WorldWideScience

Sample records for inactive duty training

  1. 37 CFR 11.58 - Duties of disciplined or resigned practitioner, or practitioner on disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.58 Duties of disciplined or... who aids another practitioner in any way in the other practitioner's practice of law before the Office...

  2. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  3. Functional training program bridges rehabilitation and return to duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald L; Christopher, Greer E; Faulk, Robert T; Moore, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Traditional clinic-based rehabilitation programs often fall short of returning Soldiers to peak condition prior to releasing them for duty. With the higher physical demands placed on the Special Operations Soldier, a bridge program offers rehabilitation professionals a way to maximize recovery, enhance performance, and hopefully prevent injuries (or re-injury). A six week functional training program is outlined and data collection from over two years is presented. Statistically and operationally significant differences were noted in nearly every category tested. Functional Movement Screen scores improved an average of 2.5 points. T-test improvement was 0.5 seconds. Single leg hop time improved 10%. Hop for distance improved approximately 10%. Body fat improvement was statistically significant. Kip-ups improved 32%. Vertical jump height improvement was statistically significant. All subjective fitness category self-evaluations demonstrated statistically significant improvements, except for pain. Data suggests that a program like this may be beneficial to patients and non-patients seeking a safe, effective alternative training regimen.

  4. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B

    2017-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive...... middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post.......2±0.2 mmol·L-1 ) and HDL cholesterol increased more (0.2±0.7 vs -0.2±0.2 mmol·L-1 ) in SOC than in CON (Ptraining resulted...

  5. 5 CFR 410.403 - Payments for temporary duty training assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assignments. 410.403 Section 410.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAINING Paying for Training Expenses § 410.403 Payments for temporary duty training assignments...; per diem expenses; or limited relocation expenses including transportation of the immediate family...

  6. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Mac Habée-Séguin, Gabrielle

    2014-05-14

    Pelvic floor muscle training is the most commonly used physical therapy treatment for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is sometimes also recommended for mixed and, less commonly, urgency urinary incontinence. To determine the effects of pelvic floor muscle training for women with urinary incontinence in comparison to no treatment, placebo or sham treatments, or other inactive control treatments. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999 onwards), MEDLINE (1966 onwards) and MEDLINE In-Process (2001 onwards), and handsearched journals and conference proceedings (searched 15 April 2013) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials in women with stress, urgency or mixed urinary incontinence (based on symptoms, signs, or urodynamics). One arm of the trial included pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Another arm was a no treatment, placebo, sham, or other inactive control treatment arm. Trials were independently assessed by two review authors for eligibility and methodological quality. Data were extracted then cross-checked. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Data were processed as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Trials were subgrouped by diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Formal meta-analysis was undertaken when appropriate. Twenty-one trials involving 1281 women (665 PFMT, 616 controls) met the inclusion criteria; 18 trials (1051 women) contributed data to the forest plots. The trials were generally small to moderate sized, and many were at moderate risk of bias, based on the trial reports. There was considerable variation in the interventions used, study populations, and outcome measures. There were no studies of women with mixed or urgency urinary incontinence alone.Women with SUI who were in the PFMT groups were 8 times more likely

  7. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  8. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  9. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  10. Low-Intensity Wheelchair Training in Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Fitness, Wheelchair Skill Performance and Physical Activity Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Faber, W.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  11. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  12. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  13. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B; Weihe, P; Uth, J; Mortensen, J; Mohr, M

    2017-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. Over one year, mean arterial pressure decreased more in SOC than in CON (-5±7 vs +4±5 mmHg; Psoccer training resulted in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of Highly Realistic Training for Independent Duty Corpsmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    didactic classroom training followed by 3 months of clinical training. Completion of training at IDC School provides corpsmen with the Navy Enlisted...number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD MM YY) 21 05 15 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES

  15. VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Krustrup, Peter; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To examine the effects of a short-term period with intensified training or training cessation of trained soccer players on VO2 kinetics at 75% maximal aerobic speed (MAS), oxidative enzymes and performance in repeated high intensity exercise. METHODS:: After the last match of the season...... 18 elite soccer players were, for a two-week period, assigned to a high intensity training group (HI, n=7) performing 10 training sessions mainly consisting of aerobic high intensity training (8×2 min) and speed endurance training (10-12×30-s sprints) or a training cessation group (TC, n=11...

  16. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+-K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation, and performance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter M; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Nybo, Lars; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in performance of highly trained soccer players with intensified training or training cessation. Eighteen elite soccer players were, for a 2-wk period, assigned to either a group that performed high-intensity training with a reduction in the amount of training (HI, n = 7), or an inactivity group without training (IN, n = 11). HI improved (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform was 15% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump expression was not changed. In HI, the FXYD1ser68-to-FXYD1 ratio was 27% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform expression, and that cessation of training for 2 wk does not affect the expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na(+)-K(+) pump is changed by training and inactivity and may play a role in performance during repeated, intense exercise.

  17. Virtual Reality As a Training Tool to Treat Physical Inactivity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; Pincus, David; Richardson, Michael J; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-01-01

    Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child's level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be beneficial in this regard. VR training, when grounded in an information-based theory of perceptual-motor behavior that modifies the visual information in the virtual world, can promote early development of motor skills in youth akin to more natural, real-world development as opposed to strictly formalized training. This approach can be tailored to the individual child and training scenarios can increase in complexity as the child develops. Ultimately, training in VR may help serve as a precursor to "real-world" NMT, and once the child reaches the appropriate training age can also augment more complex NMT regimens performed outside of the virtual environment.

  18. Virtual Reality As a Training Tool to Treat Physical Inactivity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Kiefer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT, may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR training may be beneficial in this regard. VR training, when grounded in an information-based theory of perceptual-motor behavior that modifies the visual information in the virtual world, can promote early development of motor skills in youth akin to more natural, real-world development as opposed to strictly formalized training. This approach can be tailored to the individual child and training scenarios can increase in complexity as the child develops. Ultimately, training in VR may help serve as a precursor to “real-world” NMT, and once the child reaches the appropriate training age can also augment more complex NMT regimens performed outside of the virtual environment.

  19. Muscle connective tissue content of endurance-trained and inactive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, A E; Roper, H P

    2005-01-01

    - endurance-trained sports participants and age-matched healthy untrained individuals. Endomysial staining intensity of types I, III and IV collagen was quantified by immunohistochemical staining and image analysis methods. Gelatinase activity in the endomysium was also quantified histochemically. Mean...

  20. Latent Presentation of Decompression Sickness After Altitude Chamber Training in an Active Duty Flier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, James; Rango, Juan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Biedermann, Shane

    2017-04-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence. A 32-yr-old, active duty military member developed symptoms of DCS 3 h after his hypobaric chamber training. Unfortunately, he did not seek treatment for DCS until 48 h after the exposure. His initial treatment included ground level oxygen therapy for 30 min at 12 L of oxygen per minute using a nonrebreathing mask. He achieved complete symptom resolution and was returned to duty. However, 12 d after his initial Flight Medicine evaluation, the patient returned complaining of a right temporal headache, multijoint pains, and fatigue. He was treated in the hyperbaric chamber and had complete resolution of symptoms. He was returned to flying status and 5 mo later denied any return of symptoms. Hypobaric chamber familiarity training is a requirement for all military aircrew personnel to allow them assess their ability to identify symptoms of hypoxia. This training method is not only costly to maintain, but it also places aircrew and chamber technicians at risk for potential long-term side effects from failed recompression treatment of DCS. We are presenting a case of recurrent DCS symptoms 12 d after initial ground level oxygen therapy.Gentry J, Rango J, Zhang J, Biedermann S. Latent presentation of decompression sickness after altitude chamber training in an active duty flier. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):427-430.

  1. The acute effects of strength training on inflammatory markers predicting atherosclerosis: a study on inactive middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizheh N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, are the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease has had an increasing prevalence in Iran in recent years. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP are two novel cardiovascular risk factors that independently predict risks of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one session of circuit resistance training on the blood levels of the aforesaid inflammatory markers in inactive middle-aged men."n"nMethods: The participants of this study included twenty-three healthy but inactive middle-aged men who were overweight and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=14 and control (n=9 groups. The activity included doing exercises with the subjects' 35% one-repetition maximum (1-RM intensity at ten different stations. Blood levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP were measured before and after the exercise."n"nResults: Analysis of data using independent samples t-test showed a significant increment in the serum levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP after training in the experimental (P<0.05 versus the control group."n"nConclusion: Elevation of homocysteine levels is due to the increase in protein metabolism

  2. Mission essential fitness: comparison of functional circuit training to traditional Army physical training for active duty military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Spencer, Vincent; Fehl, Nathanael; Poston, Walker S Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate and effective physical fitness training is imperative for soldier survival and mission success. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Mission Essential Fitness (MEF) circuit-style training program compared to standard Army Physical Readiness Training (APRT) on fitness, physiological, and body composition changes. Active duty Army personnel were randomly assigned to two groups (MEF = 34 or APRT = 33) for 8 weeks of training (15 sessions each). The MEF program included functional movements focused on strength, power, speed, and agility. Fifteen exercises were performed continuously for 60 to 90 seconds for 45 minutes. Baseline and post-test measures included the Army physical fitness test, physiological indicators, body composition, and additional fitness indicators. One-way analysis of covariance models indicated that MEF participants significantly increased their push-ups (p = 0.033), bench press (p = 0.001), and flexibility (p = 0.003) and significantly decreased their 2-mile run (p = 0.003) and step test heart rate (p = 0.004) compared to participants doing APRT. Both groups maintained body composition (p > 0.05) and reported no injuries. The MEF training program safely improved muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility, supporting functional fitness circuit-style exercise training for military personnel.

  3. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J.; Scott, Suzanne; Mohr, Magni

    2014-01-01

    premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group (CO, n = 14). Methods: Training for SG and VG consisted of twice-weekly 15-min sessions with average heart rates (HRs) of ∼ 155 and 90 bpm respectively. Pre- and post-measurements of body composition (DXA), phosphocreatine (PCr) on- and off...... in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women....

  4. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+/K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation and performance in soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson

    2010-01-01

    , the Yo-Yo IR2 test performance of IN was lowered from 845+/-48 to 654+/-30 m. In HI the protein expression of the Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2 isoform was 15% higher (PNa(+)/K(+) pump....... The present data suggest that short-term intensified training even for trained soccer players can increase muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2 isoform expression and that cessation of training for two weeks does not affect the expression of Na(+)/K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na(+)/K......(+) pump is changed by training and inactivity and may play a role for performance during repeated intense exercise. Key words: Fatigue, Training cessation, Performance, MCT1....

  5. Learning Strategies in Play during Basic Training for Medal of Honor and Call of Duty Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeehezarjeribi, Yadi

    2010-01-01

    This study, based on experiential play methodology was used to explore student engagement while playing "Medal of Honor (2002)" and "Call of Duty (2003)". It identifies some of the key issues related to the use of video games and simulations during the training phase of game play. Research into the effects of gaming in education has been extremely…

  6. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training on Adiponectin Levels and Quality of Life in Inactive Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Sadegh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Middle aged is a sensitive period of life and paying attention to the issues and needs of this period is a social necessity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on levels of adiponectin and quality of life in middle aged women. Methods: 21 subjects with range of 50-60 year and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling method. Volunteers were randomly assigned into experimental (n=10 and control (n=11 groups. The eight weeks aerobic training included (3 times a week, 60 minutes per session, with intensity of 50-70 percent of reserve heart rate. Quality of life and adiponectin levels were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test for comparison of means within and between groups respectively. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Eight weeks aerobic exercise lead to the increase in adiponectin levels and subscales of quality of life such as: job, sensation, sexual scales and quality of life in inactive middle aged women (p<0.05. Significant difference was observed between active and inactive middle aged woman in weight, BMI, job, sensation and sexual scales(p<0.05. Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic training through improving the adiponectin levels among middle aged women can prevent the incidence of atherosclerosis diseases.

  7. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  8. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  9. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and insulin signaling is altered by physical inactivity and exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Gerwen; Poelkens, Fleur; van Duijnhoven, Noortje T L; Pardoel, Elisabeth M; Hoenderop, Joost G; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E

    2012-11-15

    Physical deconditioning is associated with the development of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training effectively counteracts these developments, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To gain more insight into these mechanisms, muscular gene expression levels were assessed after physical deconditioning and after exercise training of the lower limbs in humans by use of gene expression microarrays. To exclude systemic effects, we used human models for local physical inactivity (3 wk of unilateral limb suspension) and for local exercise training (6 wk of functional electrical stimulation exercise of the extremely deconditioned legs of individuals with a spinal cord injury). The most interesting subset of genes, those downregulated after deconditioning as well as upregulated after exercise training, contained 18 genes related to both the "insulin action" and "adipocytokine signaling" pathway. Of these genes, the three with strongest up/downregulation were the muscular fatty acid-binding protein-3 (FABP3), the fatty acid oxidizing enzyme hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH), and the mitochondrial fatty acid transporter solute carrier 25 family member A20 (SLC25A20). The expression levels of these genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR. The results of the present study indicate an important role for a decreased transport and metabolism of fatty acids, which provides a link between physical activity levels and insulin signaling.

  10. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  11. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N; Klika, Riggs J; Carter, Susan D; Sprod, Lisa K; Donath, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC) have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females) with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m -2 ). Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO 2 peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) for approximately 40-min·session -1 . Variables obtained on the VO 2 peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2), rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2), lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO 2 peak test (SC@30-minPost),VO 2 peak level, time of fatigue (TOF), and maximal heart rate (HR max ). NC had significantly (p training but not at 8-wks. There were no differences between groups on RPE@stage2 except at baseline (p training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available and supported, we advise clinicians to utilize submaximal threshold concepts obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing to prescribe more precise aerobic exercise training parameters.

  12. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Drum, Riggs J. Klika, Susan D. Carter, Lisa K. Sprod, Lars Donath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivors (CA tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m-2. Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO2peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT for approximately 40-min·session-1. Variables obtained on the VO2peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2, rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2, lactate threshold (LT, ventilatory threshold (VT, salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO2peak test (SC@30-minPost,VO2peak level, time of fatigue (TOF, and maximal heart rate (HRmax. NC had significantly (p < 0.05 higher VO2peak, TOF, and HRmax at baseline, 3- and 6-wks of training but not at 8-wks. There were no differences between groups on RPE@stage2 except at baseline (p < 0.05. A significant (p < 0.05 interaction was observed only for RPE@stage2 with CA rating their initial RPE significantly greater at baseline versus NC. CA notably improved submaximal and maximal exercise capacity during 8 weeks of aerobic training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available

  13. Model curriculum outline for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle (AFV) automotive technician training in light and medium duty CNG and LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This model curriculum outline was developed using a turbo-DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process which utilizes practicing experts to undertake a comprehensive job and task analysis. The job and task analysis serves to establish current baseline data accurately and to improve both the process and the product of the job through constant and continuous improvement of training. The DACUM process is based on the following assumptions: (1) Expert workers are the best source for task analysis. (2) Any occupation can be described effectively in terms of tasks. (3) All tasks imply knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values. A DACUM panel, comprised of six experienced and knowledgeable technicians who are presently working in the field, was given an orientation to the DACUM process. The panel then identified, verified, and sequenced all the necessary job duty areas and tasks. The broad duty categories were rated according to relative importance and assigned percentage ratings in priority order. The panel then rated every task for each of the duties on a scale of 1 to 3. A rating of 3 indicates an {open_quotes}essential{close_quotes} task, a rating of 2 indicates an {open_quotes}important{close_quotes} task, and a rating of 1 indicates a {open_quotes}desirable{close_quotes} task.

