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Sample records for inactivates salmonella stanley

  1. Characterization of Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Stanley, a Serovar Endemic to Asia and Associated with Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) is a common serovar in Southeast Asia and was the second most common serovar implicated in human salmonellosis in Thailand in the years 2002 to 2007. In contrast, this serovar is relatively uncommon in Europe. The objective of this study was to cha...

  2. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  3. Characterization of Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Stanley, a Serovar Endemic to Asia and Associated with Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hello, Simon; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Pornruangmong, Srirat; Chaichana, Phattharaporn; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Weill, François-Xavier; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) is a common serovar in Southeast Asia and was the second most common serovar implicated in human salmonellosis in Thailand in the years 2002 to 2007. In contrast, this serovar is relatively uncommon in Europe. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of S. Stanley strains isolated from Thai (n = 62), Danish (n = 39), and French (n = 24) patients to gain a broader understanding of the genetic diversity, population dynamics, and susceptibility to antimicrobials. All isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The molecular mechanisms of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid profiling, replicon typing, and microarray analysis were used to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in 10 extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing isolates. Considerable genetic diversity was observed among the isolates characterized with 91 unique XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, including 17 distinct clusters consisting of two to seven indistinguishable isolates. We found some of the S. Stanley isolates isolated from patients in Europe were acquired during travel to Southeast Asia, including Thailand. The presence of multiple plasmid lineages carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-encoding blaCMY-2 gene in S. Stanley isolates from the central part of Thailand was confirmed. Our results emphasize that Thai authorities, as well as authorities in other countries lacking prudent use of antimicrobials, should improve the ongoing efforts to regulate antimicrobial use in agriculture and in clinical settings to limit the spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates and plasmids among humans and pigs in Thailand and abroad. PMID:22205822

  4. An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport--sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M D; Little, C L; Lem, M; Fyfe, M; Genobile, D; Tan, A; Threlfall, J; Paccagnella, A; Lightfoot, D; Lyi, H; McIntyre, L; Ward, L; Brown, D J; Surnam, S; Fisher, I S T

    2004-08-01

    Salmonellosis is a global problem caused by the international movement of foods and high incidence in exporting countries. In September 2001, in an outbreak investigation Australia isolated Salmonella Stanley from imported peanuts, which resulted in a wider investigation in Canada, England & Wales and Scotland. Patients infected with Salmonella serotypes known to be isolated from peanuts and reported to surveillance systems were interviewed to determine exposure histories. Tagged image file format (TIFF) images of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella isolates were shared electronically amongst laboratories. Laboratories tested packets of 'Brand X' peanuts from various lots and product lines. In total, 97 cases of S. Stanley and 12 cases of S. Newport infection were found. Seventy-three per cent (71/97) of S. Stanley cases were in persons of Asian ethnicity. Twenty-eight per cent of cases recalled eating Brand X peanuts and a further 13% had peanuts in their house in the previous month or had eaten Asian-style peanuts. Laboratories isolated S. Stanley, S. Newport, S. Kottbus, S. Lexington and S. Unnamed from Brand X peanuts. Isolates of S. Stanley from peanuts and human patients were indistinguishable by PFGE. This international outbreak resulted from a product originating from one country affecting several others. Rapid sharing of electronic DNA images was a crucial factor in delineating the outbreak; multinational investigations would benefit from a harmonized approach.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella on Eggshells by Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyobi; Yum, Bora; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Rak; Myeong, Donghoon; Chang, Byungjoon; Choe, Nong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of eggs should be prevented in the poultry industry, as poultry is one of the major reservoirs of human Salmonella. ClO2 gas has been reported to be an effective disinfectant in various industry fields, particularly the food industry. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide gas on two strains of Salmonella inoculated onto eggshells under various experimental conditions including concentrations, contact time, humidity, and percentage organic matter. As a result, it was shown that chlorine dioxide gas under wet conditions was more effective in inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum compared to that under dry conditions independently of the presence of organic matter (yeast extract). Under wet conditions, a greater than 4 log reduction in bacterial populations was achieved after 30 min of exposure to ClO2 each at 20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 80 ppm against S. Enteritidis; 40 ppm and 80 ppm against S. Gallinarum. These results suggest that chlorine dioxide gas is an effective agent for controlling Salmonella, the most prevalent contaminant in the egg industry.

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidisciplinary investigation of a multicountry outbreak of Salmonella Stanley infections associated with turkey meat in the European Union, August 2011 to January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, P; van Alphen, L; Martinez Urtaza, J; Struelens, M; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D; Makela, P; Bertrand, S; Mattheus, W; Schmid, D; Kanitz, E; Rucker, V; Krisztalovics, K; Paszti, J; Szogyenyi, Z; Lancz, Z; Rabsch, W; Pfefferkorn, B; Hiller, P; Mooijman, K; Gossner, C

    2014-05-15

    Between August 2011 and January 2013, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) infections affected 10 European Union (EU) countries, with a total of 710 cases recorded. Following an urgent inquiry in the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases (EPIS-FWD) on 29 June 2012, an international investigation was initiated including EU and national agencies for public health, veterinary health and food safety. Two of three local outbreak investigations undertaken by affected countries in 2012 identified turkey meat as a vehicle of infection. Furthermore, routine EU monitoring of animal sources showed that over 95% (n=298) of the 311 S. Stanley isolates reported from animal sampling in 2011 originated from the turkey food production chain. In 2004–10, none had this origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis of outbreak isolates and historical S. Stanley human isolates revealed that the outbreak isolates had a novel PFGE profile that emerged in Europe in 2011. An indistinguishable PFGE profile was identified in 346 of 464 human, food, feed, environmental and animal isolates from 16 EU countries: 102 of 112 non-human isolates tested were from the turkey production chain. On the basis of epidemiological and microbiological evidence, turkey meat was considered the primary source of human infection, following contamination early in the animal production chain.

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer

    2016-10-17

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. Freshly prepared CP with or without 0.1% ascorbic acid (AA) was inoculated with a bacterial cocktail composed of a three serotype mixture of S. enterica (S. Poona, S. Newport H1275 and S. Stanley H0558) and a mixture of three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, 43256 and 51742) to a population of ca. 10(8)CFU/g. Double sealed and double bagged inoculated CP (ca. 5g) were pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Data indicated increased inactivation of both Salmonella and Listeria spp. with higher pressure. Log reduction for CP at 300MPa, 8°C for 5min was 2.4±0.2 and 1.6±0.5logCFU/g for Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. Survivability of the pathogens was significantly compromised at 400MPa and 8°C, inactivating 4.5±0.3logCFU/g of Salmonella and 3.0±0.4logCFU/g of Listeria spp. Complete inactivation of the pathogens in the puree (log reduction >6.7logCFU/g), with or without AA, was achieved when the pressure was further increased to 500MPa, except that for Listeria containing no AA at 8°C. Listeria presented higher resistance to pressure treatment compared to Salmonella spp. Initial temperatures (8 and 15°C) had no significant influence on Salmonella log reductions. Log reduction of pathogens increased but not significantly with increase of temperature. AA did not show any significant antimicrobial activity. Viable counts were about 0.2-0.4logCFU/g less in presence of 0.1% AA. These data validate that HHP can be used as an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupe puree. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stanley Cavell

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaab, Herbert; Wulff, Hans Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Inhalt: Herbert Schwaab: Stanley Cavell Der Philosoph Der Skeptiker Der Filmphilosoph Hans J. Wulff: Stanley Cavell zum Film: Eine Arbeitsbibliographie Bücher zur Filmtheorie, zur Poetologie, zur Methodologie Artikel Über Cavells Arbeiten zum Film Über Cavells philosophischen Arbeiten Autobiographisches

  10. Ultraviolet (UV-C inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium in porcine plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blázquez

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium, Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that UV-C treatment induced a viability reduction of 0.38, 1.18, 3.59, 4.72 and 5.06 log10 S. typhimurium when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The observed log10 reduction of S. choleraesuis was 1.44, 2.68, 5.55, 7.07 and 7.97 at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The best-fit inactivation for S. choleraesuis was the Weibull distribution curve, while the best-fit curve for S. typhimurium was the Weibull plus tail model, indicating that around 102 cfu/mL resistant S. typhimurium was detected when the liquid plasma was UV-C irradiated at doses up to 9000 J/L. Viability reduction for E. faecium was 0.44, 1.01, 3.70, 5.61 and 6.22 log10 when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively, with no bacterial resistance observed with UV-C doses of 6000 J/L or higher. The biphasic model was the best fit model for the inactivation curve for E. faecium. For the three microorganisms tested, about a 4 log-unit reduction was achieved when the liquid plasma was irradiated at 3000J/L. Overall results demonstrate the usefulness of the UV-C system to inactivate bacteria in liquid plasma before spray-drying. We conclude that the UV-C system can provide an additional biosafety feature that can be incorporated into the manufacturing process for spray-dried animal plasma.

  11. Ultraviolet (UV-C) inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium in porcine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, Elena; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Pérez de Rozas, Ana; Segalés, Joaquim; Pujols, Joan; Polo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that UV-C treatment induced a viability reduction of 0.38, 1.18, 3.59, 4.72 and 5.06 log10 S. typhimurium when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The observed log10 reduction of S. choleraesuis was 1.44, 2.68, 5.55, 7.07 and 7.97 at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively. The best-fit inactivation for S. choleraesuis was the Weibull distribution curve, while the best-fit curve for S. typhimurium was the Weibull plus tail model, indicating that around 102 cfu/mL resistant S. typhimurium was detected when the liquid plasma was UV-C irradiated at doses up to 9000 J/L. Viability reduction for E. faecium was 0.44, 1.01, 3.70, 5.61 and 6.22 log10 when irradiated at 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L, respectively, with no bacterial resistance observed with UV-C doses of 6000 J/L or higher. The biphasic model was the best fit model for the inactivation curve for E. faecium. For the three microorganisms tested, about a 4 log-unit reduction was achieved when the liquid plasma was irradiated at 3000J/L. Overall results demonstrate the usefulness of the UV-C system to inactivate bacteria in liquid plasma before spray-drying. We conclude that the UV-C system can provide an additional biosafety feature that can be incorporated into the manufacturing process for spray-dried animal plasma.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  13. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D 10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation. - Highlights: • 10 MeV eBeam energy was attenuated to 2.9±0.22 MeV using HDPE sheets. • Attenuation of eBeam energy does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella. • Microbial inactivation is independent of eBeam energy in the range of 3–10 MeV

  15. Determination method of inactivating minimal dose of gama radiation for Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S.; Campos, H. de; Silva, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    A method for determination of minimal inactivating dose (MID) with Salmonella typhimurium is presented. This is a more efficient way to improve the irradiated vaccines. The MID found for S. thyphimurium 6.616 by binomial test was 0.55 MR. The method used allows to get a definite value for MID and requires less consumption of material, work and time in comparison with the usual procedure [pt

  16. Inactivation and sub-lethal injury of salmonella typhi, salmonella typhimurium and vibrio cholerae in copper water storage vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Robert H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provides information on the antibacterial effect of copper against the water-borne pathogens Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. Methods Suspensions of each pathogen were kept in water within a traditional copper vessel at 30°C for 24 h. Samples were withdrawn, diluted and plated onto suitable growth media. Conventional enumeration of healthy (uninjured bacteria was carried out using standard aerobic incubation conditions. Additionally, reactive oxygen species-neutralised (ROS-n conditions were achieved by adding the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate to the medium with anaerobic incubation, to enumerate uninjured (ROS-insensitive and injured (ROS-sensitive bacteria. Differences between log-transformed means of conventional (aerobic and ROS-n counts were statistically evaluated using t tests. Results Overall, all three pathogens were inactivated by storage in copper vessels for 24 h. However, for shorter-term incubation (4-12 h, higher counts were observed under ROS-n conditions than under aerobic conditions, which demonstrate the presence of substantial numbers of sub-lethally injured cells prior to their complete inactivation. Conclusions The present study has for the first time confirmed that these bacterial pathogens are inactivated by storage in a copper vessel within 24 h. However, it has also demonstrated that it is necessary to account for short-term sub-lethal injury, manifest as ROS-sensitivity, in order to more fully understand the process. This has important practical implications in terms of the time required to store water within a copper vessel to completely inactivate these bacteria and thereby remove the risk of water-borne disease transmission by this route.

  17. Ultraviolet (UV-C) inactivation of Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium in porcine plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bl?zquez, Elena; Rodr?guez, Carmen; R?denas, Jes?s; P?rez de Rozas, Ana; Segal?s, Joaquim; Pujols, Joan; Polo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that ...

  18. Establishment of probabilistic model for Salmonella Enteritidis growth and inactivation under acid and osmotic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth and survival characteristic of Salmonella Enteritidis under acidic and osmotic conditions were studied. Meanwhile, a probabilistic model based on the theory of cell division and mortality was established to predict the growth or inactivation of S. Enteritidis. The experimental results demonstrated that the growth curves of planktonic and detached cells showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 under four conditions, including pH5.0 + 0.0%NaCl, pH7.0 + 4.0%NaCl, pH6.0 + 4.0%NaCl, and pH5.0 + 4.0%NaCl. And the established primary and secondary models could describe the growth of S. enteritis well by estimating four mathematics evaluation indexes, including determination coefficient (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, accuracy factor (Af and bias factor (Bf. Moreover, sequential treatment of 15% NaCl stress followed by pH 4.5 stress was the best condition to inactivate S. Enteritidis in 10 h at 25 °C. The probabilistic model with Logistical or Weibullian form could also predict the inactivation of S. Enteritidis well, thus realize the unification of predictive model to some extent or generalization of inactivation model. Furthermore, the primary 4-parameter probabilistic model or generalized inactivation model had slightly higher applicability and reliability to describe the growth or inactivation of S. Enteritidis than Baranyi model or exponential inactivation model within the experimental range in this study. Keywords: Acid, Osmotic pressure, Salmonella Enteritidis, Probabilistic model, Unification, Generalization

  19. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella at low refrigerated storage temperatures and thermal inactivation on raw chicken meat and laboratory media: mixed effect meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M; Shannon, Harry S; Raina, Parminder

    2012-12-01

    Growth and inactivation regression equations were developed to describe the effects of temperature on Salmonella concentration on chicken meat for refrigerated temperatures (⩽10°C) and for thermal treatment temperatures (55-70°C). The main objectives were: (i) to compare Salmonella growth/inactivation in chicken meat versus laboratory media; (ii) to create regression equations to estimate Salmonella growth in chicken meat that can be used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) modeling; and (iii) to create regression equations to estimate D-values needed to inactivate Salmonella in chicken meat. A systematic approach was used to identify the articles, critically appraise them, and pool outcomes across studies. Growth represented in density (Log10CFU/g) and D-values (min) as a function of temperature were modeled using hierarchical mixed effects regression models. The current meta-analysis analysis found a significant difference (P⩽0.05) between the two matrices - chicken meat and laboratory media - for both growth at refrigerated temperatures and inactivation by thermal treatment. Growth and inactivation were significantly influenced by temperature after controlling for other variables; however, no consistent pattern in growth was found. Validation of growth and inactivation equations against data not used in their development is needed. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella during Water and Steam Blanching of Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Erdogan; McMahon, Wendy; Garren, Donna M

    2017-09-01

    Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella was evaluated on peas, spinach, broccoli, potatoes, and carrots that were treated with hot water and steam. One gram-positive bacterium, L. monocytogenes, and one gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella, were selected as pertinent human pathogens for evaluation. Samples were inoculated with a composite of five strains each of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella to achieve approximately 10 8 to 10 9 CFU/g. Inoculated samples were treated with hot water at 85 and 87.8°C and with steam at 85 and 96.7°C for up to 3.5 min. A greater than 5-log reduction of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella was achieved on all products within 0.5 min by hot water blanching at 85 and 87.8°C. Steam blanching at 85°C reduced Salmonella populations by greater than 5 log on spinach and peas within 2 min and on carrots and broccoli within 3.5 min. Populations of Salmonella were reduced by more than 5 log within 1 min on carrot, spinach, and broccoli and within 2 min on peas by steam blanching at 96.7°C. Steam blanching at 85°C reduced L. monocytogenes populations by more than 5 log on carrots and spinach within 2 min and on broccoli and peas within 3.5 min. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced more than 5 log within 1 min on carrot, spinach, peas and broccoli by steam blanching at 96.7°C. Longer treatment times and higher temperatures were required for steam-blanched samples than for samples blanched with hot water. Results suggest that hot water and steam blanching practices commonly used by the frozen vegetable industry will achieve the desired 5-log lethality of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella and will enhance microbiological safety prior to freezing.

  1. Modeling the effect of marination and temperature on Salmonella inactivation during drying of beef jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Sofos, John N

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the effect of drying temperature in combination with predrying marination treatments to inactivate Salmonella on beef jerky. Beef inside round slices were inoculated with Salmonella and treated with (1) nothing (C), (2) traditional marinade (M), or (3) dipped into a 5% acetic acid solution for 10 min before exposure to M (AM). After 24 h of marination at 4 degrees C, samples were dehydrated at 52, 57, or 63 degrees C. Total counts (tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.1% sodium pyruvate, TSAP) and Salmonella (XLD agar) were enumerated after inoculation and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h during drying. For calculation of death rates (DR, log CFU/cm(2)/h), shoulder period (h), low asymptote, and upper asymptote, cell counts from TSAP were fitted to the Baranyi model. The DRs were then further expressed as a function of storage temperature. Inactivation occurred without an initial lag phase (shoulder period), while correlation (R(2)) values of fitted curves were >/= 0.861. The DRs of C (-0.29 to -0.62) and M (-0.36 to -0.63) treatments were similar, while DRs of the AM treatment were higher (-1.22 to -1.46). The DRs were then fitted to a polynomial equation as a function of temperature. After validation, good (C and M) or acceptable (AM) model performances were observed (R(2)= 0.954 to 0.987; bias factors: 1.03 [C], 1.01 [M], 0.71 [AM]; accuracy factors: 1.05 [C], 1.06 [M], 1.41 [AM]). The developed models may be useful in selecting drying temperatures and times in combination with predrying treatments for adequate inactivation of Salmonella in beef jerky.

  2. Comparing Thermal Process Validation Methods for Salmonella Inactivation on Almond Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyup; Marks, Bradley P; James, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing regulatory changes are increasing the need for reliable process validation methods for pathogen reduction processes involving low-moisture products; however, the reliability of various validation methods has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective was to quantify accuracy and repeatability of four validation methods (two biologically based and two based on time-temperature models) for thermal pasteurization of almonds. Almond kernels were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 or Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) at ~10 8 CFU/g, equilibrated to 0.24, 0.45, 0.58, or 0.78 water activity (a w ), and then heated in a pilot-scale, moist-air impingement oven (dry bulb 121, 149, or 177°C; dew point Salmonella inactivation using a traditional (D, z) model and a modified model accounting for process humidity. Among the process validation methods, both methods based on time-temperature models had better repeatability, with replication errors approximately half those of the surrogate ( E. faecium ). Additionally, the modified model yielded the lowest root mean squared error in predicting Salmonella inactivation (1.1 to 1.5 log CFU/g); in contrast, E. faecium yielded a root mean squared error of 1.2 to 1.6 log CFU/g, and the traditional model yielded an unacceptably high error (3.4 to 4.4 log CFU/g). Importantly, the surrogate and modified model both yielded lethality predictions that were statistically equivalent (α = 0.05) to actual Salmonella lethality. The results demonstrate the importance of methodology, a w , and process humidity when validating thermal pasteurization processes for low-moisture foods, which should help processors select and interpret validation methods to ensure product safety.

  3. Physicochemical and sensory analyses on egg powder irradiated to inactivate Salmonella and reduce microbial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Lescano, G.; Kairiyama, E.

    1992-01-01

    Egg powder was treated with 0, 2, 5 and 10 kGy of gamma radiation at 20 C to inactivate Salmonella and to stabilize its microbial load. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory determinations were performed during 4 months of storage to select the optimal radiation dose to attain the objective without significantly reducing egg quality. Microbial results show that 2.0 kGy inactivated Salmonella and reduced microbial load to levels below those stipulated by the Argentine regulations. Physicochemical determinations of egg powder extracts for peroxide number, spectrophotometric measurements in the visible and ultraviolet regions, functional properties on sponge cakes made with egg powder (height, compression-relaxation cycle parameters), foam stability and viscosity showed that gamma radiation at the dose of 2 kGy, did not cause significant changes in these parameters. Higher radiation doses (5 and 10 kGy) did increase rancidity, pigment loss and protein chain scission. Sensory determinations performed on egg powder, and on cakes manufactured with it, agreed with the physicochemical results. After 110 storage days, 2 kGy was the most suitable of the tested doses

  4. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  5. Effects and interactions of gallic acid, eugenol and temperature on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combined effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), gallic acid (0 to 2.0%), and eugenol (0 to 2.0%) on thermal inactivation of Salmonella in ground chicken were assessed. Thermal death times were determined in bags submerged in a heated water bath maintained at various set temperatures, follo...

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  7. Effectiveness of sanitizers, dry heat, hot water, and gas catalytic infrared heat treatments to inactivate Salmonella on almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Latiful; Nei, Daisuke; Sotome, Itaru; Nishina, Ikuo; Isobe, Seiichi; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-10-01

    The majority of almond-related foodborne outbreaks have been associated with Salmonella. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on raw almond prior to market distribution. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sanitizers (strong or mild electrolyzed water, ozonated water, and distilled water), dry heat treatment, and hot water treatments followed by catalytic infrared (IR) heat treatment to inactivate Salmonella populations on raw almond. Raw almonds inoculated with four-strain cocktails of Salmonella were treated either by soaking in different chemical sanitizers or with dry heat and/or hot water for various periods of time followed by catalytic IR heat treatment for 70 seconds. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens. After inoculation and air-drying, 5.73 +/- 0.12 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g Salmonella were detected in nonselective medium. Sanitizer treatment alone did not show significant reduction in the Salmonella population, but in combination with IR drying it reduced the population to 3.0 log CFU/g. Dry heating at 60 degrees C for 4 days followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced the Salmonella population an additional 1.0 log CFU/g. Hot water treatments at 85 degrees C for 40 seconds followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced pathogens to an undetectable level by direct plating, but not by enrichment.

  8. Effect of acid adaptation on inactivation of Salmonella during drying and storage of beef jerky treated with marinades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Samelis, John; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2003-12-15

    This study evaluated the influence of pre-drying marinade treatments on inactivation of acid-adapted or nonadapted Salmonella on beef jerky during preparation, drying and storage. The inoculated (five-strain composite, 6.0 log CFU/cm2) slices were subjected to the following marinades (24 h, 4 degrees C) prior to drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h and aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days: (1) no marinade, control (C), (2) traditional marinade (TM), (3) double amount of TM modified with added 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce with 5% ethanol (MM), (4) dipping into 5% acetic acid and then TM (AATM), and (5) dipping into 1% Tween 20 and then into 5% acetic acid, followed by TM (TWTM). Bacterial survivors were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate and xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Results indicated that drying reduced bacterial populations in the order of pre-drying treatments TWTM (4.8-6.0 log CFU/cm2)> or =AATM> or =MM>TM> or =C (2.6-5.0 log CFU/cm2). Nonadapted Salmonella were significantly (P<0.05) more resistant to inactivation during drying than acid-adapted Salmonella in all treatments. Bacterial populations decreased below the detection limit (-0.4 log CFU/cm2) as early as 7 h during drying or remained detectable even after 60 days of storage, depending on acid adaptation, pre-drying treatment, and agar media. The results indicated that acid adaptation may not cause increased resistance of Salmonella to the microbial hurdles involved in jerky processing and that use of modified marinades in manufacturing jerky may improve the effectiveness of drying in inactivating Salmonella.

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a selection of low moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachon, Grzegorz; Peñaloza, Walter; Gibbs, Paul A

    2016-08-16

    The aims of this study were to obtain data on survival and heat resistance of cocktails of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) in four low moisture foods (confectionery formulation, chicken meat powder, pet food and savoury seasoning) during storage before processing. Inoculated samples were stored at 16°C and cell viability examined at day 0, 3, 7 and 21. At each time point, the heat resistance at 80°C was determined. The purpose was to determine a suitable storage time of inoculated foods that can be applied in heat resistance studies or process validations with similar cell viability and heat resistance characteristics. The main inactivation study was carried out within 7days after inoculation, the heat resistance of each bacterial cocktail was evaluated in each low moisture food heated in thermal cells exposed to temperatures between 70 and 140°C. The Weibull model and the first order kinetics (D-value) were used to express inactivation data and calculate the heating time to achieve 5 log reduction at each temperature. Results showed that the pathogens Salmonella and L. monocytogenes and the surrogate E. faecium NRRL B-2354, can survive well (maximum reduction 0.05). The inactivation kinetics of the pathogens and surrogate at temperatures between 70 and 140°C, were different between each organism and product. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was a suitable Salmonella surrogate for three of the low moisture foods studied, but not for the sugar-containing confectionery formulation. Heating low moisture food in moisture-tight environments (thermal cells) to 111.2, 105.3 or 111.8°C can inactivate 5 log of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes or E. faecium NRRL B-2354 respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella and Surrogate Bacteria on Cashews and Macadamia Nuts Exposed to Commercial Propylene Oxide Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas; Wu, Jian; Williams, Robert C; Huang, Haibo; Ponder, Monica A

    2018-03-01

    Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO. Whole cashews and macadamia nuts were coinoculated with a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella and one surrogate, dried to the original water activity of 0.44 to 0.51 before being packaged in woven polypropylene bags (2.3 kg), and shipped overnight in Styrofoam containers under ambient conditions to a commercial facility for PPO treatment. Salmonella and surrogates were recovered by vigorous shaking in phosphate buffer (1:1, m/v), serial diluted, and plated onto tryptic soy agar with an overlay of xylose lysine Tergitol 4 for Salmonella or mannitol salt agar or bile esculin azide agar for each surrogate. The mean log reductions of Salmonella and each surrogate ( n = 18), within a sample and among all trials (three independent), were compared by using a matched pairs t test. Reduction in log CFU per gram of Salmonella was significantly greater than that of E. faecium on both macadamia nuts (7.3 ± 0.19 versus 6.4 ± 0.31) and cashews (5.4 ± 0.15 versus 5.1 ± 0.25) and significantly greater than P. acidilactici on both nuts (7.8 ± 0.22 versus 6.3 ± 0.33 on macadamia nuts and 4.9 ± 0.22 versus 4.1 ± 0.25 on cashews). Reduction of S. carnosus exceeded that of Salmonella. E. faecium and P. acidilactici may be considered as surrogates for Salmonella on whole macadamia nuts and

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 in UHT whole milk by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongsheng; Chen, Haiqiang; Hoover, Dallas G

    2005-10-15

    Cell suspensions of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 in ultra-high temperature (UHT) whole milk were exposed to high hydrostatic pressure at 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, and 600 MPa at ambient temperature (ca. 21 degrees C). Tailing was observed in all survival curves, and sigmoidal survival curves were observed at relatively high pressure (500-600 MPa). Four modeling methods (linear and nonlinear including Weibull, modified Gompertz, and log-logistic models) were fitted to these data at 500, 550, and 600 MPa. Performances of the modeling methods were compared using mean square error (MSE). The linear regression model at these three pressure levels had a mean square error (MSE) of 1.260-2.263. Nonlinear regressions using Weibull, modified Gompertz, and log-logistic models had MSE values in the range of 0.334-0.764, 0.601-1.479, and 0.359-0.523, respectively. Modeling results indicated that first-order kinetics could not accurately describe pressure inactivation of S. typhimurium DT 104 in UHT milk; the log-logistic model produced the best fit to data.

  12. Inactivation of internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in lettuce and green onion using ultraviolet C irradiation and chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C; Bohrerova, Z; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    The internalized human pathogens in fresh produce are not effectively removed during conventional washing, and therefore, it may cause foodborne illness when the produce is consumed raw. Thus, effective nonthermal processes are needed to prevent this risk. Green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium was either sprayed on the surface of iceberg lettuce or injected into the bottom part (bulb) of green onions to induce bacterial internalization. The contaminated vegetables were collected after 2 days and subjected to surface disinfection. Different fluencies of UV-C radiation (75-900 mJ cm(-2)) and two fluencies of UV-C (450, 900 mJ cm(-2)) combined with chlorine and peracetic acid (PAA) were applied to the produce to examine the inactivation efficiency of internalized bacteria. A range of 1·96-2·52 log reduction in the internalized Salmonella was achieved when the lettuce was treated with higher UV-C fluency (150, 450, 900 mJ cm(-2)) or UV-C combined with chemical disinfectants. Significant reduction (1·00-1·49 log CFU g(-1)) in internalized Salmonella was observed in green onion treated with UV-C with the fluency of 150 or 900 mJ cm(-2) or UV-C-chlorine/PAA. No significant reduction was observed in either lettuce or green onion treatments when chlorine or PAA was used alone. The food quality measured with firmness was not changed during any treatments. However, a slight colour change was observed in lettuce only when UV-C was used at 900 mJ cm(-2). High fluency UV-C can significantly inactivate the internalized Salmonella in lettuce and green onion while maintaining the food quality. This research provides applicable research outcomes for developing nonthermal methods to inactivate internalized pathogens in fresh produce. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PVnuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3 received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well

  15. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-09-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D10-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, and Campylobacter jejuni in raw ground beef by gamma irradiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, M R; Monk, J D; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P; Brackett, R E

    1994-01-01

    Raw ground beef patties inoculated with stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, or Campylobacter jejuni were subjected to gamma irradiation (60Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 2.52 kGy. The influence of two levels of fat (8 to 14% [low fat] and 27 to 28% [high fat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on the inactivation of each pathogen by irradiation was investigated. In ascending order of irradiation resist...

