctocolectomy and a continent ileostomy were re-investigated with endoscopy and X-ray for gastric, duodenal and ileal polyps. Gastric and/or duodenal polyps were found in 6 patients and ileal polyps in 2. Altogether upper GI-polyps were found in 7 patients (39%). Most polyps were true adenomas. In one patient with large gastric adenomas, the severe dysplasia called for a gastric resection. It is obvious that familial polyposis may affect the whole gastro-intestinal tract, therefore necessitating regular surveillance of the upper GI-canal as well as the colon and rectum in patients with this hereditary affliction.
Full Text Available Introduction Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare clinical disease of the small bowel. The incidence of small bowel diverticulitis varies from 0.3 to 2.3 % in the general population. Complications of this rare clinical entity are often confused with other causes of acute abdomen such as acute appendicitis, perforated peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease or ischemic bowel disease. Case Presentation We describe a 65-year-old male with a history of ileal diverticulosis who presented with acute abdomen and was subsequently found to have perforated ileal diverticulitis with abscess formation. Conclusions The case, differential diagnosis, imaging studies, complications and management of this rare clinical disease are discussed.
Full Text Available Stratos S Sofos,1 Ciaran Walsh,2 Nigel J Parr,2 Kevin Hancock11Whiston Hospital, Prescot, 2Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, Merseyside, UKAbstract: The ileal conduit for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is a well-described procedure. Furthermore, parastomal hernias, prolapse, stenosis, and retraction of the stoma have been reported as some of the more common complications of this procedure. The subsequent repair of parastomal hernias with a biological mesh and the potential of the conduit to “tunnel” through it has also been described. In this case report, we present a combined repair of a large incisional hernia with a cystectomy and a pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder cancer, with the use of a biological mesh for posterior component abdominal wall primary repair as well as for support to the ileal conduit used for urinary diversion.Keywords: incisional hernia, posterior component separation, biological mesh
Jiao, Jinzhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang
The establishment of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial action in neonatal development, host health and productivity. We hypothesized that the ileal microbiome shifted as goats matured, and this colonization process would be associated with host fermentation capacity. To this end, 18 Liuyang black grazing goats were randomly slaughtered at d 0, 7, 28, 42, and 70. Ileal microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, and fermentation capacity [volatile fatty acid, activities of amylase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and xylanase] was determined using digesta sample. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that each age group harbored its distinct bacteria. Total bacteria copy number and most alpha diversity indexes increased (P grazing goats assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and might participate in the improvement of host fermentation capacity.
Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.
Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J
The study reported herein was conducted to determine and compare the nonphytate P, digestible P, and retainable P contents of corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each of ingredient to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 8 cages each (6 birds per cage). A total of 192 broilers (Ross 308), 21 d old, were assigned to the 8 test diets. Ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients of P were determined by the indicator and total collection methods, respectively, and linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility and true P retention coefficients. The apparent ileal digestibility of P in corn was influenced (quadratic, P 0.05). The apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets based on canola meal was similar (P > 0.05) at different P concentrations. Phosphorus retention in broilers fed diets based on canola meal (linear, P 0.05). Total P, nonphytate P, true digestible P, and true retainable P contents of corn were determined to be 2.5, 0.8, 1.7, and 1.6 g/kg (as received), respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 9.7, 2.8, 4.6, and 4.7 g/kg (as received), respectively. The present data demonstrated that the regression method can be successfully used to measure true P digestibility of low and high P feed ingredients and that both true ileal digestibility and retention coefficients are suitable to assess P availability in broilers.
Chelikani, Prasanth K; Shah, Imran H; Taqi, Esmaeel; Sigalet, David L; Koopmans, Henry H
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatments for obesity producing long-term weight loss. The anorexia and weight loss from RYGB could be due to gastric restriction, malabsorption, enhanced lower gut stimulation, increased energy expenditure, and/or other metabolic adaptations. In ileal transposition (IT) surgery, a segment of the ileum is transposed to the upper jejunum with no gastric restriction or malabsorption. Our objective is to compare the effects of RYGB and IT surgeries on food intake, body weight, and plasma concentrations of the anorexigenic lower gut hormone Peptide YY (PYY) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either RYGB (n = 9), IT (n = 9) or sham surgeries (n = 16). A subset of sham animals were either pair-fed to RYGB (n = 9) or ad lib fed (n = 7) on a highly palatable mixed nutrient liquid food (Ensure). Food intake, body weight and plasma PYY concentrations were measured. The data demonstrate that (1) RYGB produces a sustained reduction in food intake and weight gain, (2) the anorexic effects of IT are relatively transient lasting for 5 weeks, (3) the reduction in weight gain resulting from IT is similar to that of animals pair-fed to RYGB, and (4) RYGB and IT surgeries are associated with elevated postprandial plasma PYY concentrations. We demonstrate in our rat models that RYGB surgery produces a greater reduction in food intake and weight gain than IT surgery, and that both surgeries are associated with enhanced plasma concentrations of Peptide YY.
Full Text Available The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG, and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower (P < 0.05 than that in DDG, which was also lower (P < 0.05 than that in HP-DDG. There were no differences in AID of Met among DDG, DDGS and HP-DDGS, but was greater (P < 0.05 in HP-DDG than in DDG or DDGS. The AID of Thr in HP-DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that in DDGS but not different from that in DDG or HP-DDGS. The branched-chain AA Ile and Leu had greater (P < 0.05 AID in HP-DDG than in DDG, DDGS or HP-DDGS, and there was no difference among DDG, DDGS, and HP-DDGS. The AID of Trp in DDG and DDGS or HP-DDG and HP-DDGS were not different, but the AID of Trp in HP-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS. The greatest SID of the indispensable AA was in HP-DDG. Except for Arg and Lys in which DDG had greater (P < 0.05 digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS but there was no difference between that of DDG and HP-DDGS. Only His, Ile, and Met had lower (P < 0.05 SID in HP-DDGS than HP-DDG within the indispensable AA. The SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, Ser and Tyr were lower (P < 0.05 in DDGS than in HP-DDG. There SID of dispensable AA in DDG was not different from that of HP-DDGS. The current study provided
Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E
This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P botanical altered (P extracts enhanced (EASE extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa health and stimulating the immune system.
Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...
Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José
This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two
Once the market has been segmented into different segments or target markets, a customised marketing mix aimed ... restaurant managers need to understand what motivates consumers to dine out and to choose one ... Customers might consider food quality, price, promotions and recommendations, among other desirable ...
Abbasakoor, Noormuhammad O
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of intussusception in adults is rare. The condition is found in 1 in 1300 abdominal operations and 1 in 100 patients operated for intestinal obstruction. The child to adult ratio is 20:1. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Irish Caucasian woman was investigated for a 3-month history of intermittent episodes of colicky midgut pain and associated constipation. Ileocolonoscopy revealed a pedunculated lesion in the terminal ileum prolapsing into the caecum. Computed tomography confirmed a smooth-walled, nonobstructing, low density intramural lesion in the terminal ileum with secondary intussusception. A laparoscopic small bowel resection was performed. Histology revealed a large pedunculated polypoidal mass measuring 4 x 2.5 x 2 cm consistent with a submucosal lipoma. She had complete resolution of her symptoms and remained well at 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: This case highlights an unusual cause of incomplete small bowel obstruction successfully treated through interdisciplinary cooperation. Ileal lipomas are not typically amenable to endoscopic removal and require resection. This can be successfully achieved via a laparoscopic approach with early restoration of premorbid functioning.
Neal, D E; Hawkins, T; Gallaugher, A S; Essenhigh, D M; Hall, R R
The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the conduit in the development of upper tract dilatation after ileal conduit urinary diversion. Twenty-seven patients with a normal upper tract were compared with 17 who had developed upper tract dilatation. Patients were studied by means of a technique to measure pressure and flow under "steady-state" conditions. Pressure activity was classified into two types. Type I pressure activity (frequency 6.2 +/- 3/min; amplitude 4.7 +/- 3 cm H2O) resulted in to-and-fro movement of contrast and the escape into the appliance of small volumes of contrast. In controls, most of the output from the conduit occurred during type I activity (73 +/- 14%). Type III/IV pressure activity resulted in vigorous aboral peristalsis and occurred infrequently in controls (frequency 5 +/- 4/h). In patients with upper tract dilatation, in contrast, type III/IV peristaltic activity occurred frequently (frequency 37 +/- 30/h; P less than 0.001: amplitude 72 +/- 34 cm H2O) and was responsible for most of the output (70 +/- 17%; P less than 0.001). The findings support the hypothesis that high pressure activity in the conduit is an important factor in the aetiology of upper tract dilatation, and they are compatible with the presence in such patients of functionally important obstructions of the distal conduit.
Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A
The differential fermentative capacities of microflora from two regions of the large bowel and how fermentation was altered by prior exposure of the microflora to the substrate to be fermented were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Bacterial inocula were prepared from cecal contents and feces from three groups of rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber. The substrate for all fermentations was ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. Anaerobic fermentations were conducted for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Sugars of the unfermented polysaccharides were measured by gas chromatography following acid hydrolysis; disappearance was the measure of fermentation. Independent of inoculum source, > 90% of the starch and arabinose and 75% of the uronic acids, but peas or nonpurified diet. Bacterial efficiency of carbohydrate utilization, the increase in muramic acid/mole carbohydrate fermented, was greatest (P peas. We conclude that using cecal microflora as the inoculum source provides a more accurate index of fermentation during transit through the large bowel and that noncellulosic and storage polysaccharides of the plant cell wall are utilized before cellulose.
Assadi Soumeh, Elham; van Milgen, Jaap; Sloth, Niels Morten
at the end of each week (day 7 and 14 of the experiment) 3 h after feeding the experimental diets. The maximum ADFI and ADG were obtained in pigs fed the 0.78 SID Val : Lys diet; it was not different from the results of pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys diet. The highest G : F was obtained in pigs fed 0.70 SID Val......The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose–response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets....... In this study, 96 pigs weighing 8 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments (16 pigs for each dietary treatment) and were housed individually. Diets were formulated to provide 0.58, 0.62, 0.66, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.78 SID Val : Lys by adding graded levels of crystalline L-Val to the 0.58 SID Val : Lys diet...
Kong, E; Nikolaou, S; Qiu, S; Pellino, G; Tekkis, P; Kontovounisios, C
Faecal incontinence is a common complication of ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) and seems to worsen with time. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the use of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) for patients with faecal incontinence after IPAA. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Cochrane databases for all relevant articles. All studies, which reported the outcome of SNS in patients with faecal incontinence after IPAA, were reviewed. Three papers were identified, including a case report, cohort study and retrospective study. The total number of patients was 12. The follow-up duration included 3 months, 6 months and 24 months. After peripheral nerve evaluation, definitive implantation was performed in 10 (83.3%) patients. All three studies reported positive outcomes, with CCF scores and incontinence episodes improving significantly. Preliminary results suggest good outcome after permanent SNS implant. Studies with larger sample sizes, well-defined patient characteristics and standardized outcome measures are required to fully investigate the effect of SNS in IPAA patients.
Gan, Jason; Hamid, Rizwan
The aim of this literature review was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of a traditional ileal conduit (IC) with separate colostomy technique compared to the outcomes of a double-barrelled wet colostomy (DBWC) technique. The former technique results in the formation of two stomas, and the latter results in the formation of one stoma. PubMed was searched electronically for articles on DBWC. Fifteen articles were retrieved and of them 13 were included in the literature review (350 patients). Of the articles, 3 directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy. Review of 13 DBWC articles demonstrated perioperative mortality ranging between 0 and 11.1% and postoperative complications ranging from 0 to 100%. Three of the studies directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy; median operating times and length of stay were shorter in DBWC patients (p colostomy technique, as it requires only one stoma. This literature review supports the use of the technically less challenging DBWC technique as a viable alternative to the traditional IC with colostomy technique. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.
Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure
Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo
To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim
To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.
Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T
Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.
Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.
Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...
Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr
The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner
The statistical characteristics of image speckle are reviewed. Existing segmentation techniques that have been used for speckle filtering, edge detection, and texture extraction are sumamrized. The relative effectiveness of each technique is briefly discussed.
Haralick, R. M.
The methodologies and capabilities of image segmentation techniques are reviewed. Single linkage schemes, hybrid linkage schemes, centroid linkage schemes, histogram mode seeking, spatial clustering, and split and merge schemes are addressed.