  14. Experience of Postpartum Active Duty Women in Training for the Fitness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    female military members, are not quite the same as any other condition or situation a military member may face. The number of active duty...May 2014 issue Author: Annette M. Boyle 3 April 2014 60th Air Mobility Wing Public Affairs Office 2. Media Type: Newspaper article, Air Force

  15. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  16. National Cluster-Randomized Trial of Duty-Hour Flexibility in Surgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl Y; Chung, Jeanette W; Hedges, Larry V; Dahlke, Allison R; Love, Remi; Cohen, Mark E; Hoyt, David B; Yang, Anthony D; Tarpley, John L; Mellinger, John D; Mahvi, David M; Kelz, Rachel R; Ko, Clifford Y; Odell, David D; Stulberg, Jonah J; Lewis, Frank R

    2016-02-25

    Concerns persist regarding the effect of current surgical resident duty-hour policies on patient outcomes, resident education, and resident well-being. We conducted a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial involving 117 general surgery residency programs in the United States (2014-2015 academic year). Programs were randomly assigned to current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour policies (standard-policy group) or more flexible policies that waived rules on maximum shift lengths and time off between shifts (flexible-policy group). Outcomes included the 30-day rate of postoperative death or serious complications (primary outcome), other postoperative complications, and resident perceptions and satisfaction regarding their well-being, education, and patient care. In an analysis of data from 138,691 patients, flexible, less-restrictive duty-hour policies were not associated with an increased rate of death or serious complications (9.1% in the flexible-policy group and 9.0% in the standard-policy group, P=0.92; unadjusted odds ratio for the flexible-policy group, 0.96; 92% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.06; P=0.44; noninferiority criteria satisfied) or of any secondary postoperative outcomes studied. Among 4330 residents, those in programs assigned to flexible policies did not report significantly greater dissatisfaction with overall education quality (11.0% in the flexible-policy group and 10.7% in the standard-policy group, P=0.86) or well-being (14.9% and 12.0%, respectively; P=0.10). Residents under flexible policies were less likely than those under standard policies to perceive negative effects of duty-hour policies on multiple aspects of patient safety, continuity of care, professionalism, and resident education but were more likely to perceive negative effects on personal activities. There were no significant differences between study groups in resident-reported perception of the effect of fatigue on

  17. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  18. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 11. Advanced General Duty Corpsman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    CALF TENOERNESS/ VARICOSE VEINS 42 IEVALUATE SYMPTOMS OF PATIENT COMPLAINING OF CHEST PAIN 43 IMAKE PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSIS OF ANGINA PECTORIS 44...Medical Training Job Analysis Nurse Training Task Analysis Dentist Training Curriculum Development 20. ADSTRACT (Continue on rover&e olde II necoeem ad...gathering of job activity data from enlisted job incumbents, and data relating to task sharing and delegation from officers of the Medical, Nurse and

  19. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  20. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women: a short version Cochrane systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Hay-Smith, Jean; Habée-Séguin, Gabrielle Mac; Mercier, Joanie

    2015-04-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a commonly used physical therapy for women with urinary incontinence (UI). To determine the effects of PFMT for women with UI in comparison to no treatment, placebo or other inactive control treatments. Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Register, (searched 15 April 2013). Randomized or quasi-randomized trials in women with stress, urgency or mixed UI (based on symptoms, signs, or urodynamics). At least two independent review authors carried out trial screening, selection, risk of bias assessment and data abstraction. Trials were subgrouped by UI diagnosis. The quality of evidence was assessed by adopting the (GRADE) approach. Twenty-one trials (1281 women) were included; 18 trials (1051 women) contributed data to the meta-analysis. In women with stress UI, there was high quality evidence that PFMT is associated with cure (RR 8.38; 95% CI 3.68 to 19.07) and moderate quality evidence of cure or improvement (RR 17.33; 95% CI 4.31 to 69.64). In women with any type of UI, there was also moderate quality evidence that PFMT is associated with cure (RR 5.5; 95% CI 2.87-10.52), or cure and improvement (RR 2.39; 95% CI 1.64-3.47). The addition of seven new trials did not change the essential findings of the earlier version of this review. In this iteration, using the GRADE quality criteria strengthened the recommendations for PFMT and a wider range of secondary outcomes (also generally in favor of PFMT) were reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Impact of inpatient caseload, emergency department duties, and online learning resource on General Medicine In-Training Examination scores in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Shimizu, Taro; Tanoue, Yusuke; Konishi, Ryota; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shiojiri, Toshiaki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    Both clinical workload and access to learning resource are important components of educational environment and may have effects on clinical knowledge of residents. We conducted a survey with a clinical knowledge evaluation involving postgraduate year (PGY)-1 and -2 resident physicians at teaching hospitals offering 2-year postgraduate training programs required for residents in Japan, using the General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE). An individual-level analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the number of assigned patients and emergency department (ED) duty on the residents' GM-ITE scores by fitting a multivariable generalized estimating equations. In hospital-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between for the number of UpToDate reviews for each hospital and for the hospitals' mean GM-ITE score. A total of 431 PGY-1 and 618 PGY-2 residents participated. Residents with four or five times per month of the ED duties exhibited the highest mean scores compared to those with greater or fewer ED duties. Those with largest number of inpatients in charge exhibited the highest mean scores compared to the residents with fewer inpatients in charge. Hospitals with the greater UpToDate topic viewing showed significantly greater mean score. Appropriate ED workload and inpatient caseload, as well as use of evidence-based electronic resources, were associated with greater clinical knowledge of residents.

  2. The Effect of an 8-week Aerobic Training and Weight-loss Diet on the Level of Serum Follistatin in Inactive Middle-aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    M Tajik; A Rashidlamir; R Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Follistatin can prohibit adipocyte hypertrophy through its role in regulating the synthesis of adipose tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aerobic exercises and weight-loss diet on serum follistatin level in inactive middle-aged women. Methods: 39 women with an average age of 39.43±3.6 were randomly divided into four experimental groups including: aerobic, step-by-step weight loss diet(n=10), aerobics followed by step-by-step weight loss ...

  3. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  4. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and insulin signaling is altered by physical inactivity and exercise training in human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, G.; Poelkens, F.; Duijnhoven, N.T. van; Pardoel, E.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2012-01-01

    Physical deconditioning is associated with the development of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training effectively counteracts these developments, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To gain more insight into these mechanisms, muscular

  5. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  6. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  7. The effects of hybrid cycle training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, A.J.T.; De Groot, S.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to stay fit and healthy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hybrid cycle training (hand cycling in combination with functional electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling) on fitness,

  8. The effects of hybrid cycle training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Physical activity in people with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to stay fit and healthy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hybrid cycle training (hand cycling in combination with functional electrical stimulation-induced leg cycling) on fitness,

  9. Other adaptations to training/inactivity in type 2 diabetics and other groups with insulin resistance: emphasis on prevention of CHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Physical training is recommended for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the general population. In patients with type 2 diabetes this is even more important, because the risk of clinical atherosclerotic disease is 2- to 3-fold that of nondiabetics and the survival rate...

  10. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  11. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  12. Achieving Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hours compliance within advanced surgical training: a simulation-based feasibility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Andrea; Chung, Jennifer; Chen, Ryan; Lin, Wandi; Sun, Siyuan; Pozehl, William; Cohn, Amy M; Daskin, Mark S; Seagull, F Jacob; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2015-11-01

    Certain operative cases occur unpredictably and/or have long operative times, creating a conflict between Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) rules and adequate training experience. A ProModel-based simulation was developed based on historical data. Probabilistic distributions of operative time calculated and combined with an ACGME compliant call schedule. For the advanced surgical cases modeled (cardiothoracic transplants), 80-hour violations were 6.07% and the minimum number of days off was violated 22.50%. There was a 36% chance of failure to fulfill any (either heart or lung) minimum case requirement despite adequate volume. The variable nature of emergency cases inevitably leads to work hour violations under ACGME regulations. Unpredictable cases mandate higher operative volume to ensure achievement of adequate caseloads. Publically available simulation technology provides a valuable avenue to identify adequacy of case volumes for trainees in both the elective and emergency setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  14. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2016-01-01

    recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P ... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  15. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  16. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  17. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  18. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  19. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  20. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  1. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  2. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  3. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  4. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  5. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  6. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  7. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  8. obesity a disease of inactivity?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a nutritional disorder, and the result of a positive energy bal- ance and ... nutritional status, adipose tissue stores and state of training. This feedback control .... For each 'i, mind treadmill time, 1.5 k. Higherbaseline activity levels . . . of ,. Women who“quit~~"smo increased activity gain weight than those who quit smoking. 1'.

  9. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Searching for Effective Training Solutions for Firefighting: The Analysis of Emergency Responses and Line of Duty Death Reports for Low Frequency, High Risk Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    job training with real hazards and real people’s lives on the line. That being said, VR can still be considered as important tool in augmenting...shift and an expansion in the nature of threats and hazards that it faces. Despite advances in the field, firefighters are still losing their lives ...hazards that it faces. Despite advances in the field, firefighters are still losing their lives inside of burning buildings, and they must find new ways of

  11. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  12. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  13. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  14. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  15. Duty and Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral

  16. Determining your duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J

    1989-04-01

    This issue's discussion has two goals. First, we shall examine the reasons clinical personnel gravitate to the Kantian concept of duty. Second, we shall examine a technique used within Kantian theory that will help you decide when an ethical dilemma obligates you to act regardless of the consequences.

  17. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  18. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  19. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  20. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  1. Climate Change and Individual Duties

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Fragnière

    2016-01-01

    Tackling climate change has often been considered the responsibility of national governments. But do individuals also have a duty to act in the face of this problem? In particular do they have a duty to adopt a greener lifestyle or to press their government to act? This review critically examines the arguments provided for and against such duties in the relevant philosophic literature. It first discusses the problem of causal inefficacy—namely the fact that individual greenhouse gas emissions...

  2. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  3. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  4. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Static Balance in Active and Inactive Adult and Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.

  6. 75 FR 55851 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... facilities. All carriers would have to develop training programs to educate all employees responsible for... consequences of actions, Reduced situational awareness, and Low motivation to perform optional activities. A... length of time left in the duty period. If a flightcrew member (or any other employee) believes another...

  7. 33 CFR 104.220 - Company or vessel personnel with security duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... duties must maintain a TWIC, and must have knowledge, through training or equivalent job experience, in...) Methods of physical screening of persons, personal effects, baggage, cargo, and vessel stores; and (m) The...

  8. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  9. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  10. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  11. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  12. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  13. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  14. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  15. Family victim advocates: the importance of critical job duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa H. Young

    Full Text Available Child advocacy centers across the United States intervened in more than 250,000 child abuse cases in 2011(National Children's Alliance, 2012. Understanding the work of family victim advocates is imperative to helping children and families in child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we surveyed advocates and program directors from child advocacy centers (CACs across the United States to compare their perceptions of the critical job duties of family victim advocates. Data analysis revealed that CAC directors rated the importance of these duties significantly higher than family victim advocates. Results suggest the need for additional training to ensure that family victim advocates understand the importance of critical job duties to meet the needs of children and families in child abuse cases.

  16. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  17. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  18. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  19. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  20. Supervision Duty of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat YILMAZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Supervision by school administrators is becoming more and more important. The change in the roles ofschool administrators has a great effect on that increase. At present, school administrators are consideredmore than as technical directors, but as instructional leaders. This increased the importance of schooladministrators’ expected supervision acts. In this respect, the aim of this study is to make a conceptualanalysis about school administrators’ supervision duties. For this reason, a literature review related withsupervision and contemporary supervision approaches was done, and the official documents concerningsupervision were examined. As a result, it can be said that school administrators’ supervision duties havebecome very important. And these duties must certainly be carried out by school administrators.

  1. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  3. Technical Training for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  4. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  5. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  6. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  7. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  8. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  9. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  10. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  11. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  12. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  13. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  14. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  15. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  16. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  17. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  18. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  19. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  20. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Active over 45: a step-up jogging programme for inactive female hospital staff members aged 45+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschung Pfister, Pierrette; Niedermann, Karin; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2013-10-01

    Inactive individuals face motivational obstacles for becoming and remaining physically active. Therefore, sustainable physical activity promotion programmes tailored to reach inactive individuals are needed. The aim of this study was to test the role of motivation and the effect and feasibility of a training programme. We enrolled physically inactive female hospital staff members aged 45 and older in an uncontrolled exercise trial. Follow-up assessments were at 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome was running distance (Cooper test). Secondary outcomes were level of physical activity (Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire) and body mass index. Out of 1249 female hospital staff, 275 classified themselves as inactive and 250 (91%) of them were interested in the exercise programme. Of these, 68 (27%; mean age 53.2 years) agreed to participate in our study and 47 (69%) completed the programme. Average running distance increased by 255.70 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 208.09-303.31] at 3-month follow-up with a sustained benefit at 12-month follow-up (194.02; 95% CI 143.75-244.47). Physical activity level increased by 1152.52 kcal week(-1) (95% CI 703.73-1601.32) at 3 months with a sustained benefit (1279.10 kcal week(-1), 95% CI 826.80-1731.40) after 12 months. Notably, baseline motivation to become physically active was not associated with change in physical performance or physical activity level during the programme. The 3-month step-up jogging programme is a feasible and effective exercise intervention for physically inactive, middle-aged female hospital staff members. The intervention leads to sustained benefits independently of motivation to become more physically active.

  2. 10 CFR 26.29 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 26.29 Section 26.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.29 Training. (a) Training content. Licensees and... demonstrate the successful completion of training by passing a comprehensive examination that addresses the...

  3. Individual rights versus societal duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, E

    1999-10-29

    In 'bioethics', the rights to self-determination and to informed consent of the patient are prerequisites to every medical decision: paternalism is no longer a justifiable attitude. Hence, it seems that compulsory vaccination is an unacceptable praxis. Even John Stuart Mill. however, took into account other values: e.g. the duty not to harm others. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the historical development of these values and to their relevance for the ethics of vaccination. The acceptability of coercion is upheld, but no clear-cut answers are given in general: in every case the pros and cons of coercion are to be weighed carefully against each other.

  4. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  5. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  6. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  7. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  8. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  9. Proposed Rule for Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for: Light Duty Vehicles, Light Duty Trucks, Medium Duty Passenger Vehicles, Complete Heavy Duty Vehicles and Engines Intended for Use in Heavy Duty Vehicles Weighing 14,000 Pounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following is information for the proposed rule for the Modification of Federal On Board Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, etc. Includes links to Federal Register and final rule.

  10. Querer No Basta: Deberes Éticos en la Práctica, Formación e Investigación en Psicología Comunitaria To Want is Not Enough: Ethical Duties in Practice, Training, and Research in Community Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Winkler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una síntesis de los resultados del proyecto de investigación FONDECYT N° 1080528, en el que se indagó la dimensión ética en la práctica, formación e investigación en psicología comunitaria (PC en Chile. Se utilizó una muestra opinática e intencionada de fuentes primarias (93 participantes -usuarios/as, estudiantes y psicólogos/as- y fuentes secundarias de información (194 documentos -programas de asignaturas, tesis y códigos-. Del empleo de diversas técnicas de recolección de datos y estrategias cualitativas de análisis emerge como resultado relevante el principio de respeto por el otro y la participación de la comunidad para la identificación y enfrentamiento de problemas éticos. Asimismo, se hallaron divergencias respecto del concepto de PC y de los deberes éticos en este campo. Finalmente, se sugieren orientaciones éticas para la práctica, formación e investigación en PC.The article presents a summary of the results of the research project FONDECYT N° 1080528, which explores the ethical dimension in practice, training, and research in community psychology (CP in Chile. An intentional opinatic sample of primary (93 participants-users, students, and psychologists- and secondary information sources (194 documents-programs, courses, theses and codes- was used. The use of various data collection techniques and qualitative analysis strategies led to the identification of two relevant results: the principle of respect for the other and community participation in identifying and addressing ethical issues. Divergences in the concept of CP and ethical duties in this field were also found. Finally, ethical guidelines for practice, training, and research in CP are suggested.

  11. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  12. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  13. Forgiveness and the Limits of Duty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Can there be a duty to forgive those who have wronged us? According to a popular view amongst philosophers working on forgiveness the answer is no. Forgiveness, it is claimed, is always elective. This view is rejected by Gamlund (2010a; 2010b) who argues that duties to forgive do exist and then

  14. 14 CFR 221.2 - Carrier's duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign air carrier from liability for violations of the statute, nor shall the filing of a tariff, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier's duty. 221.2 Section 221.2... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.2 Carrier's duty. (a) Must file tariffs. (1) Except as provided in paragraph...

  15. 40 CFR 94.105 - Duty cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.105 Duty cycles. (a) Overview. For...) General cycle. Propulsion engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) fixed-pitch propellers, propeller-law auxiliary engines, and any other engines for which the other duty cycles of this section do...

  16. 34 CFR 97.403 - IRB duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB duties. 97.403 Section 97.403 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research § 97.403 IRB duties. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  17. 7 CFR 930.31 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Body § 930.31 Duties. The Board shall have, among others, the following duties: (a) To select such...) To adopt bylaws and to adopt such rules for the conduct of its business as it may deem advisable; (e... assessments for such period; (f) To keep minutes, books, and records which will reflect all of the acts and...

  18. 7 CFR 966.35 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee may deem necessary or as the Secretary may request. The report of such audit shall show the... Handling Committee § 966.35 Duties. It shall be, among other things, the duty of the committee: (a) At the... be necessary, to select subcommittees of committee members, and to adopt such rules and regulations...