  17. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  18. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yun-Hee; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Sung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D 10 -vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities

  19. Feasibility of Using Gamma Irradiation for Inactivation of Starvation-, Heat-, and Cold-Stressed Salmonella in Tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Abubakar, Salisu A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Holy, Murad A

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella continues to be the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and recently has been involved in infections related to edible seeds and their products, including tahini. This study investigated the (i) effectiveness of using gamma irradiation to inactivate starvation- and heat- or cold-stressed Salmonella in tahini, (ii) effect of storage on the sensitivity of stressed Salmonella to irradiation, and (iii) effect of irradiation on the chemical and physical characteristics of tahini. Tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of unstressed or stressed (starvation and heat or cold stress) Salmonella isolates and then exposed after storage at 21°C for 0, 7, and 30 days to gamma irradiation for up to 2.0 kGy. Additionally, the effect of irradiation on the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini were assessed. The initial level of unstressed and starvation- and heat-stressed Salmonella in tahini decreased by ca. 4.6 log CFU/g after exposure to 2.0 kGy, while cold-stressed cultures decreased by 4.5 log after exposure to 0.6 kGy. Irradiation doses of 1.0 kGy after 7 days of storage or 0.75 kGy after 30 days of storage decreased the populations of the unstressed and starvation- and heatstressed Salmonella by ca. 3.4 or 2.6 log, respectively. The D10-value of the unstressed Salmonella was 0.43 kGy. Starvation and heat stresses showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the calculated D10-value, whereas cold stress significantly (P D10-value to 0.14 kGy. Preirradiation storage for 7 and 30 days significantly decreased the D10-value to 0.31 and 0.28 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy did not significantly affect the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini when compared with nonirradiated samples. Therefore, this study lays the foundation for using irradiation as an effective means for minimizing the risk of Salmonella in tahini without compromising its quality.

  20. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked to Rose Acre Farms shell eggs Are guinea pigs the right pet for your family? Find out ... Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kratom ...

  1. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, and Campylobacter jejuni in raw ground beef by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavero, M.R.S.; Monk, J.D.; Beuchat, L.R.; Doyle, M.P.; Brackett, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Raw ground beef patties inoculated with stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, or Campylobacter jejuni were subjected to gamma irradiation (60Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 2.52 kGy. The influence of two levels of fat (8 to 14% [low fat] and 27 to 28% [high fat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on the inactivation of each pathogen by irradiation was investigated. In ascending order of irradiation resistance, the D10 values ranged from 0.175 to 0.235 kGy (C. jejuni), from 0.241 to 0.307 kGy (E. coli O157:H7), and from 0.618 to 0.800 kGy (salmonellae). Statistical analysis revealed that E. coli O157:H7 had a significantly (P 0.05) higher D10 value when irradiated at -17 to -15 degrees C than when irradiated at 3 to 5 degrees C. Regardless of the temperature during irradiation, the level of fat did not have a significant effect on the D10 value. Salmonellae behaved like E. coli O157:H7 in low-fat beef, but temperature did not have a significant effect when the pathogen was irradiated in high-fat ground beef. Significantly higher D10 values were calculated for C. jejuni irradiated in frozen than in refrigerated low-fat beef. C. jejuni was more resistant to irradiation in low-fat beef than in high-fat beef when treatment was at -17 to -15 degrees C. Regardless of the fat level and temperature during inactivation, these pathogens were highly sensitive to gamma irradiation. An applied dose of 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10(8.1) E. coli O157:H7, 10(3.1) salmonellae, and 10(10.6) C. jejuni, resulting in a high probability of complete inactivation of populations much higher than those occasionally present in ground beef patties

  3. Effect of sequential dry heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment on inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds and seeds germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium on alfalfa seeds without having negative effect on seed germination. Inoculated alfalfa seeds were treated with dry heat at 60, 70 or 80 °C for 0, 12, 18 or 24 h followed by 2% hydrogen peroxide solution (10 min). Populations of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds treated with dry heat alone (60, 70 or 80 °C) for up to 24 h were reduced by 0.26-2.76 log CFU/g, and sequential treatment with dry heat and H2O2 reduced populations by 1.66-3.60 log CFU/g. The germination percentage of seeds subjected to sequential treatments was significantly enhanced to up to 97%, whereas that of untreated seeds was only 79.5%. This study suggests that sequential treatment with dry heat and hydrogen peroxide is applicable for reducing levels of Salmonella on seeds while simultaneously enhancing seeds germinability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to acidified Sodium chlorite or tri-sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, K; Yadav, Ajit S; Saxena, Gaurav K

    2015-12-01

    Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

  5. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light in combination of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to inactivate Salmonella on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuanghuan; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-09-18

    With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce. In general, the water-assisted UV treatment was found to be the most effective for both produce items. Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide were then tested to determine whether they could be used to enhance the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV treatment and prevent transfer of Salmonella via wash water by completely eliminating it. Neither of them significantly enhanced water-assisted UV inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes. Chlorine significantly improved the decontamination effectiveness of the water-assisted UV treatment for baby-cut carrots and lettuce, but not for spinach. In general, the single water-assisted UV treatment and the combined treatment of water-assisted UV and chlorine were similar or more effective than the chlorine washing treatment. In most of the cases, no Salmonella was detected in the wash water when the single water-assisted UV treatment was used to decontaminate tomatoes. In a few cases when Salmonella was detected in the wash water, the populations were very low,≤2CFU/mL, and the wash water contained an extremely high level of organic load and soil level. Therefore, the single water-assisted UV treatment could potentially be used as an environmentally friendly and non-chemical alternative to chlorine washing for tomatoes after validation in industrial scale. For lettuce, spinach and baby-cut carrots, the combined treatment of water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, and Campylobacter jejuni in raw ground beef by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, M R; Monk, J D; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P; Brackett, R E

    1994-06-01

    Raw ground beef patties inoculated with stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, or Campylobacter jejuni were subjected to gamma irradiation (60Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 2.52 kGy. The influence of two levels of fat (8 to 14% [low fat] and 27 to 28% [high fat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on the inactivation of each pathogen by irradiation was investigated. In ascending order of irradiation resistance, the D10 values ranged from 0.175 to 0.235 kGy (C. jejuni), from 0.241 to 0.307 kGy (E. coli O157:H7), and from 0.618 to 0.800 kGy (salmonellae). Statistical analysis revealed that E. coli O157:H7 had a significantly (P D10 value when irradiated at -17 to -15 degrees C than when irradiated at 3 to 5 degrees C. Regardless of the temperature during irradiation, the level of fat did not have a significant effect on the D10 value. Salmonellae behaved like E. coli O157:H7 in low-fat beef, but temperature did not have a significant effect when the pathogen was irradiated in high-fat ground beef. Significantly higher D10 values were calculated for C. jejuni irradiated in frozen than in refrigerated low-fat beef. C. jejuni was more resistant to irradiation in low-fat beef than in high-fat beef when treatment was at -17 to -15 degrees C. Regardless of the fat level and temperature during inactivation, these pathogens were highly sensitive to gamma irradiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella on in-shell pecans during conditioning treatments preceding cracking and shelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2011-04-01

    Studies were done to determine the effectiveness of conditioning treatments for killing Salmonella in and on immersion-inoculated and surface-inoculated in-shell pecans. Treatment of immersion-inoculated, dried, stored pecans in chlorinated water (400 μg/ml) reduced Salmonella by not more than 1.6 log CFU/g. Treatment of immersion-inoculated, dried, stored pecans in chlorinated water (200 μg/ml, 1 min) followed by soaking in water for 2 h at 21°C and treating for 10 min in water at 85 to 95°C reduced Salmonella by >5.12 log CFU/g; treatment of nuts containing a low population of Salmonella (nuts in water at 90 or 95°C for 80 s; treatment of nuts containing 1.78 log CFU/g at 95°C for 10 min did not eliminate the pathogen. Salmonella on surface-inoculated in-shell pecans (kernel moisture, 4.75%; water activity, 0.62) that had been dried and stored at 4°C for 3 to 5 weeks was more resistant to conditioning treatments than was Salmonella on surface-inoculated pecans (kernel moisture, 5.60%; water activity, 0.73) that were not thoroughly dried. Conditioning treatments were less effective for killing Salmonella on immersion-inoculated pecans than on surface-inoculated pecans. Response of Salmonella to conditioning treatments varied, depending on the method of inoculation and whether nuts were dried and stored between the time of inoculation and treatment, which emphasizes the importance of following practices commonly used by commercial pecan shellers when validating the lethality of conditioning treatments.

  8. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by aqueous ozone (O3): Modeling and Uv-Vis spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3) is a natural antimicrobial agent with potential applications in food industry. In this study, inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium by aqueous ozone was evaluated. Ozone gas was generated using a domestic ozone generator with an output of 200 mg/hr (approx. 0...

  9. Neural network model for thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium to elimination in ground chicken: Acquisition of data by whole sample enrichment, miniature most-probable-number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models are valuable tools for assessing food safety. Existing thermal inactivation models for Salmonella and ground chicken do not provide predictions above 71 degrees C, which is below the recommended final cooked temperature of 73.9 degrees C. They also do not predict when all Salmone...

  10. Inactivation of an E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at inactivating E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberrie...

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella in grape tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike O; Jin, Tony; Fan, Xuetong; Olanya, Modesto; Juneja, Vijay

    2018-02-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on grape tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21days storage at 10°C was also determined. A bacterial cocktail containing three serotypes of Salmonella enterica was used for this study based on their association with produce-related outbreaks. Tomatoes were spot inoculated on stem scars and then immersed in an organic acid solution (700ml) containing 0.5% (v/v) each of acetic (AA) and formic acid (FA) to wash under mild agitation for 1min at ambient temperature (22°C) followed by 1min dipping in a coating solution containing 6mlAIT/g CT. AW in 0.5% organic acid (AA+FA) for 1min reduced Salmonella population by 2.7logCFU/g from an initial load of 7.8logCFU/g, while additional coating treatment of AW tomatoes reduced the pathogens on stem scars to undetectable levels (7logCFU/g reduction for the pathogen. Although the populations of Salmonella in the controls (approx. 7.8logCFU/g stem scar) did not change significantly during 21days of storage at 10°C, the populations were reduced to undetectable level in the integrated (AW plus CT-AIT) treated stem scars on day 1 and no regrowth was observed during storage. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced background bacterial loads to approx. 1.3logCFU/g and the population remained unchanged through day 21 at 10°C. The treatment also completely inactivated mold and yeast on day 1 with no growth reoccurrence. These results indicate that the integrated treatment can provide a safe and effective intervention strategy for grape tomatoes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella on pecan nutmeats by hot air treatment and oil roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2011-09-01

    Studies were done to determine the effectiveness of hot air drying, dry roasting, and oil roasting in killing Salmonella on pecan nutmeats. Pecan halves and pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-serotype suspension of Salmonella or by surface application of powdered chalk containing the pathogen. Hot air treatment of low-moisture (2.8 to 4.1%) and high-moisture (10.5 to 11.2%) immersion-inoculated nutmeats (initial population, 6.18 to 7.16 log CFU/g) at 120°C for 20 min reduced the number of Salmonella by 1.18 to 1.26 and 1.89 to 2.04 log CFU/g, respectively. However, regardless of the moisture content, hot air treatment of pecan halves containing 0.77 log CFU/g at 120°C for 20 min failed to eliminate Salmonella. Reductions were >7 log CFU/g when dry pieces were dry roasted at 160°C for 15 min. Treatment of halves at 140°C for 20 min, 150°C for 15 min, or 170°C for 10 min reduced Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g. The pathogen was slightly more heat resistant in immersion-inoculated nutmeats than on surface-inoculated nutmeats. Exposure of immersion-inoculated pieces to peanut oil at 127°C for 1.5 min or 132°C for 1.0 min reduced the number of Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g. Treatment of halves at 138°C for 2.0 min reduced Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g; treatment at 132°C for 2.5 to 4.0 min did not always achieve this reduction. Hot air treatment cannot be relied upon to reduce Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g of raw pecan nutmeats without changing sensory qualities. Treatment temperatures and times typically used to oil roast nutmeats appear to be sufficient to reduce Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g.

  13. OPTIMATION OF 48 KHZ ULTRASONIC WAVE DOSE FOR THE INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi May Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonic dose exposure which could decrease the viability of Salmonella typhi by using the variation of exposure time (15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes and volume of bacterial suspension (2, 4, 6, and 8 ml at constant power. The sample used was Salmonella typhi. Ultrasonic wave transmitter was a piezoelectric tweeter with 0,191 watts of power and 48 kHz frequency generated by the signal generator. Piezoelectric tweeter was a kind of transducer which converted electrical energy into ultrasonic energy. This research was an experimental laboratory with a completely randomized design. The decrease of bacterial percentage was calculated by using TPC (Total Plate Count. Data were analyzed by using One Way Anova. The results showed that the variation of exposure time and volume of bacterial suspension gave significant effect on the percentage of Salmonella typhi kill. The most optimal of ultrasonic dose exposure to kill Salmonella typhi was 281.87 J/ml with 100% bacterial kill.

  14. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membré, J.M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this

  15. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in sous-vide processed marinated chicken breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heat resistance of a cocktail of five Salmonella strains and five L. monocytogenes strains was determined in teriyaki-marinated chicken breasts. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, were completely immersed in a circulating water bath and cooked to a final temperature of 55, 57.5 or 60C in one h...

  16. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...

  17. Assessment of Salmonella survival in dry-cured Italian salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; Bolzoni, L; Cozzolino, P; Pierantoni, M; Brindani, F; Bellotti, P; Renzi, M; Pongolini, S

    2017-12-04

    The inactivation of Salmonella during curing of Italian traditional pork salami was investigated. A total of 150 batches of ground raw meat (GRM) used for salami manufacturing by four producers were tested for Salmonella by real-time PCR followed by ISO 6579 cultural confirmation and MPN enumeration. Salami produced with Salmonella positive GRMs were re-tested at the end of their curing period. Aw, pH and NaCl content were also measured. Detection of Salmonella was performed testing both 25 and 50g of the samples. By Real-Time PCR 37% of the GRMs resulted positive, but cultural detection of Salmonella was obtained in 14% of the samples only. Salmonella enumeration ranged from 31 MPN/g to Salmonella in 100% of all positive samples, vs. 62% of ISO-25g. Salami made of the contaminated GRMs were 29% Salmonella-positive, as most batches of salami produced with Salmonella-positive GRMs resulted negative after regular curing (20-48days). Overall, 13% of salami produced with Salmonella-contaminated GRMs were positive. They belonged to six batches, which turned out negative after prolonged curing ranging between 49 and 86days. Salmonella enumeration in salami ranged from 8.7 MPN/g to Salmonella in cured salami (p value: >0.05). The most common Salmonella serovars in GRMs were Derby (52%), Typhimurium monophasic variant 4, (Barbuti et al., 1993), 12:i:- (19%) and Stanley (10%). Salmonella Derby (56%), London, Branderup, Panama (13%, respectively) and Goldcoast (6%) were most frequent in cured salami. The study showed negative correlation between real-time CT values and cultural confirmation of Salmonella, as well as the importance of sample size for Salmonella detection. Among considered factors with possible effect on the occurrence of Salmonella in salami, statistical analysis revealed a role for aw in salami and for Salmonella load in GRMs, while pH and NaCl content did not significantly affect the probability of finding Salmonella in dry-cured salami in the context of

  18. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham. - Highlights: > We compare irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of pathogens. > We examine changes in the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. > Irradiation at 2 kGy is more effective in sliced ham than fumaric acid treatment. > Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety of sliced ham during storage.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 on alfalfa seeds by levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-11-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the best concentration and exposure time for treatment of alfalfa seeds with levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without adversely affecting seed germination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium were dried in a laminar flow hood at 21°C for up to 72 h. Inoculated alfalfa seeds dried for 4 h then treated for 5 min at 21°C with 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium by 5.6 and 6.4 log CFU/g, respectively. On seeds dried for 72 h, treatment with 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS for 20 min at 21°C reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations by 4 log CFU/g. Germination rates of alfalfa seeds treated with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for up to 1 h at 21°C were compared with a treatment of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite or tap water only. Treatment of alfalfa seeds with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for 5 min at 21°C resulted in a >3.0-log inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

  1. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  2. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enterica on Blueberries in Water Using Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuhan; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) has antimicrobial effects, but the shadowing effect has limited its application. In this study, a novel setup using UV processing in agitated water was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on blueberries. Blueberries were dip- or spot-inoculated with E. coli or Salmonella. Blueberries inoculated with E. coli were treated for 2 to 10 min with UV directly (dry UV) or immersed in agitated water during UV treatment (wet UV). E. coli was most easily killed on spot-inoculated blueberries with a 5.2-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Dip-inoculated blueberries were the most difficult to be decontaminated with only 1.6-log reduction after 10-min wet UV treatment. Wet UV treatment generally showed higher efficacies than dry UV treatment, achieving an average of 1.4 log more reduction for spot-inoculated blueberries. For dip-inoculated blueberries, chlorine washing and UV treatments were less effective, achieving blueberries were UV-treated while being immersed in agitated water containing 100 ppm SDS, 0.5% levulinic acid or 10 ppm chlorine. The 3 chemicals did not significantly enhance the wet UV treatment. Findings of this study suggest that UV treatment could be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and potentially for other fresh produce. A novel UV light system for decontamination of blueberries in water was developed and evaluated. Results demonstrated that the decontamination efficacy of this system was generally as effective as chlorine washing, indicating that it could potentially be used as an alternative to chlorine washing for blueberries and other fresh produce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and poultry skin by combinations of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Four organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, caprylic acid, and levulinic acid) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were evaluated individually or in combination for their ability to inactivate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Results from pure culture assays in water with the treatment chemical revealed that 0.5% organic acid and 0.05 to 1% SDS, when used individually, reduced pathogen cell numbers by acids at 0.5% with 0.05% SDS resulted in > 7 log CFU/ml inactivation of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 within 10 s at 21 degrees C. A combination of levulinic acid and SDS was evaluated at different concentrations for pathogen reduction on lettuce at 21 degrees C, on poultry (wings and skin) at 8 degrees C, and in water containing chicken feces or feathers at 21 degrees C. Results revealed that treatment of lettuce with a combination of 3% levulinic acid plus 1% SDS for 6.7 log CFU/g on lettuce. Salmonella and aerobic bacterial populations on chicken wings were reduced by > 5 log CFU/g by treatment with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS for 1 min. Treating water heavily contaminated with chicken feces with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS reduced Salmonella populations by > 7 log CFU/ml within 20 s. The use of levulinic acid plus SDS as a wash solution may have practical application for killing foodborne enteric pathogens on fresh produce and uncooked poultry.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  6. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aimin; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Haschka, David; Heeke, Simon; Dichtl, Stefanie; Petzer, Verena; Seifert, Markus; Hilbe, Richard; Sopper, Sieghart; Talasz, Heribert; Bumann, Dirk; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Theurl, Igor; Zhang, Keying; Weiss, Guenter

    2017-09-05

    Zinc sequestration by macrophages is considered a crucial host defense strategy against infection with the intracellular bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study we found zinc to favor pathogen survival within macrophages. Salmonella -hosting macrophages contained higher free zinc levels than uninfected macrophages and cells that successfully eliminated bacteria, which was paralleled by impaired production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species in bacteria-harboring cells. A profound, zinc-mediated inhibition of NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity affecting expression of the ROS- and RNS-forming enzymes phos47 and iNOS provided a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. Macrophages responded to infection by enhanced expression of zinc scavenging methallothioneins-1 and 2, whose genetic deletion caused a rise of free zinc levels, reduced ROS and RNS production and increased survival of Salmonella Our data suggest that Salmonella invasion of macrophages results in a bacteria-driven rise of intracellular zinc levels which weakens anti-microbial defense and the ability of macrophages to eradicate the pathogen. Thus, limitation of cytoplasmic zinc levels may help to control infection with intracellular bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Wu et al.

  7. Bacteriophages with potential to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium: Use of single phage suspensions and phage cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Moreirinha, Catarina; Lewicka, Magdalena; Almeida, Paulo; Clemente, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Romalde, Jésus L; Nunes, Maria L; Almeida, Adelaide

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of three previously isolated bacteriophages (or phages) individually (phSE-1, phSE-2 and phSE-5) or combined in cocktails of two or three phages (phSE-1/phSE-2, phSE-1/phSE-5, phSE-2/phSE-5 and phSE-1/phSE-2/phSE-5) to control Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in order to evaluate their potential application during depuration. Phages were assigned to the family Siphoviridae and revealed identical restriction digest profiles, although they showed a different phage adsorption, host range, burst size, explosion time and survival in seawater. The three phages were effective against S. Typhimurium (reduction of ∼2.0 log CFU/mL after 4h treatment). The use of cocktails was not significantly more effective than the use of single phages. A big fraction of the remained bacteria are phage-resistant mutants (frequency of phage-resistant mutants 9.19×10(-5)-5.11×10(-4)) but phage- resistant bacterial mutants was lower for the cocktail phages than for the single phage suspensions and the phage phSE-1 presented the highest rate of resistance and phage phSE-5 the lowest one. The spectral changes of S. Typhimurium resistant and phage-sensitive cells were compared and revealed relevant differences for peaks associated to amide I (1620cm(-1)) and amide II (1515cm(-1)) from proteins and from carbohydrates and phosphates region (1080-1000cm(-1)). Despite the similar efficiency of individual phages, the development of lower resistance indicates that phage cocktails might be the most promising choice to be used during the bivalve depuration to control the transmission of salmonellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of heat inactivation in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium as affected by low water activity at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarallah, K M; Adams, M R

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced water activity (a(w)) on thermal inactivation of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium at different temperatures and its mechanism. D-value determinations at a range of different temperatures showed that heating at reduced a(w) (0.94, produced by addition of glucose or sodium chloride to nutrient broth) was protective at temperatures above 53-55 degrees C but sensitizing below this temperature. Using selective enumeration media to determine injury, it was shown that at lower heating temperatures cells survived at high a(w) with cytoplasmic injury whereas at low a(w) these cells were killed. At higher temperatures ribosome degradation was a more important cause of death and was inhibited by low a(w) heating media thereby providing greater heat resistance. The observed change in behaviour reflects the different reactions responsible for thermal death at different temperatures and their different response to reduced a(w). This work qualifies the previous assumption that reduced a(w) is protective and suggests that the efficacy of low temperature pasteurization regimes may be increased by reduced a(w).

  9. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Evaluation of pulsed light treatments on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinang; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-11-02

    Blueberry have a short shelf life when fully ripe and susceptible to contamination of various pathogens. Our study investigated the effect of pulsed light (PL) on inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries and its impact on shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. Dry PL (6J/cm 2 ) and water-assisted PL (samples were agitated in water during PL treatment; 9J/cm 2 ) along with two controls, dry control (untreated) and water-assisted control (water washing without PL), were applied to blueberries with subsequent storages at room temperature (3days) or 5°C (7days). For Salmonella inactivation, dry PL treatment achieved 0.9 and 0.6 log reduction of Salmonella for spot and dip inoculation, respectively; while the water-assisted PL treatment reduced Salmonella by 4.4 log and 0.8 log for spot and dip inoculation, respectively. The water-assisted PL treatment resulted in Salmonella populations significantly lower than the dry control after storage regardless of the storage temperature and inoculation method. Neither dry nor water-assisted PL treatments improved the shelf life of blueberries even though direct inactivation of natural yeasts and molds were achieved. Surface lightness was instantly reduced after both dry and water-assisted PL treatments. Compared with the dry control, the two PL treatments did not reduce the firmness of blueberries. Weight loss was increased for the dry PL treated samples, but not for the water-assisted PL treatment for both storage conditions. Delayed anthocyanins accumulation and reduced total antioxidant activity were induced by both PL treatments at the end of storage at room temperature, while slight enhancement in total phenolics content was achieved by water-assisted PL treatment. In conclusion, the water-assisted PL treatment could effectively decontaminate Salmonella on blueberries while showed minimal or no impact on the shelf-life, quality attributes and health-benefit compounds of blueberries. PL

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella during washing of contaminated gloves in levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jye-Yin; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2018-08-01

    Field workers often wear gloves harvesting ready-to-eat produce; however, fields are not sterile environments and gloves may become contaminated numerous times during a working shift. This study explored the potential for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella when contaminated gloves were washed in levulinic acid (LV) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. Washing nitrile gloves with increasing concentrations of LV above 1.0% led to a decreased prevalence of glove contamination by Salmonella (P = 0.0000). A higher level of prevalence occurred for solid agar-cultured pathogens than liquid broth-cultured pathogens after nitrile gloves were washed in LV/SDS (P = 0.0000). Pathogens residing on latex gloves were more likely to be completely inactivated by washing in 0.5% LV/0.1% SDS solutions than nitrile or Canners gloves that exhibited inconsistent responses dependent on the pathogen strain. However, drying after washing nitrile gloves in 0.5% LV/0.1% SDS led to additional pathogen inactivation (P = 0.0394). Pathogen transfer from gloves to produce was implied as the pathogen prevalence on cantaloupe rind handled by LV/SDS-washed gloves was not statistically different from the prevalence on gloves (P = 0.7141). Hence, the risk of produce contamination may still exist but would be reduced by washing gloves in LV/SDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Helene B; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Jones, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Sonu; Sie, Rebecca; Eustace, Andrew; Galal, Ushma; Kurupati, Prathiba; Van, Tan T; Thieu, Nga T V; Baker, Stephen; Blohmke, Christoph J; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccines against Salmonella Typhi , a major cause of febrile illness in tropical regions, can have a significant effect as a disease control measure. Earlier work has shown that immunization with either of two Salmonella Typhi vaccines, licensed Ty21a or candidate M01ZH09, did not provide full immunity in a controlled human infection model. Here, we describe the human humoral immune responses to these oral vaccines and their functional role in protection after challenge with S . Typhi. Serum, obtained from healthy volunteers before and after vaccination with Ty21a or M01ZH09 or placebo and before and after oral challenge with wild-type S . Typhi, was assessed for bactericidal activity. Single-dose vaccination with M01ZH09 induced an increase in serum bactericidal antibodies ( p  = 0.001) while three doses of Ty21a did not. No association between bactericidal activity and protection against typhoid after challenge was seen in either vaccine arm. Bactericidal activity after vaccination correlated significantly with delayed disease onset ( p  = 0.013), lower bacterial burden ( p  = 0.006), and decreased disease severity scores ( p  = 0.021). Depletion of antibodies directed against lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced bactericidal activity ( p  = 0.009). We conclude that antibodies induced after ingestion of oral live-attenuated typhoid vaccines or after challenge with wild-type S . Typhi exhibit bactericidal activity. This bactericidal activity is mediated by anti-O:LPS antibodies and significantly reduces clinical symptoms but does not provide sterile immunity. This directs future vaccine studies toward other antigens or mechanisms of protection against typhoid.

  13. Efficacy of vacuum steam pasteurization for inactivation of Salmonella PT 30, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Enterococcus faecium on low moisture foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj K; Asa, Gladys; Sherwood, Julie; Graber, Kari; Bergholz, Teresa M

    2017-03-06

    Low moisture foods such as nuts, spices, and seeds have been implicated in several outbreaks due to Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Such foods may be consumed raw, and can be used as ingredients in other food products. While numerous thermal inactivation studies have been conducted for Salmonella on nuts, studies on other seeds and grains are minimal. Product water activity can influence the thermal resistance of pathogens, where thermal resistance increases as water activity decreases, leading to a requirement for higher temperatures and longer exposure times to achieve significant reduction of pathogen numbers. Vacuum steam pasteurization uses steam under vacuum, which can be operated at temperatures above and below 100°C. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of vacuum steam pasteurization for inactivation of pathogens on whole flaxseed, quinoa, sunflower kernels, milled flaxseed and whole black peppercorns. The use of E. faecium as a potential surrogate for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum steam pasteurization was also evaluated. Pasteurization for 1min at 75°C yielded average log reductions of 5.48±1.22, 5.71±0.40 and 5.23±0.61 on flaxseed, 4.29±0.92, 5.89±0.26 and 2.39±0.83 on quinoa, and 4.01±0.74, 5.40±0.83 and 2.99±0.92 on sunflower kernels for Salmonella PT 30, E. coli O157:H7 and E. faecium, respectively. Similarly, on milled flaxseed and black peppercorns average log reductions of 3.02±0.79 and 6.10±0.64CFU/g were observed for Salmonella PT 30 after 1min of treatment at 75°C but, on average, >6.0 log reductions were observed after pasteurization at 85°C. Our data demonstrate that vacuum steam pasteurization can be effectively used to reduce pathogens on these low moisture foods at temperature as low as 75 and 85°C, and that E. faecium may be used as a potential surrogate for Salmonella PT 30 and E. coli O157:H7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts.