Cody, June D; Nabi, Ghulam; Dublin, Norman; McClinton, Samuel; Neal, David E; Pickard, Robert; Yong, Sze M
the comparison of continent diversion with conduit diversion. The confidence intervals were all wide, however, and did not rule out important clinical differences. In a second trial, there was no reported difference in the incidence of upper urinary tract infection and uretero-intestinal stenosis when conduit diversions were fashioned from either ileum or colon. A meta-analysis of two trials showed no statistically significant difference in daytime or nocturnal incontinence amongst participants who were randomised to ileocolonic/ileocaecal segment bladder replacement compared to an ileal bladder replacement. However, one small trial suggested that bladder replacement using an ileal segment compared to using an ileocolonic segment may be better in terms of lower rates of nocturnal incontinence. There were no differences in the incidence of dilatation of upper tract, daytime urinary incontinence or wound infection using different intestinal segments for bladder replacement. However the data were reported for 'renal units', but not in a form that allowed appropriate patient-based paired analyses. No statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of renal scarring between anti-refluxing versus freely refluxing uretero-intestinal anastomotic techniques in conduit diversions and bladder replacement groups. Again, the outcome data were not reported as paired analysis or in form to carry out paired analysis. The evidence from the included trials was very limited. Only five studies met the inclusion criteria; these were small, of moderate or poor methodological quality, and reported few of the pre-selected outcome measures. This review did not find any evidence that bladder replacement (orthotopic or continent diversion) was better than conduit diversion following cystectomy for cancer. There was no evidence to suggest that bladder reconstruction was better than conduit diversion for benign disease. The clinical significance of data from one small trial
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...
Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long
Maričić Branko R.
Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.
Valdes Olmos, R.; Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B.; Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam
In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ( 75 Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75 Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75 Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption ( 75 Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75 Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75 Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75 Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)
Paulo Cesar Pozza
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar as digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira de cinco diferentes farinhas de vísceras. Foram utilizados 10 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 34,11 ± 3,88 kg, previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao final das duas primeiras repetições, os mesmos animais foram redistribuídos e utilizados novamente nas repetições subseqüentes. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica uma das cinco farinhas de vísceras. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina das diferentes farinhas de vísceras apresentaram variação de 63,40 a 74,01; 63,17 a 79,13 e 72,60 a 81,11%, respectivamente, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeiros apresentaram variação de 64,38 a 74,88; 64,31 a 80,60 e 73,07 a 81,64%, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the apparent and true ileal digestibilities of amino acids from five different poultry by-product. Ten crossbreed swines, castrated males, averaging 31.11 ± 3.88 kg were used in the experiment. The animals were previously submitted to the surgery for simple T canula implantation and, then, allotted to a randomized block design with five treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. At the end of the first and second replicates, these animals were allotted again to the treatments and used in the third and fourth replicates. The treatments consisted of a free protein diet based on sugar, starch, vegetable oil and rice peel and one of the five poultry by-product as protein source in the diet. The coefficients of apparent ileal
Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.
The tensile properties of segmented block copolymers with mono-disperse hard segments were studied with respect to the hard segment content (16–44 wt.%) and the temperature (20–110 °C). The copolymers were comprised of poly(tetramethylene oxide) segments with the molecular weights of 650–2,900 Da
Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291
Renata Moraes Bielemann
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.
Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.
The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in
Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David
In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.
Onali, Sara; Calabrese, Emma; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Zorzi, Francesca; Sica, Giuseppe; Fiori, Roberto; Ascolani, Marta; Lolli, Elisabetta; Condino, Giovanna; Palmieri, Giampiero; Simonetti, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco; Biancone, Livia
AIM: To compare computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) vs small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) for assessing small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease (CD), when using surgical pathology as gold standard. METHODS: From January 2007 to July 2008, 15 eligible patients undergoing elective resection of the distal ileum and coecum (or right colon) were prospectively enrolled. All patients were under follow-up. The study population included 6 males and 9 females, with a median age of 44 years (range: 18-80 years). Inclusion criteria: (1) certain diagnosis of small bowel requiring elective ileo-colonic resection; (2) age between 18-80 years; (3) elective surgery in our Surgical Unit; and (4) written informed consent. SICUS and CTE were performed ≤ 3 mo before surgery, followed by surgical pathology. The following small bowel lesions were blindly reported by one sonologist, radiologist, surgeon and histolopathologist: disease site, extent, strictures, abscesses, fistulae, small bowel dilation. Comparison between findings at SICUS, CTE, surgical specimens and histological examination was made by assessing the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of each technique, when using surgical findings as gold standard. RESULTS: Among the 15 patients enrolled, CTE was not feasible in 2 patients, due to urgent surgery in one patients and to low compliance in the second patient, refusing to perform CTE due to the discomfort related to the naso-jejunal tube. The analysis for comparing CTE vs SICUS findings was therefore performed in 13 out of the 15 CD patients enrolled. Differently from CTE, SICUS was feasible in all the 15 patients enrolled. No complications were observed when using SICUS or CTE. Surgical pathology findings in the tested population included: small bowel stricture in 13 patients, small bowel dilation above ileal stricture in 10 patients, abdominal abscesses in 2 patients, enteric fistulae in 5 patients, lymphnodes enlargement (> 1 cm) in 7 patients and
Harnoy, Yann; Desfourneaux, Véronique; Bouguen, Guillaume; Rayar, Michel; Meunier, Bernard; Siproudhis, Laurent; Boudjema, Karim; Sulpice, Laurent
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) may alter sexuality and fertility in women. The laparoscopic approach seems to reduce infertility rates in women after IPAA. However, the impact of hand sewn versus stapled IPAA on sexuality and fertility has never been assessed in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the IPAA technique on sexuality and fertility in UC. All UC patients who underwent an IPAA between May 1996 and April 2011 were included. The patients answered mailed questionnaires including sexuality validated questionnaires and fertility questionnaires. The risk factors of sexual dysfunction were explored. A total of 135 patients were included. Eighty-eight patients (65%) answered the questionnaires. Their mean age and follow-up were 37.2 ± 13.4 y and 109.7 ± 57.5 mo. The rates of female and male sexual dysfunction were 50% and 29%, respectively. Intestinal transit disorders were identified as risk factors in both men and women and anastomotic stricture in women sexual dysfunction, in univariate analyses. The IPAA technique did not impact sexual function in women but there was a trend for less erectile dysfunction after hand sewn IPAA (16.7% versus 44.4%). The fertility rate was 47% in women and 75% in men, with a trend for a better fertility in women after hand sewn IPAA (P = 0.07). In this preliminary study, the hand sewn or stapled IPAA technique did not impact the sexuality or fertility outcomes of UC patients, but there was a trend for better female fertility and male erectile function after hand sewn IPAA. Intestinal transit disorders contributed to male and female sexual dysfunction after IPAA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB, rice polishings (RP, wheat bran (WB, sunflower meal (SFM, cottonseed meal (CSM, guar meal (GM, soybean meal (SBM from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM. The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA (90.1% was similar (p>0.05 to RB (89.0%. Isoleucine (97.8% and lysine (96.9% were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9% was same (p>0.05 as RP (71.9%. Arginine from WB (82.5% and RP (83.2% was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7% and leucine in RP (69.6% were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1% and Indian-SBM (83.4% had higher (p0.05. The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05 SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05 SIAAD among protein meals.
Full Text Available Knowledge of the profile of amino acids of the rumen-undegradable protein can help in the formulation of diets to provide amino acids that complement microbial protein as well as supply amino acids, which are most limiting for milk production. Three non-lactating cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to determine the effect of in situ rumen degradation on crude protein and amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein of feedstuffs. The obtained values of rumen degradability of crude protein with significant difference (P in vitro modified 3-step method was used to determine intestinal digestibility. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein varied from 54.5 ± 1.4% in raw soybean to 95.2 ± 1.0% in corn gluten feed. The absorbable amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein for each feedstuff was compared with profiles of the original feedstuff and the rumen-exposed undegraded protein. Absorbable lysine (9.3 ± 1.1 g/kg of crude protein was higher in products of soybean and sunflower cake. Corn gluten feed and meal supplied more absorbable methionine (3.6 ± 0.6 g/kg of crude protein. This study showed that the digestibility factor of crude protein and amino acid based on in situ and in vitro methods for thermal treatment of protein feeds can be used in models to optimize the amino acid nutrition of dairy cows and expand knowledge about rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs.
Full Text Available To assess the factors associated with the progression of isolated terminal ileal lesions (ITILs at colonoscopy in Chinese patients.Patients diagnosed with ITILs were enrolled. The ileoscopy was performed by two experienced gastroenterologists every 52 weeks. A logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate the factors associated with Crohn's disease (CD and mucosal healing. A log rank test was used to assess the differences of the cumulative proportion of CD and mucosal healing in different groups at different times.(1 A total of 34 patients were included and no patient had taken nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the last 6 months; eight (23.5% patients had a clinical diagnosis of CD, 14 (41.2% patients achieved mucosal healing, and 12 (35.3% patients showed no significant changes in the lesions at last follow-up. (2 The logistic regression analysis showed that only abdominal pain was a factor in the ITIL disease outcomes. (3 The cumulative proportion of CD in the abdominal pain group after 3 years was statistically higher than that in the non-abdominal pain group (42.7% vs. 6.2%, χ2 = 10.129, P = 0.001. However, the cumulative proportion of mucosal healing in the non-abdominal pain group was statistically higher than that in the abdominal pain group (73.3% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 5.225, P = 0.022. (4 The numbers of lesions observed on the initial colonoscopy exams and the initial histologic findings were not related to the ITIL disease outcomes.Clinical symptoms may be related to ITIL disease outcomes. Patients with abdominal pain had a high likelihood of CD, whereas those without abdominal pain had a high likelihood of mucosal healing.
Fangbin, Zhang; Weiwei, Hao; Wugan, Zhao; Cong, Zheng; Yanjun, Chu; Feng, Xu
To assess the factors associated with the progression of isolated terminal ileal lesions (ITILs) at colonoscopy in Chinese patients. Patients diagnosed with ITILs were enrolled. The ileoscopy was performed by two experienced gastroenterologists every 52 weeks. A logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate the factors associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and mucosal healing. A log rank test was used to assess the differences of the cumulative proportion of CD and mucosal healing in different groups at different times. (1) A total of 34 patients were included and no patient had taken nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the last 6 months; eight (23.5%) patients had a clinical diagnosis of CD, 14 (41.2%) patients achieved mucosal healing, and 12 (35.3%) patients showed no significant changes in the lesions at last follow-up. (2) The logistic regression analysis showed that only abdominal pain was a factor in the ITIL disease outcomes. (3) The cumulative proportion of CD in the abdominal pain group after 3 years was statistically higher than that in the non-abdominal pain group (42.7% vs. 6.2%, χ2 = 10.129, P = 0.001). However, the cumulative proportion of mucosal healing in the non-abdominal pain group was statistically higher than that in the abdominal pain group (73.3% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 5.225, P = 0.022). (4) The numbers of lesions observed on the initial colonoscopy exams and the initial histologic findings were not related to the ITIL disease outcomes. Clinical symptoms may be related to ITIL disease outcomes. Patients with abdominal pain had a high likelihood of CD, whereas those without abdominal pain had a high likelihood of mucosal healing.
Afzal, Ayesha; Khan, Bushra Tayyaba; Bakhtiar, Salman
There are several life threatening deadly diseases in our world but ‘Cancer’ out powers them all in recent years. Chemotherapy may be used on its own or an adjunct to other forms of therapy. Despite the advancement in cytotoxic drug therapy and supportive treatment almost 70% of patient suffer from chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Ondansetron, a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist has now become a gold standard in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The central actions of ondansetron are well established but its peripheral actions are not well recognized. The aim of our study was to explore the peripheral actions of ondansetron. Experiments were performed in five groups (n=6) and ileal smooth muscles activity was recorded on power lab (USA). The effects of increasing concentrations of acetylcholine, serotonin & ondansetron alone was observed in first three groups. In the next two groups effects of acetylcholine and serotonin pretreated with fixed concentration (1ml) of ondansetron (10¯ϖ M)were studied. The maximum response obtained by acetylcholine served as a control for our study. Maximum response with acetylcholine was taken as 100% and with serotonin was 177 percent of control. Cumulative dose response curve with ondansetron was triphasic. At 10¯ψM it was 28.8%, whereas with 10¯ξM the amplitude decreased to 16.87%, it reached to plateau at 10¯ϖ M. Response of acetylcholine & serotonin was decreased to 57% and 78% respectively in the presence of fixed concentration of ondansetron (10¯ϖ M). Ondansetron reduces the acetylcholine and serotonin induced gastrointestinal motility. Our study has indicated that ondansetron apart from having central action also has marked peripheral actions that play an important role in CINV and may act as a partial agonist.
Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Sarnacki, S; Monnet, J P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L
The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer's patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the delta inlAB, the delta hly, and the delta actA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer's patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer's patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer's patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer's patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer's patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer's patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined.
Botto, Henry; Neuzillet, Yann
Bacteriuria is a usual complication of enterocystoplasty following cystectomy. Cranberry products may decrease the number of urinary tract infections because of a non-dialysable compound, a condensed tannin, the proanthocyanidin (PAC) type A. This study determined the effectiveness of treatment with a cranberry preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A in prevention of repeated bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty. Between November 2004 and November 2009, a controlled study was open to patients seen in consultation for follow-up after a radical cystectomy and ileal cystoplasty. Patients had a history of repeated urinary infection and/or bacteriuria during the pretreatment phase. During the treatment phase, patients received a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A (36 mg measured by the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method), one capsule a day. The primary endpoint was the absence of bacteria in urine culture. The secondary endpoints were the presence or absence of symptoms (pain, fever), continence status and upper excretory tract enlargement. Each patient was his or her own historical control. Fifteen patients were included. The median duration of the period without treatment with cranberry compound was 18.5 (1-93) months. The median duration of the period with treatment with cranberry compound was 32.8 (13-60) months. There was a significant decrease in the number of positive urine cultures during cranberry compound treatment. Treatment with a cranberry compound seems to be effective in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty. These results need to be validated by further double-blind randomized studies.
Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A
Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.
Tabbaa, Zaid M; Janco, Jo Marie T; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Cliby, William A
The aim of this study is to estimate the overall rates of significant incontinent conduit-related complications and compare rates between conduit types. This was a retrospective review of 166 patients who underwent incontinent urinary diversion from April 1993 through April 2013. Patients were categorized by conduit type-ileal, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon. Significant conduit-related complications were assessed at 30 and 90days after surgery. Significant conduit-related complication was defined as any of the following: ureteral stricture, conduit leak, conduit obstruction, conduit ischemia, ureteral anastomotic leak, stent obstruction requiring intervention via interventional radiology procedure or reoperation, and renal failure. A total of 166 patients underwent formation of an incontinent urinary conduit, most commonly during exenteration for gynecologic malignancy. There were 129 ileal, 11 transverse colon, and 26 sigmoid conduits. The overall significant conduit-related complication rate within 30days was 15.1%. Complication rates for ileal, transverse and sigmoid conduits were 14.7%, 0%, and 23.1%, respectively (Fisher's exact test, p=0.24). By 90days, the Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of significant complications were 21.8% overall, and 22.3%, 0%, and 28.9%, respectively, by conduit type (log-rank test, p=0.19). The most common significant conduit-related complications were conduit or ureteral anastomotic leaks and conduit obstructions. By 1 and 2years following surgery, the Kaplan-Meier estimated overall rate of significant conduit-related complication increased to 26.5% and 30.1%, respectively. Our study suggests that there are multiple appropriate tissue sites for use in incontinent conduit formation, and surgical approach should be individualized. Most significant conduit-related complications occur within 90days after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simon, O.; Bergner, H.
4 castrated male pigs 40 kg fitted with simple 'T' cannulas in the terminal ileum were given 15 N-labelled ammonium salts, added to a low protein diet, for 6 days. Excretion of 15 N in urine and feces was monitored daily throughout the labelling and subsequent experimental periods. During the experimental period the pigs were given a diet based on wheat and fish meal, supplemented with varying levels of partially hydrolyzed straw meal to give crude fiber contents ranging from 40 to 132 g/kg. After adaptation to the particular levels of straw meal, feces and ileal digesta were collected during successive 24 h periods. N digestibility values were determined by the chromium oxide ratio method. The retention of 15 N-labelled non-specific N was 0.46 of the dose given. The validity of using urine values as a measure of 15 N abundance in endogenous N was demonstrated by the similarity of 15 N abundance in urine immediately before slaughter at the end of the experiment and in the digestive secretory organs thereafter. The average amount of endogenous N passing the terminal ileum was 3.4 g/day or 0.30-0.50 of total ileal N flow. This was not affected by dietary fiber level. The proportion of fecal N which was of endogenous origin was similar to that in ileal digesta, suggesting similar utilization of endogenous and residual dietary N by hindgut bacteria. Half the endogenous N entering the large intestine was reabsorbed there. Increasing dietary crude fiber from 40 to 132 g/kg increased fecal endogenous N excretion from 1.3 to 2.0 g/animal and day. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.
Full text: 1. Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori (JAEA) reported on the plans for the www interface layout. Discussions included which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. 2. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. RIPL-3 home page will include some description about RIPL-3 and link to the Technical report in pdf-format. The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except the removal of the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by data from the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. 'Levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. 'Resonances' segment will be same as before - may be replaced with the new Mughabghab tables. 'Optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will possibly be provided. 'Densities' segment will be same as before, and the plotting programs will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. 'Gamma' segment will be same as before, with addition of MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. 'Fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added, for example, transition (2+) states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) may be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission
Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.
Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.
Davis, L. S.
Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.
Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo
Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.
Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.
With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)
Rowlands, Alex V
2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.
Motl, R W; Goldman, M
We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê
to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion
Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D
This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.
Full Text Available Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA and physical inactivity (PI among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of a school day. Methods: The research was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 15 secondary schools (SS and 9 primary schools (PS in the Silesia-Katowice region in Poland. In total, 86 boys and 71 girls at PS and 125 boys and 113 girls at SS took part in the research. We recorded 587 school days, in total. The ActiTrainer accelerometer was used for PA and PI monitoring. Results: PS boys and girls were more physically active than SS boys and girls. Before school, we observed SS boys to have higher energy expenditure than PS boys (p < .001 and also than SS girls (p < .001. During the school time, 73% of PS boys (40% at SS and 58% of PS girls (42% at SS met the recommendation of 500 steps/hour. Within the entire school day monitoring, 44% of PS boys (29% at SS and 41% of PS girls (34% at SS met the recommended 11,000 steps/day. Conclusions: The results of our study confirmed the facts that PS boys and girls are more physically active than SS boys and girls and, furthermore, that boys are more physically active than girls at both types of schools.
Pawan Kumar Jain
Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting voluntary skeletal muscles. The altered sensitivity of acetylcholine receptors to muscle relaxants and concomitant treatment with anticholinesterase in these patients affect their anaesthetic management. Patients who have undergone bowel anastomosis and are on regular anticholinesterase treatment are susceptible to anastomotic leaks. We report successful anaesthetic management of class I myasthenic patient with coexisting small bowel intussusception operated for jejuno-ileal anastomoses using regional, inhalational and intravenous (i.v anaesthesia based on train of four responses, and avoiding the use of reversal (anticholinesterase.
Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This
Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V
Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....
Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and
de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and
Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva
Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether
Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart
Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A
Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.
of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...
..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...
Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.
Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.
Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884
Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.
This thesis aims to advance research in image segmentation by developing robust techniques for evaluating image segmentation algorithms. The key contributions of this work are as follows. First, we investigate the characteristics of existing measures for supervised evaluation of automatic image segmentation algorithms. We show which of these measures is most effective at distinguishing perceptually accurate image segmentation from inaccurate segmentation. We then apply these measures to evalu...
In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...... history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand...
An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning
Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.
Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.
Magaly Gemio Teixeira
Full Text Available Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was an important advancement in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether early complications of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis are associated with poor late functional results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients were operated on from 1986 to 2000, 62 patients with ileostomy and 18 without. The early and late complications were recorded. Specific emphasis has been placed on the incidence of pouchitis with prolonged follow-up. RESULTS: The ileostomy was closed an average of 9.2 months after the first operation. Fourteen patients were excluded from the long-term evaluation; 6 patients were lost to regular follow-up, 4 died, and 4 patients still have the ileostomy. Of the 4 patients that died, 1 died from surgical complications. Early complications after operation (41 occurred in 34 patients (42.5%. Late complications (29 occurred in 25 patients as follows: 16 had pouchitis, 3 associated with stenosis and 1 with sexual dysfunction; 5 had stenosis; and there was 1 case each of incisional hernia, ileoanal fistula, hepatic cancer, and endometriosis. Pouchitis occurred in 6 patients (9.8% 1 year after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 9 (14.8% after 3 years, 13 (21.3% after 5 years, and 16 (26.2% after more than 6 years. The mean daily stool frequency was 12 before and 5.8 after operation. One pouch was removed because of fistulas that appeared 2 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is associated with a considerable number of early complications. There was no correlation between pouchitis and severe disease, operation with or without ileostomy, or early postoperative complications. The incidence of pouchitis was directly proportional to duration of time of follow-up.A anastomose íleo-anal com reservatório ileal foi um importante avanço no tratamento da retocolite ulcerativa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se os maus
Gregory C. Bogdanis
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well
Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.
We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677
Bogdanis, Gregory C.
The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID
MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.
Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413
Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus
We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...
Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.
we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...
Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora
Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different...
Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav
Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf
Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise
An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.
Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen
We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...
Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G
Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Shimizu, K; Hori, M; Mitsui, M; Hayashi, Y; Nakajyo, S; Urakawa, N
Hypertonic 60 mM KCl (H 60K+) solution induced a phasic contraction followed by tonic one in the longitudinal (long.) and circular (circ.) muscles of cat ileum. Verapamil inhibited the tonic contraction in the long. or circ. muscle with IC50 of 2.0 X 10(-8) M or 1.0 X 10(-7) M, respectively. The sensitivity of the long. muscle to verapamil was higher than that of the circ. muscle. Ouabain (10(-5) M) increased or did not change the tonic contraction, and increased intracellular Na+ contents in the long. and circ. muscles in H 60K+ solution. Li+-substituted (1/5-1/2) solutions decreased the H 60K+-induced contraction in the long. muscle, but potentiated or did not change the contraction in the circ. one. The results with glucose removal, hypoxia, DNP application and a measurement of oxygen consumption showed that the H 60K+-induced contractions in the long. and circ. muscles are probably dependent on aerobic metabolism utilizing external glucose as well as endogenous substrates. In summary, properties of the H 60K+-induced contraction in the ileal long. of cat was not entirely similar to those of circ. muscles, but they were different from those of the ileal of other animal species and had some similarities to those of the guinea-pig portal vein.
Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.
Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; McElroy, A P
An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of 2 levels of dietary Ca from limestone and 3 levels of phytase on broiler performance, bone ash, gastrointestinal pH, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Ca, P, and amino acids. Cobb 500 broilers (n = 576) were allowed access to one of 6 corn-soy diets from 0 to 16 d. Experimental diets contained 1.03% or 0.64% Ca from limestone and 0.61% total P. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 5,000 FTU/kg of phytase to create a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. Broiler feed intake (FI) and BW gain were not affected by dietary Ca or phytase. Feed conversion ratio was improved (P pH were reduced (P pH in the gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Apparent ileal P digestibility was increased (P pH in gizzard and ileum and interfered with the AID of P and CP. The interactions between Ca and phytase in the gastrointestinal tract are complex, and feeding phytase at doses above industry recommendations may allow for reduced-Ca diets while maintaining broiler performance, bone ash, and improving amino acid digestibility.
Willing, B.; Halfvarson, J.; Dicksved, J.; Rosenquist, M.; Jarnerot, G.; Engstrand, L.; Tysk, C.; Jansson, J. K
Large inter-individual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease. To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and influence of genotype, we studied the mucosaassociated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n=6) or concordant (n=4) for Crohn's disease. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal Crohn's had a dramatically lower abundance (P<0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P<0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with Crohn's localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, distinct from colonic Crohn's disease and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of Crohn's and eventually customized treatment.