  19. 7 CFR 945.33 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee may deem necessary or as the Secretary may request. The report of such audit shall show the... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.33 Duties. It shall be the duty of the committee: (a) To act as intermediary between the Secretary and any...

  20. 7 CFR 906.31 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee may deem necessary or as the Secretary may request (the report of each such audit shall show the... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.31 Duties. It shall be, among other things, the duty of the committee: (a) At the beginning of each term of office, to meet and organize, to...

  1. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  2. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  3. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track. © 2012 American Physical Society

  4. In the line of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K

    1991-12-01

    In light of recent events that have raised ethical and legal dilemmas in the health care field, the author explains that nurses now have a duty to participate in the debate over these issues and to educate the public. The author, a staff nurse in the Abbott-Northwestern Hospital in Minneapolis, explains that the city has recently witnessed a series of events with ethical overtones that have captured national attention. In one case, the hospital sought judicial guidance on whether an 87-year-old comatose women--dependent on a ventilator for over a year--should continue to receive the costly and labor-intensive care simply because the family desired it. Although the hospital argued that continuing to provide care would only prolong a futile life, the court ruled that only the family could make the decision of whether or not to continue care. Coincidentally, around the same time as the court case, Minneapolis hosted the International Special Olympics, and event that brought together individuals with mental and physical disabilities for athletic competition. The event illustrated that there is no consensus on the definition of a futile life. In one other event that captured national headlines, 2 physicians admitted that they had continued to practice medicine despite knowing that they were infected with the AIDS virus. These disclosures heightened the debate over mandatory HIV testing for health care workers--especially for health care workers who perform invasive procedures. This debate has raised a number of issues: confidentiality, the safety of patients, as well as the safety of health care workers. The author explains that such issues of life and death are often drowned in emotionalism and public hysteria. Nurses have a duty to see that the public is educated.

  5. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  6. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  7. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  8. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Due diligence duties for an environmental liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, M.

    2000-04-01

    Jurisdiction turned out well to create a basic ruling for due diligence duties. These due diligence duties are high standards for the law of torts (outside of contracts) within the Austrian civil law and represent a liability-extension for the holder of the source of danger. They establish an action for injunction in particular for preventing (further) damages. Therewith due diligence duties get a general sense in the range of a civil law for environmental liability. The responsible holder of a danger zone will therefore influence his way of acting to protect potential victims and the environment. The burden of proof is on the plaintiff (victims) under the Civil Code. Victims have specific sources of danger including high endangering special facilities in their argumentation with the so-called prima-facie-proof or first-appearance-proof. A turning back of the presentation of evidence to the polluter is wrong. The polluter himself has a continuing liability for dangerous activities and his clerks in the case of an extremely high danger of damage. All due diligence duties can be arranged in three areas: in information-, danger-avoidance- and danger-prevention-duties. The determination of range and essence of the duties has to be adjusted to each individual case. The range of the specific danger area is the essential link. The intensity of due diligence duties is increasing with the size of danger in the way of a movable system depending on the protected interest. Due diligence duties have to be kept within reasonable limits with two criterions: necessarity and demand. Proportionality of actions is a third criterion to avoid exaggeration of due diligence duties to obtain an effective protection for victims including the environment. (author)

  10. [Patients' rights--doctors' duties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, L; Bertram, E; Grate, S; Mischkowsky, T; Paul, D; Probst, J; Scala, E; Wbllenweber, H D

    2015-06-01

    On 26 February 2013 the new "Law on Patients' Rights" (hereinafter also the "Law") became effective. This Law strengthens patients' rights vis-à-vis the insurdnce company and also regulates patients' rights regarding their relation to the doctor. This has consequences for the laws on medical liability all doctors must consider. The doctor's performance is and remains a service and such service does not hold any guarantee of success. Nevertheless, this Law primarily reads as a "law on the duties of physicians". To duly take into account these duties and to avoid mistakes and misinterpretation of the Law, the Ethics Committee of the Consortium of Osteosynthesis Trauma Germany (AOTRAUMA-D) has drafted comments on the Law. Brief summaries of its effects are to be found at the end of the respective comment under the heading "Consequences for Practice". The text of the law was influenced particularly by case law, as continuously developed by the German Federal Court of Justice ("BGH"). The implementation of the Law on Patients' Rights was effected by the newly inserted sections 630a to 630h of the German Civil Code (the "BGB"), which are analysed below. The following comments are addressed to physicians only and do not deal with the specific requirements and particularities of the other medical professions such as physiotherapy, midwifery and others so on. Special attention should be paid to the comments on the newly inserted Duty to inform, which has to be fullfilled prior to any diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (sec. 630c para 2 sentence 1 BGB). Under certain conditions the doctor also has to inform the patient about the circumstances that lead to the presumed occurance of a therapeutic or diagnostic malpractice (sec. 630c para. 2 sentence 2 BGB), based on the manifestation of an undesired event or an undesired outcome. As before, the patient's valid consent to any procedure (sec. 630d BGB) is directly linked to the comprehensive and timely provision of information

  11. 14 CFR 91.1111 - Maintenance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance training. 91.1111 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1111 Maintenance training. The program manager must ensure that all... annual recurrent training and are competent to perform those duties. ...

  12. 46 CFR 185.420 - Crew training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew training. 185.420 Section 185.420 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 185.420 Crew training. (a) The owner, charterer, master or managing operator... duties listed in the station bill required by § 185.514 of this part. (b) Training conducted on a sister...

  13. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  14. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2014-01-01

    Understanding medical professionalism and its evaluation is essential to ensuring that physicians graduate with the requisite knowledge and skills in this domain. It is important to consider the context in which behaviours occur, along with tensions between competing values and the individual’s approach to resolving such conflicts. However, too much emphasis on behaviours can be misleading, as they may not reflect underlying attitudes or professionalism in general. The same behaviour can be viewed and evaluated quite differently, depending on the situation. These concepts are explored and illustrated in this paper in the context of duty hour regulations. The regulation of duty hours creates many conflicts that must be resolved, and yet their resolution is often hidden, especially when compliance with or violation of regulations carries significant consequences. This article challenges attending physicians and the medical education community to reflect on what we value in our trainees and the attributions we make regarding their behaviours. To fully support our trainees’ development as professionals, we must create opportunities to teach them the valuable skills they will need to achieve balance in their lives. [P]rofessionalism has no meaningful existence independent of the interactions that give it form and meaning. There is great folly in thinking otherwise. Hafferty and Levinson (2008)[1] Understanding and evaluating professionalism is essential to excellence in medical education and is mandated by organizations that oversee medical training [2]. Historically, attention has been focused largely on the professionalism of individual students or residents, at least for the purposes of evaluation. Yet there is now a growing appreciation that professionalism can be defined, understood, and evaluated from multiple perspectives [3]. Importantly, context has been recognized as critical to shaping trainees’ behaviours, and hence as important to our understanding of

  15. State duties of protection and fundamental rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Starck

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Duties of protection are duties of the state to protect certain legal interests of its citizens. They cover the interests of life, health, freedom and property and also protect some other interests and certain constitutionally recognised institutions. State duties of protection must be considered in connection with fundamental rights. The foundations of modern constitutionalism and attendant procedures are essential to develop guidelines for a constructive critique of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. This is done with reference to the recent history of France, Germany and England. The historical excursus reveals that a single theory underlies the variety of constitutional states. The development of the constitutional state gave rise to the significance of the preservation of freedom through the maintenance of law and the separation of powers. This has given rise to various legal devices, based also in part on experience with moderate rule and earlier theories of the imperium limitatum.A textual analysis of the German Basic Law is undertaken to determine whether and how the duties of protection are expressly created. Furthermore, the duties that have been discovered in the Basic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court are considered. These duties include the protection of human life and health, personal freedom, the right to autonomous development of one's personality, freedom of science, research and teaching, marriage and the family, children, mothers, professional freedom, property and the protection of German nationals against foreign states. Finally the justification of such duties and the constitutional control of the manner of protection are considered.In a final section a critique of relevant constitutional jurisprudence is undertaken. It is argued that claims to protection cannot be directly binding law. They presuppose legislation. If statutory protection is connected with infringements of third-party fundamental rights

  16. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  17. 19 CFR 141.1 - Liability of importer for duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs by the broker. (c) Claim against estate of importer. The claim of the Government for unpaid duties... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of importer for duties. 141.1 Section 141.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...

  18. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement; duties of Customs officers. 12.62 Section 12.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...; duties of Customs officers. (a) In accordance with the authority contained in sections 10 and 12 of the...

  19. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the...

  20. Towards a Duty of Care for Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, G.; Curtis, A.; Allan, C.

    2010-04-01

    The decline in biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon, with current rates of species extinction more dramatic than any previously recorded. Habitat loss has been identified as the major cause of biodiversity decline. In this article we suggest that a statutory duty of care would complement the current mix of policy options for biodiversity conservation. Obstacles hindering the introduction of a statutory duty of care include linguistic ambiguity about the terms ‘duty of care’ and ‘stewardship’ and how they are applied in a natural resource management context, and the absence of a mechanism to guide its implementation. Drawing on international literature and key informant interviews we have articulated characteristics of duty of care to reduce linguistic ambiguity, and developed a framework for implementing a duty of care for biodiversity at the regional scale. The framework draws on key elements of the common law ‘duty of care’, the concepts of ‘taking reasonable care’ and ‘avoiding foreseeable harm’, in its logic. Core elements of the framework include desired outcomes for biodiversity, supported by current recommended practices. The focus on outcomes provides opportunities for the development of innovative management practices. The framework incorporates multiple pathways for the redress of non-compliance including tiered negative sanctions, and positive measures to encourage compliance. Importantly, the framework addresses the need for change and adaptation that is a necessary part of biodiversity management.

  1. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  6. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  7. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  8. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  9. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  10. Fitness for duty - a regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Fitness for duty is a legal, moral, emotional, and political issue. It is therefore that type of issue that one would expect industry to run from, opting instead for government intervention and prescriptive regulations. This would allow the industry to hide behind the shield of doing what is necessary to comply. But fitness for duty is also a rational business issue. It involves getting a reasonable return on the investment in the people who are necessary to run the nuclear industry. It is within this context that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exercised its discretion to not undertake new rule making, instead giving the industry the mandate of pursuing this issue. The NRC has deferred rule making as long as the industry programs are effective in producing the desired results. The NRC has also retained the right to follow up on operational events and to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs in place. The industry, under the leadership of NUMARC, has risen to this challenge and has adopted the August 1985 Edison Electric Institute (EEI) fitness-for-duty program guidelines for implementation by all utilities. In evaluating the effectiveness of programs, the NRC is conducting inspections at some utilities. These inspections have confirmed that the EEI guidelines are being used as the basis for fitness-for-duty programs. Even though the nuclear industry has taken a generally strong stand on fitness for duty and has adopted reasonable guidelines for its assurance, there still remain several challenges

  11. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty.... Additionally, this section applies to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). Unless...

  12. Relationships Between Physical Fitness, Demands of Flight Duty, and Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Military Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Harri; Häkkinen, Arja; Siitonen, Simo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Although the mechanisms of G-induced stresses on the spinal structure of military pilots are well understood, less is known about relationships between the intensity of physical activity, fitness, occupational musculoskeletal symptoms, and the degree of resulting disabilities. During an aeromedical examination, Finnish military pilots answered a questionnaire on their flying experience, the occurrence of flight duty-related pain, the degree of resulting disabilities, and the intensity of physical activity they conducted. 195 males were selected for further analysis. They were divided into three groups, designated high G, low G, and HQ, according to their current flight duty profile. 93% of pilots who had passed fighter lead-in training reported flight duty-induced musculoskeletal disorders. The high-G group exhibited the highest aerobic capacity (p fitness scores (p fit counterparts (p = 0.005). Flight hour accumulation among the subjects in the high-G group was associated (p = 0.010) with the occurrence of flight duty-induced disabilities. The fittest pilots flew aircraft that induce the heaviest accelerations. They also reported more musculoskeletal pain than the other pilots. Yet they seemed to experience fewer disabilities, which highlights the importance of physical training in the maintenance of operational readiness. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Resident duty hour modification affects perceptions in medical education, general wellness, and ability to provide patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew; Webber, Jordan; Epstein, Ian

    2016-07-13

    Resident duty hours have recently been under criticism, with concerns for resident and patient well-being. Historically, call shifts have been long, and some residency training programs have now restricted shift lengths. Data and opinions about the effects of such restrictions are conflicting. The Internal Medicine Residency Program at Dalhousie University recently moved from a traditional call structure to a day float/night float system. This study evaluated how this change in duty hours affected resident perceptions in several key domains. Senior residents from an internal medicine training program in Canada responded to an anonymous online survey immediately before and 6 months after the implementation of duty hour reform. The survey contained questions relating to three major domains: resident wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. Mean pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using the t-test for paired samples. Twenty-three of 27 (85 %) senior residents completed both pre- and post-reform surveys. Residents perceived significant changes in many domains with duty hour reform. These included improved general wellness, less exposure to personal harm, fewer feelings of isolation, less potential for error, improvement in clinical skills expertise, increased work efficiency, more successful teaching, increased proficiency in medical skills, more successful learning, and fewer rotation disruptions. Senior residents in a Canadian internal medicine training program perceived significant benefits in medical education experience, ability to deliver healthcare, and resident wellness after implementation of duty hour reform.

  14. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  15. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  16. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  17. 19 CFR 123.23 - Train sheet for in-transit rail shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., listing each car of the train and specifically identifying the in-transit cars, unless a consolidated... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Train sheet for in-transit rail shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  18. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  19. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  20. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  2. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  3. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  4. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  5. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  6. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  7. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  8. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  9. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  10. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  11. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  12. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  13. Military Instructor Training in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    and Special Duties Lists com- posed of ex-ratings. Outside the General List there are the Specialist Branches which include Medical and Dental and...Royal Naval School of Educational and Training Technology at Portsmouth. This school was formed in 1971 by the amalgama - tion of the Navy’s

  14. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  15. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  16. Communication skills for extended duties dental nurses: the childsmile perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Good communication and influencing skills are key competency areas for dental nurses and are highly relevant when working with children and their families/carers in Childsmile, a national oral health improvement programme for children in Scotland. The General Dental Council (GDC) identifies communication skills as one of the nine principles for registrants; a large number of complaints seen by the GDC relate to allegations around communication and patient expectations not being fully met. Much time and investment has been spent in researching the role of the Extended Duties Dental Nurse (EDDN) and ensuring appropriate training is provided. While there is specific training for EDDNs delivering the Childsmile programme, the programme appreciates that good communication skills are a core component of all training programmes for dental nurses. This paper sets out to explore the role of EDDNs in Childsmile and specifically looks at the importance of good communication skills and how it facilitates and impacts on the delivery of the Childsmile programme in a variety of settings.

  17. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  18. 7 CFR 1215.30 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 1215.30 Section 1215.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... statements to be prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to be audited by an...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.39 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 1209.39 Section 1209.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... statements to be prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to be audited by an...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.328 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.328 Duties. The... Secretary may request; (m) To notify watermelon producers, handlers, and importers of all Board meetings...

  1. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO)

  2. NGO Duties in Relation to Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the moral duties that human rights NGOs, such as Amnesty International, and development NGOs, such as Oxfam, have in relation to human rights – especially in relation to the human right to a decent standard of living. The mentioned NGOs are powerful new agents on the global

  3. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board shall...

  4. Light Duty Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The report is a collection of data concerning physical, operating, performance, and market characteristics of light duty trucks for the model years 1972 and 1975 thru 1977. The data is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Informat...

  5. Duties of care on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van Engers, T.; Wiersma, C.; Jasserand, C.; Abel, W.

    2011-01-01

    Internet Service Providers currently find themselves in the spotlight, both in a national and international context, with regard to their relationship both with governments and other private parties, on for example questions of (civil) liability. The paper focuses on duties of care as concerns the

  6. Precautionary rights and duties of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the definition and implementation of the precautionary principle under general, or customary, international law. A search for patterns and common denominators in state practice resulted in the following definitions of a right and a duty which states are deemed to have under

  7. 7 CFR 983.45 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... NEW MEXICO Administrative Committee § 983.45 Duties. The committee shall have, among others, the... of this part; (i) To investigate and assemble data on the growing, handling, shipping and marketing...

  8. 7 CFR 993.36 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., which are necessary in connection with the performance of its official duties; (d) To select, from among... of its anticipated expenditures and the recommended rate of assessment for the ensuing crop year, and... submit to the Secretary quarterly statements of the financial operations of the committee, exclusive of...