  15. Thermal inactivation D- and z-values of Salmonella serotypes and listeria innocua in chicken patties, chicken tenders, franks, beef patties, and blended beef and turkey patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R Y; Duncan, L K; Johnson, E R; Davis, M D; Smith, J N

    2002-01-01

    Commercially formulated meat products, including chicken patties, chicken tenders, franks, beef patties, and blended beef and turkey patties, were obtained from processors. Each product was inoculated with 7 to 8 logs of Salmonella (Senftenberg, Typhimurium, Heidelberg, Mission, Montevideo, and California) or Listeria innocua. The inoculated meat samples were heat treated at 55 to 70 degrees C. At each temperature, the decimal reduction time (D) was obtained by linear regression of survival curves. Values of D and the temperature difference required for the thermal inactivation curve to drop a logarithmic cycle (z) were determined for the Salmonella serotypes and L. innocua in each product. At 55 to 70 degrees C. for the five tested products, the D-values for the Salmonella serotypes and L. innocua were 26.97 to 0.25 min and 191.94 to 0.18 min, respectively, and their z-values were 7.60 to 9.83 degrees C and 4.86 to 8.67 degrees C, respectively. Significant differences were found for the D- and z-values among the five products. This study will better enable processors to determine the process lethality of pathogens in commercial meat products.

  16. Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21°C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were 4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  17. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of of meat burgers in Belgium.

  18. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Lahou, Evy; De Boeck, Elien; Devlieghere, Frank; Geeraerd, Annemie; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g) of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of meat burgers in Belgium.

  19. Developing a two-step heat treatment for inactivating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of a two-step heat treatment for eliminating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter was evaluated. The aged chicken litter with 20, 30, 40, and 50% moisture contents was inoculated with a mixture of four Salmonella serotypes for a 24-h adaptation. Afterwards, the inoculated chicken litter was added into the chicken litter with the adjusted moisture content for a 1-h moist-heat treatment at 65 °C and 100% relative humidity inside a water bath, followed by a dry-heat treatment in a convection oven at 85 °C for 1 h to the desired moisture level (heat treatment, the populations of Salmonella in aged chicken litter at 20 and 30% moisture contents declined from ≈6.70 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 3.31 and 3.00 log CFU/g, respectively. After subsequent 1-h dry-heat treatment, the populations further decreased to 2.97 and 2.57 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella cells in chicken litter with 40% and 50% moisture contents were only detectable by enrichment after 40 and 20 min of moist-heat treatment, respectively. Moisture contents in all samples were reduced to dry-heat process. Our results demonstrated that the two-step heat treatment was effective in reducing >5.5 logs of desiccation-adapted Salmonella in aged chicken litter with moisture content at or above 40%. Clearly, the findings from this study may provide the chicken litter processing industry with an effective heat treatment method for producing Salmonella-free chicken litter.

  20. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Selected works of Richard P. Stanley

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, Richard P; Lam, Thomas; Reiner, Victor; Reiner, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Richard Stanley's work in combinatorics revolutionized and reshaped the subject. Many of his hallmark ideas and techniques imported from other areas of mathematics have become mainstays in the framework of modern combinatorics. In addition to collecting several of Stanley's most influential papers, this volume also includes his own short reminiscences on his early years, and on his celebrated proof of The Upper Bound Theorem.

  2. Inactivation of Salmonellae in liquid egg white by antimicrobial bottle coating with allvl isothiocyanate, nisin and ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to develop an antimicrobial bottle coating effective at inhibiting the growth of Salmonella in liquid egg albumen (egg white) and reduce the risk of human Salmonellosis. Four-ounce glass jars were coated with a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and antimicrobial ...

  3. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium with compounds available in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Kendall, Patricia A; Medeiros, Lydia; Sofos, John N

    2009-06-01

    Solutions of selected household products were tested for their effectiveness against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium. Hydrogen peroxide (1.5 and 3%), vinegar (2.5 and 5% acetic acid), baking soda (11, 33, and 50% sodium bicarbonate), household bleach (0.0314, 0.0933, and 0.670% sodium hypochlorite), 5% acetic acid (prepared from glacial acetic acid), and 5% citric acid solutions were tested against the three pathogens individually (five-strain composites of each, 10(8) CFU/ml) by using a modified AOAC International suspension test at initial temperatures of 25 and 55degrees C for 1 and 10 min. All bleach solutions (pH 8.36 to 10.14) produced a >5-log reduction of all pathogens tested after 1 min at 25 degrees C, whereas all baking soda solutions (pH 7.32 to 7.55) were ineffective (5-log reduction of both Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7, whereas undiluted vinegar (pH 2.58) had a similar effect only against Salmonella Typhimurium. Compared with 1 min at 25 degrees C, greater reductions of L. monocytogenes (P 3% hydrogen peroxide > undiluted vinegar and 5% acetic acid > 5% citric acid > baking soda (50% sodium bicarbonate). The sensitivity of the tested pathogens to all tested household compounds followed the sequence of Salmonella Typhimurium > E. coli O157: H7 > L. monocytogenes.

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and quality preservation of cherry tomatoes by in-package aerosolization of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of in-package aerosolized aqueous sanitizers in reducing populations of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated on tomato fruit and in maintaining fruit quality. Cherry tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of ...

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on alfalfa seeds by caprylic acid and monocaprylin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-sen; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2010-11-15

    Alfalfa and other seed sprouts have been implicated in several Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. human illness outbreaks in the U.S. Continuing food safety issues with alfalfa seeds necessitate the need for discovery and use of novel and effective antimicrobials. The potential use of caprylic acid (CA) and monocaprylin (MC) for reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations on alfalfa seeds was evaluated. The effectiveness of three concentrations of CA and MC (25, 50, and 75 mM) to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations in 0.1% peptone water and on alfalfa seeds was evaluated. Surviving populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were enumerated by direct plating on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Non-inoculated alfalfa seeds were soaked for up to 120 min to evaluate the effect of CA and MC solutions on seed germination rate. For planktonic cells, the efficacy of the treatments was: 75 MC > 50 MC > 25 MC > 75 CA > 50 CA > 25 CA. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were reduced to below the detection limit (0.6 log CFU/ml) within 10 min of exposure to 75 MC from initial populations of 7.65 ± 0.10 log CFU/ml and 7.71 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maximum reductions of 1.56 ± 0.25 and 2.56 ± 0.17 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., respectively, were achieved on inoculated alfalfa seeds (from initial populations of 4.74 ± 0.62 logCFU/g and 5.27±0.20logCFU/g, respectively) when treated with 75 MC for 90 min. Germination rates of CA or MC treated seeds ranged from 84% to 99%. The germination rates of CA or MC soaked seeds and water soaked seeds (control) were similar (P > 0.05) for soaking times of ≤ 90 min. Monocaprylin (75 mM) can be used to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on alfalfa seeds without compromising seed viability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of frequency and waveform on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in salsa by ohmic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The effect of frequency of alternating current during ohmic heating on electrode corrosion, heating rate, inactivation of food-borne pathogens, and quality of salsa was investigated. The impact of waveform on heating rate was also investigated. Salsa was treated with various frequencies (60 Hz to 20 kHz) and waveforms (sine, square, and sawtooth) at a constant electric field strength of 12.5 V/cm. Electrode corrosion did not occur when the frequency exceeded 1 kHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on frequency up to 500 Hz, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the heating rate when the frequency was increased above 1 kHz. The electrical conductivity of the sample increased with a rise in the frequency. At a frequency of 60 Hz, the square wave produced a lower heating rate than that of sine and sawtooth waves. The heating rate between waveforms was not significantly (P > 0.05) different when the frequency was >500 Hz. As the frequency increased, the treatment time required to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) decreased without affecting product quality. These results suggest that ohmic heating can be effectively used to pasteurize salsa and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on frequency and electrical conductivity rather than waveform.

  7. Effect of milk fat content on the performance of ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on temperature increase and electrical conductivity were investigated. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens was studied. For conventional heating, temperatures of samples increased with time and were not significantly (P > 0.05) different regardless of fat content. Although the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogens decreased in samples of 10% fat content, a protective effect was not observed for conventional heating. In contrast with conventional heating, ohmic heating was significantly affected by milk fat content. Temperature increased more rapidly with lower fat content for ohmic heating due to higher electrical conductivity. Nonuniform heat generation of nonhomogeneous fat-containing samples was verified using a thermal infrared camera. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was observed in samples subjected to ohmic heating. These results indicate that food-borne pathogens can survive in nonhomogeneous fat-containing foods subjected to ohmic heating. Therefore, more attention is needed regarding ohmic heating than conventional heating for pasteurizing fat-containing foods. The importance of adequate pasteurization for high milk fat containing foods was identified. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica in chicken feces on the surface of eggshells by simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide and mild wet heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal effects of simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) and mild wet heat (55 °C at 100% relative humidity [RH]) on Salmonella enterica in chicken feces on the surface of eggshells. Gaseous ClO 2 production decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as the RH (23, 43, 68, 85, and 100%) at 25 °C was increased. The lethality of gaseous ClO 2 against S. enterica in feces on eggshells increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as RH increased. For example, when treated with gaseous ClO 2 at 85 and 100% RH at 25 °C, S. enterica (5.9 log CFU/egg) was inactivated within 4 h. In contrast, at 23, 43, and 68% RH, the pathogen remained at 5.1, 5.0, and 2.8 log CFU/egg, respectively, after 6 h. Finally, when eggshells surface-contaminated with S. enterica (5.8 log CFU/egg) were treated with gaseous ClO 2 (peak concentration of ClO 2 : 185.6 ppm) at 100% RH and 55 °C, inactivation occurred within 1 h. These results indicate that treatment of surface-contaminated shell eggs with gaseous ClO 2 at elevated RH and temperature is effective in inactivating S. enterica. These observations will be useful when developing an effective sanitation program to enhance the microbiological safety of shell eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morgan Stanley viib Eesti maailma / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Finantsteenuste pakkuja Morgan Stanley allüksus MSCI Barra kavandab indeksite loomist teiste nn. piiriturgude seas ka Eestile, mis peaks kasvatama välisinvestorite huvi Tallinna börsi vastu. Vt. samas: MSCI Barra. Kommenteerib Tõnis Oja

  10. Radiation inactivation of Salmonella panama and Escherichia coli K 12 present on deep-frozen broiler carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation have been used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated poultry carcasses and to reduce the numbers of Salmonellae present. This report gives results of experiments on irradiation of deep-frozen poultry carcasses which were, before freezing, artificially contaminated with Salmonella panama and with a nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K 12. The D-values (decimal reduction) obtained with the inoculated carcasses were compared with D-values obtained with carcasses which were slaughtered in the normal way. The D-values for S.panama and for E.coli K 12 were 64.9 krad and 55.9 krad in the dripwater. Under commercial conditions approximately 100 krad were required for one decimal reduction of the Enterobacteriaceae present. The D-values estimated on the skin were higher for S.panama than for E.coli K 12 (128.6 krad vs 57.6 krad). If it is assumed that 1 positive carcass in 10,000 is allowed, the deep-frozen carcasses should be irradiated with doses of at least 700 krad to be sure of the absence of the tested S.panama strain. (orig.) [de

  11. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of...

  12. 9 CFR 113.122 - Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.122 Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella choleraesuis which has been inactivated and is...

  13. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and is...

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice at different pH levels by gaseous ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W-J; Shin, J-Y; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effect of ozone treatment of apple juice at different pH levels for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Apple juice (pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) inoculated with the three pathogens were treated with gaseous ozone (3.0 l min(-1) flow rate and 2.0-3.0 g m(-3) ) for up to 4 min. Ozone treatment (4 min) of pH 3.0 apple juice resulted in >5.36 log CFU ml(-1) reduction of E. coli O157:H7. Ozone treatment of pH 4.0 and 5.0 apple juice for 4 min reduced this pathogen by 5.12 log CFU ml(-1) and 1.86 log CFU ml(-1) respectively. The combination of low pH and ozone showed a great antimicrobial effect in apple juice. Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes showed a reduction trend similar to E. coli O157:H7. There were no significant changes of colour values when apple juice was treated with ozone, except for b values. Among all ozone treated samples, the browning index was lower than that of nontreated samples and there were no significant differences in total phenolic contents. In conclusion, ozone treatment of low pH apple juice was significantly effective in inactivation of foodborne pathogens while maintaining acceptable apple juice quality. The antimicrobial effect of ozone treatment on foodborne pathogens in apple juice can be reinforced by lowering the pH of apple juice. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D 10 -values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D 10 -value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of prior growth conditions, pressure treatment parameters, and recovery conditions on the inactivation and recovery of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium in turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juck, Greg; Neetoo, Hudaa; Beswick, Ethan; Chen, Haiqiang

    2012-02-01

    The relatively high prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in various food products is of great concern to the food industry. The objective of this study was to determine the pressure-inactivation of the pathogens in a representative food model as affected by prior growth temperature, physiological age of the culture, pressure level and treatment temperature. The effect of post-treatment conditions (incubation temperature and gas atmosphere) on the bacterial recovery was also determined. The pathogens being studied were inoculated into sterile turkey breast meat to a final level of ca. 3 logCFU/g and then grown to two stages, the early stage (representative of exponential phase) and late stage (representative of stationary phase), at 15, 25, 35, and 40 °C. Turkey meat samples were pressure-treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 2 min at initial sample temperatures of 4, 20 and 40 °C. Following treatment, bacterial counts in the samples were determined aerobically or anaerobically at incubation temperatures of 15, 25, 35, and 40 °C. Pressure inactivation of the bacterial pathogens increased as a function of the pressure levels and treatment temperatures. Generally speaking, early stage cells were more resistant than late stage cells (P<0.05). The incubation gas atmosphere did not affect bacterial recovery. Bacteria grown at 15-35 °C underwent higher population reductions than those grown at 40 °C. With regard to recovery temperatures, low temperatures promoted greater recovery of injured early and late stage cells than higher temperatures (P<0.05). This study indicates the importance of environmental conditions to which bacteria are exposed prior to pressure treatment and recovery conditions of the bacteria after pressure treatment when considering the adequacy of pressure treatments to enhance the microbiological safety of foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radio-frequency heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Youn; Sagong, Hun-Gu; Choi, Sang Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice was investigated. A 27.12 MHz RF heating system consisted of two parallel-plate electrodes was used, with the sample being placed between them. Black peppers (whole and ground) and red peppers (+ 16 mesh, -16 + 25 mesh, and -25 mesh) inoculated with S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were treated with RF energy during 50s for black peppers and 40s for red peppers, and color change of samples was evaluated after treatment. RF heating for 50s resulted in 2.80 to 4.29 log CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in black peppers and RF heating of red peppers for 40s reduced pathogens by 3.38 log CFU/g to more than 5 log CFU/g (below the detection limit) without affecting the color quality change. The results suggest that RF heating has the potential for novel thermal process to control foodborne pathogens in spice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Stanley Cavell in Conversation with Paul Standish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Philosophy of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Having acknowledged the recurrent theme of education in Stanley Cavell's work, the discussion addresses the topic of scepticism, especially as this emerges in the interpretation of Wittgenstein. Questions concerning rule-following, language and society are then turned towards political philosophy, specifically with regard to John Rawls. The…

  20. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A remarkable contribution of Professor Cyril Stanley Smith was the translation of metallurgical classics into English from several languages - both ancient and modem ... He had not prepared for the role of technical translator. His wife,. Alice Kimball Smith, in oral history interviews made for Harvard. University related how his ...

  2. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The contributions of Cyril Stanley Smith to the science of nonferrous metallurgy and his historic involvement in the de- velopment of the atom bomb are well known. He also was signal in the development of the scholarly field known as the history of technology. Not only did he publish a number of books and papers on the ...

  3. The Scientific Humanism of G. Stanley Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Donald H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper presents the humanistic psychology of the pioneer American psychologist Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924), examining Hall's effort to develop a system of psychology that is at once rigorously scientific and, simultaneously, capable of verifying essential human values. (Author)

  4. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella ... Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning . It occurs when you swallow ...

  5. Cold plasma-activated hydrogen peroxide aerosol inactivates Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua and maintains quality of grape tomato, spinach and cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunbin; Sokorai, Kimberly; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip; Li, Xihong; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Jin, Tony; Fan, Xuetong

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide in inactivating bacteria and maintaining quality of grape tomatoes, baby spinach leaves and cantaloupes. Stem scars and smooth surfaces of tomatoes, spinach leaves, and cantaloupe rinds, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria innocua, were treated for 45s followed by additional 30min dwell time with hydrogen peroxide (7.8%) aerosols activated by atmospheric cold plasma. Non-inoculated samples were used to study the effects on quality and native microflora populations. Results showed that two ranges of hydrogen peroxide droplets with mean diameters of 40nm and 3.0μm were introduced into the treatment chamber. The aerosolized hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced S. Typhimurium populations by 5.0logCFU/piece, and E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua populations from initial levels of 2.9 and 6.3logCFU/piece, respectively, to non-detectable levels (detection limit 0.6logCFU/piece) on the smooth surface of tomatoes. However, on the stem scar area of tomatoes, the reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. innocua were only 1.0, 1.3, and 1.3 log, respectively. On the cantaloupe rind, the treatment reduced populations of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium and L. innocua by 4.9, 1.3, and 3.0logCFU/piece, respectively. Under the same conditions, reductions achieved on spinach leaves were 1.5, 4.2 and 4.0 log for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium and L. innocua, respectively. The treatments also significantly reduced native aerobic plate count, and yeasts and mold count of tomato fruits and spinach leaves. Furthermore, firmness and color of the samples were not significantly affected by the aerosolized hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our results showed that the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide depended on type of inoculated bacteria, location of bacteria and type of produce items, and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide could potentially be used to

  6. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  7. Rethinking democracy and education with Stanley Cavell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Standish

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stanley Cavell is a Harvard philosopher who, in writings spanning half a century has consistently returned to themes of education. Yet his writings are never programmatic, and he has never presumed to give advice to policy-makers or practitioners. He is interested in education as a critical dimension of human life. He shows how the autonomy of the individual is not to be separated from her role as a citizen. Understanding this requires attention to the criteria that sustain human practices and the development of judgement in relation to them. In philosophy and in ordinary life, this raises the question of scepticism, and Cavell’s distinctive response to this, which links its manifestation in philosophy with literature and tragedy, and with aspects of ordinary human existence, is especially original. Cavell never writes in a technical way or in jargon, but his language makes significant demands on the reader, encouraging them to read with a new attentiveness: this itself is of pedagogical importance. The present discussion takes up these themes and relates them to crucial questions regarding the education of teachers.Received: 02/09/2013 / Accepted: 04/10/2013How to reference this articleStandish, P. (2013. Rethinking democracy and education with Stanley Cavell. Foro de Educación, 11(15, pp. 49-64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2013.011.015.002

  8. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18 as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.

  9. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

  10. Comparison of the effect of saturated and superheated steam on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on cantaloupe and watermelon surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun-Ah; Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens on cantaloupes and watermelons. Saturated steam (SS) treatment was performed at 100 °C and that of SHS at 150 and 200 °C. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated cantaloupes and watermelons were exposed for a maximum of 30 s and 10 s, respectively. Populations of the three pathogens on cantaloupes and watermelons were reduced by more than 5 log after 200 °C steam treatment for 30 s and 10 s, respectively. After SHS treatment of cantaloupes and watermelons for each maximum treatment time, color and maximum load values were not significantly different from those of untreated controls. By using a noncontact 3D surface profiler, we found that surface characteristics, especially surface roughness, is the main reason for differences in microbial inactivation between cantaloupes and watermelons. The results of this study suggest that SHS treatment can be used as an antimicrobial intervention for cantaloupes and watermelons without inducing quality deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contaminati...

  12. Allspice, cinnamon and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodbrone pathogens Escherichia coli Ol57:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination...

  13. Cold Plasma-activated hydrogen peroxide aerosol inactivates Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria innocua and maintains quality of grape tomato, spinach and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide in inactivating bacteria and maintaining quality of grape tomato, baby spinach leaves and cantaloupe. Stem scar and smooth surfaces of tomatoes, spinach leaves, and cantaloupe rinds, inoculated with Escherich...

  14. Scientific biography of Stanley Mandelstam: 1981-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution to the memorial volume, I will review Stanley Mandelstam’s work after 1980 and concentrate on his powerful application of light-cone gauge methods in super-Yang-Mills theory and superstring theory.

  15. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  16. Individual and combined application of dry heat with high hydrostatic pressure to inactivate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2011-02-01

    Alfalfa sprouts are recurrently implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illnesses as a result of contamination with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7. In the majority of these outbreaks, the seeds themselves have been shown to be the most likely source of contamination. The aims of this study were to comparatively assess the efficacy of dry heat treatments alone or in conjunction with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to eliminate a ∼5 log CFU/g load of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Dry heat treatments at mild temperatures of 55 and 60 °C achieved ≤1.6 and 2.2 log CFU/g reduction in the population of Salmonella spp. after a 10-d treatment, respectively. However, subjecting alfalfa seeds to more aggressive temperatures of 65 °C for 10 days or 70 °C for 24 h eliminated a ∼5 log population of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. We subsequently showed that the sequential application of dry heating followed by HHP could substantially reduce the dry heating exposure time while achieving equivalent decontamination results. Dry heating at 55, 60, 65 and 70 °C for 96, 24, 12 and 6 h, respectively followed by a pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 2 min at 35 °C were able to eliminate a ∼5 log CFU/g initial population of both pathogens. Finally, we evaluated the impact of selected treatments on the seed germination percentages and yield ratios and showed that dry heating at 65 °C for 10 days did not bring about any considerable decrease in the germination percentage. However, the sprout yield of treated alfalfa seeds was reduced by 21%. Dry heating at 60 and 65 °C for 24 and 12 h respectively followed by the pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 2 min at 35 °C did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the germination percentage of alfalfa seeds although a reduction in the sprouting yield was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of electropermeabilization by ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water and apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of electric field-induced ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water (BPW) (pH 7.2) and apple juice (pH 3.5; 11.8 °Brix) was investigated in this study. BPW and apple juice were treated at different temperatures (55°C, 58°C, and 60°C) and for different times (0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s) by ohmic heating compared with conventional heating. The electric field strength was fixed at 30 V/cm and 60 V/cm for BPW and apple juice, respectively. Bacterial reduction resulting from ohmic heating was significantly different (Pheating at 58°C and 60°C in BPW and at 55°C, 58°C, and 60°C in apple juice for intervals of 0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s. These results show that electric field-induced ohmic heating led to additional bacterial inactivation at sublethal temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and the propidium iodide (PI) uptake test were conducted after treatment at 60°C for 0, 10, 20, 25 and 30 s in BPW to observe the effects on cell permeability due to electroporation-caused cell damage. PI values when ohmic and conventional heating were compared were significantly different (Pheating can more effectively reduce bacterial populations at reduced temperatures and shorter time intervals, especially in acidic fruit juices such as apple juice. Therefore, loss of quality can be minimized in a pasteurization process incorporating ohmic heating.

  18. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (Pheating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-02-28

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (Pseeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of seeds displayed higher germination potential when pre-soaked for 60 min at 20 degrees C prior to HPP (5 min) with final germination percentages of 94%, although their yield was substantially lower than their untreated counterparts. Red clover seeds pre-soaked for 60 min at 4 degrees C followed by HPP at 600 MPa for 5 min at 20 degrees C produced germination percentages of 91 and 95% after 3 and 8 days of sprouting compared to 99 and 100% respectively for untreated seeds. In addition, this condition did not significantly (P>0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed samples after enrichment). (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Additive approach for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. on contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables using bacteriophage cocktail and produce wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Joshua P; Marek, Patrick J; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Senecal, Andre G

    2013-08-01

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce is of worldwide concern. Lytic bacteriophage cocktails and a levulinic acid produce wash were investigated for their effectiveness against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella on broccoli, cantaloupe, and strawberries. Inoculated samples were treated with bacteriophage cocktails (BC) before storage at 10°C for 24 h, a levulinic acid produce wash (PW) after storage at 10°C for 24 h, or a combination of the washes (BCPW) before and after storage. All three treatments were compared against a 200-ppm free available chlorine wash. Wash solutions were prepared using potable water and water with an increased organic content of 2.5 g/liter total dissolved solids and total organic carbon. BCPW was the most effective treatment, producing the highest log reductions in the pathogens. Produce treated with BCPW in potable water with a PW exposure time of 5 min resulted in the highest reduction of each pathogen for all samples tested. The type of produce and wash solution had significant effects on the efficacy of the individual treatments. The chlorine wash in water with higher organic content was the least effective treatment tested. An additive effect of BCPW was seen in water with higher organic content, resulting in greater than 4.0-log reductions in pathogens. Our findings indicate that the combination of antimicrobial BC with a commercial produce wash is a very effective method for treating produce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and Salmonella even in the presence of high loads of organic matter.

  1. Determination of the Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 in Buffer and a Spinach Homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monu, Emefa Angelica; Valladares, Malcond; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-08-01

    Produce has been associated with a rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. While much produce is consumed raw, some is treated with mild heat, such as blanching or cooking. The objectives of this research were to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) and a spinach homogenate and to provide an estimate of the safety of mild heat processes for spinach. Five individual strains of S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were tested in PBS in 2-ml glass vials, and cocktails of the organisms were tested in blended spinach in vacuum-sealed bags. For Listeria and Salmonella at 56 to 60°C, D-values in PBS ranged from 4.42 ± 0.94 to 0.35 ± 0.03 min and 2.11 ± 0.14 to 0.16 ± 0.03 min, respectively. D-values at 54 to 58°C were 5.18 ± 0.21 to 0.53 ± 0.04 min for STEC O157:H7 and 5.01 ± 0.60 to 0.60 ± 0.13 min for non-O157 STEC. In spinach at 56 to 60°C, Listeria D-values were 11.77 ± 2.18 to 1.22 ± 0.12 min and Salmonella D-values were 3.51 ± 0.06 to 0.47 ± 0.06 min. D-values for STEC O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC were 7.21 ± 0.17 to 1.07 ± 0.11 min and 5.57 ± 0.38 to 0.99 ± 0.07 min, respectively, at 56 to 60°C. In spinach, z-values were 4.07 ± 0.16, 4.59 ± 0.26, 4.80 ± 0.92, and 5.22 ± 0.20°C for Listeria, Salmonella, STEC O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC, respectively. Results indicated that a mild thermal treatment of blended spinach at 70°C for less than 1 min would result in a 6-log reduction of all pathogens tested. These findings may assist the food industry in the design of suitable mild thermal processes to ensure food safety.

  2. Investigation of optimum ohmic heating conditions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-19

    Control of foodborne pathogens is an important issue for the fruit juice industry and ohmic heating treatment has been considered as one of the promising antimicrobial interventions. However, to date, evaluation of the relationship between inactivation of foodborne pathogens and system performance efficiency based on differing soluble solids content of apple juice during ohmic heating treatment has not been well studied. This study aims to investigate effective voltage gradients of an ohmic heating system and corresponding sugar concentrations (°Brix) of apple juice for inactivating major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes) while maintaining higher system performance efficiency. Voltage gradients of 30, 40, 50, and 60 V/cm were applied to 72, 48, 36, 24, and 18 °Brix apple juices. At all voltage levels, the lowest heating rate was observed in 72 °Brix apple juice and a similar pattern of temperature increase was shown in18-48 °Brix juice samples. System performance coefficients (SPC) under two treatment conditions (30 V/cm in 36 °Brix or 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix juice) were relatively greater than for other combinations. Meanwhile, 5-log reductions of the three foodborne pathogens were achieved after treatment for 60 s in 36 °Brix at 30 V/cm, but this same reduction was observed in 48 °Brix juice at 60 V/cm within 20 s without affecting product quality. With respect to both bactericidal efficiency and SPC values, 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix was the most effective ohmic heating treatment combination for decontaminating apple juice concentrates.

  3. Oregano essential oil-based natural antimicrobial packaging film to inactivate Salmonella enterica and yeasts/molds in the atmosphere surrounding cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Jo; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film containing the natural antimicrobial oregano essential oil (OEO) as an active packaging application for decreasing the microbial growth. The film exerted an antimicrobial effect via the atmosphere surrounding the food rather than direct contact, thereby preserving the quality of cherry tomatoes. A packaging film containing microencapsulated OEO was developed. The loading content increased gradually (104.29-234.29 μg OEO/mg film) with the amount of OEO incorporated (1%, 2%, and 3%), where the PVA films containing 2% OEO had the highest loading efficiency (91.64%), followed by 1% OEO (90.96%) and 3% OEO (88.38%). The antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated by applying it to fresh cherry tomatoes at 4 °C and 22 °C for 7 days. The large 2% OEO film as well as both the small and large 3% OEO films had strong antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The changes in the hardness, weight, and color of the cherry tomatoes during storage did not differ significantly. The films could be utilized as a packaging material for fresh produce with antimicrobial effects because of the controlled atmosphere surrounding the food rather than by direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a commercial process for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of whole muscle beef jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Call, Jeffrey E; Luchansky, John B

    2008-05-01

    We validated the lethality of three time and temperature regimens for commercial processing of whole muscle beef jerky. A total of ca. 8.9 log CFU per strip of multiple-strain cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes were separately applied onto the surface of beef strips that were treated as follows: (i) inoculated but not marinated or (ii) inoculated and then marinated. A total of three beef strips for each treatment in each of three trials were separately inoculated with a cocktail of one of the three pathogens and placed on the top, middle, and bottom racks of a loading truck. The strips on the rack were loaded into a commercial smokehouse and cooked and dried for 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 h at a target temperature of 180 degrees F (82.2 degrees C) with constant (natural hickory) smoking, but without the addition of humidity. Regardless of how the strips were treated or where the strips were placed on the loading rack, drying for 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 h to a target temperature of 180 degrees F (average of 177.2 +/- 5.6 degrees F [80.7 +/- 3.1 degrees C]), with constant smoke at an initial average relative humidity of 63.1% to a final average relative humidity of 20.9% resulted in a decrease of > or = 7.3 log CFU per strip (> or = 6.9 log CFU/g) for each of the three pathogen cocktails. Of note, marinated strips that were cooked and dried for 2.5 and 3.5 h or nonmarinated strips cooked or dried for 3.5 h also satisfied the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service standard of identity (moisture-to-protein ratio < or = 0.75:1) and/or shelf-stability (water activity < or = 0.8) requirements for jerky.