Shoar, Saeed; Poliakin, Lauren; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Saber, Alan A
Owing to the possibility of weight regain after the long-term follow-up of gastric bypass patients and because of the high morbidity of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADIS) has emerged as a rescue procedure in bariatric surgery. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature data on SADIS. University Hospital, NY. A comprehensive literature review was performed through October 2016 to identify English studies on SADIS performed in human subjects. Outcomes of interest were technical considerations, postoperative complications, weight loss outcome, comorbidity resolution rate, and nutritional deficiency after SADIS. A total of 12 studies including 581 SADIS patients (217 males and 364 females) were included. SADIS was a primary procedure in 508 patients (87.4%) and a conversion procedure in 73 patients (12.6%). The length of common limb was 300 cm in 54.2%, 250 cm in 23%, and 200 cm in 13.4% of patients. Anastomosis technique was a linear stapler in 26.7% and a hand sewn suture technique in 73.3% of patients. Diarrhea was the most common complication (1.2%). The average %EWL was 30% at 3 months, 55% at 6 months, 70% at 1 year, and 85% at 2 years. Co-morbidity resolution rate was 74.1% for type 2 diabetes mellitus, 96.3% for hypertension, 68.3% for dyslipidemia, 63.3% for obstructive sleep apnea, and 87.5% for GERD. Overall, vitamin A, selenium, and iron deficiency were the most common nutritional deficiencies with the possibility of the protein malnutrition in up to 34% of the patients when measured. As a modified bariatric procedure, SADIS has promising outcomes for weight loss and comorbidity resolution in morbidly obese patients. When measured, there was a high prevalence of macro-nutrient deficiencies following SADIS. There is a high technical variability, and long-term data are required before any meaningful conclusion can be made.
Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad
This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (pprotein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (pdigestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (pprotein meals. PMID:26954227
Soumeh, E A; van Milgen, J; Sloth, N M; Corrent, E; Poulsen, H D; Nørgaard, J V
The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose-response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets. In this study, 96 pigs weighing 8 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments (16 pigs for each dietary treatment) and were housed individually. Diets were formulated to provide 0.58, 0.62, 0.66, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.78 SID Val : Lys by adding graded levels of crystalline l-Val to the 0.58 SID Val : Lys diet. Lysine was sub-limiting and supplied 90% of the recommendation (10.95 g SID Lys/kg equal to 11.8 g/kg total Lys). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 14-day period of ad libitum feeding. Blood and urine samples were taken at the end of each week (day 7 and 14 of the experiment) 3 h after feeding the experimental diets. The maximum ADFI and ADG were obtained in pigs fed the 0.78 SID Val : Lys diet; it was not different from the results of pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys diet. The highest G : F was obtained in pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys. The plasma concentration of Val increased linearly (Pratio was affected by treatment. The minimum SID Val : Lys required to maximize ADFI, ADG and G : F was estimated at 0.67 SID Val : Lys by a broken-line model, and at 0.71 SID Val : Lys by a curvilinear plateau model. The Val deficiency caused a reduction in ADFI, and Val supplementation above the requirement did not impair animal performance. In conclusion, 0.70 SID Val : Lys is suggested as the Val requirement for 8 to 14 kg individually housed pigs.
Sunil Kumar Kota
Full Text Available Aim: Combination of laparoscopic ileal interposition (II with sleeve gastrectomy (SG is an upcoming procedure, which offers good metabolic improvement and weight reduction without causing significant malabsorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of this novel procedure for control of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and related metabolic abnormalities. Materials and Methods: The II and SG was performed in 43 patients (M:F = 25:18 from February 2008. Participants had a mean age of 47.2 ± 8.2 years (range 29-66 years, mean duration of diabetes of 10.1 ± 9.2 years (range 1-32 years, and mean preoperative body mass index (BMI of 33.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2. All patients had poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM [mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C 9.6 ± 2.1%] despite use of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs and/or insulin. Thirty (70% patients had hypertension, 20 (46% had dyslipidemia, and 18 (42% had significant microalbuminuria. The primary outcome was remission of diabetes (HbA1C < 6.5% without OHAs/insulin and the secondary outcomes were reduction in antidiabetic agent requirement and components of metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean follow-up was for 20.2 ± 8.6 months (range 4-40 months. Postoperatively, glycemic parameters (fasting and post-lunch blood sugar, HbA1C improved in all patients (P < 0.05 at all intervals. Twenty (47% patients had remission in diabetes and the remaining patients showed significantly decreased OHA requirement. All patients had weight loss between 15 and 30% (P < 0.05. Twenty-seven (90% patients had remission in hypertension. At 3 years, the mean fall in HbA1C (34% was more than reduction in BMI (25%. There was a declining trend in lipids and microalbuminuria postoperatively, though it was significant for microalbuminuria only. Conclusions: The laparoscopic II with SG seems to be a promising procedure for control of type 2 DM, hypertension, weight reduction, and associated metabolic
Frikha, M; Valencia, D G; de Coca-Sinova, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G
The effects of autoclaving 2 varieties of micronized (fine grinding) pea protein concentrate (PPC) on the ileal digestibility (ID) of CP and amino acids (AA) were studied in broilers. There was a control diet based on fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and 4 extra diets in which the FSBM was substituted on a CP basis by PPC from 2 different pea cultivars (PPC-1 and PPC-2), either unheated or autoclaved. Chicks were fed a common diet from 1 to 17 d of age and, then, their respective experimental diets from 18 to 21 d of age. Each treatment was replicated 6 times. Autoclaving reduced trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) but had little effect on the saponin content of the PPC. The apparent ID (AID) of CP was similar for the FSBM and the unheated PPC and lower for both than for the autoclaved PPC. Autoclaving improved (P < 0.001) the AID of CP (87.6 vs. 82.2%) and most indispensable AA (e.g., 92.1 vs. 88.8% for Lys and 83.6 vs. 76.5% for Thr) of the PPC. The improvement in CP and AA digestibility with autoclaving varied with the PPC used and was consistent with the reduction in TIA observed (9.4 to 2.8 mg/g for PPC-1 vs. 9.1 to 5.3 mg/g for PPC-2). The standardized ID (SID) of most indispensable AA was similar for the FSBM and the PPC-2 and higher for both than for the PPC-1 (P < 0.05). For Lys, the lowest SID value was observed for the FSBM and the highest for the PPC-2 either unheated or autoclaved. It is concluded that the ID of the AA of the PPC improved with heating and was in general higher for the autoclaved PPC than for the FSBM. Consequently, heat processed PPC is a good alternative to FSBM and unheated PPC in starter diets for broilers.
Calabrese, Carlo; Praticò, Chiara; Calafiore, Andrea; Coscia, Maurizio; Gentilini, Lorenzo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Gionchetti, Paolo; Campieri, Massimo; Rizzello, Fernando
To evaluate if 3 mo oral supplementation with Eviendep® was able to reduce the number of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Eleven FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps were enrolled. They underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy at the baseline and after 3 mo of treatment. Each patient received 5 mg Eviendep twice a day, at breakfast and dinner time, for 3 mo. Two endoscopists evaluated in a blinded manner the number and size of duodenal polyps. Upper GI endoscopies with biopsies were performed at the baseline (T0) with the assessment of the Spigelman score. Polyps > 10 mm were removed during endoscopy and at the end of the procedure a new Spigelman score was determined (T1). The procedure was repeated 3 mo after the baseline (T2). Four photograms were examined for each patient, at T1 and T2. The examined area was divided into 3 segments: duodenal bulb, second and third portion duodenum. Biopsy specimens were taken from all polyps > 10 mm and from all suspicious ones, defined by the presence of a central depression, irregular surface, or irregular vascular pattern. Histology was classified according to the updated Vienna criteria. At baseline the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 27.7 and mean sizes were 15.8 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 7.1. After polypectomy the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 25.7 and mean sizes were 7.6 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.4. After 3 mo of Eviendep bid, all patients showed a reduction of number and size of duodenal polyps. The mean number of duodenal polyps was 8 (P = 0.021) and mean size was 4.4 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.6. Interrater agreement was measured. Lesions > 1 cm found a very good degree of concordance (kappa 0.851) and a good concordance was as well encountered for smaller lesions (kappa 0.641). Our study demonstrated that short-term (90 d) supplementation with Eviendep® in FAP patients with IPAA
Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu
To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rogers, S; Gavin, J R; Hammerman, M R
Gluconeogenesis is a major metabolic function of the renal proximal tubular cell. To characterize the regulation of this process in proximal tubule, glucose production from gluconeogenic precursors was measured in proximal tubular segments prepared from dog kidney. Production of glucose was a linear function of time for up to 120 min of incubation at 37 degrees C under a variety of conditions. Lowering the pH of incubation media from 7.5 to 7.0 increased glucose synthesis. Production of glucose was inhibited by 3-mercaptopicolinate. Incubation of proximal tubular segments with insulin diminished synthesis of glucose. Incubation of segments with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, resulted in decreased production of glucose. This effect was not observed following incubation with the inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol. Changes in glucose synthesis could not be attributed to alterations in cell viability or in rates of glucose oxidation induced by experimental maneuvers. Our findings confirm the usefulness of proximal tubular segments for characterization of metabolic processes in this portion of the nephron. The experimental results are consistent with a role for protein kinase C in the control of gluconeogenesis in proximal tubule.
Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick
Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).
Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian
This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...
Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
To assess the effects of content and structure of dietary fiber (DF) on the carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal digesta, five bread diets were studied in an experiment with ileum-cannulated pigs in a crossover design. The diets consisted of two experimental breads...
Gdala, J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Buraczewska, L.; Huisman, J.; Leeuwen, P. van
Eighteen cannulated piglets were used in two experiments (six in Experiment 1 and 12 in Experiment 2) to determine the effect of supplementation of the diet with microbial α-galactosidase on the ileal digestibility of the raffinose family oligosaccharides and other nutrients of lupin-based diets.
Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J
Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.
Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is
Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; François, E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wathelet, B.; Huisman, J.
We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a
Cunningham, Michael F
A pressing need exists to identify factors that predispose to recurrence after terminal ileal resection for Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and to determine effective prophylactic strategies. This review presents an up-to-date summary of the literature in the field and points to a role for bacterial overproliferation in recurrence.
Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.
The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL +
Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
To assess the effects of content and structure of dietary fiber (DF) on the carbohydrate digestibility and physicochemical properties of ileal digesta, five bread diets were studied in an experiment with ileum-cannulated pigs in a crossover design. The diets consisted of two experimental breads based on white wheat flour with added wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or with added isolated oat β-glucan (BG), which were compared with a low-DF commercial white wheat bread (WF) and two commercial high-DF, dark ground rye bread (GR) and rye bread with kernels (RK) as positive controls. There was no profound effect of either DF content, structure, viscosity, or water-binding capacity on the ileal digestibility of starch, which was almost completely digested in the small intestine. Arabinoxylan and β-glucan were 11 and 81% degraded in the ileum, respectively, which resulted in a significant increase and decrease of ileal extract viscosities, respectively. It is concluded that the viscosity-elevating properties of soluble DF in breads and ileal digesta are strongly dependent on the content and structure of DF and degree of resistance toward microbial enzymes.
Vries, de S.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.
Marker methodologies to measure ileal and total tract digestibilities of diets varying in content and degradability of dietary fiber in broiler chickens were evaluated. Chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and cobalt-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Co-EDTA) were used as markers of solid and soluble
Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.
Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.
A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)
Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E
A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...
Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas
Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...
Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...
Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...
Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…
Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)
Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P
General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.
McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A
Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.
Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...
... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...
Gonsalves, Simon; Sagar, Peter; Lengyel, John; Morrison, Charles; Dunham, Richard
The treatment of rectovaginal and ileal pouch-vaginal fistulas remains a challenging problem for the colorectal surgeon. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term efficacy of the new Surgisis Biodesign rectovaginal button fistula plug in patients with such fistulas. Between May 2008 and September 2008, patients with confirmed rectovaginal and ileal pouch-vaginal fistulas with backgrounds of inflammatory bowel disease were treated with the button fistula plug. The fistulas were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and/or examination under anesthesia before the procedure. Twelve patients with a median age of 36 (range, 29-42) years underwent a total of 20 plug insertions. Five patients had confirmed rectovaginal fistulas and seven patients had ileal pouch-vaginal fistulas. At a median follow-up of 15 (interquartile range, 10-21) weeks, 7 of 12 patients (58%) had been treated successfully. Seven of the 20 plugs that were inserted (35%) were successful. This equates to the successful treatment of three of five (60%) of the rectovaginal fistulas, and four of seven (57%) of the ileal pouch-vaginal fistulas. Of the six patients who initially failed, a repeat procedure was performed of which one was successful. Two patients underwent a third repeat procedure, which was again unsuccessful in both cases. The success rate of these eight repeat plug insertions was therefore 12.5%. All plug failures were the result of dislodgement of the plug. There was no morbidity in our series. The new button fistula plug successfully treated 7 of 12 (58%) rectovaginal and ileal pouch-vaginal fistulas.
A. O. Adebiyi
Full Text Available The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM, canola meal (CM or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS that were either adequate (19% or marginal (15% in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.
Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.