  9. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  10. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  11. Performance concerns for high duty fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, V.J.; Gutierrez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of the nuclear industry is to achieve economic performance such that nuclear power plants are competitive in a de-regulated market. The manner in which nuclear fuel is designed and operated lies at the heart of economic viability. In this sense reliability, operating flexibility and low costs are the three major requirements of the NPP today. The translation of these three requirements to the design is part of our work. The challenge today is to produce a fuel design which will operate with long operating cycles, high discharge burnup, power up-rating and while still maintaining all design and safety margins. European Fuel Group (EFG) understands that to achieve the required performance high duty/energy fuel designs are needed. The concerns for high duty design includes, among other items, core design methods, advanced Safety Analysis methodologies, performance models, advanced material and operational strategies. The operational aspects require the trade-off and evaluation of various parameters including coolant chemistry control, material corrosion, boiling duty, boron level impacts, etc. In this environment MAEF is the design that EFG is now offering based on ZIRLO alloy and a robust skeleton. This new design is able to achieve 70 GWd/tU and Lead Test Programs are being executed to demonstrate this capability. A number of performance issues which have been a concern with current designs have been resolved such as cladding corrosion and incomplete RCCA insertion (IRI). As the core duty becomes more aggressive other new issues need to be addressed such as Axial Offset Anomaly. These new issues are being addressed by combination of the new design in concert with advanced methodologies to meet the demanding needs of NPP. The ability and strategy to meet high duty core requirements, flexibility of operation and maintain acceptable balance of all technical issues is the discussion in this paper. (authors)

  12. 78 FR 79662 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Secretary, for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations, through Melissa Skinner, Director, Office III... Duty Operations, through Melissa Skinner, Director, Office III Antidumping and Countervailing Duty..., Deputy Assistant Secretary, for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations, through Melissa Skinner...

  13. Chemistry, Courtrooms, and Common Sense. Part I: Negligence and Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J. Ric

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are concepts involved in legal liability for laboratory accidents. The focus of this article is on negligence, duty, and responsibility issues. Highlighted are the basis of a lawsuit, negligent tort, duty and breech of duty, and cause and harm. Thirty-one cases are cited. (CW)

  14. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector or...

  15. Setting standards for planning off duty and audit of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Linda; Minchin, Anne; Pickard, Jane

    The off duty or rostering system is an important part of managing any ward or department. This article looks at the issues that need to be considered when drawing up and managing off duty. It recommends standards for off-duty planning and shares the results of an audit carried out against some of these standards in one NHS trust.

  16. 38 CFR 17.31 - Duty periods defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Active Duty § 17.31 Duty periods defined. Full-time duty as a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, Women's Reserve of the Navy and Marine Corps and Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard... Patient Rights ...

  17. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date... value in the antidumping duty investigation of PVA from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final...

  18. 10 CFR 26.21 - Fitness-for-duty program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness-for-duty program. 26.21 Section 26.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.21 Fitness-for-duty program. The licensees and other entities specified in § 26.3(a) through (c) shall establish, implement, and...

  19. 29 CFR 825.312 - Fitness-for-duty certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fitness-for-duty certification. 825.312 Section 825.312... § 825.312 Fitness-for-duty certification. (a) As a condition of restoring an employee whose FMLA leave... provider to provide the information directly to the employer) in the fitness-for-duty certification process...

  20. NEET, Unemployed, Inactive or Unknown--Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: The UK, like most countries across Europe and other advanced economies, has experienced an alarming rise in the levels of young people (aged between 16 and 24 years) who are detached from both the labour market and the education and training system. In the UK, there are nearly a million 16-24-year-olds who are recorded as being not in…

  1. Science Academies' Refresher Course in'Action Zoology: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    teachers, senior research fellows and guest lecturers are also encouraged to apply. Selected participants will be provided local hospitality and round-trip train fare to Allahabad (3- tier AC) by the shortest route. Applications may be sent to: Prof. U. C. Srivastava, Course Director, Refresher Course on. 'Action Zoology: The ...

  2. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  4. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  5. Assessing the Effects of the 2003 Resident Duty Hours Reform on Internal Medicine Board Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrick S.; Itani, Kamal M.F.; Rosen, Amy K.; Small, Dylan; Lipner, Rebecca S.; Bosk, Charles L.; Wang, Yanli; Halenar, Michael J.; Korovaichuk, Sophia; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hours reform affected medical knowledge as reflected by written board scores for internal medicine (IM) residents. Method The authors conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) Internal Medicine residents who started training before and after the 2003 duty hour reform using a merged data set of American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Board examination and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NMBE) United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge test scores. Specifically, using four regression models, the authors compared IM residents beginning PGY-1 training in 2000 and completing training unexposed to the 2003 duty hours reform (PGY-1 2000 cohort, n = 5,475) to PGY-1 cohorts starting in 2001 through 2005 (n = 28,008), all with some exposure to the reform. Results The mean ABIM board score for the unexposed PGY-1 2000 cohort (n = 5,475) was 491, SD = 85. Adjusting for demographics, program, and USMLE Step 2 exam score, the mean differences (95% CI) in ABIM board scores between the PGY-1 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 cohorts minus the PGY-1 2000 cohort were −5.43 (−7.63, −3.23), −3.44 (−5.65, −1.24), 2.58 (0.36, 4.79), 11.10 (8.88, 13.33) and 11.28 (8.98, 13.58) points respectively. None of these differences exceeded one-fifth of an SD in ABIM board scores. Conclusions The duty hours reforms of 2003 did not meaningfully affect medical knowledge as measured by scores on the ABIM board examinations. PMID:24556772

  6. Electrofishing power requirements in relation to duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we measured the electrical peak power required to immobilize (i.e., narcotize or tetanize) fish of various species and sizes with duty cycles (i.e., percentage of time a field is energized) ranging from 1.5% to 100%. Electrofishing effectiveness was closely associated with duty cycle. Duty cycles of 10-50% required the least peak power to immobilize fish; peak power requirements increased gradually above 50% duty cycle and sharply below 10%. Small duty cycles can increase field strength by making possible higher instantaneous peak voltages that allow the threshold power needed to immobilize fish to radiate farther away from the electrodes. Therefore, operating within the 10-50% range of duty cycles would allow a larger radius of immobilization action than operating with higher duty cycles. This 10-50% range of duty cycles also coincided with some of the highest margins of difference between the electrical power required to narcotize and that required to tetanize fish. This observation is worthy of note because proper use of duty cycle could help reduce the mortality associated with tetany documented by some authors. Although electrofishing with intermediate duty cycles can potentially increase effectiveness of electrofishing, our results suggest that immobilization response is not fully accounted for by duty cycle because of a potential interaction between pulse frequency and duration that requires further investigation.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  8. Psychiatric aspects of fitness for duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, C M

    1996-01-01

    The above examples illustrate the complex of biologic, psychological, and social factors that result in a fitness for duty referral. Workplace needs set the tolerance limits within which the worker must operate. They are different for a police officer, for a correctional officer, for a schoolteacher, and for a school custodian. Tolerance limits are affected by factors out of the employer's control, e.g., civil service rules, union contracts, and by the culture of the workplace, the latter being a set of unwritten rules. Ideally, the psychiatrist who performs the fitness for duty examination would have all of the information described above, but in most cases does not. The psychiatrist who has this information can begin to put in place one part of the mosaic that is the ethnography of work.

  9. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  10. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  11. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  12. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  13. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  14. Report of the Tenth Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation. Volume 2: Deferred and Noncash Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    their specialty . Hence, doctors training to become neurosurgeons receive the same stipend as those specializing in pediatrics . FAP is typically a two...duty for training, or inactive duty for training, or full-time National Guard duty . Its purpose is to help the survivors in their readjustment and

  15. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  16. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  17. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Pilates training on agility, functional mobility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... functional mobility and VO2max. The study was conducted to ascertain the effects of Pilates training on agility, functional mobility and VO2max in elderly woman. Fifty inactive, apparently healthy females aged 60 and older were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) (n = 25) or a Pilates training (PIL) (n = 25) group.

  19. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  20. Physical training in chronic respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Exercise Training in Chronic RespiratoryDisease.Patients with chronic pulmonary disease havean inactive lifestyle with a progressive viciouscycle of physical inactivity, deconditioning andmore dyspnea. Physical Therapy attempts toimprove cardiopulmonary function andphysical conditioning. In PulmonaryRehabilitation, exercise training is consideredthe most important aspect because improvesaerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function, and reduces breathlessness. Endurancetraining can include lower extremity trainingwith treadmill or cycle ergometer and upperlimbs exercises specialy in patients that haveproblems with arms movement. The use of highintensity training has showed better results,including less dyspnea and more functionalcapacity.Complementary therapies include ventilatoryassistance with pressure support or proportionalventilatory assistance during training, anabolichormones, nutritional support and functionalelectric stimulation.

  1. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  2. The Civic Duty to Report Crime and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Delmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the civic duty to report crime and corruption a genuine moral duty? After clarifying the nature of the duty, I consider a couple of negative answers to the question, and turn to an attractive and commonly held view, according to which this civic duty is a genuine moral duty. On this view, crime and corruption threaten political stability, and citizens have a moral duty to report crime and corruption to the government in order to help the government’s law enforcement efforts. The resulting duty is triply general in that it applies to everyone, everywhere, and covers all criminal and corrupt activity. In this paper, I challenge the general scope of this argument. I argue that that the civic duty to report crime and corruption to the authorities is much narrower than the government claims and people might think, for it only arises when the state (i condemns genuine wrongdoing and serious ethical offenses as “crime” and “corruption,” and (ii constitutes a dependable “disclosure recipient,” showing the will and power to hold wrongdoers accountable. I further defend a robust duty to directly report to the public—one that is weightier and wider than people usually assume. When condition (ii fails to obtain, I submit, citizens are released of the duty to report crime and corruption to the authorities, but are bound to report to the public, even when the denunciation targets the government and is risky or illegal.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and..., including multi-fuel vehicles, vehicles fueled with alternative fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. Unless otherwise specified, multi...

  4. Gender-Based Differences in Surgical Residents' Perceptions of Patient Safety, Continuity of Care, and Well-Being: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Chung, Jeanette W; Matulewicz, Richard S; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Yang, Anthony D; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about gender differences in residency training experiences and whether duty hour policies affect these differences. Using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, we examined gender differences in surgical resident perceptions of patient safety, education, health and well-being, and job satisfaction, and assessed whether duty hour policies affected gender differences. We compared proportions of male and female residents expressing dissatisfaction or perceiving a negative effect of duty hours on aspects of residency training (ie patient safety, resident education, well-being, job satisfaction) overall and by PGY. Logistic regression models with robust clustered SEs were used to test for significant gender differences and interaction effects of duty hour policies on gender differences. Female PGY2 to 3 residents were more likely than males to be dissatisfied with patient safety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.29-4.84) and to perceive a negative effect of duty hours on most health and well-being outcomes (OR = 1.51-2.10; all p gender differences in career dissatisfaction among interns (p = 0.028), but widened gender differences in negative perceptions of duty hours on patient safety (p job satisfaction (p Gender differences exist in perceptions of surgical residency. These differences vary across cohorts and can be influenced by duty hour policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  6. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions in Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katharine S.; Keshet, Itay; Spicer, Jonathan; Imrie, Kevin; Feldman, Liane; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Kayssi, Ahmed; Lipsman, Nir; Elmi, Maryam; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Parshuram, Chris; Mainprize, Todd; Warren, Richard J.; Fata, Paola; Gorman, M. Sean; Feinberg, Stan; Rutka, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandated 80-hour resident duty limits. In 2011 the ACGME mandated 16-hour duty maximums for PGY1 (post graduate year) residents. The stated goals were to improve patient safety, resident well-being, and education. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of resident duty hours (RDH) on clinical and educational outcomes in surgery. Methods: A systematic review (1980–2013) was executed on CINAHL, Cochrane Database, Embase, Medline, and Scopus. Quality of articles was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Sixteen-hour shifts and night float systems were analyzed separately. Articles that examined mortality data were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of RDH on patient mortality. Results: A total of 135 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 42% (N = 57) were considered moderate-high quality. There was no overall improvement in patient outcomes as a result of RDH; however, some studies suggest increased complication rates in high-acuity patients. There was no improvement in education related to RDH restrictions, and performance on certification examinations has declined in some specialties. Survey studies revealed a perception of worsened education and patient safety. There were improvements in resident wellness after the 80-hour workweek, but there was little improvement or negative effects on wellness after 16-hour duty maximums were implemented. Conclusions: Recent RDH changes are not consistently associated with improvements in resident well-being, and have negative impacts on patient outcomes and performance on certification examinations. Greater flexibility to accommodate resident training needs is required. Further erosion of training time should be considered with great caution. PMID:24662409

  7. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Belisle, Sheri L.; Rieger, Paul

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions measurements were made on light duty gasoline and light duty diesel vehicles during chassis dynamometer testing conducted at the Environment Canada and California Air Resources Board vehicle emissions laboratories between 2001 and 2007. Per phase and composite FTP emission rates were measured. A subset of vehicles was also tested using other driving cycles to characterize emissions as a function of different driving conditions. Vehicles were both new (automobile and light duty truck is not significant for any of the emission standards represented by the test fleet and the distinction between new and aged catalyst is significant for vehicles meeting all emission standards but Tier 2. This is likely due to the relatively low mileage accumulated by the Tier 2 vehicles in this study as compared to the durability requirement of the standard. The FTP composite N 2O emission factors for gasoline vehicles meeting emission standards more stringent than Tier 1 are substantially lower than those currently used by both Canada and the US for the 2005 inventories. N 2O emission factors from test cycles other than the FTP illustrate the variability of emission factors as a function of driving conditions. N 2O emission factors are shown to strongly correlate with NMHC/NMOG emission standards and less strongly with NO X and CO emission standards. A review of several published reports on the effect of gasoline sulfur content on N 2O emissions suggests that additional research is needed to adequately quantify the increase in N 2O emissions as a function of fuel sulfur.

  9. How Do Stamp Duties Affect the Housing Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Ian; Leigh, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Land transfer taxes are a substantial portion of the cost of moving house in many developed countries. Since stamp duties are endogenous with respect to the house price, we create an instrumental variable that is the stamp duty on a property, given that postcode's starting house price and the national house price trend. In a specification with postcode and year fixed effects, this instrument effectively captures policy changes and nonlinearities in the stamp duty schedule. We find that the im...

  10. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties. (1...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7013 - Duty-free entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty-free entry. 252.225... Clauses 252.225-7013 Duty-free entry. As prescribed in 225.1101(4), use the following clause: Duty-Free Entry (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) “Component” means any item supplied to the...

  12. Norwegian NOx emissions excise duty hits shipping and offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulseth, Oeystein Arff; Fjeld-Nielsen, Siri

    2007-01-01

    The regulatory framework concerning the new excise duty appears as complex and unfinished, raising more questions than providing answers. The duty will entail a significant expense item for the businesses liable to register and it is therefore important to have an overview of how the regulatory framework should be understood. Errors made since 1 January 2007 may lead to future reassessments of duties, with interest (author) (ml)

  13. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  14. Development of an Integrated Virtual Group Training System for COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, J.B.J.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Botman, Mike P.L.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2014-01-01

    COPD patients experience a downward spiral of fear for breathlessness, inactivity and social isolation which leads to a bad physical condition. Motivation to keep patients compliant to their training scheme is a key factor in home-based exercise training. This paper presents the Integrated Training

  15. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Hansen, Peter Riis; Søgaard, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal...... longitudinal displacement increased in both groups by 13% (Pchanges of cardiac dimensions and had...

  16. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  17. Epistemic duties and failure to understand one’s evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stapleford

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper defends the thesis that our epistemic duty is the duty to proportion our beliefs to the evidence we possess. An inclusive view of evidenced possessed is put forward on the grounds that it makes sense of our intuitions about when it is right to say that a person ought to believe some proposition P. A second thesis is that we have no epistemic duty to adopt any particular doxastic attitudes. The apparent tension between the two theses is resolved by applying the concept of duty to belief indirectly.

  18. Epistemic Duties and Failure to Understand one's Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stapleford

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n1p147   The paper defends the thesis that our epistemic duty is the duty to proportion our beliefs to the evidence we possess. An inclusive view of evidenced possessed is put forward on the grounds that it makes sense of our intuitions about when it is right to say that a person ought to believe some proposition P. A second thesis is that we have no epistemic duty to adopt any particular doxastic attitudes. The apparent tension between the two theses is resolved by applying the concept of duty to belief indirectly.