  5. Ourselves in Translation: Stanley Cavell and Philosophy as Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a different approach to writing about oneself--Stanley Cavell's idea of philosophy as autobiography. In Cavell's understanding, the acknowledgement of the partiality of the self is an essential condition for achieving the universal. In the apparently paradoxical combination of the "philosophical" (which is traditionally connected…

  6. Uncommon Schools: Stanley Cavell and the Teaching of "Walden"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Thoreau's "Walden" is a text that has been misinterpreted in various ways, one consequence of which is a failure to appreciate its significance as a perfectionist and visionary text for education. This paper explores aspects of what might be called its teaching, especially via the kind of teaching that is offered by Stanley Cavell's commentary,…

  7. A new Squirrel from the Stanley-falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1906-01-01

    This beautiful greenish tinged Squirrel has been procured by Mr. G. J. A. Pool at the Stanley-falls, Congostate, in August 1905; Professor Dr. A. A. W. Hubrecht (Utrecht) had the kindness as to present it to our National Museum. It apparently is an animal belonging to a hitherto undescribed species;

  8. Lööme kaasa! / Stanley Davis Phillips

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2008-01-01

    USA Eesti-suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips ütleb, et nad on saatkonnas moodustanud meeskonna, mis koosneb ameeriklastest kui ka eestlastest, et liituda üleriigilise ebaseaduslike prügilate likvideerimise üritusega "Teeme ära 2008"

  9. Salmonella osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is s...

  10. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  11. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory

  12. The pulsed light inactivation of veterinary relevant microbial biofilms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia attach to biofilms in large numbers (100-1000 oo/cysts) in as little as 72 hours. Pulsed light successfully inactivated all test species (Listeria, Salmonella, Bacillus, Escherichia) in planktonic and biofilm form with an increase in inactivation for every increase in UV dose.

  13. Film and Skepticism: Stanley Cavell on the Ontology of Film

    OpenAIRE

    Trifonova, Temenuga

    2017-01-01

    The present essay analyzes the reflections on the ontology of cinema in the works of Stanley Cavell. In particular, it highlights the way in which Cavell foresees in the philosophy of ordinary language as in Hollywood comedy, as many forms of that effort of redemption from the human condition which he calls skepticism, understood not so much as a philosophical position but rather as an underlying condition, as a reaction to the knowledge conceived as human knowledge, that is, experienced as p...

  14. Combinatorial Reductions for the Stanley Depth of I and S/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Mitchel T.; Young, Stephen J.

    2017-09-07

    We develop combinatorial tools to study the realtionship between the Stanley depth of a monomial ideal I and the Stanley depth of its compliment S/I. Using these results we prove that if S is a polynomial ring with at most 5 indeterminates and I is a square-free monomial ideal, then the Stanley depth of I is strictly larger than the Stanley depth of S/I. Using a computer search, we extend the strict inequality to the case of polynomial rings with at most 7 indeterminates. This partially answers questinos asked by Proescu and Qureshi as well as Herzog.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance in poultry meat from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ran-Hee; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Wei, Bai; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of Salmonella was assessed in duck and chicken meat collected from supermarkets, traditional markets, internet shopping malls, and wholesale markets in Jeonlado, South Korea, in 2013. Salmonella contamination was found in 51.3% of duck meat samples and 3.7% of chicken meat samples. Salmonella contamination of duck meat samples differed by meat type, i.e., 69.8% of samples of whole ducks and 33.9% of samples of duck pieces. Six serotypes were identified from 64 Salmonella isolates in duck meat: Salmonella Typhimurium (37.5%), Salmonella Enteritidis (21.8%), Salmonella Stanley (3.1%), Salmonella Regent (1.6%), Salmonella Winterthur (3.1%), and Salmonella Westhampton (1.6%). All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole was most common (93.8% of isolates), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (59.4%), ceftazidime (26.6%), and ampicillin (26.6%). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report Salmonella contamination in duck meat from Korea. Duck meat should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens.

  16. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  17. From Flat Stanley to Flat Cat: An Intercultural, Interlinguistic Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a Flat Cat Project is shared. Beginning with a description of the initial idea, influenced by the picturebook Flat Stanley (Brown, 1964, an account is given of a paper-plate Flat Cat and its journey across countries and cultures, visiting children who are learning English. The Flat Cat’s visit to Madrid, Spain is described in detail, demonstrating how such projects can support development in areas such as creativity and literacy, and promote intercultural and interlinguistic learning.

  18. 76 FR 43997 - N. Stanley Standal and Loretta M. Standal; Lynn E. Stevenson; Notice of Change in Docket Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...; Project Nos. 8866-006 and 8866- 007] N. Stanley Standal and Loretta M. Standal; Lynn E. Stevenson; Notice.... Stevenson to N. Stanley and Loretta M. Standal. Shortly thereafter, on July 20, 2004, the Commission issued... transfer and amendment orders. N. Stanley and Loretta M. Standal are correctly identified as the licensees...

  19. Stanley Fish, Chi ha paura di Wolfgang Iser?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentiamo qui la traduzione del saggio di Stanley Fish, Why no one’safraid of Wolfgang Iser, pubblicato nel numero di Marzo 1981 della rivista Diacritics. L’articolo fu scritto in risposta all’intervista a Wolfgang Iser, pubblicata nel numero precedente della stessa rivista, ma prende spunto per lo più da una delle massime opere di Iser, ovvero L’atto di lettura. Una teoria della risposta estetica (Il Mulino, Bologna, 1987. In esso l’autore valuta, critica e confuta molti dei capisaldi della teoria letteraria iseriana, a partire dalla natura ontologica degli agenti coinvolti nell’atto di lettura, fino all’esame fenomenologico  dell’interpretazione, che Fish applica sia al testo letterario che alla percezione del mondo reale.

  20. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  1. Salmonella gene rma (ramA) and multiple-drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, van T.; Janssen, R.; Mevius, D.J.; Dissel, van J.T.

    2004-01-01

    MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica

  2. Teaching in the Light of Stanley Cavell's Moral Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Jade

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from Stanley Cavell's distinct understanding of skepticism, this paper first considers current and incessant obsession with notions of or related to "educational standards," "school effectiveness and improvement," "evidence-based education," "performance indicators" and…

  3. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (Ngozi and Onyenekwe, 2003; Edward and Ewing,. 2003). Conclusion and Recommendations. The children in the older age bracket of 20-24 months were found to be most susceptible to salmonellosis. The risk of infection reduces in lower age group. The. Salmonella typhimurium remains the prominent causative agent in ...

  4. Wild-Caught and Farm-Reared Amphibians are Important Reservoirs of Salmonella, A Study in North-East Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Poonlaphdecha, S

    2017-03-01

    The role of amphibians as Salmonella reservoirs has not been as well studied as in reptiles, where the literature is abundant. Recent outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with exotic pet frogs have occurred in United States. Frog farming and wild frog harvesting have increased the international trade in these species. This necessitates a better understanding of the risk of salmonellosis transmission from amphibians to humans. We explored the presence of Salmonella in amphibians (frogs and toads) in Thailand, where farmed and wild frogs as well as toads are present. These live animals are easily found in the local markets and are used as food. Exportation of frog meat from Thailand is common. During March-June 2014, ninety-seven frogs were collected from several habitats, including frog farms, urban areas and protected natural areas. The collected amphibians were tested for the presence of Salmonella. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 69.07% (90.00% in farm animals, 0% in urban area animals and 44.83% in protected area animals). Eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated: subsp. diarizonae ser. 50:k:z, Hvittingfoss, Muenchen, Newport, Stanley, Thompson, Panama and Wandsworth. Six of the identified serovars, Hvittingfoss, Newport, Panama, Stanley, Thompson and Wandsworth, have been detected in humans in Thailand. According to our results, amphibians are reservoirs of Salmonella and can be a public health concern when used as a source of protein for humans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Survival Kinetics of Salmonella enterica and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on a Plastic Surface at Low Relative Humidity and on Low-Water Activity Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokunan, Hidekazu; Koyama, Kento; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the survival kinetics of Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli under various water activity (a w ) conditions to elucidate the net effect of a w on pathogen survival kinetics and to pursue the development of a predictive model of pathogen survival as a function of a w . Four serotypes of S. enterica (Stanley, Typhimurium, Chester, and Oranienburg) and three serotypes of enterohemorrhagic E. coli ( E. coli O26, E. coli O111, and E. coli O157:H7) were examined. These bacterial strains were inoculated on a plastic plate surface at a constant relative humidity (RH) (22, 43, 58, 68, or 93% RH, corresponding to the a w ) or on a surface of almond kernels (a w 0.58), chocolate (a w 0.43), radish sprout seeds (a w 0.58), or Cheddar cheese (a w 0.93) at 5, 15, or 25°C for up to 11 months. Under most conditions, the survival kinetics were nonlinear with tailing regardless of the storage a w , temperature, and bacterial strain. For all bacterial serotypes, there were no apparent differences in pathogen survival kinetics on the plastic surface at a given storage temperature among the tested RH conditions, except for the 93% RH condition. Most bacterial serotypes were rapidly inactivated on Cheddar cheese when stored at 5°C compared with their inactivation on chocolate, almonds, and radish sprout seeds. Distinct trends in bacterial survival kinetics were also observed between almond kernels and radish sprout seeds, even though the a w s of these two foods were not significantly different. The survival kinetics of bacteria inoculated on the plastic plate surface showed little correspondence to those of bacteria inoculated on food matrices at an identical a w . Thus, these results demonstrated that, for low-a w foods and/or environments, a w alone is insufficient to account for the survival kinetics of S. enterica and enterohemorrhagic E. coli .

  6. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the American Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2016-01-01

    In the final decades of the 19th century psychologist Granville Stanley Hall was among the most prominent pedagogical experts in the nation. The author explores Hall's carefully crafted persona as an educational expert, and his engagements with the American public, from 1880 to 1900, arguably the height of his influence. Drawing from accounts of Hall's lecture circuit in the popular press, a map of his talks across the nation is constructed to assess the geographic scope of his influence. These talks to educators on the psychology underlying childhood and pedagogy, and his views and research on child life more generally, were regularly discussed in newspapers and popular periodicals. The venues in which Hall's ideas were disseminated, discussed, and in some cases, dismissed are described. His efforts to mobilize popular support for, and assistance with, his research endeavors in child study are also discussed. Such efforts were controversial both within the burgeoning field of psychology and among the public. Through his various involvements in pedagogy, and concerted efforts to engage with the American public, Hall helped establish psychology's relevance to parenting and educational practices.

  7. Comparison of temperature effects on E. coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus survival in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the dependencies of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database consisting of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonella...

  8. Salmonella Vaccination in Pigs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2017-02-01

    The control of Salmonella enterica in pig production is necessary for both public and animal health. The persistent and frequently asymptomatic nature of porcine Salmonella infection and the organism's abilities to colonize other animal species and to survive in the environment mean that effective control generally requires multiple measures. Vaccination is one such measure, and the present review considers its role and its future, drawing on studies in pigs from the 1950s to the present day. Once established in the body as an intracellular infectious agent, Salmonella can evade humoral immunity, which goes some way to explaining the often disappointing performance of inactivated Salmonella vaccines. More recent approaches, using mucosal presentation of antigens, live vaccines and adjuvants to enhance cell-mediated immunity, have met with more success. Vaccination strategies that involve stimulating both passive immunity from the dam plus active immunity in offspring appear to be most efficacious, although either approach alone can yield significant control of Salmonella. Problems that remain include relatively poor control of Salmonella serovars that are dissimilar to the vaccine antigen mix, and difficulties in measuring and predicting the performance of candidate vaccines in ways that are highly relevant to their likely use in commercial production. © 2016 Crown copyright. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  9. Salmonella biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm formation. A collection of SalmonellaTyphimurium clinical, outbreak-related and retail product isolates, was used to determine biofilm formation capacity and to identify cellular parameters contributing to surface colon...

  10. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  11. A virtual reprise of the Stanley Milgram obedience experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stanley Milgram's 1960s experimental findings that people would administer apparently lethal electric shocks to a stranger at the behest of an authority figure remain critical for understanding obedience. Yet, due to the ethical controversy that his experiments ignited, it is nowadays impossible to carry out direct experimental studies in this area. In the study reported in this paper, we have used a similar paradigm to the one used by Milgram within an immersive virtual environment. Our objective has not been the study of obedience in itself, but of the extent to which participants would respond to such an extreme social situation as if it were real in spite of their knowledge that no real events were taking place.Following the style of the original experiments, the participants were invited to administer a series of word association memory tests to the (female virtual human representing the stranger. When she gave an incorrect answer, the participants were instructed to administer an 'electric shock' to her, increasing the voltage each time. She responded with increasing discomfort and protests, eventually demanding termination of the experiment. Of the 34 participants, 23 saw and heard the virtual human, and 11 communicated with her only through a text interface.Our results show that in spite of the fact that all participants knew for sure that neither the stranger nor the shocks were real, the participants who saw and heard her tended to respond to the situation at the subjective, behavioural and physiological levels as if it were real. This result reopens the door to direct empirical studies of obedience and related extreme social situations, an area of research that is otherwise not open to experimental study for ethical reasons, through the employment of virtual environments.

  12. A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Mel; Antley, Angus; Davison, Adam; Swapp, David; Guger, Christoph; Barker, Chris; Pistrang, Nancy; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2006-01-01

    Background Stanley Milgram's 1960s experimental findings that people would administer apparently lethal electric shocks to a stranger at the behest of an authority figure remain critical for understanding obedience. Yet, due to the ethical controversy that his experiments ignited, it is nowadays impossible to carry out direct experimental studies in this area. In the study reported in this paper, we have used a similar paradigm to the one used by Milgram within an immersive virtual environment. Our objective has not been the study of obedience in itself, but of the extent to which participants would respond to such an extreme social situation as if it were real in spite of their knowledge that no real events were taking place. Methodology Following the style of the original experiments, the participants were invited to administer a series of word association memory tests to the (female) virtual human representing the stranger. When she gave an incorrect answer, the participants were instructed to administer an ‘electric shock’ to her, increasing the voltage each time. She responded with increasing discomfort and protests, eventually demanding termination of the experiment. Of the 34 participants, 23 saw and heard the virtual human, and 11 communicated with her only through a text interface. Conclusions Our results show that in spite of the fact that all participants knew for sure that neither the stranger nor the shocks were real, the participants who saw and heard her tended to respond to the situation at the subjective, behavioural and physiological levels as if it were real. This result reopens the door to direct empirical studies of obedience and related extreme social situations, an area of research that is otherwise not open to experimental study for ethical reasons, through the employment of virtual environments. PMID:17183667

  13. Assessment of the Geothermal System Near Stanley, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Armstrong; John Welhan; Mike McCurry

    2012-06-01

    The City of Stanley, Idaho (population 63) is situated in the Salmon River valley of the central Idaho highlands. Due to its location and elevation (6270 feet amsl) it is one of the coldest locales in the continental U.S., on average experiencing frost 290 days of the year as well as 60 days of below zero (oF) temperatures. Because of high snowfall (76 inches on average) and the fact that it is at the terminus of its rural grid, the city also frequently endures extended power outages during the winter. To evaluate its options for reducing heating costs and possible local power generation, the city obtained a rural development grant from the USDA and commissioned a feasibility study through author Roy Mink to determine whether a comprehensive site characterization and/or test drilling program was warranted. Geoscience students and faculty at Idaho State University (ISU), together with scientists from the Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted three field data collection campaigns between June, 2011 and November, 2012 with the assistance of author Beckwith who arranged for food, lodging and local property access throughout the field campaigns. Some of the information collected by ISU and the IGS were compiled by author Mink and Boise State University in a series of progress reports (Makovsky et al., 2011a, b, c, d). This communication summarizes all of the data collected by ISU including data that were compiled as part of the IGS’s effort for the National Geothermal Data System’s (NGDS) data compilation project funded by the Department of Energy and coordinated by the Arizona Geological Survey.

  14. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SSP IN CENTRAL THAILAND, 2001-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee

    2010-01-01

    . Schwarzengrund, S. Choleraesuis, S. Anatum, S. Stanley, S. Rissen, and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant serovars observed. The invasive serovar, S. Choleraesuis was resistant to cefotaxime and norfloxacin. Antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime, was observed in S. Agona, S. Rissen, S. Typhimurium, S......This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were included....... The isolates were characterized using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The most common serovars in patients submitting stool samples were S. Weltevreden, S. Stanley, S. Anatum, and S. Rissen. Significantly higher odds ratios were observed in blood samples versus stool sample for S...

  15. Fate of Salmonella during sesame seeds roasting and storage of tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlak, Emrah; Sert, Durmuş; Serin, Pınar

    2013-05-15

    Tahini is usually consumed without further heat treatment, and roasting of sesame seeds is the only Salmonella inactivation step in its traditional production process. This study examined the efficiency of the roasting process in the elimination of Salmonella from sesame seeds and the survival of Salmonella in tahini during storage. Sesame seed and tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of three serotypes of Salmonella (S. Typhimurium, S. Newport and S. Montevideo). Complete inactivation of Salmonella in sesame seeds, inoculated with 5.9 log cfu/g, was achieved by roasting at 110 °C for 60 min, 130 °C for 50 min, or 150 °C for 30 min. Salmonella levels in tahini (aw=0.17) inoculated with 5.6 log cfu/g and stored for 16 weeks at 22 or 4 °C decreased by 4.5 and 3.3 log, respectively. Results of this study demonstrated that the standard roasting process is sufficient to inactivate Salmonella in sesame seeds and low water activity of tahini prevents microbial growth, but its composition allows Salmonella to survive for at least 16 weeks. Therefore, prevention of cross-contamination after roasting is crucial for food safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 30064 - Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ameristaff Employment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,861] Stanley Furniture Company... subject firm. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of household furniture and... follows: All workers of Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Stanleytown, Virginia, who became totally or...

  17. 77 FR 12081 - Stanley Black and Decker, CDIY Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... (WEC), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, McAllen, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... Center (WEC), CDIY Division of Stanley Black and Decker, McAllen, Texas. The intent of the Department's...: All workers of Stanley Black and Decker, CDIT Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), including on...

  18. NACA/NASA test pilot Stanley P. Butchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Stanley P. Butchart joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' High-Speed Flight Research Station on May 10, 1951. Stan was the fourth research pilot hired at the Station affording him the opportunity to fly the early research aircraft. Stan began a flying career while attending Junior College. He received primary and secondary civilian pilot training, enlisting in the U.S. Navy in July 1942. Stan took his Navy air training at Corpus Christi, Texas. Upon completion of training he was assigned to a torpedo-bomber Air Group, VT-51, flying Grumman-General Motors TBM Avenger, a torpedo-bomber, from the carrier San Jacinto in the South Pacific. When World War II ended, Stan was released from active duty as a Navy Lieutenant, with a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Presidential Unit Citation among his service medals. Butchart elected to stay in the Naval Reserve group and flew for an additional 5 years while he attended the University of Washington. By 1950, Stan had earned bachelor degrees in aeronautical engineering and mechanical engineering. After graduation he went to work for Boeing Aircraft as a junior design engineer and was assigned to the B-47 body group. In May 1951, he arrived at the NACA facility to start a career as a research pilot. Stan flew the Douglas D-558-I #3 (12 flights, first on October 19, 1951), the Douglas D-558-II #3 (2 pilot check-out flights, first on June 26, 1953), Northrop X-4 (4 flights, first on May 27, 1952), Bell X-5 (13 flights, first in early December 1952). Other aircraft flown on research projects were the Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, Convair CV-990, Boeing B-52-003, Boeing B-747, North American F-100A, Convair F-102, Piper PA-30 Twin Comanche, General Dynamics F-111, Boeing B-720, Convair CV-880, and the Boeing B-47 Stratojet, his favorite. he also flew many other aircraft. Stan did nearly all of the big airplane work at the Center. The biggest work load was flying the Boeing B-29 Stratofortress (Navy designation: P2B

  19. John Stanley, "A Miracle of Art and Nature": The Role of Disability in the Life and Career of a Blind Eighteenth-Century Musician

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, John Richard

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and career of John Stanley, an eighteenth-century blind organist, composer, conductor and impresario. Most historians of blindness discuss Stanley but merely repeat biographical material without adding any particular insights relating to his blindness. As for twentieth-century musicologists, they have largely ignored Stanley's blindness. The conclusion is that Stanley's blindness, despite being present in most of his reception, is not treated as a defini...

  20. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  1. 76 FR 62843 - United States v. Morgan Stanley; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... and others from future violations of the antitrust laws. The United States and Morgan have stipulated... of the Antitrust Laws A. The Defendant Morgan Stanley is a Delaware corporation with its principal... prohibited by the antitrust laws may bring suit in federal court to recover three times the damages the...

  2. Steven Spielberg peab oma uut filmi koostööks Stanley Kubrickuga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    30. juunil üheaegselt Jaapanis ja USAs esilinastub Steven Spielbergi "Tehisintellekt" ("A.I. Artificial Intelligence"), mille kohta režissöör Tokyos pressikonverentsil väitis, et see on õieti Stanley Kubricku film, kuna põhineb temast järelejäänud 90-leheküljelisel ideeprojektil

  3. G. Stanley Hall: Neither Psychology Alone nor Basic Research Is Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youniss, James

    2005-01-01

    In his monumental work, "Adolescence", G. Stanley Hall showed the value of interdisciplinary scholarship and respect for research, which had a policy orientation. Over the course of the 20th century these two characteristics faded in adolescent studies as psychology took dominance and basic research was given priority over policy considerations.…

  4. An overview of recent findings of the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (Part I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, RM; Leverich, GS; Altshuler, LL; Frye, MA; Suppes, TM; Keck, PE; McElroy, SL; Kupka, R; Nolen, WA; Grunze, H; Walden, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim and Methods: Selected recent findings of the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network are briefly reviewed and their clinical implications discussed. Results: Daily prospective ratings on the NIMH-LCM indicate a high degree of residual depressive morbidity (three times that of hypomania or mania)

  5. The guiding influence of Stanley Mandelstam, from S-matrix theory to string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The guiding influence of some of Stanley Mandelstam’s key contributions to the development of theoretical high energy physics is discussed, from the motivation for the study of the analytic properties of the scattering matrix through to dual resonance models and their evolution into string theory.

  6. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  7. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How Can Salmonella Infections Be Diagnosed? Diagnosing salmonellosis requires testing a ...

  8. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  9. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide AGENCY: Food and Drug... the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination... entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG 690.700)'' on October 1, 1980. CPG...

  10. Live Oral Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Vaccines Ty21a and CVD 909 Induce Opsonophagocytic Functional Antibodies in Humans That Cross-React with S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid, Rezwanul; Zafar, Shah J.; McArthur, Monica A.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Live oral Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine Ty21a induces specific antibodies that cross-react against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B, although their functional role in clearance remains unknown. We utilized an in vitro assay with THP-1 macrophages to compare the phagocytosis and survival of Salmonella opsonized with heat-inactivated human sera obtained before and after vaccination with Ty21a or a live oral S. Typhi vaccine, CVD 909...

  11. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  12. "Cinq années au Congo" de Henry M.Stanley. Une étude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the different editions of Stanley's Congo and the Founding of its Free State is very complex. It is also the only text by the great explorer that was translated in French by a Belgian, Gérard Harry (1856-1931), that was printed in Belgium and that came out in Brussels. In this article, the authors study neither the ...

  13. Salmonellae in health foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, B M; Cherry, W B; Dodd, D J

    1977-11-01

    Various health food products of different brands were purchased from stores in the metropolitan Atlanta area. These foods were examined for the presence of salmonellae by fluorescent-antibody and cultural methods. Included in the study were tablets of alfalfa, parsley, kelp, wheat bran, enzyme, bone meal, and vitamins. Beef liver powder and tablets and granola cereal were also studied. Salmonella minnesota, Salmonella anatum, and Salmonella derby were isolated from two of three lots of beef liver powder from one manufacturer. All other products were negative.

  14. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.

  15. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 10 4 cfu.mL −1 and 10 3 cfu.mL −1 , respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  16. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  17. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  19. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with both Salmonella typhiand non-typhi salmonella. (NTS) is common among children in many African countries. Salmonella typhi predominates among older children and adults with the typical localising features of enteric fever. Nontyphoid salmonellae species are more often reported among children under 5 ...

  20. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  1. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  2. Stanley Kubrick and B.F. Skinner : Is a Teaching Machine a Monolith ?

    OpenAIRE

    浜野, 保樹; ハマノ, ヤスキ; Yasuki, Hamano

    1990-01-01

    The teaching machine invented by B.F. Skinner was recog-nized as one of few clear achievements of scientific pedagogy and even appeared in SF. Arthur C. Clarke who wrote the script of the SF movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" with Stanley Kubrick wanted to scientifically define a monolith to be a God who had given intelligence to our ancestors. In other words, he wanted to describe a monolith as a teaching machine as well as a God. However Kubrick did not want to make clear about what a monolith i...

  3. Stanley Cavell, Classical Hollywood and the Constitution of the Ordinary (With Notes on Billy Wilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jukić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When in his Tanner lectures Stanley Cavell sets out to define Ordinary Language Philosophy or – rather – to explain how it demarcates philosophy as such, he takes up psychoanalytic literary criticism in order to articulate the terms of this task. Yet the constitution of the ordinary, in Cavell, is never quite accessed from within psychoanalysis-cum-literature alone; instead, it takes another relation, that of psychoanalysis and literature to classical Hollywood, for Cavell to address the ordinary in terms of its constitution. I propose to discuss this complex using two films by Billy Wilder as a passageway to Cavell’s analytic procedure.

  4. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  5. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pigs, and reptiles (such as turtles, lizards, and iguanas). Another, rarer form — called Salmonella typhi — causes typhoid ... a baby. Even healthy reptiles (especially turtles and iguanas) are not safe pets for small children and ...

  8. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that pass from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals. The Salmonella family includes over ... human infections. Strains that cause no symptoms in animals can make people sick, and vice versa. If present in food, ...

  9. Decontamination of salmonella from the coastal fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saheki, Kazuaki; Konno, Kenjiro; Sato, Takae; Kawabata, Toshiharu.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination fo salmonellae from fish meal samples by irradiation which 60 Co γ ray was examined. Sixteen strains of Salmonella were used. A composite fish meal sample was prepared by mixing with different coastal meals, and after radiation sterilization at a dose of 20 kGy 60 Co γ ray, which was employed as the salmonella-free meal sample. D 10 values of test strains determined in buffered saline were found to range from 0.08 to 0.36 kGy, and inactivation factors at a dose of 1 kGy ranged from 10 2.8 to 10 13 . D 10 values of test strains determined in the salmonella-free meal sample ranged from 0.59 to 1.64 kGy, and the inactivation factors at a dose of 10 kGy were found to range from 10 6.1 to 10 17 . Interestingly the D 10 values of salmonellae determined in fish meal samples were 10 times as much compared with those determined in buffered saline. From the commercial aspects of coastal fish meal production, destruction of salmonellae in fish meals by 60 Co γ ray irradiation was found to be much more practical than other methods such as dry heating and ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  10. Thermal Inactivation of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    production. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 116:174-177. Mayer, V. 1965. Study of the virulence of tick-borne encephalitis virus. IV. Thermosensitivity...inactivation of rabies and other rhabrtoviruses: stabilization of the chelating agent Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at physiological temperatures. Infec

  11. The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

  12. G. Stanley Hall and an American Social Darwinist Pedagogy: His Progressive Educational Ideas on Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Lester F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…

  13. A Problematic Alliance: Colonial Anthropology, Recapitulation Theory, and G. Stanley Hall's Program for the Liberation of America's Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of G. Stanley Hall's opus, "Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education" (1904), have highlighted one of the book's most problematic implications: if young people were thought to be the developmental analogues of "primitive" or "savage," then the treatment…

  14. Y2K+1: Technology, Community-College Students, the Millennium, and Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Considers how screening Stanley Kubrick's "2001: A Space Odyssey" in a sophomore film class shows modern community-college students that millennial anxiety existed well before late 1999, the time of "Y2K" fears. Presents an assignment that examines "2001: A Space Odyssey" in the context of its time and in 2001. (SG)

  15. Salmonella in sesame seed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Kimmig, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In the context of an international outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that was correlated to the consumption of halvah ("helva," an Asian candy made from sesame seed), we examined several sesame seed products for the occurrence of Salmonella. Of 117 ready-to-eat food items containing sesame, we isolated salmonellae from 11 (9.4%) samples. In addition to finding Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in the halvah involved in the outbreak, we also isolated different Salmonella Typhimurium strains out of halvah from other manufacturers and countries of origin, as well as Salmonella Offa, Salmonella Tennessee, and Salmonella Poona from sesame paste (tahini) and sesame seed, which is sold for raw consumption in cereals.