Digestibilidade ileal e perdas endógenas de aminoácidos de dietas com óleo de soja para suínos em crescimento Ileal digestibility and endogenous losses of amino acids in soybean oil diets to growing pigs
Erin Caperuto de Almeida
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de óleo de soja sobre as perdas endógenas e a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos em dietas para suínos em crescimento. Foram testadas quatro dietas isoprotéicas, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formuladas segundo as exigências para essa fase e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5% e 0,25% de óxido crômico como indicador de indigestibilidade. Dezesseis suínos canulados (cânula T simples, com 48,0 ± 6,0 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com base no peso dos animais. Não houve efeito dos níveis óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente de glutamato, glicina, arginina, alanina, prolina, tirosina, histidina e lisina. Observaram-se efeito linear da suplementação com níveis de óleo de soja nos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de serina e treonina e efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de valina, fenilalanina, total de aminoácidos não-essenciais e total de aminoácidos essenciais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de arginina e tirosina também apresentaram efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja. Melhores valores de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos não-essenciais e essenciais são obtidos com adição de 2,8 a 3,0% de óleo de soja à dieta de suínos em crescimento.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different levels of soybean oil on endogenous losses, apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs diets. Four isoprotein corn and soybean meal based diets meeting the nutritional requirements for this phase, supplemented with crescent levels of soybean oil, (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 were evaluated. Chromic oxide (0
Shelton, N W; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; DeRouchey, J M
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys on growing and finishing gilts. Diets in all 3 experiments were corn-soybean meal-based and contained 0.15% l-Lys•HCl and 3% added fat from choice white grease. Desired SID Lys concentrations were achieved by altering levels of corn and soybean meal in the diet. Each experiment consisted of 6 treatments with 7 pens per treatment and approximately 27 gilts (PIC 337 × 1050) per pen. In Exp. 1, 1,085 gilts (initially 38.2 kg) were fed diets formulated to contain SID Lys concentrations of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, or 1.2% for 28 d, which were analyzed to be total Lys concentrations of 0.78, 0.86, 0.99, 1.06, 1.14, and 1.24%, respectively. As SID Lys increased, ADG and G:F improved (quadratic, P Gilts in this trial required approximately 21.8 g of SID Lys intake per kilogram of BW gain from 38 to 65 kg. In Exp. 2, 1,092 (initially 55.2 kg) gilts were fed diets formulated to contain SID Lys concentrations of 0.66, 0.74, 0.82, 0.90, 0.98, or 1.06% for 28 d, which were analyzed to be total Lys concentrations of 0.75, 0.73, 0.84, 0.90, 0.95, and 0.97%, respectively. Both ADG (quadratic, P = 0.12) and G:F improved (linear, P Gilts in this trial required approximately 19.6 g of SID Lys per kilogram of BW gain from 55 to 80 kg. In Exp. 3, 1,080 gilts (initially 84.1 kg) were fed diets formulated to contain SID Lys concentrations of 0.54, 0.61, 0.68, 0.75, 0.82, or 0.89% for 29 d, which were analyzed to be total Lys concentrations of 0.62, 0.92, 0.79, 0.99, 0.93, and 1.07%, respectively. As the SID Lys concentration increased, ADG and G:F improved (linear, P Gilts in this trial required 23.0 g of SID Lys per kg of BW gain from 85 to 110 kg. The ideal SID Lys:ME ratio was based on the requirement determined by broken-line analysis in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, with the greatest level being tested in Exp. 3. This equation, SID Lys:ME ratio = -0.011 × BW, kg + 3
de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min
In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.
Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto
To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.
Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno
This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Padfield, Dirk; Ross, James
A large variety of image analysis tasks require the segmentation of various regions in an image. For example, segmentation is required to generate accurate models of brain pathology that are important components of modern diagnosis and therapy. While the manual delineation of such structures gives accurate information, the automatic segmentation of regions such as the brain and tumors from such images greatly enhances the speed and repeatability of quantifying such structures. The ubiquitous need for such algorithms has lead to a wide range of image segmentation algorithms with various assumptions, parameters, and robustness. The evaluation of such algorithms is an important step in determining their effectiveness. Therefore, rather than developing new segmentation algorithms, we here describe validation methods for segmentation algorithms. Using similarity metrics comparing the automatic to manual segmentations, we demonstrate methods for optimizing the parameter settings for individual cases and across a collection of datasets using the Design of Experiment framework. We then employ statistical analysis methods to compare the effectiveness of various algorithms. We investigate several region-growing algorithms from the Insight Toolkit and compare their accuracy to that of a separate statistical segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithms are used with their optimized parameters to automatically segment the brain and tumor regions in MRI images of 10 patients. The validation tools indicate that none of the ITK algorithms studied are able to outperform with statistical significance the statistical segmentation algorithm although they perform reasonably well considering their simplicity.
Full Text Available Intestinal atresia type III B (apple peel and gastroschisis are both congenital malformations who require early surgical correction in neonatal age. Their association is very rare. We present the case of a full term infant with partial apple peel ileal atresia and a small defect of the anterior abdominal wall, complicated by in utero intestinal perforation and subsequent meconial peritonitis. We observed a partial atresia of small intestine, with involvement of terminal ileus savings of jejunum and a large part of the proximal ileum, small anterior abdominal wall defect with herniation of few bowel loops, intestinal malrotation. Paralytic ileus and infections are the main causes of morbidity and mortality at neonatal age. In our case, in spite of the mild phenotype, prognosis has been complicated by the onset of functional bowel obstruction, caused by chemical peritonitis resulting from contact with either amniotic fluid and meconium.
Vienola, K; Jurgens, G; Vuorenmaa, J; Apajalahti, J
1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment. In both trials, TOFA improved body weight gain at all time points (P250 mg/l. The in vitro results were thus in line with in vivo observations. 5. The mechanisms behind the bacterial shifts and their role in performance improvement are unknown. Further purification of TOFA components is needed to identify the effective agents.
Adesoji O Ademuyiwa
Full Text Available Alimentary tract duplications are uncommon congenital anomalies that may be found anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. They have a diverse presentation and often times present with complications of intestinal obstruction and/or lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage. We report a very rare finding of a colonic duplication cyst which presented as an ileal volvulus in a young girl. While available investigations were non-specific, the child survived on account of an early decision to operate. She had resection of the duplication cyst and ileo-colic anastomosis. She made good recovery post-operatively. A high index of suspicion is necessary on the part of clinicians to recognise this condition. Early operative intervention is necessary in the developing world setting where state of the art investigations are not available for accurate pre-operative diagnosis.
Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K
, Event, Tommi, and Adler. The 8 genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site, and they were harvested and processed under the same conditions. Nine barrows with an initial BW of 32 ± 2 kg were surgically fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a row......–column design with 9 pigs and 8 periods of 6 d each. Wheat was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. Among the 8 wheat genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 10.9 to 13.3% (as-fed basis), whereas contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides ranged from 8.0 to 9.4% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 genotypes...
Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P lunch compared with glucose-to-duodenum [-22%, -988 ± 379 kJ (mean ± SEM), Tukey's post hoc, P small intestine elicits different outcomes. Glucose infusion to the ileum increased GLP-1 and PYY secretion, suppressed aspects of VAS-rated appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Fiacco, D C; Lowe, J A; Wiseman, J; White, G A
Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model. Each diet was fed to six cages each containing two birds from day 15, 18 cages in total (36 birds). Excreta were collected from days 19 to 21. On day 23, birds were euthanized and weighed, and their ileal digesta were collected and pooled for each cage. In addition, one leg per cage was collected for evaluation of muscle mass. Results showed no significant difference in animal performance (feed intake or live weight gain) or muscle to leg proportion across the diets. Birds fed the control diet and the diet balanced for amino acid content exhibited the greatest coefficients of apparent metabolizability for nitrogen (p animal with vegetable protein generally had greater ileal digestibility of amino acids compared to birds fed the control (animal protein) diet. Analysis of excreta showed no dietary difference in terms of dry matter content; however, birds fed the diet balanced for total protein and the diet balanced for amino acid content had significantly greater excreta nitrogen than the control (p = .038). Overall, the study suggests vegetable proteins when formulated based on amino acid content are a viable alternative to animal proteins in canine diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Melton, Genevieve B; Fazio, Victor W; Kiran, Ravi P; He, Jin; Lavery, Ian C; Shen, Bo; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Church, James M; Remzi, Feza H
To assess long-term outcomes after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in Crohn's disease (CD). Although considered the procedure of choice in ulcerative colitis, performance of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is controversial in CD. CD patients were identified from a prospectively maintained IPAA database. Time-to-diagnosis and pouch retention rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with pouch retention were evaluated with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Two hundred and four CD patients (108 female, median age 33 years, and median follow-up 7.4 years) with primary IPAA were included. CD diagnosis was before IPAA (intentional) in 20(10%), from postoperative histopathology (incidental) in 97(47%) or made in a delayed fashion at median 36 months after IPAA in 87(43%). Overall 10-year pouch retention was 71%. On multivariate analysis, pouch loss was associated with delayed diagnosis (P = 0.03, hazard ratio [HR] 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-6.5)), pouch-vaginal fistula (P = 0.01, HR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.4)), and pelvic sepsis (P = 0.0001, HR 9.7(95% CI 3.4-27.3)). Patients with retained IPAA at follow-up had near-perfect/perfect continence (72%), rare/no urgency (68%) with median daily bowel movements 7 (range 2-20). Median overall quality of life, quality of health, level of energy, and happiness with surgery were 9, 9, 8, and 10 of 10, respectively. For CD patients with IPAA, when the diagnosis is established preoperatively or immediately following surgery, pouch loss rates are low and functional results are favorable. Outcomes in patients with delayed diagnosis are worse but half retain their pouch at 10 years with good functional outcomes.
Calogero Roaul Aiello
Full Text Available In the senile population, regular physical activity and reduction of a sedentary lifestyle lead to a series of positive effects. Such as, increased independence in daily activities and personal care, higher self-esteem, a better quality of life, a higher life expectancy and a decrease in mortality. Moreover, physical, psychological, and cognitive functions can also improve. With regards to this notion, the Walking Football (WF activity was started in England; a sport designed for the needs population segment, who, due to overweight and other typical diseases of old age, has a limited mobility and can only play sports with lowmoderate cardiovascular effort. WF is a new sport mainly created for people over 50, i.e. the population diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases, and the actual increase of obesity gradually cause to abstain from a regular physical activity. The game is played 7 vs. 7 and all players must only walk; running is considered a foul. To avoid sudden movements and reduce the risk of injury, the ball must be always kept on the ground, and slide tackles and an aggressive behavior are prohibited. This sport, a slow variation of football, is considered a low risk sport activity for the low incidence of traumatic events and can be practiced safely because the cardiovascular effort is minimum. WF comes directly from football, which is considered the most popular sport in the world. It is also associated with positive social and motivational factors that may facilitate compliance to the sport, which help maintain a physically active lifestyle. WF is still not widespread in Italy, and our hope is that it can become, in a short time, a reference for the sports designed for the elderly.
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
and evaluate the method. The method uses deformable registration on computed tomography(CT) to find anatomical symmetry deviations of Head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma and combining it with positron emission tomography (PET) images. The method allows the use anatomical and symmetrical information of CT scans...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...... and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0.01 for a paired t-test respectively....
The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...
Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P
This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.
Background This study aimed to determine the effect of the inclusion of corn gluten feed (CGF) on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy in growing pigs. The study was performed using 16 barrows (weight, 45.3 ± 4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T cannula at the terminal ileum. There were four treatments: a corn-soybean diet without CGF and three corn-soybean diets containing increasing levels of CGF (65, 130, and 195 g/kg). Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design, four blocks with four pigs each (one pig per treatment). The trend of the response (linear or quadratic) was determined using orthogonal contrasts, and when a linear effect was determined, a linear equation was obtained. Results The results showed that the inclusion up to 195 g/kg of CGF in the corn-soybean diet did not diminish the ileal digestibility (apparent and standardized) of protein and amino acids (P > 0.05), except that of phenylalanine, cystine, and proline. A linear decrease (P digestibility of phenylalanine (0.011 and 0.015 percentage units, respectively), cystine (0.048 and 0.043 percentage units, respectively), and proline (0.045 and 0.047 percentage units, respectively) was noted. Similarly, ileal digestibility of dry matter and energy were adversely affected (reduced by 0.028 and 0.025 percentage units, respectively, per gram of CGF increment in the diet). A significant (P digestibility with increase in CGF amount in the diet was observed for energy (0.027 percentage units), dry matter (0.027 percentage units), crude protein (0.020 percentage units), and neutral detergent fiber (0.041 percentage units) per gram of CGF added to the diet. Conclusion CGF did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein and most amino acids but reduced the ileal and total tract digestibility of energy. PMID:25279142
Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.
Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.
Jim P. Stimpson
Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.
Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H
The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.
Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann
A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.
The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year
Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.
Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.
Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric
Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…
Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta
Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high......-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...
Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark
Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...
Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.
Linda S Geiss
Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.
Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S
Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.
Thomas H A Haverkamp
Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.
Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric
In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recent data suggest that mucosal abnormalities can occur even in the duodenum, jejunum, and distal ileum of cirrhosis patients. We present a case of portal hypertensive enteropathy in a cirrhosis patient shown by capsule endoscopy and the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on the ileal pictures. Case presentation An 83-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital for anemia and a positive fecal occult blood test. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed small varices without bleeding signs and hypertensive gastropathy. Colonoscopy was negative. To rule out any other cause of bleeding, capsule endoscopy was performed; capsule endoscopy revealed severe hyperemia of the jejunum-ileal mucosa with active bleeding. Because of the persistence of anemia and the frequent blood transfusions, not responding to β-blocker drugs or octreotide infusion, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. Anemia improved quickly after the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and no further blood transfusion was necessary in the follow-up. The patient developed portal encephalopathy two months later and was readmitted to our department. We repeated the capsule endoscopy that showed a significant improvement of the gastric and ileal mucosa without any signs of bleeding. Conclusion Hypertensive enteropathy is a rare condition, but it seems more common with the introduction of capsule endoscopy in clinical practice. This case shows that the jejunum can be a source of bleeding in cirrhosis patients, and this is the first demonstration of its resolution after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement.
Rutherfurd, S M; Moughan, P J
The growing pig is an established model animal for humans to determine protein digestibility to the end of the small intestine. An ileal amino acid digestibility assay based on the laboratory rat offers an alternative. True ileal amino acid digestibility in high quality refined protein sources was determined and compared between the laboratory rat and the growing pig. Both species of animals were fed their daily ration in nine separate meals. Ileal digesta were collected at slaughter and chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. For several of the amino acids examined, there were no significant (p digestibility, but for aspartic acid, serine, cysteine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine, significant (p digestibility, for all amino acids and all diets, was 95.8% for the pig and 96.1% for the rat. Cysteine digestibility was highly variable between individual animals fed the same diet. The extent of amino acid digestion and absorption appears to be broadly similar across the two species, but some important differences in digestibility were recorded.
Adebiyi, A. O.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.; Olukosi, O. A.
The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace) with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6) kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (pdigestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (pdigestibility of AA was greater (pprotein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs. PMID:26194226
Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.
Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara
The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...
Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.
According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole
-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...
Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.
The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de
Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.
). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...
Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora
This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…
The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…
Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong; Vining, David J.
Virtual colonoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that enables detection of colorectal polyps and cancer. Normally, a patient's bowel is prepared with colonic lavage and gas insufflation prior to computed tomography (CT) scanning. An important step for 3D analysis of the image volume is segmentation of the colon. The high-contrast gas/tissue interface that exists in the colon lumen makes segmentation of the majority of the colon relatively easy; however, two factors inhibit automatic segmentation of the entire colon. First, the colon is not the only gas-filled organ in the data volume: lungs, small bowel, and stomach also meet this criteria. User-defined seed points placed in the colon lumen have previously been required to spatially isolate only the colon. Second, portions of the colon lumen may be obstructed by peristalsis, large masses, and/or residual feces. These complicating factors require increased user interaction during the segmentation process to isolate additional colon segments. To automate the segmentation of the colon, we have developed a method to locate seed points and segment the gas-filled lumen with no user supervision. We have also developed an automated approach to improve lumen segmentation by digitally removing residual contrast-enhanced fluid resulting from a new bowel preparation that liquefies and opacifies any residual feces.
Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen
We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...
Wright, Peter H.
A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…
Hofstede, ter F.
The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of
Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P
This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSB R oasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBM A ustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBM S td ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBM GMO -free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBM S td to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSB R oasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBM A ustria (p < .05). The SID of CP and all AA (except glutamic acid) were not different between SBC and SBM A ustria , but the SID of CP and all AA (except methionine) were greater (p < .05) in SBC than in SBM GMO -free . Furthermore, the SID of CP and most AA showed a quadratic response with decreasing TIA, and there exists a quadratic response in SID of CP and all AA with increasing lysine to CP ratio and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (p < .05). In conclusion, variation in chemical composition and SID of CP and AA was observed in different European soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBM A ustria can be used as alternative to imported SBM GMO -free and SBM S td in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Walk, C L; Pirgozliev, V; Juntunen, K; Paloheimo, M; Ledoux, D R
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate eight neutral and six acid proteases on growth performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of poults (Experiment 1) or chicks (Experiments 2 and 3). Two basal diets were formulated: a nutrient adequate positive control (PC), which met or exceeded the nutrient requirements for poults (Experiment 1) or chicks (Experiments 2 and 3) and a negative control (NC) formulated to achieve 85% (Experiments 1 and 2) or 80% (Experiments 3) of the requirement for protein and amino acids. Phytase was included in all diets to provide 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg and xylanase was included in all diets to provide 10,000 (Experiments 1 and 2) or 16,000 (Experiments 3) xylanase units (BXU)/kg. Proteases were supplemented in the NC diet at an equivalent amount of enzyme protein to create 16 experimental diets. There were five birds/pen and 10 replicate pens per treatment in each experiment. In experiment 1, birds fed the PC diet gained more (P < 0.05) than birds fed the NC. There were no differences in growth performance in birds fed the PC or NC in experiments 2 or 3. In all three experiments, birds fed the NC supplemented with neutral protease 1 had reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake (FI) or body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with birds fed the NC. Birds fed the NC diet supplemented with neutral protease 3, 7 (Experiment 1), or acid protease 4 (Experiment 3) had increased (P < 0.05) FCR and birds fed neutral protease 6 (Experiment 2) had reduced (P < 0.05) BWG compared with birds fed the NC. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility was improved (P < 0.05) with protease supplementation to the NC diets (Experiment 1 or 3), but this was dependent on the protease and the amino acid. In conclusion, novel protease supplementation improved AID of amino acids but this was not reflected in improvements in growth performance of poults or chicks.
Birkhäuser, Frédéric D; Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Schürch, Leander; Ochsner, Katharina; Willener, Rita; Thalmann, George N; Burkhard, Fiona C; Studer, Urs E
Continent catheterizable ileal pouches require regular irrigations to reduce the risk of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our aim was to compare the UTI rate, patient friendliness, and costs of standard sterile irrigation versus irrigation with tap water. Twenty-three patients participated in a prospective randomized two-arm crossover single-center trial. Aseptic intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) combined with sterile sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9% irrigation was compared with clean ISC and irrigation with tap water (H(2)O) during two study periods of 90 d each. Patients underwent daily pouch irrigations with NaCl 0.9% solution or tap water. Urine nitrite dipstick tests were evaluated daily; urine culture (UC) and patient friendliness were evaluated monthly. Costs were documented. A total of 3916 study days with nitrite testing and irrigation were analyzed, 1876 (48%) in the NaCl arm and 2040 (52%) in the H(2)O arm. In the NaCl arm, 418 study days (22%) with nitrite-positive dipsticks were recorded, 219 d (11%) in the H(2)O arm, significantly fewer (p=0.01). Of the 149 UCs, 96 (64%) were positive, 48 in each arm, revealing a total of 16 different germs. All patients preferred the H(2)O method. Monthly costs were up to 20 times lower in the H(2)O arm. Pouch irrigation with sterile NaCl 0.9% solution and tap water had comparable rates of positive UC. Irrigation with tap water significantly lowered the incidence of nitrite-positive study days and was substantially less costly and more patient friendly than NaCl irrigation. We therefore recommend the use of tap water (or bottled water) instead of sterile NaCl 0.9% solution for daily irrigation of continent catheterizable ileal pouches. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000618055, http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12610000618055.aspx. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of graded inclusions of wheat bran (0%, 9.65%, 48.25% wheat bran and two growth stages (from 32.5 to 47.2 kg and 59.4 to 78.7 kg, respectively on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and hindgut fermentation of nutrients and energy in growing pigs. Six light pigs (initial body weight [BW] 32.5±2.1 kg and six heavy pigs (initial BW 59.4±3.2 kg were surgically prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. A difference method was used to calculate the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran by means of comparison with a basal diet consisting of corn-soybean meal (0% wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 9.65% and 48.25% wheat bran by the basal diet, respectively. Each group of pigs was allotted to a 6×3 Youden square design, and pigs were fed to three experimental diets during three 11-d periods. Hindgut fermentation values were calculated as the differences between ATTD and AID values. For the wheat bran diets, the AID and ATTD of dry matter (DM, ash, organic matter (OM, carbohydrates (CHO, gross energy (GE, and digestible energy (DE decreased with increasing inclusion levels of wheat bran (p<0.05. While only AID of CHO and ATTD of DM, ash, OM, CHO, GE, and DE content differed (p<0.05 when considering the BW effect. For the wheat bran ingredient, there was a wider variation effect (p<0.01 on the nutrient and energy digestibility of wheat bran in 9.65% inclusion level due to the coefficient of variation (CV of the nutrient and energy digestibility being higher at 9.65% compared to 48.25% inclusion level of wheat bran. Digestible energy content of wheat bran at 48.25% inclusion level (4.8 and 6.7 MJ/kg of DM, respectively fermented by hindgut was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that in 9.65% wheat bran inclusion level (2.56 and 2.12 MJ/kg of DM, respectively, which was also affected (p<0.05 by two growth stages
Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas
), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...... that completely combine reconstruction and segmentation have been suggested, but these are often non-convex and have very high computational demand. We propose to move the computational effort from the segmentation process to the reconstruction process, and instead design reconstruction methods...
Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.
Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna
Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.
The arguments for dividing the signing stream in signed languages into sequences of phonetic segments are compelling. The visual records of instances of actually occurring signs provide evidence of two basic types of segments: postural segments and trans-forming segments. Postural segments specify an alignment of articulatory features, both manual…
Bon, W.H.J. van; Duighuisen, H.C.M.
Poor spellers from the Netherlands segmented and spelled the same words on different occasions. If they base their spellings on the segmentations that they produce in the segmentation task, the correlation between segmentation and spelling scores should be high, and segmentation should not be more
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...
disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.
... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...
Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E
Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...
Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.
The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.
J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).
... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...
Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M
This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc
The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...
Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.
Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.
Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged
Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe
Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...
van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.
Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among
Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...
Evandro Fornias Sperandio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.
Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis
Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on
Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…
Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.
The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables
Drs. Barbara Sassen
The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people
Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna
Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity
Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.
This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…
Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...
Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John
Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...
Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.
Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.
Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…
van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.
Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among
Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.
Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among
Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.
Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.
This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Cummings, Bethany P; Strader, April D; Stanhope, Kimber L; Graham, James L; Lee, Jennifer; Raybould, Helen E; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J
Bariatric surgery has been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms by which this occurs remain undefined. Ileal interposition (IT) is a surgical model that isolates the effects of increasing delivery of unabsorbed nutrients to the lower gastrointestinal tract. In this study we investigated effects of IT surgery on glucose tolerance and diabetes onset in UCD-T2DM (University of California at Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus) rats, a polygenic obese animal model of type 2 diabetes. IT or sham surgery was performed on 4-month-old male UCD-T2DM rats. All animals underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). A subset was killed 2 months after surgery for tissue analyses. The remainder was followed until diabetes onset and underwent oral fat tolerance testing (OFTT). IT surgery delayed diabetes onset by 120 +/- 49 days compared with sham surgery (P insulin secretion (P insulin content compared with sham-operated animals (P T2DM rats which may be related to increased nutrient-stimulated secretion of GLP-1(7-36) and PYY and improvements of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and lipid metabolism. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horio, S; Nagare, T; Moritoki, H
1. To determine the role of cellular Ca2+ in desensitization, acetylcholine(ACh)-induced desensitization was studied under Ca2+-free condition in guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle. 2. Pretreatment of the tissue with 10(-4) M ACh (desensitizing treatment) in normal Tyrode solution caused desensitization of the responses both to ACh and histamine. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution enhanced desensitization of the responses to ACh and histamine significantly. 3. The desensitizing treatment with ACh caused suppression of the responses to high K+ (tonic component) and Bay K 8644. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution potentiated the suppression of the responses to high K+ and Bay K 8644 significantly. 4. ACh-induced desensitization was enhanced significantly in the presence of a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine(H-7, 10(-4) M) to a similar extent as desensitization obtained under Ca2+-free condition, but not in the presence of a non-specific and less potent kinase inhibitor, N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (HA1004, 10(-4) M). 5. These results suggested that voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were involved in ACh-induced desensitization and that intracellular Ca2+, which was increased during the stimulation with ACh, inhibited desensitization through the activation of protein kinase C. This kinase could have activated or protected Ca2+ channels during the desensitization process to reduce desensitization.