  19. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  20. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  1. "A Kantian care ethics suicide duty".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Standard arguments for a duty to die or to commit suicide generally rely upon contractarian or other form of justice or the Principle of Beneficence. Even though some of these arguments might appear deontological, there is an explicit or implicit consequentialist common thread in all of them in which utility of some sort is maximized only through the taking of one's own life. Hence, most arguments for a suicide duty are consequentialist in nature. There are a number of relatively unexplored deontological arguments that make plausible cases for the mandatory taking of one's own life. For example, although Kant is widely thought to prohibit all suicides, a careful reading of his work can show a plausible case based on the Categorical Imperative. If it is necessary to preserve the individual's moral life, then everyone could will the generalized maxim governing the situation as a law of nature. Unfortunately, Kant's argument is weakened by his poor understanding of moral psychology. To strengthen Kant's case, care-relationship ethics can be combined with the argument to produce a plausible case that people are obligated to kill themselves if a number of criteria are satisfied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rights and duties in parenting practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Solans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to present the results of three qualitative research on the exercise of rights and duties on Parenting Practices (PP, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. They included interviews with mothers of children with Unsatisfied Basic Needs concretized between 2009 and 2013. Their analysis revealed that in this set of households were carried out three types of PP: imposition, guide and free will, the latter was the most used. As part of this practice, children managed their hours of sleep, wakefulness and leisure, without the intervention of their parents. It was noted, for example, that children over 10 years decided on matters concerning their schooling, absenting progressively to school, to abandonment. These practices were respected by their parents. By default, the postponement of pleasure (tolerance to frustration will not be exercised: they let children do at will. A trend of teenage pregnancy and the formation of pairs of children between 14-16 years with parental consent was also noted. In this sense, even when children lived in a house in contact with their parents, with a supply of food and available school, the indiscriminate exercise of free will put children's health at risk and full development, curtailing their rights. We recommend further studies such timely interventions to promote programs and projects designed to guide parents on issues related to the development of children as subjects of Rights and Duties.

  3. The Status of Infantry TOW, LAW, and Dragon Training in USAREUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    TOW duties (guard, CQ runner , etc.); (b) Permanent assignment to other than TOW duties; (c) medical and dental appointments and drug and alcohol abuse...in training areas would be most helpful, and a third said American tanks and ve- hicles could be mocked-up to look like enemy targets and that kites

  4. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  6. Caffeine consumption among active duty United States Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Leahy, Guy D; Lieberman, Harris R

    2017-07-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated that 89% of Americans regularly consumed caffeinated products, but these data did not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine consumption prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with caffeine intake in active duty United States (US) Air Force personnel. Service members (N = 1787) stationed in the US and overseas completed a detailed questionnaire describing their intake of caffeine-containing products in addition to their demographic, lifestyle, and military characteristics. Overall, 84% reported consuming caffeinated products ≥1 time/week with caffeine consumers ingesting a mean ± standard error of 212 ± 9 mg/day (224 ± 11 mg/day for men, 180 ± 12 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated products (% users) were sodas (56%), coffee (45%), teas (36%), and energy drinks (27%). Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine consumption (≥1 time/week) included older age, ethnicity other than black, tobacco use, less aerobic training, and less sleep; energy drink use was associated with male gender, younger age, tobacco use, and less sleep. Compared to NHANES data, the prevalence of caffeine consumption in Air Force personnel was similar but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Student midwives' duty hours: risks, standards, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachel; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Landis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has emerged describing the risks of extended-duty shifts and sleep deprivation. Worldwide, midwifery organizations have not adopted standards for practitioner or student duty shifts. This project reviews the literature related to extended-duty shifts in an effort to develop evidence-based recommendations for student nurse-midwives/student midwives (SNMs/SMs). A comprehensive literature search was conducted through electronic databases, major journals, and reference lists published in English since January 2001. Primary research studies evaluating sleep deprivation and shift duration were included. Studies that did not include the target population (shift workers) and those that formed conclusions related to extended-duty shifts greater than 30 hours were excluded. In addition, an extensive worldwide review of duty-hour recommendations from more than 300 health care organizations was conducted. A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Extended-duty shifts (those greater than 12 hours) increased the risk for cognitive and physical functional errors, safety concerns, and decreased quality of life from sleep deprivation. Cognitive function errors included attention lapses, visual tracking errors, decreased mentation and immediate recall, and decreased learning capacity. Physical errors included decreased motor skills and slowed reaction times in clinical simulations. These deficits led to an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, needle sticks, and performance equivalent to unsafe blood alcohol concentrations. An overall decrease in quality of life and job satisfaction was linked to extended-duty shifts. Seven organizations for medical residents or advanced practice nurses have developed policy statements on duty shifts, with extended-duty shift limitations between 12 and 24 hours. The risks associated with extended-duty shifts may inhibit the development of SNMs/SMs into competent practitioners and place patients at risk. It

  8. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  9. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  10. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  11. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  12. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The identification of genetic pathways involved in vascular adaptations after physical deconditioning versus exercise training in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, G.; Duijnhoven, N.T. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Horstman, A.M.; Haan, A. de; Janssen, T.W.; Graaf, M.J. de; Pardoel, E.M.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity and exercise training result in opposite adaptations of vascular structure. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these adaptations are not completely understood. We used a unique study design to examine both vascular characteristics of the superficial femoral artery (using

  14. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  15. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  16. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...

  17. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.

    1987-01-01

    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  18. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Sampling...

  20. 48 CFR 1333.212 - Contracting officer's duties upon appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... duties upon appeals. 1333.212 Section 1333.212 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Contracting officer's duties upon appeals. Only Procurement Counsel will communicate with the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals or the Department of Justice regarding appeals of contracting officer decisions...

  1. 46 CFR 111.25-15 - Duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-15 Duty cycle. Each motor must be rated for continuous duty, except a motor for an... table. Table 111.25-15 Application of motor Minimum short-time rating of motor, in hours Deck winch and... idle pump operation, followed by 1/4 hr. full load operation. Steering gear, direct acting One...

  2. The internal-Rawlsian unsustainability of Rawls's duty of assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2018-01-01

    Philosophers interested in John Rawls’s international political theorizing have paid considerable attention to the duty of assistance as a key notion of his Law of Peoples. However, in focusing on contentious-theoretical and practical implications of this duty, they have not thoroughly examined the

  3. 12 CFR 905.4 - Duties of the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Duties of the Finance Board. (a) Bank System. The Finance Board supervises and regulates the Banks and... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of the Finance Board. 905.4 Section 905.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.610 - Duty cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty cycle generation. 1065.610 Section 1065.610 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.610 Duty cycle generation...

  5. 7 CFR 46.32 - Duties of growers' agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fails to perform any specification or duty, express or implied, is in violation of the Act and may be... or duty, express or implied, arising out of any undertaking in connection with transactions subject... statement describing the terms and conditions under which he will handle the produce of the grower during...

  6. 45 CFR 1603.5 - Council purpose and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Council purpose and duties. 1603.5 Section 1603.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION STATE ADVISORY COUNCILS § 1603.5 Council purpose and duties. (a) The purpose of the council shall be to notify...

  7. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  8. 28 CFR 549.13 - Programming, duty, and housing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programming, duty, and housing... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.13 Programming, duty, and housing restrictions. (a) The CD will assess any inmate with an infectious disease for appropriateness for programming...

  9. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a) Upon ordering an estate to be probated, the court shall appoint a disinterested and competent person as an...

  10. 21 CFR 812.60 - IRB composition, duties, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRB composition, duties, and functions. 812.60 Section 812.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... composition, duties, and functions. An IRB reviewing and approving investigations under this part shall comply...

  11. 15 CFR 270.105 - Duties of a Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of a Team. 270.105 Section 270... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.105 Duties of a Team. (a) A Team's Lead...

  12. 31 CFR 401.4 - Duties of Bureau of Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of Bureau of Customs. 401.4... TRANSPORT COUNTERFEIT COINS, OBLIGATIONS, SECURITIES, AND PARAPHERNALIA § 401.4 Duties of Bureau of Customs... director of customs pursuant to the said act of August 9, 1939, and the regulations in this part, the...

  13. 31 CFR 406.4 - Duties of customs officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of customs officers. 406.4... 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS § 406.4 Duties of customs officers. The appropriate officials of the Bureau of Customs are hereby authorized and designated as the officers who shall perform such administrative...

  14. 42 CFR 440.80 - Private duty nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private duty nursing services. 440.80 Section 440... nursing services. Private duty nursing services means nursing services for recipients who require more individual and continuous care than is available from a visiting nurse or routinely provided by the nursing...

  15. The Burden of Disability among Active Duty Air Force Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    football , and soccer. The authors conducted searches of computerized databases of published literature regarding disability and exercise as it relates to...and 5% of servicewomen aged 40 to 65 years have osteoarthritis . Adjustment reaction affects 4% of active-duty women and 2% of active-duty men, and

  16. Student Drivers and the Fiduciary Duty of School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, James Kent; Gereluk, Dianne; Brandon, Jim; Patterson, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Following "E.D.G. v. Hammer", Canadian law has held that school boards, although they have a fiduciary duty to their students, do not guarantee the safety of their students from the acts of their employees. The scope of that fiduciary duty is narrow, restricted to a board acting with disloyalty, in bad faith, or in a conflict of interest…

  17. Principals' Leadership Styles and Teachers' Motivation to Duty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at articulating principals' leadership styles and teachers' motivation to duty in Cross River State, Nigeria. Discussions have been focused on motivation of teachers to duty, and how leadership styles can enhance goal achievement and performance on the part of the teacher. Two research hypotheses ...

  18. Appraisal of circulation routine duties in academic libraries | Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of brown charging system, book reservation, keeping of reserved collection, circulation of reserved books, treatment of overdue, lost of books on loan and library statistics among other as duties perform in circulation department of libraries. Keywords: Library Service, Circulation Duties, Challenges, Academic Libraries ...

  19. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  20. Australia slaps duties on PVC imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Anti-Dumping Authority (ADA0) has imposed dumping duties on imports of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin from seven countries and on certain expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads from Korea and Singapore. The decisions come at the end of two separate investigations begun earlier this year. In its first finding, the ADA concluded that there has been dumping of PVC resin from Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand, which has caused and threatens to cause material injury to the domestic PVC industry. An eighth country, Romania, was found not to have been exporting PVC to Australia. The case is the second of its kind in Australia focusing on PVC. In December 1991 the ADA found in favor of local producer sin a dumping complaint against Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Israel, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US

  1. Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility and Fitness for Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael A; McGlinch, Erin B; McGlinch, Maria C; Capacchione, John F

    2017-03-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited hypermetabolic condition characterized by uncontrolled calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, usually from exposure to inhaled general anesthetics and/or the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Multiple case reports now reveal that crises may be precipitated by environmental factors such as exercise or high ambient temperatures. Common signs of an MH crisis include life-threatening hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, muscle rigidity, and tachycardia. Treatment consists of stopping triggering agents, administering dantrolene, and actively cooling the patient. MH is a medically disqualifying condition for service in the U.S. Armed Forces. However, patients with MH-causative mutations may never have experienced an MH episode. If they previously have had an event concerning for MH, details are often sparse and a formal evaluation is absent. We present 2 case reports with military service implications, one as a formal applicant to the service academies and the other as the father of an active duty Navy chief. Both patients experienced prior MH-like reactions to anesthesia but had not undergone testing with a caffeine-halothane contracture test (CHCT) or genetic analysis. Both patients underwent skeletal muscle biopsies of the left vastus lateralis with nontriggering anesthetics at Children's National Medical Center in Washington, DC, and MH diagnostic CHCT at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) in Bethesda, Maryland. The CHCT was performed according to the North American MH Registry Protocol. With USUHS Institutional Review Board approval, ryanodine receptor type 1 gene (RYR1) and L-type calcium channel α-1 subunit gene (CACNA1S) sequencing was performed on the remaining muscle at USUHS. Each subject was CHCT positive, confirming a diagnosis of MH. One was found to have a known MH-causative gene mutation. The applicant to the service academy was

  2. [On the moral dutifulness of using vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, P; González-Melado, F J; Di Pietro, M L

    2015-01-01

    People had contradictory opinions on using vaccinations over time: an initial opposition, later large favour and then doubts and perplexities. In recent times, some movements, blogs and associations stigmatize the use of vaccinations and they are increasingly asking to remove mandatory vaccinations in countries where they are active. The impact of the antivaccination campaigns should not be underestimated, considering that, for example, in Italy, due to these campaigns, adhesions to vaccinations are decreasing by 1% per year, and in reference to rubella and measles, adhesions decreased by 25% in some regions of the country. Overcoming the choice between mandatory and recommended vaccinations, the paper deals with the topic of using preventive immunization starting from the concept of "moral dutifulness".

  3. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  4. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  5. 49 CFR 214.343 - Training and qualification, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training and qualification, general. 214.343... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.343 Training and qualification, general. (a) No employer shall assign an employee to perform the duties of a...

  6. Who Are the "Lazy" Ants? The Function of Inactivity in Social Insects and a Possible Role of Constraint: Inactive Ants Are Corpulent and May Be Young and/or Selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  8. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  9. Association of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with general surgery patient outcomes and with resident examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Chung, Jeanette W; Jones, Andrew T; Cohen, Mark E; Dahlke, Allison R; Ko, Clifford Y; Tarpley, John L; Lewis, Frank R; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-12-10

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) restricted resident duty hour requirements beyond those established in 2003, leading to concerns about the effects on patient care and resident training. To determine if the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was associated with a change in general surgery patient outcomes or in resident examination performance. Quasi-experimental study of general surgery patient outcomes 2 years before (academic years 2009-2010) and after (academic years 2012-2013) the 2011 duty hour reform. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals were compared using a difference-in-differences approach adjusted for procedural mix, patient comorbidities, and time trends. Teaching hospitals were defined based on the proportion of cases at which residents were present intraoperatively. Patients were those undergoing surgery at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). General surgery resident performance on the annual in-training, written board, and oral board examinations was assessed for this same period. National implementation of revised resident duty hour requirements on July 1, 2011, in all ACGME accredited residency programs. Primary outcome was a composite of death or serious morbidity; secondary outcomes were other postoperative complications and resident examination performance. In the main analysis, 204,641 patients were identified from 23 teaching (n = 102,525) and 31 nonteaching (n = 102,116) hospitals. The unadjusted rate of death or serious morbidity improved during the study period in both teaching (11.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-12.0%] to 9.4% [95% CI, 9.1%-9.8%], P general surgery patient outcomes or differences in resident examination performance. The implications of these findings should be considered when evaluating the merit of the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform and revising related policies in the future.

  10. 37 CFR 11.19 - Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...

  11. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  12. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  13. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  14. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  15. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).

  16. 17 CFR 210.3-11 - Financial statements of an inactive registrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  17. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  19. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  20. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged

  1. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...