  16. G. Stanley Hall and The Journal of Genetic Psychology: A Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John D

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Genetic Psychology (originally called The Pedagogical Seminary) has a complicated history. Known primarily as a journal of development psychology, it was originally intended to be a journal of higher education. In addition, G. Stanley Hall created it, at least in part, to curry favor with Jonas Clark, the benefactor of Clark University. The journal had a cumbersome start, with irregular issues for most of its first decade. Hall was a hands-on editor, often contributing articles and reviews as well as the texts of many of his speeches. A substantial number of additional articles were written by Clark University faculty and fellows where Hall was president. After Hall.s death, the editor became Carl Murchison who eventually left Clark University with the journal and continued to publish it privately until his death. Through the years, the journal has been the source for many classic articles in developmental psychology.

  17. El metajuego y la subversión de la narrativa tradicional en The Stanley Parable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmy Irigoyen Regueiro

    2015-12-01

    The Stanley Parable es un ejemplo magistral de metajuego, por medio del cual se realiza una reflexión paródica sobre el lenguaje videolúdico y su diferencia con la narrativa tradicional. Con este artículo se pretende llevar a cabo una aproximación al tema central de este título –el metajuego y la interactividad del jugador–, partiendo para ello de la teoría de los frames ontológicos y de la constitución del Círculo Mágico a través de estos. De esta manera, comprobaremos como se produce un constante cambio de marco de realidad por medio de la voz del Narrador, mediante lo cual podemos observar la dicotomía jugador/personaje, marcada por la agencia.

  18. Desire and Crisis: The Operation of Cinematic Masks in Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide shut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Marriott

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del texto fílmico Eye Wide Shut, Stanley Kubrick se convierte en el punto de partida de una reflexión en torno a la mascarada de la vida posmoderna, pero también en torno al espejismo de la mirada que ayuda a consolidar las máscaras. El deseo se convierte en el generador del proceso y la película de Kubrick no es más que su metáfora metateórica. El cine, la publicidad y en general los discursos de los mass media que recorren la cultura popular de nuestros días conocen estos juegos y el espectador queda atrapado en su práctica.

  19. Encuentros y desencuentros entre videojuegos y literatura. Jugabilidad y narrativa en The Stanley Parable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lozano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the narrative of video games paying attention to resources and strategies borrowed from literature. I will approach a particular issue regarding the possibilities of video games as a suitable media to tell stories. This topic is related to the bonds, compatibilities, and incompatibilities between storytelling and gameplay. Such relationship is responsible for the debates that have centered the methods and approaches to video game studies since the late 90s. Video game creators are exploring this relationship to push the creative boundaries of this medium. This research focuses on the use of omniscient narrator within a series of recent games and further analyze the case of The Stanley Parable (Galactic Cafe, 2013 to study this phenomenon.

  20. Ernest Becker and Stanley Milgram: Twentieth-century students of evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Both Stanley Milgram and Ernest Becker studied and theorized human evil and offered explanations for evil acts, such as those constituting the Holocaust. Yet the explanations offered by Becker and Milgram are strikingly different. In this essay, brief biographical records of their lives are provided. Differences in their research methods and theories are then examined and traced to relevant differences in their lives, education, and careers. Especially important in this regard were their personal experiences of evil and the scholarly practices and traditions of social scientific and humanities scholarship that characterized their graduate education and scholarly work. The final parts of the essay are devoted to a comparative and integrative analysis of their respective approaches to the question of evil, especially as manifest during the Holocaust, and a brief exegesis of their disciplinary commitments. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  2. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  4. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1–7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs we...

  5. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  6. Salmonella Taking Charge

    OpenAIRE

    Weigele, Bethany A.; Alto, Neal M.

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens develop creative ways to undermine host defenses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Bakowski et al. (2010) have unveiled a mechanism by which Salmonella evades lysosomal fusion by using a bacterial protein, SopB, that depletes the phagosomal membrane of negative charge.

  7. Influence of modified atmosphere and varying time in storage on the irradiation sensitivity of Salmonella on sliced roma tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella contamination of tomatoes is a recurrent food safety concern. Irradiation inactivates pathogens on fresh and fresh cut produce. However, the interaction of time in refrigerated storage and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) may influence the response of pathogens to irradiation. Roma tom...

  8. Continuous raw skim milk processing by pulsed electric field at non-lethal temperature: effect on microbial inactivation and functional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Floury , Juliane; Grosset , Noël; Leconte , Nadine; Pasco , Maryvonne; Madec , Marie-Noëlle; Jeantet , Romain

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Pulsed electric field (PEF) is an emerging non-thermal processing technology used to inactivate microorganisms in liquid foods such as milk. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of continuous PEF equipment (square wave pulses) on total microorganisms of raw skim milk and on Salmonella enteritidis inactivation under moderate temperatures (T < 50 °C). Processing parameters (electric field and pulse width) were chosen as follows: 45 kV*cm-1/500 ns...

  9. Becoming good in Africa: A critical appraisal of Stanley Hauerwas� ecclesial ethic in the sub-Saharan context

    OpenAIRE

    Charles K. Bafinamene

    2017-01-01

    The present article examines the appropriateness of Stanley Hauerwas� ecclesial ethic for the sub-Saharan African churches. Thus, it consists in a Christian ethical assessment of the metaethical foundational categories of his ecclesial ethic. In brief, his proposal is eclectic and pluri-disciplinarily applicable to the churches of various denominations. It reflects the marks of the Aristotelian ethical tradition endorsed by Thomas Aquinas and recovered by several communitarian philosophers. I...

  10. Efecto de la exposición a la luz ultravioleta uv-c en la viabilidad de especies de Eschericha coli y Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo, Dumas; Rojas, Jesús María; Borda, Ricardo Alberto; Durango, Mónica María

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The germicidal effect UV-C light has is regarded as an effective tool to inactivate and eliminate harmful contaminating agents, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Objective. evaluating the effectiveness of UV-C light for reducing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimorium populations from cultures that had the microorganisms, combining factors like concentration, time and distance. Methodology. A UV-C lamp, with a 254 nm and 8 ...

  11. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “Relationship” Condition: Some Methodological and Theoretical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestar Russell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In May 1962, social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, ran what was arguably the most controversial variation of his Obedience to Authority (OTA experiments: the Relationship Condition (RC. In the RC, participants were required to bring a friend, with one becoming the teacher and the other the learner. The learners were covertly informed that the experiment was actually exploring whether their friend would obey an experimenter’s orders to hurt them. Learners were quickly trained in how to react to the impending “shocks”. Only 15 percent of teachers completed the RC. In an article published in 1965, Milgram discussed most of the variations on his baseline experiment, but only named the RC in passing, promising a more detailed account in his forthcoming book. However, his 1974 book failed to mention the RC and it remained unpublished until François Rochat and Andre Modigliani discovered it in Milgram’s personal archive in 1997 at Yale University. Their overview of the RC’s procedure and results left a number of questions unanswered. For example, what were the etiological origins of the RC? Why did Milgram decide against publishing this experiment? And does the RC have any significant methodological or theoretical implications on the Obedience studies discourse? Based on documents obtained from Milgram’s personal archive, the aim of this article is to shed new light on these questions.

  12. Pneumatology and discipleship: Trinity and church in the theology of Stanley Grenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Spjuth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ecclesiology, the notion of the Spirit and the church has been heavily influenced by a recent and broad retrieval of Trinitarian theology. In this article, I discuss this in relationship to baptist and evangelical traditions as it is represented by Stanley Grenz. His “theology for the community of God” demonstrates the fruitfulness of the Trinitarian retrieval for such traditions. However, the main argument in the article is that it also implies certain risks. According to the Baptist tradition, the central message of the New Testament is the invitation to be a disciple of Jesus Christ. As Kathryn Tanner and Karen Kilby have argued elsewhere, when the biblical challenge to be like Jesus Christ is turned into a more general exhortation to become an image of the Trinity, it often results in abstract ethics and an ecclesiology that focuses mainly on general exhortations to love and to live in community. In contrast, this article claims that the biblical notion of discipleship has greater possibilities to allow for a more substantial and more holistic account of the Church, one that reunites ecclesiology, ethics and the Spirit’s transformative work within liturgy, charismatic service and mission.

  13. Gamma radiation inactivation of pathogens in sludge under larger-scale condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, N.; Pongpat, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital showed that total bacterial counts were reduced to 2-3 log cycles and 1-2 log cycles at 5 kGy irradiation with and without aeration, respectively. Inactivation of coliform bacteria in sludge required irradiation with and without aeration at the dosages of 3-4.5 and 4-5 kGy, respectively. A dose of 2-3 kGy was sufficient to inactivate fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. The doses used for inactivation these bacteria depend on the irradiation condition and solid content in sludge sample. Irradiation with aeration led to an increased microbial inactivation. According to our results, the frequency of occurrence of salmonella e contaminated in sludge from Huay Kwang Sewage Treatment Plant and Vajira Hospital was 50% and 75%, respectively. A dose of 2 kGy irradiation with or without aeration, salmonella e could not be detected in any sludge. Clostridium perfringens organisms were also detected in non-irradiated and irradiated sludge from both sources. Moreover, a dose of 5 kGy irradiation with or without aeration was not enough to eliminate C. perfringens. However, no shigella e were isolated from any treatment of sludge

  14. Heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2006-11-01

    Recent large foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovars have been associated with consumption of foods with high fat content and reduced water activity, even though their ingredients usually undergo pasteurization. The present study was focused on the heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter. The Salmonella serovars in the peanut butter were resistant to heat, and even at a temperature as high as 90 degrees C only 3.2-log reduction in CFU was observed. The obtained thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (10 min) followed by lower death rates and an asymptotic tail. The curves fitted the nonlinear Weibull model with beta parameters pasteurization process cannot be improved significantly by longer treatment or higher temperatures.

  15. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  16. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  17. Environmental change and fire in the Owen Stanley Ranges, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Kosipe, an upland valley at 2000 m altitude in the Owen Stanley Ranges of southeastern New Guinea, is known for the discovery of large stone waisted blades dated to 31 400 cal a BP. The purpose of these tools and the nature of occupation are unknown. The altitude is too high for most food crops today and may have stood close to the treeline during the last glaciation. Three pollen and charcoal diagrams from a large swamp in the Kosipe Valley provide a record of swamp and dryland changes for more than 50 000 years. There have been considerable fluctuations in vegetation on the slopes and on the swamp which reflect both environmental change and anthropogenic influences. A gymnosperm-rich forest at the base is replaced by mountain forest dominated by Nothofagus about 42 000 years ago. Fire first becomes apparent across the swamp around 40 000 years ago but is not common during the time when subalpine herbs reach their best representation. Tree fern-rich grasslands form a mosaic with montane forest in a near-treeline environment. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is marked by a decline in Nothofagus and increase in lower montane mixed forest taxa. Charcoal increases before this time and the swamp vegetation becomes more grass-rich. Charcoal is at its maximum through the last 3000 years possibly reflecting climate variability as well as sedentary occupation and agriculture on the swamp margin. Supplementary pollen diagrams from two higher altitude sites support the evidence from the Kosipe Swamp cores. Charcoal, local catchment erosion and increases in disturbance taxa become more widespread in the last 5000 years at these sites, suggesting that local settlement at Kosipe may have lagged behind general landscape use by populations from lower altitudes.

  18. Stanley L Drummond-Jackson. Pioneer of intravenous anaesthesia in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, Ashish; Gopakumar, V

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Lithgow Drummond-Jackson was born in Northumberland and qualified from Edinburgh University Dental School in 1931. Even in the early stages of his practice he devoted his energies to the problem of pain control in dentistry, publishing his first paper in 1935. In the early 20th century most dental anaesthetics were inhalational with nitrous oxide, ether, ethyl chloride and chloroform. The introduction of intravenous hexobarbitone in 1931 led to bold and enthusiastic researchers like Drummond-Jackson to pioneer its use in dental practice. He published his major work on intravenous hexobarbitone in 1952. In 1957, Drummond-Jackson and a group of colleagues formed the now well-known organisation called 'Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry' or SAAD. SAAD has grown from a group of 40 to over 4000 members worldwide. In 1969, the BMJ published an article condemning Drummond-Jackson's technique of intermittent intravenous methohexitone. At his personal expense, Drummond-Jackson brought a libel action against the BMJ and authors of this paper. There were no winners as the case was settled after 38 days and earned the reputation for being the longest and most expensive libel case in the history of the London Courts. Despite this setback the founder of SAAD devoted the last days of his life in research, teaching and abolishing fear and pain in dentistry. He gained international reputation as a teacher in dental anaesthesia and was honoured with fellowships and awards. He died in 1975 at the age of 66. In the early 1900s dental anaesthesia was only inhalational with mainly nitrous oxide on one hand and ether, ethyl chloride and chloroform on the other. Induction was at times stormy and prolonged and recovery was delayed. The synthesis of barbiturates, especially intravenous hexobarbitone (1931), thiopentone (1932) and methohexitone (1959) opened new avenues for dental anaesthesia. Modern anaesthesia owes a lot to early pioneers, many of them being

  19. Validation of the baking process as a kill-step for controlling Salmonella in muffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Michael, Minto; Acuff, Jennifer C; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Olewnik, Maureen; Milliken, George

    2017-06-05

    This research investigates the potential risk of Salmonella in muffins when contamination is introduced via flour, the main ingredient. Flour was inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg) and re-dried to achieve a target concentration of ~8logCFU/g. The inoculated flour was then used to prepare muffin batter following a standard commercial recipe. The survival of Salmonella during and after baking at 190.6°C for 21min was analyzed by plating samples on selective and injury-recovery media at regular intervals. The thermal inactivation parameters (D and z values) of the 3-strain Salmonella cocktail were determined. A ≥5logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population was demonstrated by 17min of baking, and a 6.1logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population by 21min of baking. The D-values of Salmonella serovar cocktail in muffin batter were 62.2±3.0, 40.1±0.9 and 16.5±1.7min at 55, 58 and 61°C, respectively; and the z-value was 10.4±0.6°C. The water activity (a w ) of the muffin crumb (0.928) after baking and 30min of cooling was similar to that of pre-baked muffin batter, whereas the a w of the muffin crust decreased to (0.700). This study validates a typical commercial muffin baking process utilizing an oven temperature of 190.6°C for at least 17min as an effective kill-step in reducing a Salmonella serovar population by ≥5logCFU/g. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Arf GTPase-activating protein family is exploited by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to invade nonphagocytic host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony C; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B E; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2015-02-10

    To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP

  1. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  3. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  4. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie

  5. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  6. MPLEx: a method for simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of samples for multi-omics profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Habyarimana, Fabien; Negretti, Nicholas M.; Sims, Amy C.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Thackray, Larissa B.; Halfmann, Peter J.; Walters, Kevin B.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ahmer, Brian; Konkel, Michael E.; Motin, Vladimir; Baric, Ralph S.; Diamond, Michael S.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Waters, Katrina M.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-01-01

    The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of increasing concern due to increased population growth and the associated increased livestock production to meet food demands, increased urbanization and land-use changes, and greater travel. A systems biology approach to infectious disease research can significantly advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can only take place subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. This metabolite, protein and lipid extraction (MPLEx) method resulted in complete inactivation of bacterial and viral pathogens with exposed lipid membranes, including Yersinia pestis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni in pure culture, and Yersinia pestis, Campylobacter jejuni, West Nile, MERS-CoV, Ebola, and influenza H7N9 viruses in infection studies. Partial inactivation was observed for pathogens without exposed lipid membranes including 99.99% inactivation of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 99.6% and >99% inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells, respectively, and 50% inactivation of adenovirus type 5. To demonstrate that MPLEx yields biomaterial of sufficient quality for subsequent multi-omics analyses, we highlight select proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics data from human epithelial lung cells infected with wild-type and mutant forms of influenza H7N9. We believe that MPLEx will facilitate systems biology studies of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and multi

  7. Between Peirce (1878) and James (1898): G. Stanley Hall, the origins of pragmatism, and the history of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, David E

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the 20-year gap between Charles S. Peirce's classic proposal of pragmatism in 1877-1878 and William James's equally classic call for pragmatism in 1898. It fills the gap by reviewing relevant developments in the work of Peirce and James and by introducing G. Stanley Hall, for the first time, as a figure in the history of pragmatism. In treating Hall and pragmatism, the article reveals a previously unnoted relation between the early history of pragmatism and the early history of the "new psychology" that Hall helped to pioneer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Human Feces in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satomi; Koori, Yoshio; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Osaka, Shunsuke; Oana, Kozue; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Nagano, Noriyuki

    2017-05-24

    β-lactamase genes were detected and characterized from 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) clinical isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins collected between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. Five strains showed cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml and positive clavulanic acid inhibition results. The bla CTX-M-2 was detected in 3 strains (serotypes Stanley and Muenchen), whereas bla TEM-52 (serotype Manhattan) and bla SHV-12 (serotype Infantis) were each found in 1 strain. bla CMY-2 was detected in the remaining 5 strains (serotypes Infantis, Rissen, Newport, and Saintpaul) with cefotaxime MICs of 4-32 μg/ml and positive cloxacillin- and 3-aminophenylboronic acid- based inhibition tests. ISEcp1 was located upstream of the bla CMY-2 in 4 strains and of the bla CTX-M-2 in 1 strain. Incompatibility (Inc)A/C, IncP, and IncI1 plasmids were present in the strains harboring bla CMY-2 , which were detected predominantly in this study. Acquisition of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins by invasive NTS may limit therapeutic options for severe systemic infections and causing serious public health problems. Though such resistant clinical isolates are still rare in Salmonella species in Japan, our findings reveal the presence of cephem-resistant NTS in food handlers, thus emphasizing the necessity of more systematic nationwide investigations.

  9. WILLIAM STANLEY JEVONS: EL USO DE LAS PROBABILIDADES Y EL CÁLCULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon James Mora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el capítulo tercero de la TPE, Jevons recurre al uso de las probabilidades como un método alternativo para analizar el intercambio de las mercancías. Jevons, decide no continuar con el uso de las probabilidades en los capítulos siguientes; su teoría se bifurca imperando el uso del cálculo diferencial. La explicación de esta bifurcación radica en la existencia de dos métodos alternativos para explicar el análisis del intercambio: La teoría de las probabilidades y el cálculo diferencial. Usar el cálculo diferencial no significaba que fuese el método más eficiente, pues no sólo existieron errores al maximizar como muestra Westergaard (1874, sino también problemas metodológicos, como muestran Stigler (1956 y Blaug (1985. Por otro lado, el método de las probabilidades habría significado para el análisis del intercambio, un problema de valores esperados y un camino totalmente diferente para la revolución marginalista. WILLIAM STANLEY JEVONS: EL USO DE LAS PROBABILIDADES Y EL CÁLCULO JOHN JAMES MORA R.1 Economista Universidad del Valle. Maestría en Economía Ambiental Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Jefe del Departamento de Economía de la Universidad Icesi e-mail:jjmora@icesi.edu.co 1. Este ensayo comenzó a escribirse hace casi cinco años, cuando era asistente de investigación del profesor Boris Salazar en la Universidad del Valle. Muchos eventos impidieron culminar esta “deuda intelectual” que tenía con Boris, quien nunca ha reparado en brindarme su desinteresada crítica y, de quien siempre estaré en deuda.

  10. Do Salmonella carry spare tyres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, John R; Fields, Patricia I; Tauxe, Robert V; Logsdon, John M

    2008-04-01

    Salmonellae are enterobacteria that have the unique ability to change their flagellar composition by switching expression among two loci that encode the major flagellin protein. This property is not available to all Salmonella, but is species, subspecies and serotype specific. Curiously, the subsequent loss of the second locus in some lineages of Salmonella has apparently been tolerated and, indeed, has led to considerable success for some lineages. We discuss here an evolutionary model for maintenance of this unique function and the possible evolutionary advantages of loss or preservation of this mechanism. We hypothesize that the second flagellin locus is a genetic 'spare tyre' used in particular environmental circumstances.

  11. Effectiveness of different antimicrobial washes combined with freezing against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    To ensure the microbial safety of produce including blueberries, sanitization is a critical step. This study evaluated the efficacy of sanitizers when coupled with frozen storage, in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on wild blueberri...

  12. Efficacy of integrated treatment of UV light and low dose gamma irradiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on grape tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy of integrated treatment of UVC and low dose Gamma irradiation to inactivate mixed Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica inoculated on whole Grape tomatoes was evaluated. A mixed bacterial cocktail composed of a three strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 (C9490, E02128 an...

  13. Effect of X-ray treatments on salmonella enterica and spoilage bacteria on skin-on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation on the inactivation of a 3- strain mixture of Salmonella enterica (S. Enteritidis E190-88, S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and S. Montevideo ATCC 8387) using an RS 2400 X-ray system on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs a...

  14. Tyrosinase inactivation in organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, J C; Saville, B A

    1999-11-05

    The inactivation of the catecholase activity of mushroom tyrosinase was investigated under nonaqueous conditions. The enzyme was immobilized on glass beads, and assays were conducted in chloroform, toluene, amyl acetate, isopropyl ether, and butanol. The reaction components were pre-equilibrated for 2 weeks with a saturated salt solution at a water activity of 0.90. The initial reaction velocity varied between 1.3 x 10(3) mol product/((mol enzyme)(min)) in toluene and 8.7 x 10(3) mol product/((mol enzyme)(min)) in amyl acetate. The turnover number varied between 8.1 x 10(3) mol product/mol enzyme in toluene and 7.2 x 10(4) mol product/mol enzyme in amyl acetate. In each solvent, the tyrosinase reaction inactivation parameters were represented by a probabilistic model. Changes in the probability of inactivation were followed throughout the course of the reaction using a second model which relates the reaction velocity to the amount of product formed. These models reveal that the inactivation rate of tyrosinase decreases as the reaction progresses, and that the inactivation kinetics are independent of the quinone concentration in toluene, chloroform, butanol, and amyl acetate. Significant effects of quinone concentration were, however, observed in isopropyl ether. The likelihood of inactivation of the enzyme was found to be greatest toward the beginning of the reaction. In the latter phase of the reaction, inactivation probability was less and tended to remain constant until the completion of the reaction. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Atmospheric plasma inactivation of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critzer, Faith J; Kelly-Wintenberg, Kimberly; South, Suzanne L; Golden, David A

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on apples, cantaloupe, and lettuce, respectively. A five-strain mixture of cultured test organisms was washed, suspended in phosphate buffer, and spot inoculated onto produce (7 log CFU per sample). Samples were exposed inside a chamber affixed to the OAUGDP blower unit operated at a power of 9 kV and frequency of 6 kHz. This configuration allows the sample to be placed outside of the plasma generation unit while allowing airflow to carry the antimicrobial active species, including ozone and nitric oxide, onto the food sample. Cantaloupe and lettuce samples were exposed for 1, 3, and 5 min, while apple samples were exposed for 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. After exposure, samples were pummeled in 0.1% peptone water-2% Tween 80, diluted, and plated in duplicate onto selective media and tryptic soy agar and incubated as follows: E. coli O157:H7 (modified eosin methylene blue) and Salmonella (xylose lysine tergitol-4) for 48 h at 37 degrees C, and L. monocytogenes (modified Oxford medium) at 48 h for 32 degrees C. E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced by >1 log after 30-s and 1-min exposures and >2 log after a 2-min exposure. Salmonella populations were reduced by >2 log after 1 min. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3-log reduction. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced by 1 log after 1 min of exposure. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3- and >5-log reductions, respectively. This process has the capability of serving as a novel, nonthermal processing technology to be used for reducing microbial populations on produce surfaces.

  16. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  17. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  18. Osteomielitis por salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  19. Development of a predictive model for Salmonella spp. reduction in meat jerky product with temperature, potassium sorbate, pH, and water activity as controlling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Heperkan, Dilek; Bautista, Derrick; Anderson, David; Hwang, Cheng-An; Peña-Ramos, Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Torrentera-Olivera, Noemi

    2016-11-07

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for the inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground beef jerky as a function of temperature (T), pH, potassium sorbate (PS), and final water activity (aw). Following a central composite design, ground beef was combined with PS (0 to 0.3%, w/w), pH adjusted from 5 to 7, inoculated with a cocktail of 6 serotypes of Salmonella spp. and heat processed at temperatures between 65 and 85°C until the final aw ranging from 0.65 to 0.85 was achieved. Surviving Salmonella cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar overlaid with xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (pre-tempered to 47°C) after incubation for 48h at 30°C. Bacterial inactivation was quantified in terms of logarithmic reductions of Salmonella counts (log10CFU/g) and inactivation rate (log10(CFU/g)/h). The results indicated that pH, PS and T significantly (pbeef jerky. Decreasing meat pH significantly (pBeef jerky processed at 82°C, pH5.5, with 0.25% PS to a final aw of 0.7 resulted in a maximum Salmonella logarithmic reduction of 5.0log10CFU/g and an inactivation rate of 1.3log10(CFU/g)/h. The predictive model developed can be used to effectively design drying processes for beef jerky under low humidity conditions and thereby, ensuring an adequate degree of protection against risks associated with Salmonella spp. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  1. Human PIEZO1: removing inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chilman; Gottlieb, Philip A; Sachs, Frederick

    2013-08-20

    PIEZO1 is an inactivating eukaryotic cation-selective mechanosensitive ion channel. Two sites have been located in the channel that when individually mutated lead to xerocytotic anemia by slowing inactivation. By introducing mutations at two sites, one associated with xerocytosis and the other artificial, we were able to remove inactivation. The double mutant (DhPIEZO1) has a substitution of arginine for methionine (M2225R) and lysine for arginine (R2456K). The loss of inactivation was accompanied by ∼30-mmHg shift of the activation curve to lower pressures and slower rates of deactivation. The slope sensitivity of gating was the same for wild-type and mutants, indicating that the dimensional changes between the closed and open state are unaffected by the mutations. The unitary channel conductance was unchanged by mutations, so these sites are not associated with pore. DhPIEZO1 was reversibly inhibited by the peptide GsMTx4 that acted as a gating modifier. The channel kinetics were solved using complex stimulus waveforms and the data fit to a three-state loop in detailed balance. The reaction had two pressure-dependent rates, closed to open and inactivated to closed. Pressure sensitivity of the opening rate with no sensitivity of the closing rate means that the energy barrier between them is located near the open state. Mutant cycle analysis of inactivation showed that the two sites interacted strongly, even though they are postulated to be on opposite sides of the membrane. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistant mechanism study of benzalkonium chloride selected Salmonella Typhimurium mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Haoyan

    2014-02-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is one of the invaluable biocides that is extensively used in healthcare settings as well as in the food processing industry. After exposing wild-type Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s or its AcrAB inactivation mutant to gradually increasing levels of benzalkonium chloride, resistance mutants S-41, S-150, S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 were selected and these mutants also showed a 2-64-fold stable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. In S-41 and S-150, the expression of acrB was increased 2.7- and 7.6-fold, and ΔtolC or ΔacrAB mutants of S-41 and S-150 showed the same MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the equivalent Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s mutants. However, in S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73, the expression of acrF was increased 96-, 230-, and 267-fold, respectively, and ΔtolC or ΔacrEF mutants of S-AB-23, S-AB-38, and S-AB-73 showed the similar MICs to all tested antimicrobials as the ΔtolC mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium 14028s. Our data showed that constitutively over-expressed AcrAB working through TolC was the main resistance mechanism in ST14028s benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants. However, after AcrAB had been inactivated, benzalkonium chloride-resistant mutants could still be selected and constitutively over-expressed, AcrEF became the dominant efflux pump working through TolC and being responsible for the increasing antimicrobial resistance. These data indicated that different mechanisms existed for acrB and acrF constitutive over-expression. Since exposure to benzalkonium chloride may lead to Salmonella mutants with a decreased susceptibility to quinolones, which is currently one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of life-threatening salmonelosis, research into the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the benzalkonium chloride resistance mutants will be of increasing importance.

  3. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Seasonal Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccines are the primary modality used for prevention of influenza. A system of annual identification of new strains causing illnesses, selections for vaccines, chick embryo growth, inactivation, processing, packaging, distribution and usage has been in place for decades. Current vaccines contain 15 µg of the HA of an A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strain and are given parenterally to induce serum anti-HA antibody for prevention of subsequent infection and illness from natur...

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  6. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

  7. Salmonella Typhimurium transcription profiles in space flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Salmonella transcription profiles were obtained from samples flown on space shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to profiles from Salmonella grown under identical...

  8. Characterizing the subsurface geology in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, south-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2018-02-15

    Several U.S. Geological Survey projects, supported by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, have used multi-disciplinary approaches over a 14-year period to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic frameworks of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers of central Texas and the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma. Some of the project achievements include advancements in hydrostratigraphic mapping, three-dimensional subsurface framework modeling, and airborne geophysical surveys as well as new methodologies that link geologic and groundwater flow models. One area where some of these milestones were achieved was in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in north­western Bexar County, Texas, about 19 miles north­west of downtown San Antonio.