Malta, E.; Raper, C.; Tawa, Pauline E.
1 Noradrenaline and 28 imidazolidine (clonidine-like) and imidazoline (oxymetazoline-like) compounds with various phenyl ring substituents have been examined for their ability to inhibit responses to transmural stimulation and exogenous acetylcholine in ileal preparations from reserpine-treated guinea-pigs. 2 The bathing solution contained propranolol, mepyramine, cimetidine and desipramine to preclude interference with the responses by other than the α-receptor-mediated actions of the compounds. 3 In transmurally stimulated preparations the inhibitory response to noradrenaline is due to a combination of prejunctional α-adrenoceptor stimulation and a postjunctional depressant effect that does not involve adrenoceptor activation. 4 Of the 28 imidazolidines and imidazolines studied, 21 inhibited transmurally elicited responses. In the various compounds studied this effect involved actions at pre- or postjunctional sites as indicated by (a) the frequency-dependence of the inhibitory response, (b) its susceptibility to blockade by α-receptor antagonists and (c) the relative concentrations required to inhibit responses to transmural stimulation and exogenous acetylcholine. PMID:7236990
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with surgical resection remaining the cornerstone of therapy. Pararectal lesions are considered to be technically difficult and pose in some cases a challenge. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first robotic-assisted pararectal GIST excision. A 43-year-old man was referred to our center with pararectal GIST recurrence, despite treatment with targeted therapy. Eleven years ago, he underwent extensive abdominal surgery including cystoprostatectomy with ileal neobladder diversion due to GIST resection in the rectoprostatic space. Robot-assisted surgical resection was successfully performed without the need for temporary colostomy. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful, and the pathology report confirmed a GIST recurrence with negative surgical margins and pelvic lymph nodes free of any tumor. Robotic-assisted pelvic surgery can be extended to incorporate excision of pararectal GISTs, as a safe, less invasive surgical alternative with promising oncological results and minimal injury to adjacent structures.
Pothoulakis, C.; LaMont, J.T.; Eglow, R.; Gao, N.; Rubins, J.B.; Theoharides, T.C.; Dickey, B.F. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))
The purpose of this study was to characterize the surface receptor for toxin A, the enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, on rabbit intestinal brush borders (BB) and on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. Purified toxin A was radiolabeled using a modified Bolton-Hunter method to sp act 2 microCi/micrograms, with retention of full biologic activity. 3H-Toxin A bound specifically to a single class of receptors on rabbit BB and on RBL cells with dissociation constants of 5.4 x 10(-8) and 3.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively. RBL cells were highly sensitive to toxin A (cell rounding) and had 180,000 specific binding sites per cell, whereas IMR-90 fibroblasts were far less sensitive to toxin A and lacked detectable specific binding sites. Exposure of BB to trypsin or chymotrypsin significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Preincubation of BB with Bandeirea simplicifolia (BS-1) lectin also reduced specific binding, and CHAPS-solubilized receptors could be immobilized with WGA-agarose. The addition of 100 nM toxin A accelerated the association of 35S-GTP gamma S with rabbit ileal BB, and preincubation of BB with the GTP analogues GTP gamma S or Gpp(NH)p, significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Our data indicate that the membrane receptor for toxin A is a galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine-containing glycoprotein which appears to be coupled to a G protein.
Chokshi, Ravi J; Kuhrt, Maureen P; Schmidt, Carl; Arrese, David; Routt, Meghan; Parks, Lisa; Bahnson, Robert; Martin, Edward W
To compare outcomes and feasibility of double-barreled wet colostomy and ileal conduit (IC) in patients undergoing total pelvic exenteration (TPE). Between 2004 and 2010, 54 patients underwent TPE for pelvic malignancies. Of those patients, 53 had complete records available for analysis. Two groups were identified based on the technique used for urinary diversion, either by way of an IC or a double-barreled wet colostomy (DBWC). Demographics, comorbidities, complications, length of stay, operative times, morbidity, and mortality were compared between the 2 groups. Forty-three patients (81%) underwent a DBWC and ten patients (19%) underwent an IC. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities. Eighteen patients underwent an R0 resection (39%) and twenty-eight (61%) patients had a non-R0 resection. Seven patients (13%) had a complete response to therapy with no evidence of malignancy. A majority of the patients (68%) undergoing TPE had colorectal histology. Thirty-day morbidity directly related to complications of urinary or fecal diversion was 78% in the DBWC group and 58% in the IC group. There was no perioperative mortality in either group. DBWC is a safe and feasible alternative to the traditional IC for urinary diversion. This technique is easy to learn and is associated with similar operative times, length of stay, morbidity, and mortality compared with IC. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is very rare. Method: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results: Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions: SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying.
Segmented block copolymers with short monodisperse crystallizable hard segments have interesting structures and properties. In the melt, such short monodisperse segments are miscible with the matrix segments. Moreover, upon cooling, they crystallize fast, demonstrating a very high crystallinity, and
Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred
We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...
Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson
To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.
Brotherton Sarah E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.
Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.
Alush, Amir; Goldberger, Jacob
We present a method for combining several segmentations of an image into a single one that in some sense is the average segmentation in order to achieve a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The goal is to find a point in the "space of segmentations" which is close to all the individual segmentations. We present an algorithm for segmentation averaging. The image is first oversegmented into superpixels. Next, each segmentation is projected onto the superpixel map. An instance of the EM algorithm combined with integer linear programming is applied on the set of binary merging decisions of neighboring superpixels to obtain the average segmentation. Apart from segmentation averaging, the algorithm also reports the reliability of each segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on manually annotated images from the Berkeley segmentation data set and on the results of automatic segmentation algorithms.
Chobanian, M.C.; Hammerman, M.R.
To characterize the regulation of ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in renal proximal tubule, ammonia and glucose productions were measured in suspension of canine proximal tubular segments incubated with 10 mM L-glutamine. Productions were linear functions of time for 120 min and were decreased as extracellular pH was increased from 7.0 to 7.5. To ascertain whether activation of protein kinase c affects either process, the authors incubated segments with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, or with the inactive phorbol ester 4..cap alpha..-phorbol. Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis were inhibited by incubation with 10/sup /minus/6/M of the two former compounds but not the latter compound. Phorbol ester-induced inhibition was observed under conditions such that extracellular (Na/sup +/) was greater than intracellular (Na/sup +/), but not when extracellular (Na/sup +/) equaled intracellular (Na/sup +/), and was not observed in the presence of amiloride. These findings are consistent with a role for protein kinase c in the control of ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in proximal tubule. Such control could be mediated via stimulation of Na/sup 1/-H/sup +/ exchange.
Shemlon, Stephen; Cho, Kyugon; Dunn, Stanley M.
Segmentation paradigms are based on manipulating some distinguishing characteristic of the various objects that are present in the image being analyzed. These characteristics are often well known for given objects in a given class of images. The intelligent use of this knowledge can simplify the segmentation process without necessarily targeting it for a particular class of images. This paper outlines a segmentation paradigm that uses models which characterize the expected presentation of possible image objects. It explains how knowledge of the expected localization of certain objects can be used to refine the segmentation process, to optimize object extraction and identification, and to learn some invariant characteristics of the objects and their surroundings, for use by high level intelligent processes. We present results of experiments with MRI human brain scans, dental radiographs, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) serial sections of hemocytes (insect blood cells).
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This table contains the segment aliases for roads in Allegheny County that may have an alternate street nameIf viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...
Brown, Ryan Charles
The problem of roadway navigation and obstacle avoidance for unmanned ground vehicles has typically needed very expensive sensing to operate properly. To reduce the cost of sensing, it is proposed that an algorithm be developed that uses a single visual camera to image the roadway, determine where the lane of travel is in the image, and segment that lane. The algorithm would need to be as accurate as current lane finding algorithms as well as faster than a standard k- means segmentation acros...
Camilleri, Mark Anthony
Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...
Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin
.... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...
Burdescu, Dumitru D.; Brezovan, Marius; Stanescu, Liana; Stoica Spahiu, Cosmin; Ebanca, Daniel
Image segmentation plays a crucial role in effective understanding of digital images. However, the research on the existence of general purpose segmentation algorithm that suits for variety of applications is still very much active. Among the many approaches in performing image segmentation, graph based approach is gaining popularity primarily due to its ability in reflecting global image properties. Volumetric image segmentation can simply result an image partition composed by relevant regions, but the most fundamental challenge in segmentation algorithm is to precisely define the volumetric extent of some object, which may be represented by the union of multiple regions. The aim in this paper is to present a new method to detect visual objects from color volumetric images and efficient threshold. We present a unified framework for volumetric image segmentation and contour extraction that uses a virtual tree-hexagonal structure defined on the set of the image voxels. The advantage of using a virtual tree-hexagonal network superposed over the initial image voxels is that it reduces the execution time and the memory space used, without losing the initial resolution of the image.
Sternad, D; Schaal, S
While it is generally assumed that complex movements consist of a sequence of simpler units, the quest to define these units of action, or movement primitives, remains an open question. In this context, two hypotheses of movement segmentation of endpoint trajectories in three-dimensional human drawing movements are reexamined: (1) the stroke-based segmentation hypothesis based on the results that the proportionality coefficient of the two-thirds power law changes discontinuously with each new "stroke," and (2) the segmentation hypothesis inferred from the observation of piecewise planar endpoint trajectories of three-dimensional drawing movements. In two experiments human subjects performed a set of elliptical and figure eight patterns of different sizes and orientations using their whole arm in three dimensions. The kinematic characteristics of the endpoint trajectories and the seven joint angles of the arm were analyzed. While the endpoint trajectories produced similar segmentation features to those reported in the literature, analyses of the joint angles show no obvious segmentation but rather continuous oscillatory patterns. By approximating the joint angle data of human subjects with sinusoidal trajectories, and by implementing this model on a 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF) anthropomorphic robot arm, it is shown that such a continuous movement strategy can produce exactly the same features as observed by the above segmentation hypotheses. The origin of this apparent segmentation of endpoint trajectories is traced back to the nonlinear transformations of the forward kinematics of human arms. The presented results demonstrate that principles of discrete movement generation may not be reconciled with those of rhythmic movement as easily as has been previously suggested, while the generalization of nonlinear pattern generators to arm movements can offer an interesting alternative to approach the question of units of action.
Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G
Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN
Bruno Amaral Medeiros
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 49 patients submitted to ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis. RESULTS: Ulcerative colitis was diagnosed in 65% and familial adenomatous polyposis in 34%. Mean age was 39.5 years. 43% were male. Among familial adenomatous polyposis, 61% were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Thirty-one percent of patients with ulcerative colitis was submitted to a previous surgical approach and 21% of these had toxic megacolon. Average hospital stay was 10 days. Post-operative complications occurred in 50% of patients with ulcerative colitis and 29.4% with familial adenomatous polyposis. Intestinal diversion was performed in 100% of ulcerative colitis and 88% of familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurred in eight cases (seven ulcerative colitis and one FAP, requiring excision of the pouch in three ulcerative colitis. Mortality rate was 7.6%: two cases of carcinoma on the pouch and two post-operative complications. Late post-operative complications occurred in 22.4%: six familial adenomatous polyposis and five ulcerative colitis. Two patients had erectile dysfunction, and one retrograde ejaculation. One patient with severe perineal dermatitis was submitted to excision of the pouch. Incontinence occurred in four patients and two reported soil. Mean bowel movement was five times a day. CONCLUSION: Ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis is a safe surgery with acceptable morbidity and good functional results, if well indicated and performed in referral centers.OBJETIVO: Avaliar resultados da anastomose íleo-anal com bolsa ileal em J na colite ulcerativa e na polipose adenomatosa familiar. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 49 pacientes submetidos a anastomose íleo-anal com bolsa ileal em J. RESULTADOS: 65% de colite ulcerativa e 34% de polipose adenomatosa familiar. Idade m
Tapader, Rima; Bose, Dipro; Pal, Amit
YghJ, also known as SslE (Secreted and surface associated lipoprotein) is a cell surface associated and secreted lipoprotein harbouring M60 metalloprotease domain. Though the gene is known to be conserved among both pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates, the expression and secretion of YghJ was found to be higher among diverse E. coli pathotypes. YghJ, secreted from intestinal pathogens such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) has been demonstrated to possess mucinase activity and hence facilitates colonization of these enteric pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells. Importantly, YghJ is also reported to be secreted from extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates. In our previous study we have shown that YghJ, purified from a neonatal septicemic E. coli isolate could trigger induction of various proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. This led us to investigate the role of YghJ in causing in vivo tissue hemorrhage. In the present study, we validate the earlier in vitro finding and have showed that YghJ can cause extensive tissue damage in mouse ileum and is also able to induce significant fluid accumulation in a dose dependent manner in a mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay. Hence, our present study not only confirms the pathogenic potential of YghJ in sepsis pathophysiology but also indicates the enterotoxic ability of YghJ which makes it an important virulence determinant of intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok
Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary
Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)
Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.