  2. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  3. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  4. Living near the port area is associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  5. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  6. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  7. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  8. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  9. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  10. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  11. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  12. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  13. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  14. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  15. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  16. Wheelchair-Specific Fitness of Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  17. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  18. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  19. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Combined Exercises on Humoral Immune and Hematological Index in Inactive Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Old age is associated with irregularities in many aspects of body immune system function. During this period, the immune responses decline with increasing age. In other words, with decreasing number of immune cells, which are responsible for detecting and direct attack to contaminated cells, the immune response decreases and results in failure of the immune system. As sports activities could affect the immune system and old age is associated with progressive immune failure, the study of the effects of exercise on the immune system function in old age becomes important. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected combined exercises (aerobic and resistance training on the serum level of cortisol and immunoglobulins in inactive elderly men. Methods & Materials: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Their age and body mass index ranged 60–70 years and 22–25 kg/m2, respectively. Then, they were randomly assigned into 2 groups (experimental [n=12] and control [n=12]. The experimental group started the combined training exercise, and the control group continued their inactive usual routines. The combined training exercise (aerobic-resistance included running on a treadmill for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, with an intensity of 60% to 70% HRR. Furthermore, the resistance training comprised 10 circling stationary movements of leg flexion, leg extension, leg press, scott, underarm stretch, chest press, iron cross with dumbbells, biceps flexion, triceps extension, and rowing motion with rope. This training included an intensity of 60% to 70% of one maximum repetition with extra load and 10 repetitions in 2 successive times with 30 seconds rest between each repetition and 2 minutes’ rest between each movement. In this study, the blood samples were taken 24 hours before the exercise and 24 hours after the last session of

  20. National Incidence of Medication Error in Surgical Patients Before and After Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Duty-Hour Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadera, Sumeet; Griffith, Sandra D; Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Chan, Alvin Y; Thompson, Nicolas R; Kshettry, Varun R; Kelly, Michael L; Weil, Robert J; Bingaman, William; Jehi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) established duty-hour regulations for accredited residency programs on July 1, 2003. It is unclear what changes occurred in the national incidence of medication errors in surgical patients before and after ACGME regulations. Patient and hospital characteristics for pre- and post-duty-hour reform were evaluated, comparing teaching and nonteaching hospitals. A difference-in-differences study design was used to assess the association between duty-hour reform and medication errors in teaching hospitals. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which consists of approximately annual 20% stratified sample of all the United States nonfederal hospital inpatient admissions. A query of the database, including 4 years before (2000-2003) and 8 years after (2003-2011) the ACGME duty-hour reform of July 2003, was performed to extract surgical inpatient hospitalizations (N = 13,933,326). The years 2003 and 2004 were discarded in the analysis to allow for a wash-out period during duty-hour reform (though we still provide medication error rates). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample estimated the total national surgical inpatients (N = 135,092,013) in nonfederal hospitals during these time periods with 68,736,863 patients in teaching hospitals and 66,355,150 in nonteaching hospitals. Shortly after duty-hour reform (2004 and 2006), teaching hospitals had a statistically significant increase in rate of medication error (p = 0.019 and 0.006, respectively) when compared with nonteaching hospitals even after accounting for trends across all hospitals during this period. After 2007, no further statistically significant difference was noted. After ACGME duty-hour reform, medication error rates increased in teaching hospitals, which diminished over time. This decrease in errors may be related to changes in training program structure to accommodate duty-hour reform. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in

  1. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  3. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  4. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  5. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  6. CRIMES AGAINST OFFICIAL DUTY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhosev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal provisions of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia relating to crimes against official duty. Crimes against official duty represent a group of criminal offenses that occupy a special place in criminal law. This kind of crimes is also called civil servants crimes, that is, they are defined as a violation of duty made by an official in performing his/her official duty. In this paper we will analyze all articles of the Criminal Code that regulate the group of criminal offenses against official duty. Most frequent cases of misuse of official duty are cases of misuse of official position and authorization, unprincipled operation within the service, defraud in the service, receiving a bribe, giving a bribe, unlawful mediation, disclosing an official secret, falsifying an official document and other. The paper will define the terms official and responsible person. In the context of the paper we will show the research referring to the number of registered and accused of crimes against official duty in the Republic of Macedonia in the period from 2004 to 2013.

  7. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  8. Health promotion in active-duty military women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazio, Janice G; Ephraim, Paula M; Flaherty, Norma B; Gurney, Cynthia A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which selected demographic characteristics, definition of health, perceived health status, perceived self-efficacy, and resources are related to the health promoting behaviors of active-duty women with children and to describe qualitatively the experience of being an active-duty mother. Grounded in Pender's (1996) Health Promotion Model, this study used methodological triangulation to test a hypothesized model. A sample of 141 active-duty women with children using military health services participated. Resource availability and commitment were key components of being successful at balancing home and work demands.

  9. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  10. Can "presumed consent" justify the duty to treat infectious diseases? An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Berna

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS, SARS, and the recent epidemics of the avian-flu have all served to remind us the debate over the limits of the moral duty to care. It is important to first consider the question of whether or not the "duty to treat" might be subject to contextual constraints. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opinions and beliefs held by both physicians and dentists regarding the occupational risks of infectious diseases, and to analyze the argument that the notion of "presumed consent" on the part of professionals may be grounds for supporting the duty to treat. Methods For this cross-sectional survey, the study population was selected from among physicians and dentists in Ankara. All of the 373 participants were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results In total, 79.6% of the participants said that they either had some degree of knowledge about the risks when they chose their profession or that they learned of the risks later during their education and training. Of the participants, 5.2% said that they would not have chosen this profession if they had been informed of the risks. It was found that 57% of the participants believed that there is a standard level of risk, and 52% of the participants stated that certain diseases would exceed the level of acceptable risk unless specific protective measures were implemented. Conclusion If we use the presumed consent argument to establish the duty of the HCW to provide care, we are confronted with problems ranging over the difficulty of choosing a profession autonomously, the constant level of uncertainty present in the medical profession, the near-impossibility of being able to evaluate retrospectively whether every individual was informed, and the seemingly inescapable problem that this practice would legitimize, and perhaps even foster, discrimination against patients with certain diseases. Our findings suggest that another problem can be added to the list: one

  11. Duty hours, quality of care, and patient safety: general surgery resident perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Karen R; Jones, Andrew T; Shea, Judy A

    2012-07-01

    The balance between patient treatment risks and training residents to proficiency is confounded by duty-hour limits. Stricter limits have been recommended to enhance quality and safety, although supporting data are scarce. A previously piloted survey was delivered with the 2010 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). First postgraduate year (PGY1) and PGY2 trainees took the Junior examination (IJE); PGY3 and above took the Senior examination (ISE). Residency type, size, and location were linked to examinees using program codes. Five survey items queried all residents about the impact of further hour limits on care quality; online test residents answered 7 more items probing medical error sources. Data were analyzed using factorial ANOVA for association with sex, PGY level, and program demographics. There were 6,161 categorical surgery residents who took the ABSITE: 60% men, 60% ISE, and two-thirds in university programs. Paper (n = 5,079) and online (n = 1,082) examinees were similar. Item response rates ranged from 91% to 98%. Few (surgery residents do not perceive that reduced duty hours will noticeably improve quality of care. Resident perceptions of causes of medical errors suggest that system changes are more likely to enhance patient safety than further hour limits. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  13. Physical training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2014-01-01

    People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered. To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies. Twenty-one studies (772 participants) were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD) 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.98 to 5.87; P physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies

  14. Quantitative and qualitative perceptions of the 2011 residency duty hour restrictions: a multicenter, multispecialty cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William S; Elkin, Rachel L; Nielsen, Craig D

    2015-03-25

    July 2011 saw the implementation of the newest duty hour restrictions, further limiting the working hours of first year residents and necessitating a variety of adaptations on the part of residency programs. The present study sought to characterize the perceived impact of these restrictions on residency program personnel using a multi-specialty and multi-site approach. We developed and administered a survey to internal medicine and general surgery residency programs at three academic medical centers within an urban region. The survey combined quantitative and qualitative components to gain a broader understanding of the impact of the newest regulations. Quantitative responses were compared between Internal Medicine and General Surgery programs with Student t-tests. Other comparisons were performed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing as appropriate. For all comparisons, the threshold for significance was set at 0.01. Two independent reviewers coded all qualitative data and assigned one or more themes based on content. Descriptive statistics were calculated and the diversity of themes identified. No between-group comparisons were conducted with the qualitative data. We found significant differences in the overall perceptions of duty hour restrictions across specialty (internal medicine more positive than general surgery) and across position (first year residents more positive than senior residents and faculty). Notably, individuals who trained at osteopathic medical schools reported significantly more negative views of the duty hour restrictions than those who had trained at allopathic or international medical schools, suggesting an influence of undergraduate medical training. The complementary qualitative data offered insights into the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the duty hour restrictions, as well as actionable suggestions that could help to improve residency program function. This study characterizes responses to the new duty hour restrictions from a

  15. Design of a continuous duty cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.W.

    1985-05-01

    A continuous duty cryopump system was designed and developed that comprises a self-contained cryopump for installation into a vacuum chamber, and a microprocessor controller for automatic operation. This deuterium pump has two units in a single housing, arranged so that one is pumping while the other is being regenerated. Liquid helium-cooled, finned sections in each unit pump deuterium by condensation, and a third pump integral within the cryopump housing collects the regenerated gas. A microprocessor unit controls distribution of liquid and gaseous helium, used for conditioning the pumping units, and operates remote actuators for the regeneration. Software provides fully automatic, timed sequencing of the repetitive cryopump events which include: cooldown of the pumping units, opening of the louvers isolating the unit from the vacuum chamber, closing of the louvers, and warming up of the unit for regeneration. Default values in the software can be reprogrammed by the operator through the keyboard in response to prompts displayed on the computer. An override allows the operator to control the cryopump manually by activating switches on a control panel. Interlocks to prevent cryogen lockup are included in the software

  16. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Yi; Fang, Yin-Ping; Chou, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Chi; Chang, Hsueh-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking) by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz) followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM) sweep (194 to 113 kHz). This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences). Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13), and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97). We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets.

  17. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Ho

    Full Text Available Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM sweep (194 to 113 kHz. This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences. Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13, and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97. We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets.

  18. The duty to do the best for one's patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Roger

    2015-03-01

    This paper is a discussion of the duty of doctors to do what is best for their patients. What is required by this duty is shown to depend on the circumstances, including any financial constraints on the doctor. The duty to do the best is a duty of benevolence, and this virtue itself has to be understood as bounded by other virtues, including justice and professional responsibility. An Aristotelian account of medical benevolence is developed, and the issues of supererogation and individual judgement are discussed within this framework. The paper ends with the claim that the patient-centred conception of benevolence defended in the paper is in line with consequentialist and deontological ethical traditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Evolution of high duty cycle echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, M. B.; Faure, P. A.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Duty cycle describes the relative 'on time' of a periodic signal. In bats, we argue that high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation was selected for and evolved from low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation because increasing call duty cycle enhanced the ability of echolocating bats to detect, lock onto and track...... fluttering insects. Most echolocators (most bats and all birds and odontocete cetaceans) use LDC echolocation, separating pulse and echo in time to avoid forward masking. They emit short duration, broadband, downward frequency modulated (FM) signals separated by relatively long periods of silence....... In contrast, bats using HDC echolocation emit long duration, narrowband calls dominated by a single constant frequency (CF) separated by relatively short periods of silence. HDC bats separate pulse and echo in frequency by exploiting information contained in Doppler-shifted echoes arising from their movements...

  20. The Perceived Importance of HR duties to Danish line managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julia; Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Today, HR scholars widely acknowledge that realising HRM requires the involvement of all managers and that the personal motivation of line managers plays an important role in their successful involvement. Yet, previous research has neglected to study how line managers rate the importance...... of particular HR duties and how the importance assigned to HR duties varies across managers. Based on a survey of 1,500 Danish managers, we find that 'motivating others' is considered the most important HR duty whereas 'team building', 'handling conflicts' and 'coaching' are considered the least important HR...... duties. Female top managers in the public sector exhibit the greatest interest in HR whereas men at lower managerial levels in the private sector give lowest priority to HR work. We conclude with possible explanations for the observed differences in a Danish context and beyond and provide suggestions...

  1. Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides data on the fuel economy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and technology trends of new light-duty vehicles (cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks) for model years 1975 to present in the United States.

  2. 7 CFR 917.34 - Duties of Control Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.34 Duties of Control Committee. The Control... develop and provide the commodity committees data on shared expenses to facilitate equitable apportionment...

  3. Sleep and Other Activities of Off Duty Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crabtree, Mark S; Eddy, Douglas R

    2005-01-01

    An exhaustive search of archives, reports, databases and publications was performed to locate research data that describe the activities of off-duty pilots as they prepare for night or long duration missions...

  4. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  5. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Shelley E.; Machan, Elizabeth A.; O'Connor, Helen T.; Gerofi, James A.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Caterson, Ian D.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT) or placebo (PLA) on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training. PMID:24669314

  6. Environmental sampling technician training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently involved in extensive environmental monitoring activities to characterize various active/inactive waste sites that exist at the facility. There are also considerable reporting requirements that ORNL must meet on a continuing basis in order to remain in compliance with existing permit requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Much of the environmental monitoring data that is used to characterize waste sites or is required in reports is obtained by environmental sampling technicians who must take samples at various locations throughout ORNL as well as other DOE installations. Because of the quality control and assurance measures included under NQA-1, ORNL has developed an Environmental Sampling Technician Training program. This presentation will describe how the Environmental Sampling Technician Training Program was developed and review the specific materials used in conducting the training

  7. Radiological contamination control training for laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This program management guide describes the proper implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual. The guide is to assist those individuals, both within the Department of Energy (DOE) and Managing and Operating (M and O) contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RadCon Manual. The management guide is divided into the following sections: introduction; instructional materials development; training program standards and policies; and course-specific information. The goal of the core training program is to provide a standardized, baseline knowledge for those individuals completing the core training. Standardization of the knowledge provides personnel with the information necessary to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined level of expertise. Implementing a core training program ensures consistent and appropriate training of personnel

  8. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  9. The legal nature of the duty of care and skill: Contract or delict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the legal nature of the duty of care and skill of directors. In terms of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 this duty is essentially delictual in nature. This article evaluates whether the duty is in fact delictual in nature. Case law, which considered the duty of care and skill and where it had been sought to establish ...

  10. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia. The review covers one... published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on PRCBs from Malaysia. See Antidumping Duty...

  11. 76 FR 5332 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina...

  12. 77 FR 21968 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... countervailing duty order on honey ] from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for...

  13. 77 FR 4763 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... ] antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina...

  14. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  15. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  16. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  17. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  18. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities

  20. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  1. Strength Training: A Natural Prescription for Staying Healthy and Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the importance of strength training in keeping older adults healthy and fit, explaining how it can forestall declines in strength and muscle mass, along with their attendant negative impact upon other metabolic functions and activities of daily living. Physical inactivity is common throughout the nation. Approximately 11…

  2. 3D Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    properly trained for these duties, as a minimum all Air Force Dental Residency programs (13 sites) require a course in forensic dentistry including...Nuinber: FKE20080002E 2. Title: ŗD Virtual Images and Forensic Identification Training" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Stephanie A. Stouder, Lt Col...47XX identifies the requirement for initial and annual training in forensic identification for all AF Dentists. Currently, to ensure that dentists are

  3. Fitness for duty: a no-nonsense approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, S.M.; Hill, A.O.

    1987-01-01

    In formulating the fitness-for-duty program at Houston Lighting and Power (HL and P), the project and plant staffs followed program guidelines developed by the Edison Electric Institute and considered the performance criteria for the fitness-for-duty programs developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The staff visited utilities involved in fitness-for-duty implementation to review the problems and successes experienced by those utilities. On November 1, 1985, the nuclear group vice-president instituted the South Texas Project Fitness-for-Duty Policy to become effective on January 1, 1986. It was important to implement the program at that time, as the project moved to the final stages of construction and preparation for plant operations. The South Texas Project has made a firm commitment to the industry with our fitness-for-duty program. The no-nonsense approach to illegal drug and alcohol use enables to assure a high level of employee health, productivity, and safety in a drug- and alcohol-free environment. The cost of the fitness-for-duty program is minimal when compared to the increase in productivity and the heightened confidence in workers by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission since implementation of this program

  4. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  5. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  6. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  7. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.

  8. Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.

  9. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  10. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  11. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  12. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  13. Effect of training on physical capacity and physical strain in persons with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Hopman, M T; Angenot, E L; van der Woude, L H

    The effects of quad rugby training on physical capacity and physical strain during standardized activities of daily living were investigated in 9 trained (A) and 5 untrained quad rugby players (B), and 7 inactive persons with tetraplegia (C) at 0, 3 and 6 months after the start of a quad rugby

  14. Antimicrobial and conformational studies of the active and inactive analogues of the protegrin-1 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2010-02-01

    The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.

  15. Inactive and active states and supramolecular organization of GPCRs: insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; De Benedetti, Pier G.

    2006-08-01

    Herein we make an overview of the results of our computational experiments aimed at gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR functioning either in their normal conditions or when hit by gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations. Molecular simulations of a number of GPCRs in their wild type and mutated as well as free and ligand-bound forms were instrumental in inferring the structural features, which differentiate the mutation- and ligand-induced active from the inactive states. These features essentially reside in the interaction pattern of the E/DRY arginine and in the degree of solvent exposure of selected cytosolic domains. Indeed, the active states differ from the inactive ones in the weakening of the interactions made by the highly conserved arginine and in the increase in solvent accessibility of the cytosolic interface between helices 3 and 6. Where possible, the structural hallmarks of the active and inactive receptor states are translated into molecular descriptors useful for in silico functional screening of novel receptor mutants or ligands. Computational modeling of the supramolecular organization of GPCRs and their intracellular partners is the current challenge toward a deep understanding of their functioning mechanisms.

  16. A mononuclear non-heme manganese(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N; Nam, Wonwoo

    2013-05-01

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal-oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc(3+) ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C-H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal-oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  17. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  18. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  19. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  20. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  1. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  2. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 Europ...... interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.......Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years...