  9. O acervo de Stanley Browne: leprologista e médico-missionário (1907-86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Jo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto trata de significativa aquisição de documentos que complementam o acervo da Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine de Londres no que diz respeito à vida e obra de Stanley George Browne, especificamente suas atividades internacionais como consultor e seu trabalho no Congo Belga (de 1936 a 1959, em Uzuakoli, na Nigéria (1959 a 1966, e ainda em Londres, com o Leprosy Study Centre (1966-1980. O artigo também se refere a um acervo de documentos, fotos e correspondência, que corre o risco de se perder, e que se encontra em um pequeno museu do Sanatório de Culion, nas Filipinas. Essa pesquisa é parte das atividades do Leprosy Association Global Project on the History of Leprosy (Projeto Global da História da Lepra da Leprosy Association. Seus resultados podem ser conferidos no site http://www.leprosyhistory.org.

  10. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Çabadak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  12. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Glen Rose limestone, Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.

    2004-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer is a regional water source in the Hill Country of south-central Texas that supplies water for agriculture, commercial, domestic, and stock purposes. Rocks of the Glen Rose Limestone, which compose the upper zone and upper part of the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer, crop out at the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA), a U.S. Army weapons and munitions supply, maintenance, and storage facility in northern Bexar County (San Antonio area) (fig. 1). On its northeastern, eastern, and southern boundaries, the CSSA abuts the Camp Bullis Training Site, a U.S. Army field training site for military and Federal government agencies. During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army, studied the outcropping Glen Rose Limestone at the CSSA and immediately adjacent area (Camp Stanley study area, fig. 1) to identify and map the hydrogeologic subdivisions and faults of the Glen Rose Limestone at the facility. The results of the study are intended to help resource managers improve their understanding of the distribution of porosity and permeability of the outcropping rocks, and thus the conditions for recharge and the potential for contaminants to enter the Glen Rose Limestone. This study followed a similar study done by the USGS at Camp Bullis (Clark, 2003). The purpose of this report is to present the geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Glen Rose Limestone in the study area. The hydrogeologic nomenclature follows that introduced by Clark (2003) for the outcropping Glen Rose Limestone at Camp Bullis in which the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone (hereinafter, upper Glen Rose Limestone), which is coincident with the upper zone of the Trinity aquifer, is divided into five intervals on the basis of observed lithologic and hydrogeologic properties. An outcrop map, two generalized sections, related illustrations, and a table summarize the description of the framework and distribution of characteristics.

  13. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  14. Inactivation of food-borne pathogens by combined high hydrostatic pressure and irradiation- a model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, Anu; Thomas, Paul; Kesavan, P.C.; Fotedar, R.

    1997-01-01

    Application of radiation or high pressure as a food processing method is comparatively recent development in food industry. To investigate the response to hydrostatic pressure, cells of pathogens at logarithmic phase were exposed to 200 MPa for various time intervals in saline as model system. The cells of Salmonella were observed to be most sensitive whereas Listeria monocytogenes were most resistant as revealed by 7 and 2 log cycle inactivation respectively in 10 min. The cells of Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica showed 3 long cycles reduction by the same treatment. Bacterial spores because of their resistant nature, are inactivated only at high radiation doses, which are technologically unfeasible. Studies carried out to examine the effectiveness of combination of pressure and radiation clearly suggested that combination treatment given in either sequence reduces the bacterial spore load more effectively than the individual treatment per se. (author)

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of black peppercorns inoculated with Salmonella and held under controlled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengqian; Anderson, Nathan M; Keller, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Spices, including black pepper, are a source of microbial contamination and have been linked to outbreaks of salmonellosis when added to products that undergo no further processing. Traditional thermal processing employed to reduce microbial contamination can lead to losses of heat-sensitive compounds. Thus, alternative processes such as atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) are desirable. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy of APP in the destruction of Salmonella inoculated on the surface of peppercorns. Secondarily, we examined the effect of storage on the subsequent inactivation of Salmonella on the surfaces of black peppercorns by APP. Black peppercorns inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella enterica serotypes Oranienburg, Tennessee, Anatum, and Enteritidis were stored at 25 °C, 33% relative humidity (RH); 25 °C, 97% RH; and, 37 °C, 33% RH for 10 d and additionally at 25 °C, 33% RH for 1 and 30 d then treated with APP. Results showed that Salmonella populations decreased significantly (P storage conditions (P > 0.05). Approximately a 4.5- to 5.5-log10 reduction in population was achieved after 60 to 80 s treatment. A combination of treatments, storage and 80 s of plasma, may achieve a total reduction on the order of 7-log10 CFU/g. These findings support the potential of APP to decontaminate Salmonella on the surfaces of black peppercorns and other dry foods and illustrate that a multiple hurdle approach may prove effective for achieving significant reductions of Salmonella in many low-moisture foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Evolution of Salmonella enterica Virulence via Point Mutations in the Fimbrial Adhesin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Fang, Ferric C.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J.; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive) Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis), or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum). The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella. PMID:22685400

  17. A novel secretion pathway of Salmonella enterica acts as an antivirulence modulator during salmonellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Gal-Mor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria that infect a variety of vertebrate hosts. Like any other living organism, protein secretion is a fundamental process essential for various aspects of Salmonella biology. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a horizontally acquired, autonomous and previously unreported secretion pathway. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, this novel secretion pathway is encoded by STM1669 and STM1668, designated zirT and zirS, respectively. We show that ZirT is localized to the bacterial outer membrane, expected to adopt a compact beta-barrel conformation, and functions as a translocator for ZirS. ZirS is an exoprotein, which is secreted into the extracellular environment in a ZirT-dependent manner. The ZirTS secretion pathway was found to share several important features with two-partner secretion (TPS systems and members of the intimin/invasin family of adhesions. We show that zirTS expression is affected by zinc; and that in vivo, induction of zirT occurs distinctively in Salmonella colonizing the small intestine, but not in systemic sites. Additionally, strong expression of zirT takes place in Salmonella shed in fecal pellets during acute and persistent infections of mice. Inactivation of ZirTS results in a hypervirulence phenotype of Salmonella during oral infection of mice. Cumulatively, these results indicate that the ZirTS pathway plays a unique role as an antivirulence modulator during systemic disease and is involved in fine-tuning a host-pathogen balance during salmonellosis.

  18. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  19. Immune Efficacy of Salmonella ohio Somatic antigen in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abdulrahman Yousif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Salmonella ohio Somatic antigen on humoral and cellular immunity in mice. Two groups of mice (thirty in each were used, first group was immunized twice at two weeks’ intervals subcutaneously (S/C with 0.5 ml of somatic antigen (prepared by heat inactivation of S. ohio containing 1×108C.F. U (protein content 200 µg; second group was injected S/C with phosphate buffer saline(PBS. Blood samples were collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post booster dose. Humoral immunity was detected by ELISA test, while cellular immunity detected by E. rosette and delayed type hypersensitivity test (DTH. The immunized and control mice groups were challenged with 5LD50 of virulent Salmonella ohio six weeks post booster dose. IgG was increased significantly (P<0.05 at 2, 4, and 6 weeks in the immunized group, and the maximum increase of antibody titers was determined at fourth week (651.7 ± 21.3 in comparison with the control group which remained within the normal value in all times of the experiment. E. rosette test showed a significantly increase in the mean of the activated lymphocyte of the immunized group at fourth week of immunization while control group gave normal range of active lymphocyte. In DTH test, immunized group showed a significant increase in footpad thickness after 24 hours post inoculation with soluble antigen in comparison with control group. Immunized mice were resist the challenge dose 5LD50 {5x (1.5x107} of virulent Salmonella ohio and all mice of control group died within (3- 4 days. In conclusion, immunization of mice with somatic S. ohio antigen was induced humoral and cellular immune response against Salmonellosis.

  20. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on the quantitative detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Sangryeol [Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-09-15

    Food irradiation is an economically viable technology for inactivating foodborne pathogens, but irradiation can mask pathogens in unhygienically prepared food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR. Three commercially available kits were tested, of which the InstaGene Matrix procedure was most effective in preparing template DNA from Salmonella exposed to radiation in broth culture. The minimum level of detection by real-time PCR combined with InstaGene Matrix was 3 log units of Salmonella per milliliter. However, when pure cultures of Salmonella were irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy, the cycle threshold (C{sub T}) increased 1-1.5-fold compared to irradiation at 0 and 1 kGy. This indicated that irradiation treatment may result in an underestimation of bacterial counts due to radiation-induced DNA lesions. We also compared C{sub T} values in inoculated chicken homogenates before and after irradiation, which in this model caused a 1.3-3.3-fold underestimation of bacterial counts with respect to irradiation dose.

  2. Prevalence and susceptibility of salmonella Typhi and salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Blood samples collected from presumptive typhoid fever patients from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Federal College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that attended two private clinics (Salama Clinics and Savanna Polyclinics) in Zaria were cultured for Salmonella species and identified ...

  3. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Salmonella Sepsis in African Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies of childhood septic arthritis in Malawi, Kenya and Zambia. (11-13). The salmonella arthritis occurred in the rainy season and occurred in young children who were often malnourished and anaemic. The shoulder was the most frequently affected joint and. Molyneux postulated that the repeated minor trauma sustained.

  6. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  7. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  8. Salmonella Populations inside Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Castanheira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state. Remarkably, these cytosolic and intra-vacuolar intracellular lifestyles are not mutually exclusive and can co-exist in the same infected host cell. The mechanisms that direct the invading bacterium to follow the cytosolic or intra-vacuolar “pathway” remain poorly understood. In vitro studies show predominance of either the cytosolic or the intra-vacuolar population depending on the host cell type invaded by the pathogen. The host and pathogen factors controlling phagosomal membrane integrity and, as consequence, the egress into the cytosol, are intensively investigated. Other aspects of major interest are the host defenses that may affect differentially the cytosolic and intra-vacuolar populations and the strategies used by the pathogen to circumvent these attacks. Here, we summarize current knowledge about these Salmonella intracellular subpopulations and discuss how they emerge during the interaction of this pathogen with the eukaryotic cell.

  9. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  10. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  11. Effects of Inoculation Procedures on Variability and Repeatability of Salmonella Thermal Resistance in Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Marks, Bradley P; Ryser, Elliot T; Villa-Rojas, Rossana; Tang, Juming; Garces-Vega, Francisco J; Buchholz, Sarah E

    2016-11-01

    Limited prior research has shown that inoculation methods affect thermal resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods; however, these effects and their repeatability have not been systematically quantified. Consequently, method variability across studies limits utility of individual data sets and cross-study comparisons. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effects of inoculation methodologies on stability and thermal resistance of Salmonella in a low-moisture food (wheat flour), and the repeatability of those results, based on data generated by two independent laboratories. The experimental design consisted of a cross-laboratory comparison, both conducting isothermal Salmonella inactivation studies in wheat flour (~0.45 water activity, 80°C), utilizing five different inoculation methods: (i) broth-based liquid inoculum, (ii) lawn-based liquid inoculum, (iii) lawn-based pelletized inoculum, (iv) direct harvest of lawn culture with wheat flour, and (v) fomite transfer of a lawn culture. Inoculated wheat flour was equilibrated ~5 days to ~0.45 water activity and then was subjected to isothermal treatment (80°C) in aluminum test cells. Results indicated that inoculation method impacted repeatability, population stability, and inactivation kinetics (α = 0.05), regardless of laboratory. Salmonella inoculated with the broth-based liquid inoculum method and the fomite transfer of a lawn culture method exhibited instability during equilibration. Lawn-based cultures resulted in stable populations prior to thermal treatment; however, the method using direct harvest of lawn culture with wheat flour yielded different D-values across the laboratories (α = 0.05), which was attributed to larger potential impact of operator variability. The lawn-based liquid inoculum and the lawn-based pelletized inoculum methods yielded stable inoculation levels and repeatable D-values (~250 and ~285 s, respectively). Also, inoculation level (3 to 8 log CFU/g) did not affect D

  12. Effects of Chicken Litter Storage Time and Ammonia Content on Thermal Resistance of Desiccation-Adapted Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Ionita, Claudia; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Broiler chicken litter was kept as a stacked heap on a poultry farm, and samples were collected up to 9 months of storage. Chicken litter inoculated with desiccation-adapted Salmonella cells was heat-treated at 75, 80, 85, and 150°C. Salmonella populations decreased in all these samples during heat treatment, and the inactivation rates became lower in chicken litter when storage time was extended from 0 to 6 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in thermal resistance of Salmonella in 6- and 9-month litter samples, indicating that a threshold for thermal resistance was reached after 6 months. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella in chicken litter was affected by the storage time of the litter. The changes in some chemical, physical, and microbiological properties during storage could possibly contribute to this difference. Moisture and ammonia could be two of the most significant factors influencing the thermal resistance of Salmonella cells in chicken litter. Our results emphasize the importance of adjusting time and temperature conditions for heat processing chicken litter when it is removed from the chicken house at different time intervals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Use of ultraviolet radiation for inactivation of bacteria and coliphages in pretreated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizer, H.; Bartocha, W.; Bartel, H.; Seidel, K.; Lopez-Pila, J.M.; Grohmann, A.

    1993-01-01

    The inactivation of bacteria and coliphages by u.v. radiation was tested in a full-scale pilot plant with a flow rate of 180 m 3 /h. The investigated water contained about 70% secondary effluent from sewage treatment plants and 30% surface water. The minimal rated radiation density was 13.3 mW/cm 2 (60% of u.v. transmission in water), and the radiation exposure lasted for 3.54 s resulting in a u.v. radiation dose of 47 mWs/cm 2 . This type of u.v. radiation chamber decreased the concentration of total coliform organisms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, Salmonella sp. and coliphages in the influent by 1–2 logs. Strains of bacteria, Streptococcus faecalis and Salmonella enteritidis, seeded artificially into the influent showed a reduction of about 2–4 logs after u.v. radiation. The coliphage f2 was more resistant than the tested bacteria and reduced by less than 2 logs through u.v. radiation. The inactivating effect of u.v. radiation was counteracted by the binding of the coliphage f2 to suspended turbid particles. It can be recommended to use u.v. treatment of effluents of wastewater plants after a flocculation and filtration step to improve the efficiency of the u.v. radiation. (author)

  14. In Vitro Preparation And Testing Of Anti-Salmonella Vaccine Against Abortion In Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Flore CHIRILA; George Cosmin NADAS; Sorin RAPUNTEAN; Cosmina Maria BOUARI; Septimiu TOADER; Petru BERCE; Andreea SZEKELY; Nicodim Iosif FIT

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In March 2016, the microbiology laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, 3 type of antisalmonella vaccine for sheep were prepared. For type 1, 24 hours salmonella on brain heart infusion (BHI) broth culture, heat inactivated for 1 hour at 60°C, then with formaldehyde in a concentration of 3 ‰. Variant 2 - the culture supernatant obtained on solid BHI medium, washed with PBS, frozen-thawed 6 times, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes, filtered through 0....

  15. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... on how to comply with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella...

  17. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The... final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and...

  18. Dietary proteins extend the survival of salmonella dublin in a gastric Acid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we...... mimicked the dynamic pH changes in the human stomach. In the present study, model gastric fluid was set up to imitate pH dynamics in the stomachs of young and elderly people after ingestion of a standard meal. To model a serious foodborne pathogen, we followed the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype...... Dublin, and found that the addition of proteins such as pepsin, ovalbumin, and blended turkey meat to the simple gastric acid model significantly delayed pathogen inactivation compared with the control, for which no proteins were added. In contrast, no delay in inactivation was observed in the presence...

  19. Die Kindfrau Lolita im Wandel der Zeit : vergleichende Betrachtung des Romans von Vladimir Nabokov mit den Verfilmungen von Stanley Kubrick und Adrian Lyne

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    Im Zentrum des folgenden Artikels stehen der Themenkomplex der Kindfrau sowie der damit verbundene Mythos. Zu Beginn erfolgt eine historisch-systematische Untersuchung des Phänomens, daran anschließend wird der Roman Lolita (1955) von Vladimir Nabokov mit seinem Entwurf der Kindfrau in Bezug auf die Verfilmung des Werkes durch Stanley Kubrick (Lolita 1962) und Adrian Lyne (Lolita 1997) analysiert. Der Schwerpunkt der Betrachtung liegt auf der Konstruktion Lolitas durch den Erzähler und Protag...

  20. Control of Salmonella and other pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in poultry by gamma and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1992-07-01

    Salmonella contamination of chicken is a major public health concern, causing sickness and loss of productivity. Modern, concentrated production methods increase the difficulty of Salmonella control. The current and suggested treatments with chlorinated water or heat pasteurization are unsatisfactory. In pasteurization, the end product is partially cooked, and in the chlorine water wash the poultry skin gets bleached if too much chlorine is used. There is also a risk of formation of toxic chloro-organic compounds. Further, the chlorine water wash does not completely eliminate salmonella. Low-dose radiation treatment is much more effective for the control of Salmonella and has the additional benefit of preserving the freshness of the product. Irradiation of fresh chicken carcasses, pieces or deboned chicken meat with a dose of 2.5 kGy appears to be sufficient to eliminate naturally occurring Salmonella contamination, which is generally present in extremely low numbers on this continent (1 to 30 cells/100 g). For elimination of Salmonella in frozen chicken, doses higher than 2.5 kGy are required. There is a large range of D 10 - values for the different Salmonella serotypes that have been tested, with the highest being 0.72 kGy for S. oranienberg at 22 degrees C. Thus the 2.5-kGy dose would reduce the most radio-resistant Salmonella serotype by four orders of magnitude, and the most common serotypes (with D 10 - values of 0.3 to 0.4 kGy) by greater than six orders of magnitude. The 2.5-kGy dose also appears to be sufficient to eliminate other bacterial pathogens, such as Campylobactor jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica. The microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken carcass or deboned chicken meat (6 to 11 d) is extended by a factor of 2 to 3 with irradiation to a dose of 2.5 kGy followed by storage between 1 and 4 degrees C. In radappertization (at a dose of ≥ 45 kGy at -30 degrees C), the shelf life of enzyme-inactivated chicken meat is extended to years, on

  1. Inoculation Protocols Influence the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in Fabricated Almond, Wheat, and Date Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcharoenchat, Pichamon; Buchholz, Sarah E; James, Michael K; Hall, Nicole O; Ryser, Elliot T; Marks, Bradley P

    2018-04-01

    Inoculation methods in pathogen inactivation studies ideally represent conditions that might occur in real-world scenarios. Surface contamination in or on low-moisture foods affects Salmonella thermal resistance, which is critically important for process validation applications. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inoculation protocol on the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in fabricated low-moisture foods. Almond meal, almond butter, wheat meal, wheat flour, and date paste were inoculated via prefabrication and postfabrication protocols. In the prefabrication protocol, kernels and fruits were surface inoculated and equilibrated to a target water activity (a w ) (0.40 for almond and wheat products, 0.45 for date products) before fabricating meal, butter, flour, or paste and then reequilibrating the samples to the target a w . In the postfabrication protocol, meal, butter, flour, and paste were fabricated before inoculation and equilibration. All inoculated and equilibrated samples were subjected to isothermal treatment (80°C), pulled sequentially during processing, cooled, serially diluted, and plated to enumerate survivors. Log-linear and Weibull-type models were fit to the Salmonella survivor data and were compared via the corrected Akaike information criterion. Pre- and postfabrication protocols resulted in significant differences ( P < 0.05) in Salmonella thermal resistance in all products. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in almond products was greater ( P < 0.05) than in wheat products, which was also greater ( P < 0.05) than in date paste. Additionally, Salmonella was more thermally resistant in almond products and date paste when inoculated pre- rather than postfabrication; however, the opposite was true for wheat products. These results indicate that the means of inoculation can significantly affect thermal resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods.

  2. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  3. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  4. Use of Attenuated but Metabolically Competent Salmonella as a Probiotic To Prevent or Treat Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Steidley, Brandi L.; Boyaka, Prosper N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is among the most burdensome of foodborne disease agents. There are over 2,600 serovars that cause a range of disease manifestations ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. While there are two vaccines in use in humans to protect against typhoid fever, there are none that prevent enterocolitis. If vaccines preventing enterocolitis were to be developed, they would likely protect against only one or a few serovars. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that probiotic organisms could compete for the preferred nutrient sources of Salmonella and thus prevent or treat infection. To this end, we added the fra locus, which encodes a utilization pathway for the Salmonella-specific nutrient source fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), to the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to increase its ability to compete with Salmonella in mouse models. We also tested a metabolically competent, but avirulent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant for its ability to compete with wild-type Salmonella. The modified Nissle strain became more virulent and less able to protect against Salmonella in some instances. On the other hand, the modified Salmonella strain was safe and effective in preventing infection with wild-type Salmonella. While we tested for efficacy only against Salmonella Typhimurium, the modified Salmonella strain may be able to compete metabolically with most, if not all, Salmonella serovars, representing a novel approach to control of this pathogen. PMID:27185789

  5. Cold plasma reduction of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on almonds using ambient pressure gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-03-01

    Contamination of raw nuts, including almonds, is a food safety concern. Cold plasma is a novel antimicrobial intervention that can eliminate foodborne pathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of rapid cold plasma treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from dry almonds. Three isolates of Salmonella (S. Anatum F4317, S. Stanley H0558, and S. Enteritidis PT30) and 3 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 (C9490, ATCC 35150, and ATCC 43894) were separately grown and spot-inoculated (10 μL) onto whole almonds and allowed to dry for 10 min. Inoculated almonds were treated with a cold plasma jet, with treatment variables evaluated in a factorial design for each isolate: time, distance, and feed gas. Treatment time was 0 s (control), 10 s, or 20 s. Distance from the emitter was 2, 4, or 6 cm. Feed gas was dry air or nitrogen. After treatment, the almonds were sampled using swabs. Survivors were enumerated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates. Cold plasma significantly reduced both pathogens on almonds. The greatest reduction observed was 1.34 log cfu/mL reduction of E. coli O157:H7 C9490 after 20 s treatment at 6 cm spacing. The interaction of treatment time with distance from plasma emitter head was complex, and isolate-dependent. Longer duration of treatment did not always result in enhanced reductions. In general, nitrogen as a feed gas resulted in a reduced antimicrobial efficacy compared to dry air. These results indicate that short pulses of atmospheric pressure cold plasma can significantly reduce Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on almonds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  7. An exploratory digital analysis of the early years of G. Stanley Hall's American Journal of Psychology and Pedagogical Seminary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L; Green, Christopher D

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present the results of an exploratory digital analysis of the contents of the two journals founded in the late 19th century by American psychologist G. Stanley Hall. Using the methods of the increasingly popular digital humanities, some key attributes of the American Journal of Psychology (AJP) and the Pedagogical Seminary (PS) are identified. Our analysis reaffirms some of Hall's explicit aims for the two periodicals, while also revealing a number of other features of the journals, as well as of the people who published within their pages, the methodologies they employed, and the institutions at which they worked. Notably, despite Hall's intent that his psychological journal be strictly an outlet for scientific research, the journal-like its sister pedagogically focused publication-included an array of methodologically diverse research. The multiplicity of research styles that characterize the content of Hall's journals in their initial years is, in part, a consequence of individual researchers at times crossing methodological lines and producing a diverse body of research. Along with such variety within each periodical, it is evident that the line between content appropriate to one periodical rather than the other was fluid rather than absolute. The full results of this digitally informed analysis of Hall's two journals suggest a number of novel avenues for future research and demonstrate the utility of digital methods as applied to the history of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Stakeholder collaboration in a prospective World Heritage Area: The case of Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Louise Bott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of listing a World Heritage Area (WHAc in developing countries is often much more complex than in the West. Often all stakeholders are not taken into consideration and there is a lack of understanding of the concept of World Heritage and what it entails. This is particularly true for stakeholders who live in or adjacent to the proposed WHA, such as local communities. This paper presents a case study of Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges, currently a tentative World Heritage site, to show the complexities in stakeholder collaboration and attribution in the process of World Heritage designation. Six key stakeholders were identified in the study. Upon examination of four attributes of stakeholders: power; legitimacy; urgency; and proximity, it was found that all stakeholders in this case study have a high legitimacy in the listing process however only the local community holds high levels of power, urgency and proximity. Additionally it was found that several stakeholders, like the private sector, have too many weak relationships with other stakeholders, resulting in a lack of communication. These findings present the first step in understanding how it might be possible to improve the listing process of World Heritage Sites in developing countries through effective stakeholder collaboration.

  9. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Salmonella Gallinarum 9R strain vaccine against Salmonella strains isolated from cases suspected of salmonellosis outbreaks in poultry farms in central Ethiopia.

  10. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  11. Vaccination as a control strategy against Salmonella infection in pigs: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, M L; Conrado, I; Nault, A; Perez, A; Dominguez, L; Alvarez, J

    2017-10-01

    Consumption or handling of improperly processed or cooked pork is considered one of the top sources for foodborne salmonellosis, a common cause of intestinal disease worldwide. Asymptomatic carrier pigs may contaminate pork at slaughtering; therefore, pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella load can contribute to reduce public health risk. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of vaccination on controlling Salmonella in swine farms, but results are highly variable due to the heterogeneity in vaccines and vaccination protocols. Here, we report the results of an inclusive systematic review and a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed scientific literature to provide updated knowledge on the potential effectiveness of Salmonella vaccination. A total of 126 articles describing the use of Salmonella vaccines in swine were identified, of which 44 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies (36/44) used live vaccines, and S. Typhimurium and S. Choleraesuis were the predominant serotypes evaluated. Vaccine efficacy was most often measured through bacteriological isolation, and pooled estimates of vaccine efficacy were obtained as the difference in the percentage of positive animals when available. Attenuated and inactivated vaccines had similar efficacy [Risk Difference=-26.8% (-33.8, -19.71) and -29.5% (-44.4, -14.5), respectively]. No serotype effect was observed on the efficacy recorded for attenuated vaccines; however, a higher efficacy of inactivated vaccines against S. Choleraesuis was observed, though in a reduced sample. Results from the meta-analysis here demonstrate the impact that vaccination may have on the control of Salmonella in swine farms and could help in the design of programs to minimize the risk of transmission of certain serotypes through the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... Abstract. X-chromosome inactivation, which was discovered by Mary Lyon in 1961 results in random silencing of one X chromosome in female mammals. This review is dedicated to Mary Lyon, who passed away last year. She predicted many of the features of X inactivation, for e.g., the existence of an X ...

  13. Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Soriano Cuadrado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood.

  14. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  15. Inactivation, reactivation and regrowth of indigenous bacteria in reclaimed water after chlorine disinfection of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Siyu; Gu, April Z; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang

    2013-07-01

    Disinfection of reclaimed water prior to reuse is important to prevent the transmission of pathogens. Chlorine is a widely utilized disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of reclaimed water. To understand the risks of chlorination resulting from the potential selection of pathogenic bacteria, the inactivation, reactivation and regrowth rates of indigenous bacteria were investigated in reclaimed water after chlorine disinfection. Inactivation of total coliforms, Enterococcus and Salmonella showed linear correlations, with constants of 0.1384, 0.1624 and 0.057 L/(mg.min) and R2 of 0.7617, 0.8316 and 0.845, respectively. However, inactivation of total viable cells by measurement of metabolic activity typically showed a linear correlation at lower chlorine dose (0-22 (mg-min)/L), and a trailing region with chlorine dose increasing from 22 to 69 (mg.min)/L. Reactivation and regrowth of bacteria were most likely to occur after exposure to lower chlorine doses, and extents of reactivation decreased gradually with increasing chlorine dose. In contrast to total coliforms and Enterococcus, Salmonella had a high level of regrowth and reactivation, and still had 2% regrowth even after chlorination of 69 (mg.min)/L and 24 hr storage. The bacterial compositions were also significantly altered by chlorination and storage of reclaimed water, and the ratio of Salmonella was significantly increased from 0.001% to 0.045% after chlorination of 69 (mg.min)/L and 24 hr storage. These trends indicated that chlorination contributes to the selection of chlorine-resistant pathogenic bacteria, and regrowth of pathogenic bacteria after chlorination in reclaimed water with a long retention time could threaten public health security during wastewater reuse.

  16. Photodynamic inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-07-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  17. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process. PMID:22852040

  18. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  19. Irradiance and Temperature Influence the Bactericidal Effect of 460-Nanometer Light-Emitting Diodes on Salmonella in Orange Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Vinayak; Kumar, Amit; Zhou, Weibiao; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been known to produce an antibacterial effect on various pathogenic bacteria. To extend this application to foods, blue 460-nm LEDs were evaluated for their antibacterial effect on Salmonella in orange juice. A cocktail of Salmonella enterica serovars Gaminara, Montevideo, Newport, Typhimurium, and Saintpaul was inoculated into pasteurized orange juice and illuminated with 460-nm LEDs at irradiances of 92, 147.7, and 254.7 mW/cm(2) and temperatures of 4, 12, and 20°C. Subsequently, linear, Weibull, and Gompertz models were fitted to the resultant survival curves. The color of the orange juice during illumination was also monitored. It was observed that irradiance and temperature both influenced the inactivation of Salmonella, which ranged from 2 to 5 log CFU/ml. The inactivation kinetics was best described by the Weibull model. An irradiance of 92 mW/cm(2) and temperatures of 12 and 20°C were the most bactericidal combinations, with D-values of 1,580 and 2,013 J/cm(2), respectively. Significant color changes were also observed after illumination; these changes could be minimized by choosing appropriate irradiance and temperature. These results demonstrate the potential of 460-nm LEDs for the preservation of fruit juices in the retail markets and their utility in minimizing the risk of salmonellosis.