Jamile S. Codogno
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.
Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas
Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.
Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.
Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon
Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.
Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.
Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities
Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables
Darwiche, W; Delanaud, S; Dupont, S; Ghamlouch, H; Ramadan, W; Joumaa, W; Bach, V; Gay-Quéheillard, J
Prenatal/postnatal exposure to insecticides has been linked to developmental disorders in adulthood. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting insecticide. The present study established whether prenatal and postnatal exposure to CPF is associated with intestinal motor dysfunction in adult rats. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to either CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day; the CPF1 and CPF5 groups) or vehicle (the control group) by gavage from gestational day 1 until weaning. At weaning, the pups were separated from their dams and individually gavaged (with the same dose) until postnatal day 60. We then measured in vivo intestinal transit and the in vitro contractile responses of ileal smooth muscle strips to electrical field stimulation. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the ileum was determined using qRT-PCR and immunoblots. Morphometry and AChE assays were also performed. At adulthood, the mean body mass was lower in the CPF1 and CPF5 groups than in controls. CPF5 exposure was associated with weaker in vitro contraction of ileal muscle strips, which was reversed by adding the NOS inhibitor (L-NAME). There was no significant intergroup difference in the mean in vivo transit time. Exposure to CPF was associated with greater iNOS expression, lower AChE activity and reduced circular and longitudinal smooth muscle thickness. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to CPF in the rat is associated with weaker contraction of ileal longitudinal smooth muscle via a nitrergic mechanism with increased iNOS expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shang, Quan; Guo, Grace L; Honda, Akira; Shi, Daniel; Saumoy, Monica; Salen, Gerald; Xu, Guorong
It was proposed that CYP7A1 expression is suppressed through the gut-hepatic signaling pathway fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, which is initiated by activation of farnesoid X receptor in the intestine rather than in the liver. The present study tested whether portal bile acid flux alone without ileal FGF19 could downregulate CYP7A1 expression in rabbits. A rabbit model was developed by infusing glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) through the splenic vein to bypass ileal FGF19. Study was conducted in four groups of rabbits: control; bile fistula + bovine serum albumin solution perfusion (BF); BF + GDCA (by portal perfusion); and BF + GDCA-f (by femoral perfusion). Compared with only BF, BF + GDCA (6 h portal perfusion) suppressed CYP7A1 mRNA, whereas BF + GDCA-f (via femoral vein) with the same perfusion rate of GDCA did not show inhibitory effects. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in ileal FGF19 expression and portal FGF19 protein levels, but an equivalent increase in biliary bile acid outputs in both GDCA perfusion groups. This study demonstrated that portal bile acid flux alone downregulated CYP7A1 expression with diminished FGF19 expression and protein levels, whereas the same bile acid flux reaching the liver through the hepatic artery via femoral vein had no inhibitory effect on CYP7A1. We propose that bile acid flux through the portal venous system may be a kind of "intestinal factor" that suppresses CYP7A1 expression. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...
Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.
In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.
Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G
Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.
Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.
Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo
Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.
Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed
Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.
In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.
Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro
Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.
Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W
Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.
Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang
The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.
Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu
This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....
Manfredi, M.; Grana, C.; Cucchiara, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.
In this paper we present a segmentation proposal method which employs a box-hypotheses generation step followed by a lightweight segmentation strategy. Inspired by interactive segmentation, for each automatically placed bounding-box we compute a precise segmentation mask. We introduce diversity in
Erica R. Gross
Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.
Gotra, Akshat; Sivakumaran, Lojan; Chartrand, Gabriel; Vu, Kim-Nhien; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck; Kauffmann, Claude; Kadoury, Samuel; Gallix, Benoît; de Guise, Jacques A; Tang, An
Liver volumetry has emerged as an important tool in clinical practice. Liver volume is assessed primarily via organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. The goal of this paper is to provide an accessible overview of liver segmentation targeted at radiologists and other healthcare professionals. Using images from CT and MRI, this paper reviews the indications for liver segmentation, technical approaches used in segmentation software and the developing roles of liver segmentation in clinical practice. Liver segmentation for volumetric assessment is indicated prior to major hepatectomy, portal vein embolisation, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) and transplant. Segmentation software can be categorised according to amount of user input involved: manual, semi-automated and fully automated. Manual segmentation is considered the "gold standard" in clinical practice and research, but is tedious and time-consuming. Increasingly automated segmentation approaches are more robust, but may suffer from certain segmentation pitfalls. Emerging applications of segmentation include surgical planning and integration with MRI-based biomarkers. Liver segmentation has multiple clinical applications and is expanding in scope. Clinicians can employ semi-automated or fully automated segmentation options to more efficiently integrate volumetry into clinical practice. • Liver volume is assessed via organ segmentation on CT and MRI examinations. • Liver segmentation is used for volume assessment prior to major hepatic procedures. • Segmentation approaches may be categorised according to the amount of user input involved. • Emerging applications include surgical planning and integration with MRI-based biomarkers.
Hoek, J.; Evers-Vermeul, J.; Sanders, T.J.M.
Discourse relations hold between two or more text segments. The process of discourse annotation not only involves determining what type of relation holds between segments, but also indicating the segments themselves. Often, segmentation and annotation are treated as individual steps, and separate
Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai
The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.
Kluess, J; Schoenhusen, U; Souffrant, W B; Jones, P H; Miller, B G
Piglets, separated from their dam at 12 days of age and fed a milk substitute hourly, were used as a model for suckling. Animals were fitted with a terminal ileal T-cannula and a jugular vein catheter. At 28 days of age, half of the pigs had a dietary change to a cereal-based weaner diet fed as slurry, and the others remained on milk substitute. Animals were labelled by oral administration of 15N-labelled yeast for 10 days (days 15 to 25). Blood samples were taken twice a day to monitor 15N enrichment of the blood plasma. Diets included polyethylenglycol (PEG 4000) to allow calculation of apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and individual amino acids. Ileal bacterial nitrogen was calculated from D-alanine content of the digesta. Furthermore, small intestinal (SI) villus height and crypt depth were measured. Feed intake was increased by the dietary change. The total nitrogen flow was 3.2 ± 0.4 g/day and 5.9 ± 0.4 for the milk and weaner diet, respectively. Endogenous nitrogen flow at the terminal ileum was similar for both groups (milk diet 2.4 ± 0.4 v. weaner diet 2.2 ± 0.3 g/day), whereas the bacterial nitrogen content (0.08 ± 0.01 g/day milk diet v. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/day weaner diet, P diet v. 3.29 ± 0.12 g/day weaner diet, P diet group. The ileal apparent digestibility coefficient of protein was 0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 for the milk replacer and the weaner diet, respectively. Morphology measurements made along the SI at 25%, 50% and 75% were similar between piglets fed milk replacer and those fed a cereal-based weaner diet. The only statistical effect (P diet group. In conclusion, pigs, following a dietary change analogous to weaning, lack the capacity to fully digest a standard weaner diet. This may result in an increased nutrient content entering the large intestine and an altered microbiota. In the absence of a period of anorexia, often associated with traditional weaning, we saw no evidence of villous atrophy, but report here a significant crypt
Xue, P C; Ragland, D; Adeola, O
An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. Using the determined AID or SID for CP and AA in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or canola meal (CM), the AID or SID for 4 mixed diets based on corn-SBM, corn-SBM-DDGS, corn-SBM-CM, or corn-SBM-DDGS-CM were predicted and compared with determined AID or SID, respectively. Eighteen growing pigs (initial BW = 61.3 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas and assigned to a duplicated 9 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 9 diets and 4 periods. The 9 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) to estimate basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA, 4 semipurified diets to determine the AID and SID of CP and AA in the 4 ingredients, and 4 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed 1 of the 9 diets during each 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7, from 0800 to 1800 h. The analyzed AA levels for the mixed diets were close to the calculated values based on the AA composition of each ingredient. The results revealed that the predicted SID were consistent with determined values, except for Leu, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser in the corn-SBM diet and Met and Cys in the corn-SBM-DDGS diet. The determined AID for total AA and Arg, His, Trp, Gly, and Pro in the corn-SBM diet were greater (P digestibility of AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. In addition, the lack of additivity of AID in mixed diets could be attributed to the intrinsic characteristics of the feed ingredient, especially its AA content.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effects of antibiotic virginiamycin, probiotic Protexin® and Plantago major L. (plantain on performance, serum metabolites, immune response, and the ileal microbial population of broilers. The experiment was carried out with a total of 200 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design. Chickens were allocated to five groups consisting of T1: control diet (Con, T2: Con+0.02% virginiamycin, T3: Con+0.01% Protexin, T4: Con+0.5% plantain and T5: Con+1% plantain. Each group was divided into four replicates consisting of ten chicks each. In comparison with the control group, body weight gain increased in chickens fed Protexin and 0.5% plantain groups in the starter period, as well as by antibiotic in grower and finisher periods and by 1% plantain in all periods (P < 0.01. Supplementation of plantain and virginiamycin increased (P < 0.01 feed intake in the starter and finisher periods, respectively. Feed conversion ratio improved (P < 0.05 in finisher period only by virginiamycin. All treated birds showed an elevated relative weight of carcass and bursa, and plantain increased relative weight of the spleen (P < 0.01. All treatments demonstrated a hypocholesterolemic effect (P < 0.01 and higher level of plantain (1% decreased (P < 0.05 serum glucose, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well. The inclusion of Protexin and plantain enhanced immune system with increased white and red blood cells as well as second anti-SRBC immune response and reduced heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in SRBC injected birds (P < 0.05. Virginiamycin decreased ileal microbial population of Lactobacillus while Protexin and plantain increased it (P < 0.01. Meanwhile, 1% plantain suppressed ileal E. coli counts. In conclusion, 1% Plantago major L. performed the best in this study because it led to increased body and carcass weight, lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride, reduced
Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C
Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility....../l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from...
Seo, Jung Wook
Clear-cell sarcomas (CCSs) in the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare and aggressive tumors. We present the first case of a CCS arising in the ileum and metastasizing to the liver; our patient was a 60-year-old man. After the resection of the CCS and the liver metastases, a new liver metastasis developed, which was treated via percutaneous radiofrequency ablation only. At the 5-year follow-up, the ablated region was stable without local tumor progression. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is a viable local treatment option for recurrent metastases from an ileal CCS if they are detected when small and at an early stage in follow-up studies.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM and amino acid (AA composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg fed N-free diets (NFD formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01 but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028 IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs.
Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech
The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.
Fanelli, Francesca; De Benedetti, Pier G.
Herein we make an overview of the results of our computational experiments aimed at gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR functioning either in their normal conditions or when hit by gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations. Molecular simulations of a number of GPCRs in their wild type and mutated as well as free and ligand-bound forms were instrumental in inferring the structural features, which differentiate the mutation- and ligand-induced active from the inactive states. These features essentially reside in the interaction pattern of the E/DRY arginine and in the degree of solvent exposure of selected cytosolic domains. Indeed, the active states differ from the inactive ones in the weakening of the interactions made by the highly conserved arginine and in the increase in solvent accessibility of the cytosolic interface between helices 3 and 6. Where possible, the structural hallmarks of the active and inactive receptor states are translated into molecular descriptors useful for in silico functional screening of novel receptor mutants or ligands. Computational modeling of the supramolecular organization of GPCRs and their intracellular partners is the current challenge toward a deep understanding of their functioning mechanisms.
Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N; Nam, Wonwoo
Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal-oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc(3+) ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C-H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal-oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.
Tjaša Dimec Časar
Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements
Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila
Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.