  3. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  4. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  5. Influences on the Retention of Residency-Trained and Non-Residency Trained Navy Dental Corps Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Temporomandibular Dysfunction 14,000 10,000 8, (Advanced C l 12,000 8,000 6,000 12 creditable service”36 or have completed their active duty obligated...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Influences on the Retention of Residency-Trained and...SUBTITLE: Influences on the Retention of Residency-Trained and Non-Residency Trained Navy Dental Corps Officers 6. AUTHOR(S) Alan B. Christian 5

  6. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musculus, Mark P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Regulatory drivers and market demands for lower pollutant emissions, lower carbon dioxide emissions, and lower fuel consumption motivate the development of clean and fuel-efficient engine operating strategies. Most current production engines use a combination of both in-cylinder and exhaust emissions-control strategies to achieve these goals. The emissions and efficiency performance of in-cylinder strategies depend strongly on flow and mixing processes associated with fuel injection. Various diesel engine manufacturers have adopted close-coupled post-injection combustion strategies to both reduce pollutant emissions and to increase engine efficiency for heavy-duty applications, as well as for light- and medium-duty applications. Close-coupled post-injections are typically short injections that follow a larger main injection in the same cycle after a short dwell, such that the energy conversion efficiency of the post-injection is typical of diesel combustion. Of the various post-injection schedules that have been reported in the literature, effects on exhaust soot vary by roughly an order of magnitude in either direction of increasing or decreasing emissions relative to single injections (O’Connor et al., 2015). While several hypotheses have been offered in the literature to help explain these observations, no clear consensus has been established. For new engines to take full advantage of the benefits that post-injections can offer, the in-cylinder mechanisms that affect emissions and efficiency must be identified and described to provide guidance for engine design.

  7. Essential professional duties for the sub-Saharan medical/dental graduate: An Association of Medical Schools of Africa initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade-Olaopa, E O; Sewankambo, N; Iputo, J E; Rugarabamu, P; Amlak, A H; Mipando, M; Monekosso G L

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND - Globally, human resources for health are being optimized to address the increasing health burden and concomitant increased demands on health professionals. These demands are even more exacting in Sub-SaharanAfrica considering the shortage of health care workers, especially physicians. The noteworthy efforts at deploying task-shifting to address this situation not-withstanding, the situation also signals the need to re-define the objectives of medical instruction to ensure effective and contemporary medical practice in a mostly physician-led health workforce across the sub-continent. In this regard, medical and dental graduates must be educated to perform certain minimum essential professional duties competently. Essential Professional Duties are locally relevant professional activities of international standard that represent identifiable outcomes against which the effectiveness of physicians in a specific community can be measured to ensure social accountability. PROCEDURE AND PRODUCT - The Association of Medical Schools of Africa has developed the 'Essential Professional Duties for sub-Saharan medical and dental graduates' to ensure these physicians provide safe and effective contemporary medical/dental practice on the sub-continent. The duties have been grouped into those required for basic patient care, basic administrative skills, basic emergency care, communication, inter-professional relationships, self-directed learning and social responsibilities. Their relevance and suitability have been evaluated prior to their adoption by the Association. CONCLUSION; These Essential Physician Duties have been developed to serve as targets for health professionals training instruments and thus give direction to health system strategies. It is hoped that they will be adopted by medical and dental schools across sub-,. Saharan Africa.

  8. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-09-25

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown.

  9. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown

  10. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  11. Why Stamp Duties are an Increasing Financial Burden on Australian Home Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Gavin A.

    1994-01-01

    The purchaser of housing incurs stamp duty liabilities in all Australian States. These stamp duties are levied on the conveyance of residential property and mortgage sums secured. In general, stamp duties were a growing financial burden on home buyers during the period 1985-1991. This paper examines the role of house price inflation in causing increases in average rates of stamp duty, the responsiveness of average rates of stamp duty to future changes in the nominal tax base and the effective...

  12. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  13. Preferential binding of allosteric modulators to active and inactive conformational states of metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Seetharaman Judith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G protein coupled receptors that play important roles in synaptic plasticity and other neuro-physiological and pathological processes. Allosteric mGluR ligands are particularly promising drug targets because of their modulatory effects – enhancing or suppressing the response of mGluRs to glutamate. The mechanism by which this modulation occurs is not known. Here, we propose the hypothesis that positive and negative modulators will differentially stabilize the active and inactive conformations of the receptors, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we have generated computational models of the transmembrane regions of different mGluR subtypes in two different conformations. The inactive conformation was modeled using the crystal structure of the inactive, dark state of rhodopsin as template and the active conformation was created based on a recent model of the light-activated state of rhodopsin. Ligands for which the nature of their allosteric effects on mGluRs is experimentally known were docked to the modeled mGluR structures using ArgusLab and Autodock softwares. We find that the allosteric ligand binding pockets of mGluRs are overlapping with the retinal binding pocket of rhodopsin, and that ligands have strong preferences for the active and inactive states depending on their modulatory nature. In 8 out of 14 cases (57%, the negative modulators bound the inactive conformations with significant preference using both docking programs, and 6 out of 9 cases (67%, the positive modulators bound the active conformations. Considering results by the individual programs only, even higher correlations were observed: 12/14 (86% and 8/9 (89% for ArgusLab and 10/14 (71% and 7/9 (78% for AutoDock. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that mGluR allosteric modulation occurs via stabilization of different conformations analogous to those identified in rhodopsin where they are induced by

  14. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  15. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity in older people with a history of hip fracture. Data were collected from 60- to 85-year-old (n = 78) community-dwelling people, 0.7-7.5 years after hip fracture. Physical activity was assessed with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). According to the YPAS summary index distribution, the participants were divided into the physically inactive and physically active groups. Musculoskeletal pain in the lower back, hip or knee region was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale. Pain was defined as severe pain if the subject rated the pain 66 mm or over (upper third of the scale) in at least one of the relevant body regions in the lower body. Thirty-three subjects (42%) experienced severe pain in the lower body, of whom 23 (70%) reported severe pain in the operated hip. Twenty-three patients (30%) used pain medication prescribed by a physician. The level of musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher in the physically inactive (62%) than in the physically active (31%) group (p = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that people with severe pain had over three times (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.30-9.39) the risk for physical inactivity compared to those with less or no pain. Multivariate adjustments for balance confidence, time since fracture, number of chronic diseases and type of surgery did not materially change the estimate (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.00-9.30). Pain is an important associated factor of physical inactivity in older people with a hip fracture history. Pain management may be important in restoring and sustaining the level of physical activity after hip fracture. Further prospective and experimental studies are, however, needed to explore the causality between pain and

  16. Perceptions of the 2011 ACGME duty hour requirements among residents in all core programs at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Benjamin J; Shewmaker, Diana M; Lohse, Christine M; Rose, Steven H; Colletti, James E

    2017-11-10

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented revisions to resident duty hour requirements (DHRs) in 2011 to improve patient safety and resident well-being. Perceptions of DHRs have been reported to vary by training stage and specialty among internal medicine and general surgery residents. The authors explored perceptions of DHRs among all residents at a large academic medical center. The authors administered an anonymous cross-sectional survey about DHRs to residents enrolled in all ACGME-accredited core residency programs at their institution. Residents were categorized as medical and pediatric, surgery, or other. In total, 736 residents representing 24 core specialty residency programs were surveyed. The authors received responses from 495 residents (67%). A majority reported satisfaction (78%) with DHRs and believed DHRs positively affect their training (73%). Residents in surgical specialties and in advanced stages of training were significantly less likely to view DHRs favorably. Most respondents believed fatigue contributes to errors (89%) and DHRs reduce both fatigue (80%) and performance of clinical duties while fatigued (74%). A minority of respondents (37%) believed that DHRs decrease medical errors. This finding may reflect beliefs that handovers contribute more to errors than fatigue (41%). Negative perceived effects included diminished patient familiarity and continuity of care (62%) and diminished clinical educational experiences for residents (41%). A majority of residents reported satisfaction with the 2011 DHRs, although satisfaction was significantly less among residents in surgical specialties and those in advanced stages of training.

  17. Randomized clinical trial studying effects of a personalized supervised lifestyle intervention program on cardiovascular status in physically inactive healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, Helena U; Gan, Li-Ming; Månsson, Marianne; Svedlund, Sara

    2018-02-06

    The impact of personalized exercise training and a healthy dietary lifestyle in healthy volunteers on coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular function remains to be investigated in a controlled study setting. To examine the effects of a Mediterranean-inspired diet combined with regular physical exercise (standard) and a personalized supervised exercise program (DAPS) on coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular function. The number of males were 10 (59%) and 9 (47%) and mean age was 54 ± 12 and 55 ± 5 years in standard versus DAPS group, respectively. Primary outcomes were in addition to improved body composition and aerobic capacity, increased TDE-CFR (5.0%, CI:1.62,8.64, p = 0.005) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) during hyperemia (10.2%, CI:1.62,19.4, p = 0.022) in DAPS adjusted for the control period. Also, plasma fibrinogen decreased (-12.1%, CI:-22.0,-0.92, p = 0.035) in the DAPS group. Secondary outcomes, after adjusting DAPS intervention effects for the standard-training period, TDE-CFR and hyperemic LVEF remained significantly improved. This randomized, controlled clinical trial (URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02713724) included 36 healthy volunteers who underwent exercise ECG before randomization to standard or DAPS groups. Standard-group was given gym-membership with limited instructions and general dietary advice. DAPS-group received personalized supervised exercise programs and more detailed dietary advice with regular contact with a personal trainer. Effects were evaluated after 3 months. All participants underwent coronary flow reserve by transthoracic ultrasound (TDE-CFR), blood marker analysis and examinations of vascular function. Standard-group was evaluated pre-control, post-control (=pre-intervention) and post-intervention. DAPS-group was examined at pre-intervention and post-intervention. A personalized supervised training- and diet program improves cardiovascular status in healthy subjects with a physically inactive

  18. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  19. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  20. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  1. Evolution of high duty cycle echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M Brock; Faure, Paul A; Ratcliffe, John M

    2012-09-01

    Duty cycle describes the relative 'on time' of a periodic signal. In bats, we argue that high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation was selected for and evolved from low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation because increasing call duty cycle enhanced the ability of echolocating bats to detect, lock onto and track fluttering insects. Most echolocators (most bats and all birds and odontocete cetaceans) use LDC echolocation, separating pulse and echo in time to avoid forward masking. They emit short duration, broadband, downward frequency modulated (FM) signals separated by relatively long periods of silence. In contrast, bats using HDC echolocation emit long duration, narrowband calls dominated by a single constant frequency (CF) separated by relatively short periods of silence. HDC bats separate pulse and echo in frequency by exploiting information contained in Doppler-shifted echoes arising from their movements relative to background objects and their prey. HDC echolocators are particularly sensitive to amplitude and frequency glints generated by the wings of fluttering insects. We hypothesize that narrowband/CF calls produced at high duty cycle, and combined with neurobiological specializations for processing Doppler-shifted echoes, were essential to the evolution of HDC echolocation because they allowed bats to detect, lock onto and track fluttering targets. This advantage was especially important in habitats with dense vegetation that produce overlapping, time-smeared echoes (i.e. background acoustic clutter). We make four specific, testable predictions arising from this hypothesis.

  2. THE EVOLUTION AND COMPLEXITY OF DIRECTORS' DUTY OF CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Ponta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The duty of care, which sets the standard of conduct of a „good director” is currently governed by the Romanian Companies Act and the Civil Code. The corroboration of the two legal acts is challenging, the paper in hand aims at a comparative view of the legal norms and at the appraisal of the content of this fiduciary duty in the modern context of the competitive economy. The nature of this fiduciary duty and the cases when it can be defied according to the Romanian Law are discussed in terms of the literature and the case law that inspired the legislator. By creating parallels between the content of the agency and the traditional characters of the director's office, mainly tagged with legal prerogatives, the study will reveal the importance of the fiduciary characters of the director’s function. The conclusions will catch the effects of standardizing the substantive exercise of the duty of care and the importance of defining the fiduciary character of directors’ duties, both with respect to case law and as well for healthy business relationships.

  3. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. This document contains appendices to Attachment 3, Groundwater Hydrology Report included are calculations

  4. Mental health and physical inactivity during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study nested in the BRISA cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahasi, Eliana Harumi Morioka; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and physical inactivity in 1,447 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Subjects answered the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stress levels were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. The rate of physical inactivity was lo...

  5. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  6. Training and qualification of inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, I.; Anderson, R.; Ericsson, P.O.; Lee, I.

    1993-01-01

    A total of four workshop breakout sessions were conducted on this subject: one double session and three single sessions. The following discussion describes common points and difference among the countries in the areas of inspector training and qualifications. In most countries there are resident or non-resident site-specific inspectors who have general plant supervision duties. In addition, there are specialized inspectors who visit NPP when requested or according to the scheduled inspection program. Most countries try to recruit experienced personnel. Many countries prefer to have candidates who have extensive plant experience. Some countries do not recruit inspectors from utilities because of potential conflict of interest or credibility reasons. In many countries, the typical training time to become an independent inspector is one year. In some countries an inspector is formally certified after their training period and completion of an examination

  7. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  9. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  10. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding of how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.

  11. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  12. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  13. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  14. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  15. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  16. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  17. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  18. Structural characteristics of active and inactive glutamate dehydrogenases from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes from hyperthermophiles are generally extremely thermostable and lose little or no activity during long periods under a variety conditions. This high stability is very attractive, in that it gives the enzymes potential for use in numerous bioprocesses. My research group has investigated this high stability from the viewpoint of the relationship between function and structure. In this review, I describe the molecular mechanism underlying the extreme stability of unboiled NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum. I also describe the activation of the inactive recombinant enzyme produced in mesophilic Escherichia coli from the viewpoint of the relationship between structure and activity.

  19. Radium-226 in plants and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marple, M.L.; Potter, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake and translocation of contaminants from uranium mill tailings piles and other similar wastes could be an important transport mechanism of these contaminants into the environment. The content of Ra-226, the radionuclide of most concern in this context, was investigated in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination. This study provides a basis for estimating intake levels for herbivores and for evaluating transfer coefficients

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  1. Expression of genes from the human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C J; Carrel, L; Willard, H F

    1997-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited inactivation of many, but not all, of the genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. In addition to the genes from the pseudoautosomal region, which have long been anticipated to escape inactivation, genes from several other regions of the human X chromosome have now been shown to escape inactivation and to be expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes. The growing number of genes escaping inactivation em...

  2. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  3. Classification of Gait Types Based on the Duty-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with classification of human gait types based on the notion that different gait types are in fact different types of locomotion, i.e., running is not simply walking done faster. We present the duty-factor, which is a descriptor based on this notion. The duty-factor is independent...... on the speed of the human, the cameras setup etc. and hence a robust descriptor for gait classification. The dutyfactor is basically a matter of measuring the ground support of the feet with respect to the stride. We estimate this by comparing the incoming silhouettes to a database of silhouettes with known...... ground support. Silhouettes are extracted using the Codebook method and represented using Shape Contexts. The matching with database silhouettes is done using the Hungarian method. While manually estimated duty-factors show a clear classification the presented system contains misclassifications due...

  4. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  5. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen......, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment....

  6. Tanggung Jawab Direksi Perseroan Terbatas dalam Pelanggaran Fiduciary Duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hapsah Isfardiyana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Direksi merupakan organ perseroan terbatas yang bertanggungjawab terhadap pengurusan dan perwakilan perseroan, sesuai maksud dan tujuan perseroan berdasarkan Anggaran Dasar Rumah Tangga perseroan terbatas. Pengurusan dan perwakilan oleh direksi harus dijalankan sesuai prinsip fiduciary duty. Tulisan ini menekankan pada persoalan kecerobohan direksi sehingga melakukan pelanggaran fiduciary duty, yang berakibat pada penerapan piercing the corporate vielpada direksi. Dasar hukum utama yang digunakan di penelitian ini termasuk Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (KUHP dan Undang-Undang Nomor 40 Tahun 2007 tentang Perseroan Terbatas. Direksi dalam menjalankan kepengurusannya harus didasarkan dengan itikad baik dan penuh tanggung jawab karena direksi memegang fiduciary duty dari perseroan. Apabila direksi lalai dalam tugasnya,direksi dapat dikenakan piercing the corporate viel yaitu pertanggungjawaban pribadi sampai kepada harta pribadi direksi atas kerugian yang diterima oleh perseroan, pemegang saham, atau pihak ketiga. Hal ini digunakan untuk melindungi kepentingan pemegang saham atau pihak ketiga yang dirugikan atas tindakan direksi yang sewenang-wenang atau tidak layak yang dilakukan atas nama perseroan. Abstract The company's directors is the organ responsible for the maintenance and as a representative of the company based on the purpose and objectives of the articles of association. Management and representationby the directors must be executed according to the principle of fiduciary duty. This study emphasized the issue of directors’negligence that leads to the breach of fiduciary duty, whichresultsto the application of piercing the coporate viel by the directors. Primary legal materials used in this study including the Code of Civil Law (Civil Code and Law No. 40 of 2007 on Limited Company. The directors should be implemented in good faith and full responsibility in carrying out its duty, because the directors hold fiduciary duty of

  7. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software

  8. Legal rights and duties in the AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M

    1988-02-05

    This article provides an overview of some major areas of legal concern in which the AIDS epidemic is having an impact. The rights of infected individuals to testing, treatment, and confidentiality are reviewed, and emphasis is given to their claims to nondiscrimination regarding access to health care, employment, housing, education, insurance, and related interests. Infected persons' duties to contain transmission of AIDS are outlined under principles of criminal and civil law, including liability for provision of contaminated blood products. Uninfected people's general rights to protection are considered, and health professionals' and authorities' rights and duties are given more detailed attention. In conclusion, some legal developments outside the United States are reviewed.