  20. Efficacy of solar disinfection of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, M; Weilenmann, H-U; Simonetti, A; Egli, T

    2006-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of solar disinfection (SODIS) for enteric pathogens and to test applicability of the reciprocity law. Resistance to sunlight at 37 degrees C based on F99 values was in the following order: Salmonella Typhimurium>Escherichia coli>Shigella flexneri>Vibrio cholerae. While F90 values of Salm. Typhimurium and E. coli were similar, F99 values differed by 60% due to different inactivation curve shapes. Efficacy seemed not to be dependent on fluence rate for E. coli stationary cells. Sensitivity to mild heat was observed above a temperature of 45 degrees C for E. coli, Salm. Typhimurium and Sh. flexneri, while V. cholerae was already susceptible above 40 degrees C. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most resistant and V. cholerae the least resistant enteric strain. The reciprocity law is applicable for stationary E. coli cells irradiated with sunlight or artificial sunlight. Escherichia coli might not be the appropriate indicator bacterium to test the efficacy of SODIS on enteric bacteria and the physiological response to SODIS might be different among enteric bacteria. The applicability of the reciprocity law indicates that fluence rate plays a secondary role in SODIS efficacy. Stating inactivation efficacy with T90 or F90 values without showing original data is inadequate for SODIS studies.

  1. Novel approach to control Salmonella enterica by modern biophotonic technology: photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchovec, I; Vaitonis, Z; Luksiene, Z

    2009-03-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photosensitization against one of food pathogens Salmonella enterica. Salmonella enterica was incubated with ALA (7.5 mmol l(-1)) for 1-4 h and afterwards illuminated with visible light. The light source used for illumination of S. enterica emitted light lambda = 400 nm with energy density 20 mW cm(-2). The illumination time varied from 0 to 20 min and subsequently a total energy dose reached 0-24 J cm(-2). The data obtained indicate that S. enterica is able to produce endogenous photosensitizer PpIX when incubated with ALA. Remarkable inactivation of micro-organisms can be achieved (6 log) after photosensitization. It is obvious that photosensitization-based inactivation of S. enterica depends on illumination as well as incubation with ALA time. ALA-based photosensitization can be an effective tool against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Experimental data and mathematical evaluations support the idea that ALA-based photosensitization can be a useful tool for the development of nonthermal food preservation technology in future.

  2. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C

    2002-01-01

    , we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...

  3. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the Pharmacokinetics of Ceftriaxone in. Sokoto Red Goats. * O. J. Abdulgafar ... ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ..... oxytetracycline disposition in calves with experimental pneumonic ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Salmonella Gallinarum Infection in Chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia owns a large poultry population whose growth is highly constrained by diseases. Fowl typhoid is a serious concern in growing and adult poultry and results from infection by Salmonella Gallinarum (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum). Knowledge of the prevalence of the ...

  5. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  6. Case Report: Salmonella lung infection | Ohanu | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an 84 year old man admitted because of fever, abdominal discomfort, weakness, past history of cough wheezing and abuse of prednisolone and Erythromycin. He had Bronchopneumonia and diabetes. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from both his sputum and blood while stool was negative for salmonella.

  7. Rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovars in Egypt. During the summer of 2010, a total of 1075 samples were collected from cattle, sheep and poultry farms to be subjected for isolation of Salmonella (290 rectal swabs from cattle, 335 rectal swabs from sheep ...

  8. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella typhi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing patterns of Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi isolates. Fifteen isolates of each microorganism were collected from three hospitals located in Dar es Salaam region within a 3-month period in the year 2005. Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi ...

  11. Fate of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and potential surrogate bacteria on apricot fruit, following exposure to UV-C light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Yan, Ruixiang; Fan, Xuetong; Gurtler, Joshua; Phillips, John

    2013-09-16

    Some soft fruit, such as tree-ripened apricots, cannot be washed with aqueous sanitizers, due to their innate softness and delicate surfaces. In this study, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light was investigated for its efficacy in inactivating 4-5 individual strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on apricots, in addition to a four-strain composite of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 and a cocktail of three attenuated strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. Also, the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. after exposure to 74 and 442 mJ/cm² of UV-C was evaluated during post-UV storage at 2 and 20 °C. The fruit was spot inoculated and the areas (ca. 1.5 cm²) of fruit surface with the inoculated bacteria were exposed to UV-C at 7.4 mW/cm². E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations decreased rapidly (1-2 logs) (Pbacteria and attenuated S. Typhimurium strains, along with S. Typhimurium LT2, responded similarly to corresponding pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. During storage at 2 or 20 °C, populations of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on untreated fruit decreased slowly; however, populations on fruit treated with 442 mJ/cm² decreased rapidly at both temperatures. After 8 days at 20 °C or 21 days at 2 °C, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations on UV-C treated fruit were at least 2 log CFU/g lower than on non-treated controls. Our results suggest that surface-inoculated bacteria survived poorly following UV-C treatment of apricots. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Becoming good in Africa: A critical appraisal of Stanley Hauerwas� ecclesial ethic in the sub-Saharan context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Bafinamene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the appropriateness of Stanley Hauerwas� ecclesial ethic for the sub-Saharan African churches. Thus, it consists in a Christian ethical assessment of the metaethical foundational categories of his ecclesial ethic. In brief, his proposal is eclectic and pluri-disciplinarily applicable to the churches of various denominations. It reflects the marks of the Aristotelian ethical tradition endorsed by Thomas Aquinas and recovered by several communitarian philosophers. It also includes some discernible ecclesio-centric and postliberal theological accents. The promising insights of this proposal include: (1 the necessity to ordain the church�s worship, polity and its entire way of life to the spiritual and moral formation of church members; (2 the stress on Christian virtuous life, identity formation, witness and non-conformism in social ethics. However, essentially designed against the background of a Western, liberal, autonomous and individualist self, Hauerwas� ecclesial ethic is not a definitive answer for the holistic, normative and communalist moral self, characteristic of the traditional African ethos and influencing a large majority in Africa. Moreover, it stresses the purity of the church in a way that restricts cooperation between Christians and nonChristians for socio-economic justice and the common good.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, Hauerwas� virtue, narrative, community and social ethics provide some valuable insights for moral formation in African churches as it explores the interplay between ecclesiology, Christian ethics, practical theology and philosophical ethics. For sure, other relevant resources should come from African spirituality, developmental psychology and sociology of religion.

  13. Anthropocene Knowledge Practices in McKenzie Wark’s Molecular Red and Kim Stanley Robinson’s Aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gib Prettyman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Through a close reading of McKenzie Wark’s theoretical treatise 'Molecular Red' (2015 and Kim Stanley Robinson’s novel 'Aurora' (2015, this essay examines how Anthropocene knowledge practices challenge our conceptions of human agency in provocative and potentially productive ways. For example, our knowledge of climate science arises through global material infrastructures. As material components of Anthropocene knowledge practices, these infrastructures reveal the material labors and cyborg structures by means of which our knowledge is produced. Wark sees the heterogenous materiality of Anthropocene knowledge practices as evidence for the value of ‘low theories’ based on a ‘labor point of view.’ At the same time, Anthropocene knowledge practices reveal ‘eco-logical’ complexities and fundamental recognitions of the ‘intra-action’ of entangled matter. These complexities produce very estranged views of human agency. Robinson’s novel highlights the eco-logical implications of contemporary knowledge practices by imagining an interstellar ship that must function as a completely artificial ecosystem for a 170-year voyage to another solar system. The significance of knowledge practices and eco-logical complexity is most evident when failures or crises arise, and 'Aurora' tells the story of many such failures. However, I argue that Robinson’s novel and Wark’s ‘low theory’ ultimately function as hopeful accounts of Anthropocene knowledge practices. Among other things, these practices show the material importance of storytelling and point the way toward more complexly realist theories of human agency.

  14. Modelling Salmonella concentration throughout the pork supply chain by considering growth and survival in fluctuating conditions of temperature, pH and a(w).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Carmen; Avendaño-Perez, Gaspar; Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Gómez, Natalia; Gounadakic, Antonia; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panos; Barker, Gary

    2011-03-01

    We aim to predict the population density of Salmonella spp. through the pork supply chain under dynamic environmental conditions (pH, a(w) and temperature) that fluctuate from growth to survival/slow inactivation. To do this, the dependence of the probability of growth, and of the growth and inactivation rate on the temperature, pH and a(w) were modelled. Probabilistic and kinetic measurements, i.e. growth and survival curves, were collected from the ComBase database (www.combase.cc). Conditions at which selected data used to fit the models were generated covered wide ranges that are relevant to the pork supply chain. Probabilistic and kinetic models were combined to give predictions on the concentration of Salmonella spp. at any stage of the pork supply chain under fluctuating pH, a(w) and/or temperature. Models were implemented in a user-friendly computing tool freely available from http://www.ifr.ac.uk/safety/SalmonellaPredictions/. This program provides estimates on the population dynamics of Salmonella spp. at any stage of the pork supply chain and its predictive performance has been validated in several pork products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  16. Dose determination for acute Salmonella infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, A T; Harris, D L

    2005-05-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 10(3) salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  17. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought.

  18. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Aortitis in a transplant patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarif, N.; Azam, M.N.; Mitwalli, Ahmad H.; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S.; El-Kheder, A. Al-Aboud

    2002-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia may result in extra gastrointestinallocalization of infection. Aortitis due to non-typhoidal salmonella wasreported to be the cause of 38-42% of all infected abdominal aortitis.Underlying atherosclerosis is a frequent site for salmonella aortitis. Wedescribe here a case of possible salmonella aortitis in a renal transplantpatient. (author)

  19. Serotyping and antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study showed the diversity of Salmonella serotypes from both clinical and environmental samples and emergence of multiresistant Salmonella to antibiotics in Burkina Faso. A lettuce is a potential source of transmission of Salmonella causing diarrhea among human in Burkina Faso. Keywords: Salmonella ...

  20. Development of a Dry Inoculation Method for Thermal Challenge Studies in Low-Moisture Foods by Using Talc as a Carrier for Salmonella and a Surrogate (Enterococcus faecium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Elena; Kataoka, Ai; Black, D Glenn; Napier, Carla D; Podolak, Richard; Hayman, Melinda M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain dry inocula of Salmonella Tennessee and Enterococcus faecium, a surrogate for thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low-moisture foods, and to compare their thermal resistance and stability over time in terms of survival. Two methods of cell growth were compared: cells harvested from a lawn on tryptic soy agar (TSA-cells) and from tryptic soy broth (TSB-cells). Concentrated cultures of each organism were inoculated onto talc powder, incubated at 35 °C for 24 h, and dried for additional 24 h at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C) to achieve a final water activity of ≤ 0.55 before sieving. Cell reductions of Salmonella and E. faecium during the drying process were between 0.14 and 0.96 log CFU/g, depending on growth method used. There was no difference between microbial counts at days 1 and 30. Heat resistance of the dry inoculum on talc inoculated into a model peanut paste (50 % fat and 0.6 water activity) was determined after 1 and 30 days of preparation, using thermal death time tests conducted at 85 °C. For Salmonella, there was no significant difference between the thermal resistance (D(85 °C)) for the TSB-cells and TSA-cells (e.g. day 1 cells D(85 °C) = 1.05 and 1.07 min, respectively), and there was no significant difference in D(85 °C) between dry inocula on talc used either 1 or 30 days after preparation (P > 0.05). However, the use the dry inocula of E. faecium yielded different results: the TSB-grown cells had a significantly (P Salmonella Tennessee regardless what cell type was used for dry inoculum preparation; therefore, it proved to be a conservative but appropriate surrogate for thermal inactivation of Salmonella in low-moisture food matrices under the tested conditions.

  1. Cold plasma inactivates salmonella on grape tomatoes in a commercial PET plastic container without affecting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh tomatoes has increased. Little research has been conducted on the effects of direct treatment of cold plasma (CP) on the microbial decontamination and preservation of bulk tomatoes packaged in comme...

  2. Salmonella Sofia differs from other poultry-associated Salmonella serovars with respect to cell surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, T W R; Fegan, N; McMeekin, T A; Dykes, G A

    2008-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica subsp. II 4,12:b:- (Salmonella Sofia) is commonly found in Australian poultry. It has been suggested that physicochemical properties such as surface charge and hydrophobicity may affect bacterial attachment to surfaces and their ability to persist in food systems. A possible link between hydrophobicity cell surface charge and persistence of Salmonella from the poultry system was examined. Hydrophobicity of Salmonella Sofia (n = 14), Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 6), Salmonella Infantis (n = 3), and Salmonella Virchow (n = 2) was assayed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography, bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons (BATH), using xylene or hexadecane, and the contact angle method (CAM). Cellular surface charge (CSC) of the isolates was determined using zeta potential measurements. The majority (12 of 14) of Salmonella Sofia isolates were found to be hydrophobic when assayed using BATH with xylene, except isolates S1635 and S1636, and the other serovars were found to be hydrophilic. Salmonella Sofia isolates were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from isolates of other serovars as measured by hydrophobic interaction, BATH with hexadecane, or the CAM. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in zeta potential measurements were observed between isolates. Principal component analysis using results from all four measures of hydrophobicity allowed clear differentiation between isolates of the serovar Salmonella Sofia (except S1635 and S1636) and those of other Salmonella serovars. Differences in physicochemical properties may be a contributing factor to the Salmonella Sofia serovar's ability to attach to surfaces and persist in a food system.

  3. Impact of food model (micro)structure on the microbial inactivation efficacy of cold atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, C; Noriega, E; Rosier, F; Walsh, J L; Valdramidis, V P; Van Impe, J F

    2017-01-02

    The large potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for food decontamination has recently been recognized. Room-temperature gas plasmas can decontaminate foods without causing undesired changes. This innovative technology is a promising alternative for treating fresh produce. However, more fundamental studies are needed before its application in the food industry. The impact of the food structure on CAP decontamination efficacy of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Cells were grown planktonically or as surface colonies in/on model systems. Both microorganisms were grown in lab culture media in petri dishes at 20°C until cells reached the stationary phase. Before CAP treatment, cells were deposited in a liquid carrier, on a solid(like) surface or on a filter. A dielectric barrier discharge reactor generated helium-oxygen plasma, which was used to treat samples up to 10min. Although L. monocytogenes is more resistant to CAP treatment, similar trends in inactivation behavior as for S. Typhimurium are observed, with log reductions in the range [1.0-2.9] for S. Typhimurium and [0.2-2.2] for L. monocytogenes. For both microorganisms, cells grown planktonically are easily inactivated, as compared to surface colonies. More stressing growth conditions, due to cell immobilization, result in more resistant cells during CAP treatment. The main difference between the inactivation support systems is the absence or presence of a shoulder phase. For experiments in the liquid carrier, which exhibit a long shoulder, the plasma components need to diffuse and penetrate through the medium. This explains the higher efficacies of CAP treatment on cells deposited on a solid(like) surface or on a filter. This research demonstrates that the food structure influences the cell inactivation behavior and efficacy of CAP, and indicates that food intrinsic factors need to be accounted when designing plasma treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. N'-formylkynurenine-photosensitized inactivation of bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrant, P.; Santus, R.; Redpath, J.L.; Pileni, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the sensitizing properties of N'-formylkynurenine (FK) on bacteriophages, as part of a wider study of FK photosensitization of systems which have both protein and DNA components. Suspensions of bacteriophages T 6 and T 7 were near-U.V. (lambda > 320 nm) irradiated in solutions saturated with either O 2 or He in the presence of 5 x 10 -4 M FK. The survival curves obtained demonstrated that FK can act as a photosensitizer for biological inactivation. The involvement of singlet oxygen as one factor in this FK sensitized inactivation was clearly demonstrated by the increased rate of inactivation when the phage were suspended in O 2 -saturated D 2 O, in place of water, during irradiation. The complex mechanism of phage inactivation must involve direct interaction between excited FK and substrate, as well as singlet oxygen. FK is therefore a new natural photosensitizer of significance in cell photochemistry induced by sunlight. (U.K.)

  5. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  6. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  7. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  8. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  9. Salmonella bongori provides insights into the evolution of the Salmonellae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fookes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica, we have sequenced 28 isolates representing most of the known diversity of S. bongori. This cross-species analysis allowed us to confidently differentiate ancestral functions from those acquired following speciation, which include both metabolic and virulence-associated capacities. We show that, although S. bongori inherited a basic set of Salmonella common virulence functions, it has subsequently elaborated on this in a different direction to S. enterica. It is an established feature of S. enterica evolution that the acquisition of the type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 has been followed by the sequential acquisition of genes encoding secreted targets, termed effectors proteins. We show that this is also true of S. bongori, which has acquired an array of novel effector proteins (sboA-L. All but two of these effectors have no significant S. enterica homologues and instead are highly similar to those found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Remarkably, SboH is found to be a chimeric effector protein, encoded by a fusion of the T3SS-1 effector gene sopA and a gene highly similar to the EPEC effector nleH from enteropathogenic E. coli. We demonstrate that representatives of these new effectors are translocated and that SboH, similarly to NleH, blocks intrinsic apoptotic pathways while being targeted to the mitochondria by the SopA part of the fusion. This work suggests that S. bongori has inherited the ancestral Salmonella virulence gene set, but has adapted by incorporating virulence determinants that resemble those employed by EPEC.

  10. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De tiende workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 28 en 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, Nederland. Deelnemers betroffen vertegenwoordigers van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de

  11. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a Surrogate for Salmonella During Extrusion of Low-Moisture Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Tushar; Wei, Xinyao; Lau, Soon Kiat; Bianchini, Andreia; Eskridge, Kent M; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. Identification of suitable surrogate is critical for process validation at industry level due to implementation of new Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011. The objective of this study was to evaluate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour, a low-moisture food, was adjusted to different moisture (14% to 26% wet basis) and fat (5% to 15% w/w) contents and was inoculated with E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Inoculated material was then extruded in a lab-scale single-screw extruder running at different screw speeds (75 to 225 rpm) and different temperatures (75, 85, and 95 °C). A split-plot central composite 2nd order response surface design was used, with the central point replicated six times. The data from the selective media (m-Enterococcus agar) was used to build the response surface model for inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Results indicated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 always had higher heat resistance compared to Salmonella at all conditions evaluated in this study. However, the patterns of contour plots showing the effect of various product and process parameters on inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was different from that of Salmonella. Although E. faecium NRRL B-2354 may be an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products due to higher resistance than Salmonella, another surrogate with similar inactivation behavior may be preferred and needs to be identified. Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food industry to validate processing interventions. This study validated extrusion processing and demonstrated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 is an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products. The developed response surface model allows the industry to identify process conditions to achieve a desired lethality for their

  12. Evaluating Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as Thermal Surrogate Microorganisms for Salmonella for In-Plant Validation Studies of Low-Moisture Pet Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Erdogan; Bautista, Derrick A

    2015-05-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 were investigated as potential surrogates for Salmonella serovars using thermal death time kinetics in products such as dry pet foods. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, E. faecium NRRL B-2354, and a cocktail of seven Salmonella serovars associated with low-moisture products were determined in a preservative-free dry pet food product at moisture levels of 9.1, 17.9, and 27.0% and heated between 76.7 and 87.8°C. The D-values were calculated by least squares linear regression. The D-values of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 were higher than those for the Salmonella serovar cocktail but lower than those for E. faecium NRRL 2354. At 9.1% moisture, D-values of 6.54, 11.51, and 11.66 min at 76.7°C, 2.66, 3.22, and 4.08 min at 82.2°C, and 1.07, 1.29, and 1.69 min at 87.8°C were calculated for Salmonella serovars, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, and E. faecium NRRL B-2354, respectively. The data suggest that the thermal inactivation characteristics of P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 can be utilized as a surrogate to predict the response of Salmonella in dry pet food products that are thermally processed at <90°C.

  13. His+ reversions caused in Salmonella typhimurium by different types of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, H.; Thomas, W.H.; Fitzek, M.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The yield of his+ reversions in the Ames Salmonella tester strain TA2638 has been determined for 60Co gamma rays, 140 kV X rays, 5.4 keV characteristic X rays, 2.2 MeV protons, 3.1 MeV alpha particles, and 18 MeV/U Fe ions. Inactivation studies were performed with the same radiations. For both mutation and inactivation, the maximum effectiveness per unit absorbed dose was obtained for the characteristic X rays, which have a dose averaged linear energy transfer (LET) of roughly 10 keV/micron. The ratio of the effectiveness of this radiation to gamma rays was 2 for inactivation and about 1.4 for the his+ reversion. For both end points the effectiveness decreases substantially at high LET, i.e., for the alpha particles and the Fe ions. The composition of the bottom and the top agar was the one recommended by Maron and Ames for application in chemical mutagenicity tests. The experiments with the less penetrating radiations differed from the usual protocol by utilization of a technique of plating the bacteria on the surface of the top agar. As in an earlier study greatly enhanced yields of mutations, relative to the spontaneous reversion rate, were obtained in these experiments by performing the irradiations 6 h after plating, which differs from the conventional procedure to irradiate the bacteria shortly after plating

  14. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi; Tada, Mikiro

    2000-01-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  15. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2000-09-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  16. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  17. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on Frozen Red Raspberries by Using UV-C Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Te; Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Zhang, Hongchao; Killinger, Karen; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of UV-C treatment was determined on the reduction of foodborne pathogens on artificially contaminated frozen food surfaces. At first, the UV-C inactivation rates on 100 μl of the respective cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Listeria monocytogenes covered underneath 0.5-cm-thick ice were examined. Simultaneously, the energy percentage of UV-C transmitted through the ice was determined. The experiments showed that more than 65% of the UV-C light energy passed through the ice and that UV-C susceptibility was in the descending order of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and L. monocytogenes . L. monocytogenes , the most UV-C-resistant strain, was then selected to test on frozen raspberries. The UV-C inactivation kinetic data of L. monocytogenes were well described using the Weibull equation. During 720 s of UV-C exposure, with a total dose of 7.8 × 10 2 mJ/cm 2 , a 1.5-log CFU/g reduction of L. monocytogenes population on the surface of frozen red raspberries was noted. No significant differences in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and total antioxidant activity were observed between UV-C-treated and untreated frozen berries immediately after treatment. At the end of 9 months of storage at -35°C, UV-C-treated berries had statistically lower total phenolics, higher total anthocyanins, and similar total antioxidant activity compared with untreated berries. This study shows that UV-C light can be used to reduce the L. monocytogenes population on frozen raspberries.

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H. Anwar; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used.

  19. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  20. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  1. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  2. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  3. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  4. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  5. Experimental reproduction of rotavirus and Salmonella pullorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus, group B chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, group C chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus and 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, while group D birds were given 1ml of PBS alone. Birds in all groups were ...

  6. Disseminated Salmonella Infection Coexisting with Thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheer, S; Immanuel, Subash; Balamugesh, T; Christopher, D J

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old boy presented with high grade fever, diffuse chest pain and exertional breathlessness of one month duration. Radiologically he had a large lobulated anterior mediastinal mass with necrotic thick enhancing septaes. Histopathology of the mass was suggestive of thymoma and culture from the necrotic aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. The same pathogen was isolated in subsequent blood and sputum cultures. This current report describes the rare association of salmonella infection with thymoma.

  7. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of free and liposome-encapsulated thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus adhered to stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Juliana Both; Heckler, Caroline; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Daroit, Daniel Joner; da Silva Malheiros, Patrícia

    2017-07-03

    Antimicrobial activity of thymol, carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol liposomes (TCL) was evaluated against two bacterial pools, each one consisting of four strains of Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella enterica. TCL were prepared using thin-film hydration, showing 270.20nm average diameter (polydispersity index of 0.33) and zeta potential of +39.99mV. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thymol, carvacrol and TCL against S. aureus pool was 0.662mg/ml, while MIC for Salmonella pool was 0.331mg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, and for TCL was 0.662mg/ml. Bacterial pools (8.0logCFU/ml), allowed in contact on stainless steel AISI 304 coupons in UHT skim milk for 15min, resulted in adhered populations of 5.6-6.1logCFU/cm 2 . Adhered S. aureus (±6.1logCFU/cm 2 ) were inhibited after 1-min and 10-min treatments using thymol or carvacrol at MIC and 2.0 MIC. Reductions of 1.47-1.76logCFU/cm 2 and 1.87-2.04logCFU/cm 2 were obtained using 0.5 MIC of thymol and carvacrol, respectively. A 10-min contact with free (MIC and 2.0 MIC) and encapsulated (MIC) antimicrobials inhibited attached Salmonella (±6.0logCFU/cm 2 ); however, after 1-min of contact, 2.0 MIC of thymol and carvacrol were not able to inactivate adhered Salmonella MIC of TCL inactivated S. aureus and Salmonella after 10min; however, after 1-min contact, adhered S. aureus and Salmonella populations were decreased in 1.62logCFU/cm 2 and 2.01logCFU/cm 2 , respectively. Considering antimicrobial concentrations and contact times, thymol, carvacrol, and TCL could be employed in food-contact surfaces to prevent biofilm formation at early stages of bacterial attachment. Further investigations should be performed considering long-term antibacterial effects of TCL. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  10. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  11. Inactivation of microorganisms in treated municipal wastewater and biosolids by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing growth of the world's population, waste minimization policies and agricultural needs make the recycling of domestic wastewater quite a desirable practice. Factors like environmental and public health risks must be taken into account when considering treated wastewater for field irrigation and biosolids for land application. Pathogens present in wastewater and biosolids may remain active after treatment and there is always a great risk of transmission of infections via consuming crop and vegetables. Therefore it is very important to treat domestic wastewater properly before using it as an irrigation water and as a fertilizer. The work reported herein represents an evaluation of the variations in the population densities of below indicated pathogens monitored during a one year study in Ankara Central Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the efficiency of gamma irradiation for the inactivation of these important waterborne pathogens. Parasitological investigation Treated wastewater and biosolids - Cryptosporidium sp. - Giardia lamblia - Entamoeba histolytica - Cyclospora cayetanensis - Helminth ova Bacteriological investigation Treated wastewater - Total coliforms - Salmonella sp. - Fecal streptococci - Enterococcus sp. Biosolids - Fecal coliforms - Salmonella sp. (Includes 12 tables, 16 figures)

  12. Microbial inactivation and cytotoxicity evaluation of UV irradiated coconut water in a novel continuous flow spiral reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Manreet Singh; Patras, Ankit; Kilanzo-Nthenge, Agnes; Pokharel, Bharat; Yannam, Sudheer Kumar; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Pan, Che; Xiao, Hang; Sasges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A continuous-flow UV reactor operating at 254nm wave-length was used to investigate inactivation of microorganisms including bacteriophage in coconut water, a highly opaque liquid food. UV-C inactivation kinetics of two surrogate viruses (MS2, T1UV) and three bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115) in buffer and coconut water were investigated (D 10 values ranging from 2.82 to 4.54mJ·cm -2 ). A series of known UV-C doses were delivered to the samples. Inactivation levels of all organisms were linearly proportional to UV-C dose (r 2 >0.97). At the highest dose of 30mJ·cm -2 , the three pathogenic organisms were inactivated by >5 log 10 (pUV-C irradiation effectively inactivated bacteriophage and pathogenic microbes in coconut water. The inactivation kinetics of microorganisms were best described by log linear model with a low root mean square error (RMSE) and high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.97). Models for predicting log reduction as a function of UV-C irradiation dose were found to be significant (pUV-C treatment did not generate cytotoxic compounds in the coconut water. This study clearly demonstrated that high levels of inactivation of pathogens can be achieved in coconut water, and suggested potential method for UV-C treatment of other liquid foods. This research paper provides scientific evidence of the potential benefits of UV-C irradiation in inactivating bacterial and viral surrogates at commercially relevant doses of 0-120mJ·cm -2 . The irradiated coconut water showed no cytotoxic effects on normal intestinal and healthy mice liver cells. UV-C irradiation is an attractive food preservation technology and offers opportunities for horticultural and food processing industries to meet the growing demand from consumers for healthier and safe food products. This study would provide technical support for commercialization of UV-C treatment of beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Evaluation of the Gauss-Eyring model to predict thermal inactivation of micro-organisms at short holding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Mastwijk, H C; Nierop Groot, M N; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-12-18

    Application of mild (non)-thermal processing technologies have received considerable interest as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, because of its shorter holding time and lower temperature aiming for an improved product quality. To understand and develop these alternative technologies, like pulsed electric fields, a proper comparison between the conventional thermal and alternative process is necessary. Up to recent, no suitable models were available to predict the inactivation of micro-organisms by a thermal process at a chosen short holding time, due to non-linearity. The recently developed Gauss-Eyring model with two variables temperature and time has the properties to be a suitable model to apply for short holding times, and was tested for this purpose. Therefore, this study aims to validate if the Gauss-Eyring model can be used to describe non-linear isothermal (a fixed temperature with varying holding time) and isotime (a fixed holding time with varying temperature) thermal inactivation data, and if it is a suitable model to predict the thermal inactivation as a function of temperature for short holding times. Inactivation data of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice were collected via isothermal and isotime inactivation kinetics. Survival of the tested micro-organisms was modelled with the Gauss-Eyring model, which contains three parameters σ, Tr and Z. The transition of 'no inactivation' to 'inactivation' (i.e. the 'shoulder' in inactivation curves) can be characterised as the temperature-time (T,t) combination where T=Tr-Z·log 10 (t), with Tr as the reference temperature defined for 1s treatment, Z as the temperature needed for a 10-fold increase of decrease of the holding time t, and σ as the temperature width of the distribution. The Gauss-Eyring model fitted well to the experimental data, and revealed different sensitivity for the tested micro

  14. Influence of On-farm pig Salmonella status on Salmonella Shedding at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2017-08-01

    The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. It is safe from O-157 and salmonellae. Food hygiene and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    Despite the improvement of the systems of food hygiene and food distribution on the markets compared with old times, food-borne diseases are increasing and spreading in the world. Food-borne diseases by pathogenic Escherichia coli O-157:H7 are also increasing seriously. Japan has been importing the large amount of foodstuffs which sometimes contaminating with pathogens or parasites. Many types of food-borne diseases have been caused by non-spore forming bacteria such as salmonellae, V. parahaemolyticus, pathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter and Staphylococcus aureus, and these bacteria can inactivate at dose in the range of 1 - 3 kGy in chilled meat. These pathogenic bacteria can also inactivate in the range of 2 - 5 kGy in frozen condition of meat. For the inactivation of Bacillus cereus or Clostridium botulinum, necessary doses should be more than 10 kGy, however, a dose of 3 kGy is also effective to control the growth at storage below 10degC. Food-borne diseases have been caused also by mycotoxins of fungi in Japan. Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin are carcinogens and are stable to radiation. However, many fungi for responsible to produce mycotoxins are radiation sensitive and should be easily inactivated in the range of 3 - 5 kGy. If moisture content is controlled below 15%, low dose irradiation is also effective in the range of 0.2 - 0.5 kGy to control the growth of fungi and pests in grain or other dried foods. (author)

  16. Control and monitoring of Salmonella in egg-laying chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated eggs have been internationally significant sources for the transmission of Salmonella infection to humans for several decades. Both the public and private sectors have invested substantial resources in comprehensive risk reduction and monitoring programs for Salmonella in commercial egg...