  9. Bookmakers and a Duty of Care: Customers' Views in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Graham; Sparrow, Paul

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on customers' views on the extent that bookmakers and individuals are responsible for a duty of care. 72 participants from seven bookmakers in one city in England were interviewed that illustrates customers expect bookmakers to take 'reasonable steps' to avoid exploiting all customers. However, the customers' views recorded in this paper illustrate a range of views on what a duty of care should actually comprise with differences of opinion on the level of bookmakers and individuals level of responsibility, dealing with intoxicated customers, illegal gambling, prevention of excessive and problem gambling and self-exclusion.

  10. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  11. Flavonoid-induced conversion of catalase to its inactive form--Compound II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, J; Gebicki, J L; Gebicka, L

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids (FlaOHs), plant polyphenols, are ubiquitous components of human diet and are known as antioxidants. However, their prooxidant activity has also been reported. We have recently found that FlaOHs inhibit catalase, the heme enzyme which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and molecular oxygen. The catalytic cycle proceeds with the formation of the intermediate, Compound I (Cpd I), an oxoferryl porphyrin π-cation radical, the two-electron oxidation product of a heme group. Under conditions of low H2O2 fluxes and in the presence of an appropriate substrate, Cpd I can undergo one-electron reduction to inactive Compound II (Cpd II), oxoferryl derivative without radical site. Here we show that in vitro, under low fluxes of H2O2, FlaOHs reduce Cpd I to inactive Cpd II. Measurable amounts of Cpd II can be formed even in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) at concentration comparable with the investigated FlaOHs. Possible mechanisms of electron transfer from FlaOH molecule to the heme are discussed.

  12. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  13. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  14. Any link between sexual inactivity and treadle pump performance characteristics: The Malawi case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Chidanti-Malunga; Yamikani, Malunga

    In mitigating the effects of climate change in Malawi, government promotes the use of low cost irrigation technologies to small-scale farmers, especially in wetlands where water is available. The treadle pump is one such technology. The pump is a manual water lifting device operated by feet. Although the technology has been widely accepted by small-scale farmers, there are documented reports that some farmers abandon the technology, preferring other technologies such as river diversion. One theory for the abandonment is that female farmers claim that the technology makes their male counterparts sexually inactive. This research seeks to find an explanation to the misconception. The study analyzed the physical characteristics of the treadle pump and its users. The results show that the technology is male-dominated (30% were females out of a sample of 40). The results also show that the technology is labor-intensive with very small discharge rates (an average of 0.78 l/s) achieved regardless of the BMI of the operator. With such small discharge rates, in order to fulfill irrigation requirements of a crop, the operator has to pump for long hours. This exercise makes men naturally tired, perhaps making them sexually inactive as well.

  15. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Overweight, obesity, and inactivity and urban design in rapidly growing Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen; Alfonzo, Mariela; Chen, Yufei; Guo, Zhan; Lee, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    China faces rising rates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among its citizens. Risk is highest in China's rapidly growing cities and urban populations. Current urban development practices and policies in China heighten this risk. These include policies that support decentralization in land use planning; practices of neighborhood gating; and policies and practices tied to motor vehicle travel, transit planning, and bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. In this paper, we review cultural, political, and economic issues that influence overweight, obesity, and inactivity in China. We examine key urban planning features and policies that shape urban environments that may compromise physical activity as part of everyday life, including walking and bicycling. We review the empirical research to identify planning and design strategies that support physical activity in other high-density cities in developing and developed countries. Finally, we identify successful strategies to increase physical activity in another growing, high-density city - New York City - to suggest strategies that may have relevance for rapidly urbanizing Chinese cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships among physical inactivity, deconditioning, and walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    We have previously proposed a conceptual model of physical inactivity, physiological deconditioning, and walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) that suggests engaging in physical activity and improving physiological conditioning may lead to improvements in walking performance. This cross-sectional study examined the nature of associations among physical activity, aerobic capacity, and walking performance in persons with MS and healthy controls. The sample included 31 persons with MS and 31 controls matched by age, sex, height, and weight. Participants completed the 6-minute walk (6MW), wore an ActiGraph model GT3X accelerometer for 7 days as an objective measure of physical activity (expressed as time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and completed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer as a measure of aerobic capacity (VO2peak). Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that MVPA and VO2peak partially explained group differences in 6MW performance (R = 0.782), although group remained a significant predictor of 6MW performance (β = 0.304; P deconditioning, perhaps occurring as a result of physical inactivity, may explain variability in walking impairment in persons with MS. These findings support the design and implementation of targeted interventions for improving walking impairment in this population. for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A93).

  18. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Interaction of anammox bacteria and inactive methanogenic granules under high nitrogen selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Fessehaie, Anania; Lee, Po-Heng; Gao, Bao-Yu; Xu, Xing; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-09-01

    Granular anammox reactors usually adopted anaerobic/aerobic granules as source sludge, in which the washout of other species and enrichment of anammox biomass were very slow because of the competition of the coexisting bacteria. In this study, inactive methanogenic granules were proved to be suitable for rapid anammox granulation under high nitrogen concentrations by investigating their interaction with anammox bacteria. The start-up nitrite concentration was significantly higher than the published toxic level for anammox bacteria and other lab-scale studies. The nitrogen loading rate increased from 141 to 480 mg/L/d in 120 days operation with a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 96.0+/-0.6%. Anammox granules with a diameter of 1.3+/-0.4mm were observed over the course of three months. Molecular analysis showed that over 67% of the cells in the anammox granules were anammox bacteria after 90 days. The accommodations and proliferations of anammox bacteria in the inactive methanogenic granules might be the main reason for the high anammox purity in a short period. The important role of the extracellular polymer in the granule structure was observed via morphological observation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  1. Training management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)

  2. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2007 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarized the regulatory requirements related to nitrous oxide (NO x ) fleet averaging for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines and include technical standards that establish maximum limits on vehicle exhaust emissions. The fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for 2007 was summarized, and the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program was evaluated in relation to its environmental performance objectives. A total of 22 companies submitted reports for 294 test groups comprising 1,599,051 vehicles of the 2007 model year. The average NO x value for the entire LDV/LLDT fleet was 0.06897630 grams per mile. The average value for the HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.160668 grams per mile. NO x values for both overall fleets remained better than the corresponding fleet average NO x standards, and were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  4. Impact of training and education on productivity of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significant impact on job productivity of librarians in academic libraries. It was recommended that regular training should be organized for academic librarians in order to get them acquainted with skills needed to function effectively in their duties. In addition, it was recommended that opportunities for education through staff ...

  5. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  6. 75 FR 7563 - Certain Lined Paper Products from India: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... 1930, as amended (the Act), the Department preliminarily determined that the use of facts available for...: Offset of Countervailing Duty Duties Comment 5: Levels of Trade Comment 6: Treatment of Merchandising...

  7. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration... the Countervailing Duty Investigation of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Malaysia,'' dated... frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1...

  8. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010... 25685

  9. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand...

  10. On-The-Job Training: A Practical Guide for Food Service Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

    The on-the-job training guide was developed to assist food service supervisors in preparing, presenting, and evaluating a Job Instruction Training (JIT) lesson, a method which employs step-by-step learning of job-related tasks. Part 1, preparing for a JIT lesson, discusses the checklist of duties, the job description, the skills inventory, the…

  11. Equipment Operator 3 and 2. NAVTRA 10640-G. Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Equipment Operator 3 and 2 ratings for Navy personnel is provided in this manual. The chapters outline the duties and responsibilities of the equipment operators involved with engines, fuels, lubricants, pollution control, automotive power trains and chassis, automotive vehicles, materials-handling…

  12. [P3S: Secured fitness trail set up in Guadeloupe, a tool to fight against physical inactivity: A device that has proved itself].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A; Pinay, M; Virolan, K; Bedouet, F; Gatibelza, S

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to introduce an original device already set up in Guadeloupe, the P3S: it is a secured fitness trail; it aims to raise awareness of the harmful effects of physical inactivity and to fight against physical inactivity. The P3S device was financed by the Regional Council of Guadeloupe and includes: (1) a first space to perform a warm-up and gymnastics; (2) the route to the market; (3) 8 physical activity workshops. Coaching by educators sportsmen and teachers of activity physics adapted is proposed, provided by the ARS of Guadeloupe. Coordination is organized by the network of care, the HTA-GWAD network - Gip.Raspeg. A first evaluation of the device was conducted following the establishment on 10 routes drivers. The very encouraging results of these P3S led to extend the device to all communes of Guadeloupe who have at least a P3S. The proximity of these P3S, their free, and coaching provided by exercise teachers trained in sport health explains the success of these devices. The P3S are currently well known by the Guadeloupean population that well integrates this device. The supervision of educators is a source of motivation and makes P3S, a place where physical activities in group are practiced free of charge and in a friendly state of mind. This device might be known from other regions that could also set them up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The Legal Duty to Incorporate Mistakes of the Victim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In many jurisdictions, potential injurers are under a legal duty to incorporate possible mistakes of the potential victim. I distinguish three types of mistakes. First, victims might make mistakes because it is too costly to avoid them (e.g. little children in traffic). Second,

  14. State duties of protection and fundamental rights | Starck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its reaching its decision, the German Federal Constitutional Court is responsible for preserving the political discretion of the legislature in protecting interests and remembering the structural distinction between "hard" defensive rights and "soft" protective duties in order to prevent the erosion of the directly binding nature of ...

  15. 49 CFR 592.6 - Duties of a registered importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... highways for any purpose other than: (i) Transportation to and from a franchised dealership of the vehicle... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REGISTERED IMPORTERS OF VEHICLES NOT ORIGINALLY MANUFACTURED TO CONFORM TO THE FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS § 592.6 Duties of a...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.512 - Duty cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at least 5 Hz. Use these recorded values to calculate cycle-validation statistics and total work. (d... sequence of paired values for speed and torque or for speed and power. (b) Transform normalized values of... describes how to transform these normalized values into a sequence of reference speeds, f nref. Running duty...

  17. [Sport injuries during duty sport--a risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S

    2011-03-01

    Daily physical activity ist a predictive factor for cardio-vascular disease and for obesity. In military, police and firefighter service duty sport is used to increase and to keep a work specifical physical fitness. Till today no study data with direct data acquisition exists for a risk assessment of the injury rates in duty sport. In this one-year study in a German Armed Forces armoured brigade with 22 companies, every sport-related injury on duty and the following sick days were recorded. Apart from the sport type, the duration of the athletic activity and the number of soldiers that took part in it were monitored. 275 sport injuries were recorded. Soccer was the sport with the highest risk of injuries. Team sports proved to be more dangerous than individual physical activity. The author has demonstrated a reduction of the total injury rate by 39 %, of sick days by 50 %, and of the days with partial unfitness for duty by 42 % when team sports are reduced in favour to other physical activities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. 75 FR 32099 - Enterprise Duty To Serve Underserved Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... 2590-AA27 Enterprise Duty To Serve Underserved Markets AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended section 1335 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and... Enterprises) to serve three specified underserved markets--manufactured housing, affordable housing...

  19. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  20. 21 CFR 1316.73 - Custody and other duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody and other duties. 1316.73 Section 1316.73 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.73 Custody and other...

  1. Academic Entrepreneurship and Traditional Academic Duties: Synergy or Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of academic entrepreneurship on traditional academic duties carried out in a resource-constrained environment, particularly focusing on whether there is synergy or rivalry between these two activities. Using qualitative evidence, we discover that there are funding, resource, knowledge and skill and networking…

  2. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  3. 7 CFR 1260.150 - Duties of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board § 1260.150 Duties of the Board...

  4. 49 CFR 199.217 - On-duty use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.217 On-duty use. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from using alcohol... alcohol while performing covered functions shall permit the employee to perform or continue to perform...

  5. 77 FR 28763 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... holders and their flightcrew members operating certain domestic, flag, and supplemental operations. This... exceeded to the extent necessary to allow the flightcrew to fly to the closest destination where they can... follows: Sec. 121.467 Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and...

  6. 49 CFR 199.219 - Pre-duty use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.219 Pre-duty use. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee from using alcohol... operator having actual knowledge that a covered employee has used alcohol within four hours prior to...

  7. Differential Perception of Counselling Psychologists' Duties to Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive survey study investigated the differences that exist in the perception of the relevance of counselling psychologists' duties to broadcasting corporation. The participants consisted of one hundred and two (54 males and 48 females) purposively selected staff of Oyo State Broadcasting Corporation.

  8. 47 CFR 51.301 - Duty to negotiate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identify the network elements that it needs in order to serve a particular customer; and (ii) Refusal by an... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty to negotiate. 51.301 Section 51.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION...

  9. Conflicting duties over confidentiality in Argentina and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Mercedes

    2011-02-01

    The medical duty of confidentiality represents a key element for the provision of reproductive and sexual health services. In some Latin American countries, such as Argentina and Peru, the legal systems impose—or are interpreted as imposing—on health professionals the duty of confidentiality, but also the duty to report the commission of a public order offense that they know about owing to the practicing of their profession. In these countries, the conflicting duties and the criminalization of abortion cause severe public health and human rights problems when health professionals assist their patients for post-abortion treatment. Typically, patients are deterred from seeking prompt medical care, and their privacy, autonomy, and dignity are violated. A 2010 ruling from the Supreme Court of Argentina and a 2004 ruling from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights emerge as important instruments that grant a more adequate protection of medical confidentiality. © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of...

  11. Operation Duties on the F-15B Research Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Samson S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation entails what I have done this past summer for my Co-op tour in the Operations Engineering Branch. Activities included supporting the F-15B Research Testbed, supporting the incoming F-15D models, design work, and other operations engineering duties.

  12. Duty-to-Warn Guidelines for Mental Health Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luann; Altekruse, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes legal cases in which duty-to-warn was an issue. Suggests that guidelines for counselors are few and lack definition. Offers a model to guide counselors in making clinical judgments in cases and case examples to exemplify possible ethical dilemmas in the practice of counseling. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  13. The Mental Health Counselor and "Duty to Warn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)

  14. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  15. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance and fatigue in the cockpit (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and fatigue in the cockpit and microsleeps in the cockpit (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). A critical pathway from duty hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  16. 32 CFR 516.59 - Duties and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.59 Duties and procedures... agencies; contracting officers; inspectors general of the executive branch; correspondence from the public... indications of fraud or corruption relating to Army contracts or Army administered contracts are reported...

  17. 34 CFR 601.30 - Duties of institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the institution provides information regarding a private education loan to a prospective borrower... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of institutions. 601.30 Section 601.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION...

  18. Feminization of poverty: A reading of Okpewho's the last duty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines patriarchy's ability to deform the woman in Okpewho's The Last Duty and affirms the centrality of choice as the basic weapon in her struggle for meaningful existence in the new millennium. Since the fundamental structures in the society have pushed her to the periphery of existence, whenever she ...

  19. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  20. How easy is it to contact the duty medical doctor responsible for acute admissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhai, A; Goodman, F; Juchniewichz, H; Martin, A; Porter, G; White, C; Williams, L; Hopkins, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain ease or difficulty of contacting duty junior doctors responsible for acute medical admissions by telephone. DESIGN--Telephone survey of hospitals in six health regions in England and Wales. SETTING--70 Randomly selected hospitals, 15 of which were excluded because of non-acceptance of acute medical admissions. PARTICIPANTS--71 Duty doctors (duty house physicians, senior house officers, or registrars responsible for acute medical admissions) in 48 hospitals; seven duty ...