  17. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Salmonella and Eggs Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ALERT: Salmonella Outbreak Linked to shell eggs CDC, FDA, and ...

  18. Autophagy Facilitates Salmonella Replication in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong B.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Marchiando, Amanda M.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Cadwell, Ken; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a process whereby a double-membrane structure (autophagosome) engulfs unnecessary cytosolic proteins, organelles, and invading pathogens and delivers them to the lysosome for degradation. We examined the fate of cytosolic Salmonella targeted by autophagy and found that autophagy-targeted Salmonella present in the cytosol of HeLa cells correlates with intracellular bacterial replication. Real-time analyses revealed that a subset of cytosolic Salmonella extensively associates with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3 and replicates quickly, whereas intravacuolar Salmonella shows no or very limited association with p62 or LC3 and replicates much more slowly. Replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells is significantly decreased when autophagy components are depleted. Eventually, hyperreplication of cytosolic Salmonella potentiates cell detachment, facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella to neighboring cells. We propose that Salmonella benefits from autophagy for its cytosolic replication in HeLa cells. PMID:24618251

  19. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  20. Applications of microscopy in Salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research.

  1. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie

  2. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test resultaten van Salmonella sero- en faagtypering en antimicrobiele gevoeligheidsbepalingen door de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella in de Lidstaten van de Europese Unie en EnterNet Laboratoria: Ringonderzoek VI (2001) voor Salmonella. Een zesde ringonderzoek betreffende de

  3. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Are Protected against Acetic Acid, but Not Hydrochloric Acid, by Hypertonicity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Ross, T.

    2009-01-01

    Chapman et al. (B. Chapman, N. Jensen, T Ross, and M. B. Cole, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5165-5172, 2006) demonstrated that an increased NaCl concentration prolongs survival of Escherichia coli O157 SERL 2 in a broth model simulating the aqueous phase of a food dressing or sauce containing acetic acid. We examined the responses of five other E. coli strains and four Salmonella enterica strains to increasing concentrations of NaCl under conditions of lethal acidity and observed that the average “lag” time prior to inactivation decreases in the presence of hydrochloric acid but not in the presence of acetic acid. For E. coli in the presence of acetic acid, the lag time increased with increasing NaCl concentrations up to 2 to 4% at pH 4.0, up to 4 to 6% at pH 3.8, and up to 4 to 7% (wt/wt of water) NaCl at pH 3.6. Salmonella was inactivated more rapidly by combined acetic acid and NaCl stresses than E. coli, but increasing NaCl concentrations still decreased the lag time prior to inactivation in the presence of acetic acid; at pH 4.0 up to 1 to 4% NaCl was protective, and at pH 3.8 up to 1 to 2% NaCl delayed the onset of inactivation. Sublethal injury kinetics suggest that this complex response is a balance between the lethal effects of acetic acid, against which NaCl is apparently protective, and the lethal effects of the NaCl itself. Compared against 3% NaCl, 10% (wt/wt of water) sucrose with 0.5% NaCl (which has similar osmotic potential) was found to be equally protective against adverse acetic acid conditions. We propose that hypertonicity may directly affect the rate of diffusion of acetic acid into cells and hence cell survival. PMID:19346344

  4. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  5. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  6. Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables sold in a north-central Nigerian setting. ... This finding shows that virulent Salmonella strains pose a major health hazard and public health concern to the affected population. Our study shows that there is a high prevalence rate of virulent Salmonella ...

  7. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...

  8. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in an...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Widal test is frequently applied for the detection of Salmonella agglutinins to diagnose Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. There are however a number of controversies challenging the diagnostic utility of this test. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella ...

  11. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact... ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The draft guidance... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation.'' The...

  12. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  13. Mechanism of Salmonella reduction in fermented pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    To protect consumers from Salmonella infection acquired through the consumption of pork meat, it is necessary to eradicate Salmonella from pork. In order to achieve this, the whole pork production chain should be free from Salmonella, including the pigs at the farm. In epidemiological studies it was

  14. Multiple antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 13 panels of antibiotics for both E. coli and Salmonella spp. Results showed that the overall isolation rate of Salmonella spp. was 12 (11.4%), broiler chickens had higher isolation rate 9 (12.0%) of Salmonella than local chickens. However, the ...

  15. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  16. Biofilm formation of Salmonella species isolated from fresh cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella from fresh cabbage and spinach vegetables, determine antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of the isolates. Spinach and cabbage farm vegetables were found to harbour Salmonella. A total of eighty-two Salmonella isolates were recovered from both vegetables and ...

  17. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug... revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This action is... articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is...

  18. Daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, obtained from Datastream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Testing and comparing the performance of dynamic variance and correlation models in value-at-risk estimation. North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 40, 116–135. doi:10.1016/j.najef.2017.02.006 (Li, 2017 [1]. Data on daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, as compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, are provided in this paper. The country indices comprise at least 80% of the stock market capitalization of each country. The data cover the period from January 1, 1990, through September 8, 2016, and include 6963 observations. All stock prices are stated in dollars.

  19. Daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, obtained from Datastream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leon

    2018-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Testing and comparing the performance of dynamic variance and correlation models in value-at-risk estimation. North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 40, 116-135. doi:10.1016/j.najef.2017.02.006 (Li, 2017) [1]. Data on daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, as compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, are provided in this paper. The country indices comprise at least 80% of the stock market capitalization of each country. The data cover the period from January 1, 1990, through September 8, 2016, and include 6963 observations. All stock prices are stated in dollars.

  20. RECOVERY IN VIVO OF NONCULTURABLE SUBPOPULATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudin I.P.

    2015-12-01

    / ml of nonculturable population; 3 103 inactivated cells (pasteurization at 60 °C in 70 % ethanol, 30 min. Mice were observed daily for 14 days to register the death and extraction of internal organs. Liver and spleen of dead mice were removed and homogenized in 1.0 ml of FBS to detect restored Salmonella cells by seeding on selective medium bismuth sulfite agar (BSA. Results and discussion. In this study S. enterica cells in the exponential growth phase, exposed to ethanol (final concentration 20 % lost culturability within 60 minutes. After 50 minutes of exposure with ethanol culturability of bacterial suspensions was outside evaluation cup method. At the same time, the integrity of cell membranes was determined at 4 log10 cells/ml. Bacteria that become VNC state can restore culturability. Thus, the state is reversible. Importantly, the resuscitation of VNC in vitro, which is achieved by simply eliminating or VNC induction factor (increasing the growth temperature, availability of nutrients or more complex conditions such as a combination of environmental and chemical stimuli, does not reveal the full pathogenic potential of resuscitated bacteria. Therefore, the process of Salmonella resuscitation in vivo, we studied on infection model in mice. In experiments in vivo S. enterica resuscitation death of test animals was observed in 13.3% (p < 0.05 during the observation period, with 100% mortality in the group of animals infected with a suspension of living culturable cells Salmonella and 100% survival of the animals in the control group (who received injections of inactivated bacteria. From the dead mice from homogenates of internal organs plated recovered salmonella, which was confirmed by their growth on BSA. Conclusions. Under conditions in vivo recovery process VNC S. enterica cells can occur, but with low intensity in healthy mice (at 13.3%, p <0.05. However, these cells retain pathogenic potential and can represent a danger if their underestimation. We can

  1. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  2. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  3. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  4. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Salmonella using invA primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H; Critzer, Faith J; Golden, David A

    2009-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of disease. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can detect the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA) with greater potential for detecting viable pathogens. The chromosomally located invA gene required for host invasion by Salmonella is widely used for detection of this pathogen by PCR. Detection of Salmonella was undertaken by real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) using newly designed invA gene primers to develop a sensitive and specific assay. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis were grown (7.68 log(10) CFU/mL) in Luria-Bertani broth overnight at 37 degrees C, and RNA was extracted, followed by rt-RT-PCR with and without SYBR green I and agarose gel electrophoresis. All experiments were replicated at least thrice. Detection for both serovars using traditional RT-PCR was lower ( approximately 10(5) CFU/mL) than rt-RT-PCR (10(3) CFU/mL) by gel electrophoresis. Melt curve analysis showed melt temperatures at 87.5 degrees C with Ct values from 12 to 15 for up to 10(3) CFU/mL and improved to 10(2) CFU/mL after further optimization. Further, addition of RNA internal amplification control constructed using in vitro transcription with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, to the RT-PCR assay also gave detection limits of 10(2) CFU/mL. Cross-reactivity was not observed against a panel of 21 non-Salmonella bacteria. Heat-inactivated (autoclaved) Salmonella showed faint or no detection by rt-RT-PCR or gel electrophoresis. This method has potential to be applied for the detection of Salmonella serovars in fresh produce and the simultaneous detection of foodborne viral (RNA viruses) and bacterial pathogens in a multiplex format.

  5. POTENSI Salmonella typhi YANG DILEMAHKAN DENGAN SINAR ULTRAVIOLET SEBAGAI VAKSIN ALTERNATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Putro Ragil Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium and causes typhoid fever in humans. The success rate of Berma Vivotif Ty21a vaccine in Indonesia is only 33-66%, while in other countries have been reached up to 100%. The research was conducted in order to determine the potency of local isolate bacteria to stimulate the immune response and the impact of different exposure frequencies on the immune response and the different immune response time when administered by UV-inactivated vaccine.. The results showed that the antibody titer of local isolates irradiated by UV light 10x was 88.76 ± 33.06 IU/mL at week 4 with the lowest antibody titer values about 11.15 ± 9.18 IU/mL was found in the negative control.

  6. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  7. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het

  8. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gominet, M. [Ionisos, ZI les Chatinieres, F01120 Dagneux (France); Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France); Darbord, J.C. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France)], E-mail: darbord@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr

    2007-11-15

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination.

  9. Bioinactivation: Software for modelling dynamic microbial inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre, Alberto; Fernández, Pablo S; Lindqvist, Roland; Egea, Jose A

    2017-03-01

    This contribution presents the bioinactivation software, which implements functions for the modelling of isothermal and non-isothermal microbial inactivation. This software offers features such as user-friendliness, modelling of dynamic conditions, possibility to choose the fitting algorithm and generation of prediction intervals. The software is offered in two different formats: Bioinactivation core and Bioinactivation SE. Bioinactivation core is a package for the R programming language, which includes features for the generation of predictions and for the fitting of models to inactivation experiments using non-linear regression or a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (MCMC). The calculations are based on inactivation models common in academia and industry (Bigelow, Peleg, Mafart and Geeraerd). Bioinactivation SE supplies a user-friendly interface to selected functions of Bioinactivation core, namely the model fitting of non-isothermal experiments and the generation of prediction intervals. The capabilities of bioinactivation are presented in this paper through a case study, modelling the non-isothermal inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans. This study has provided a full characterization of the response of the bacteria to dynamic temperature conditions, including confidence intervals for the model parameters and a prediction interval of the survivor curve. We conclude that the MCMC algorithm produces a better characterization of the biological uncertainty and variability than non-linear regression. The bioinactivation software can be relevant to the food and pharmaceutical industry, as well as to regulatory agencies, as part of a (quantitative) microbial risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  11. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  13. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-06-24

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin-ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, we analyzed the pattern of CHFR expression in a number of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We found CpG methylation-dependent silencing of CHFR expression in 45% of cancer cell lines, 40% of primary colorectal cancers, 53% of colorectal adenomas, and 30% of primary head and neck cancers. Expression of CHFR was precisely correlated with both CpG methylation and deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the CpG-rich regulatory region. Moreover, CpG methylation and thus silencing of CHFR depended on the activities of two DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, as their genetic inactivation restored CHFR expression. Finally, cells with CHFR methylation had an intrinsically high mitotic index when treated with microtubule inhibitor. This means that cells in which CHFR was epigenetically inactivated constitute loss-of-function alleles for mitotic checkpoint control. Taken together, these findings shed light on a pathway by which mitotic checkpoint is bypassed in cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of checkpoint genes is much more widespread than previously suspected.

  14. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    effect of SWNTs in combination with antimicrobial chemicals on inactivation of B. anthracis spores; 4) the effect of CNTs coated surfaces on the...2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/ Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus... Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  16. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  17. Salmonella Typhi Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau Wei Khoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of Salmonella infection. We report a case of a 57-year-old transgender male who presented with lower back pain for a period of one month following a fall. Physical examination only revealed tenderness over the lower back with no neurological deficits. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine revealed a spondylodiscitis at T10-T11 and T12-L1 and right posterior epidural collection at the T9-T10 level. He underwent decompression laminectomy with segmental instrumentation and fusion of T8 to L3 vertebrae. Intraoperatively, he was found to have acute-on-chronic osteomyelitis in T10 and T11, epidural abscess, and discitis in T12-L1. Tissue and wound culture grew Salmonella Typhi and with antibiotics susceptibility guidance he was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for a period of six weeks. He recovered well with no neurological deficits.

  18. Salmonella epidemiology: A whirlwind of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M

    2018-05-01

    The field of infectious disease epidemiology for Salmonella and other enteric pathogens is undergoing some of the most profound changes since the time of Kauffman and White. Rapid advances in "big data" technologies such as genomics and metagenomics are making it possible to monitor and control salmonellosis in new and exciting ways. Epidemiological methods are becoming increasingly robust through the routine use of standardized hypothesis-generating questionnaires, iterative open-ended interviewing, informational trace-backs and new modeling techniques for describing the attribution of disease to food sources. In addition, Salmonella epidemiology is facing important challenges and new opportunities due to the rapid adoption of culture independent diagnostic test panels by clinical laboratories. Where is this unprecedented wave of change taking us? This chapter will examine emerging trends in Salmonella epidemiology, and take a peek into the not-so-distant future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  20. The Base Excision Repair system of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium counteracts DNA damage by host nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Richardson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens must withstand nitric oxide (NO. generated by host phagocytes. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium interferes with intracellular trafficking of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and possesses multiple systems to detoxify NO.. Consequently, the level of NO. stress encountered by S. Typhimurium during infection in vivo has been unknown. The Base Excision Repair (BER system recognizes and repairs damaged DNA bases including cytosine and guanine residues modified by reactive nitrogen species. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites generated by BER glycosylases require subsequent processing by AP endonucleases. S. Typhimurium xth nfo mutants lacking AP endonuclease activity exhibit increased NO. sensitivity resulting from chromosomal fragmentation at unprocessed AP sites. BER mutant strains were thus used to probe the nature and extent of nitrosative damage sustained by intracellular bacteria during infection. Here we show that an xth nfo S. Typhimurium mutant is attenuated for virulence in C3H/HeN mice, and virulence can be completely restored by the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. Inactivation of the ung or fpg glycosylase genes partially restores virulence to xth nfo mutant S. Typhimurium, demonstrating that NO. fluxes in vivo are sufficient to modify cytosine and guanine bases, respectively. Mutants lacking ung or fpg exhibit NO.-dependent hypermutability during infection, underscoring the importance of BER in protecting Salmonella from the genotoxic effects of host NO.. These observations demonstrate that host-derived NO. damages Salmonella DNA in vivo, and the BER system is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity.

  1. Application of low frequency pulsed ohmic heating for inactivation of foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage in buffered peptone water and tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Soon; Choi, Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively by ohmic heating in buffered peptone water and tomato juice without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were used as representative foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage was used as a norovirus surrogate. Buffered peptone water and tomato juice inoculated with pathogens were treated with pulsed ohmic heating at different frequencies (0.06-1 kHz). Propidium iodide uptake values of bacterial pathogens were significantly (p heating is applicable to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation in tomato juice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  3. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; da Costa Henry, Fábio; Barbosa, João Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; de Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a (137)Cs source-driven irradiating facility was performed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  4. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; da Costa Henry, Fábio; Barbosa, João Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; de Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (−18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp. PMID:24688504

  5. Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on Membrane Lipids and Oxidative Injury of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ou; Zeng, Xin-An; Brennan, Charles S; Han, Zhong

    2016-08-22

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0-4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane fluidity of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimuriumi), possibly due to the alterations of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated gene expressions (down-regulation of cfa and fabA gene expressions and the up-regulation of fabD gene expression), which, in turn, modified the composition of membrane lipid (decrease in the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids). In addition, oxidative injury induced by PEF treatment was associated with an increase in the content of malondialdehyde. The up-regulation of cytochrome bo oxidase gene expressions (cyoA, cyoB, and cyoC) indicated that membrane damage was induced by PEF treatment, which was related to the repairing mechanism of alleviating the oxidative injury caused by PEF treatment. Based on these results, we achieved better understanding of microbial injury induced by PEF, suggesting that micro-organisms tend to decrease membrane fluidity in response to PEF treatment and, thus, a greater membrane fluidity might improve the efficiency of PEF treatment to inactivate micro-organisms.

  6. Nanoemulsified D-Limonene Reduces the Heat Resistance of Salmonella Senftenberg over 50 Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Chumillas, María; Garre, Alberto; Maté, Javier; Palop, Alfredo; Periago, Paula M

    2017-03-15

    Salmonella Senftenberg is a pathogen agent causative of foodborne disease and it is considered the most heat-resistant serovar within this genus. Food industries use heat treatment and chemical antimicrobials in order to eliminate this microorganism in food, but consumers prefer natural antimicrobials as essential oils and their components. This study evaluates the combined effect of thermal treatments and different concentrations of D -limonene nanoemulsion on the inactivation of Salmonella ( S. ) Senftenberg. The results showed an important effect of the nanoemulsified D -limonene on the heat resistance of S. Senftenberg. The δ 50 °C value was reduced by 85%, 96% and 98% when 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM of nanoemulsified D -limonene was added to the heating medium. The effect was kept along all the heating temperatures researched and the shape of the survival curves did not change with the addition of the antimicrobial. The results obtained in this research could be very useful for food industries for optimizing or improving heat treatments applied to food.

  7. Nanoemulsified D-Limonene Reduces the Heat Resistance of Salmonella Senftenberg over 50 Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ros-Chumillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Senftenberg is a pathogen agent causative of foodborne disease and it is considered the most heat-resistant serovar within this genus. Food industries use heat treatment and chemical antimicrobials in order to eliminate this microorganism in food, but consumers prefer natural antimicrobials as essential oils and their components. This study evaluates the combined effect of thermal treatments and different concentrations of D-limonene nanoemulsion on the inactivation of Salmonella (S. Senftenberg. The results showed an important effect of the nanoemulsified D-limonene on the heat resistance of S. Senftenberg. The δ50 °C value was reduced by 85%, 96% and 98% when 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM of nanoemulsified D-limonene was added to the heating medium. The effect was kept along all the heating temperatures researched and the shape of the survival curves did not change with the addition of the antimicrobial. The results obtained in this research could be very useful for food industries for optimizing or improving heat treatments applied to food.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  9. Salmonella-infektion kompliceret med akut nyreinsufficiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thøger; Jensen, Jørgen Erik; Jespersen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a known complication to Salmonella gastroenteritis, and patients with chronic renal failure or impaired host defence are at increased risk. In the two presented cases there had been a few days of gastroenteritis before the hospitalisation, but the only symptoms...... at the admission were fatigue and dyspnoea. In both cases severe uraemia had developed and the patients and their physicians did not expect the episode of gastroenteritis to be the only etiology of acute renal failure. Both patients had normal renal histology and Salmonella was grown in their faeces. Subsequently...

  10. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Isabel Valéria Abalem de; Solari,Claude André

    2001-01-01

    The presence of salmonellae in fecal samples or cloacal swabs of 97 pet reptiles (15 snakes, 24 lizards and 58 chelonians) was investigated. Thirty seven animals had national origin and 60 were imported. Salmonella spp was detected in 39.1% of the reptiles, being 62.5% in lizards, 53.3% in snakes and 25.8% in chelonians. Strains belonged to subspecies I (44.7%), II (10.5%), IIIa (5.2%), IIIb (21.0%) and IV (18.5%) of the enterica species, with predominance (55.3%) of subspecies usually found ...

  11. Backyard Farms Represent a Source of Wide Host Range Salmonella Phages That Lysed the Most Common Salmonella Serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dácil; Toledo, Viviana; Pillo, Francisca DI; Dueñas, Fernando; Tardone, Rodolfo; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin; Switt, Andrea I Moreno

    2018-02-01

    The genus Salmonella has more than 2,600 serovars, and this trait is important when considering interventions for Salmonella control. Bacteriophages that are used for biocontrol must have an exclusively lytic cycle and the ability to lyse several Salmonella serovars under a wide range of environmental conditions. Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized from 34 backyard production systems (BPSs) with a history of Salmonella infections. BPSs were visited once, and cloacal or fecal samples were processed for phage isolation. Four hosts, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, and Typhimurium, were used for phage isolation. The host range of the phages was later characterized with a panel of 23 Salmonella serovars (serovar diversity set) and 31 isolates obtained from the same farms (native set). Genetic relatedness for 10 phages with a wide host range was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phages clustered based on the host range. We purified 63 phages, and 36 phage isolates were obtained on Salmonella Enteritidis, 16 on Salmonella Heidelberg, and 11 on Salmonella Infantis. Phages were classified in three clusters: (i) phages with a wide host range (cluster I), (ii) phages that lysed the most susceptible Salmonella serovars (serogroup D) and other isolates (cluster II), and (iii) phages that lysed only isolates of serogroup D (cluster III). The most susceptible Salmonella serovars were Enteritidis, Javiana, and Dublin. Seven of 34 farms yielded phages with a wide host range, and these phages had low levels of genetic relatedness. Our study showed an adaptation of the phages in the sampled BPSs to serogroup D Salmonella isolates and indicated that isolation of Salmonella phages with wide host range differs by farm. A better understanding of the factors driving the Salmonella phage host range could be useful when designing risk-based sampling strategies to obtain phages with a wide lytic host range for biocontrol

  12. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  13. Adolescentes e suas más companhias: lunáticos, criminosos, e pervertidos sexuais [sobre a obra Adolescence de Stanley Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Jorge Warde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2015v33n2p739 Nas duas últimas décadas do século XIX verifica-se nos Estados Unidos atenções se concentrando sobre a criança, tanto nos estudos sobre a infância – que desembocaram na institucionalização de um novo campo de investigação, o “child study” – quanto nas práticas de socialização – que incluíram o chamado “kindergarten movement”. Na virada do século XX, começam a ser publicados trabalhos sobre o adolescente e a adolescência, seminais quer em relação ao tema quer em relação às disciplinas que emergiam ou caminhavam para a consolidação no campo acadêmico, tais como: Sociologia e Antropologia, no primeiro caso, e Psicologia, no segundo. Esse fenômeno é especialmente visível nos Estados Unidos, onde são flagrantes as associações entre adolescência e criminalidade, assim como o são as referências à obra de G. Stanley Hall, Adolescence: its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion and education, publicada pela primeira vez em 1904, considerada matriz das futuras pesquisas no âmbito dos estudos sociais e psicológicos. Ainda que tenham contribuído para borrar o mito da criança imaculada, os experimentos com crianças de Hall não chegaram a perfilá-las com os endiabrados; no entanto, o adolescente de Hall veio a lume acompanhado dos “primitivos” e “selvagens”, assim como dos criminosos, loucos, e sexualmente desajustados, ou seja, a adolescência como conceito psicossocial nasceu referida aos grupos mais baixos na escala evolutiva. Hall explica toda a adolescência com base na teoria da recapitulação, tanto o seu desenvolvimento fisiológico como o seu crescimento intelectual e social.  Adolescents and their bad companies: lunatics, criminals, and sexual perverts [on Stanley Hall’s adolescence] Abstract In the last two decades of the 19th century, in the United States, attentions are focused

  14. Salmonella-S. mansoni ASSOCIATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Two young men with Salmonella bacteraemia, active schistosomiasis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are reported. The clinical presentation comprised nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, malaise, weight loss, diarrhoea, prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. In one patient, liver biopsy showed poorly formed granulomata around Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hepatitis. Treatment of schistosomiasis alone induced consistent clinical improvement with eventual cure of both Salmonella and S. mansoni infections. Recognition of the Salmonella-S. mansoni association in patients with AIDS is important because treatment of schistosomiasis makes a difference, improving the prognosis of this otherwise, recurrent, potentially fatal bacteraemia.Apresentam-se os casos de dois jovens com bacteriemia por Salmonella associada a esquistossomose mansoni ativa em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A apresentação clínica incluiu sintomas e sinais inespecíficos como fadiga, perda de peso, diarréia, febre prolongada e hepatoesplenomegalia. A biópsia hepática em um paciente revelou granulomas mal formados em torno de ovos de S. mansoni e hepatite de intensidade moderada. O tratamento da esquistossomose com a oxamniquine induziu melhora clínica progressiva culminando com a cura da salmonelose e da esquistossomose. O reconhecimento da associação Salmonella-S. mansoni em pacientes com AIDS mostra-se importante nesses casos pois o tratamento da esquistossomose melhora o prognóstico da bacteriemia por Salmonella que pode tornar-se recorrente e fatal nos pacientes com AIDS.

  15. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G; Morgan, M J; Pumford, N R; Bielke, L R; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kuttappan, V A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (10(6) cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens.

  16. Evaluation of the respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry via intratracheal challenge of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapura, G.; Morgan, M. J.; Pumford, N. R.; Bielke, L. R.; Wolfenden, A. D.; Faulkner, O. B.; Latorre, J. D.; Menconi, A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that primary infection of Salmonella is by the oral-fecal route for poultry. However, the airborne transmission of Salmonella and similar enteric zoonotic pathogens has been historically neglected. Increasing evidence of Salmonella bioaerosol generation in production facilities and studies suggesting the vulnerabilities of the avian respiratory architecture together have indicated the possibility of the respiratory system being a potential portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. Presently, we evaluated this hypothesis through intratracheal (IT) administration of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, as separate challenges, in a total of 4 independent trials, followed by enumeration of cfu recovery in ceca-cecal tonsils and recovery incidence in liver and spleen. In all trials, both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, challenged IT colonized cecae to a similar or greater extent than oral administration at identical challenge levels. In most trials, chickens cultured for cfu enumeration from IT-challenged chicks at same dose as orally challenged, resulted in an increase of 1.5 log higher Salmonella Enteritidis from ceca-cecal tonsils and a much lower dose IT of Salmonella Enteritidis could colonize ceca to the same extent than a higher oral challenge. This trend of increased cecal colonization due to IT challenge was observed with all trails involving week-old birds (experiment 2 and 3), which are widely considered to be more difficult to infect via the oral route. Liver-spleen incidence data showed 33% of liver and spleen samples to be positive for Salmonella Enteritidis administered IT (106 cfu/chick), compared with 0% when administered orally (experiment 2, trial 1). Collectively, these data suggest that the respiratory tract may be a largely overlooked portal of entry for Salmonella infections in chickens. PMID:24570455

  17. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  18. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria inoculated onto a Bacto™ agar model surface using TiO2-UVC photocatalysis, UVC and chlorine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S; Ghafoor, K; Kim, S; Sun, Y W; Kim, J U; Yang, K; Lee, D-U; Shahbaz, H M; Park, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to study inactivation of different pathogenic bacteria on agar model surface using TiO2-UV photocatalysis (TUVP). A unified food surface model was simulated using Bacto(™) agar, a routinely used microbial medium. The foodborne pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli K12 (as a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7), Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated onto the agar surface, followed by investigation of TUVP-assisted inactivation and morphological changes in bacterial cells. The TUVP process showed higher bacterial inactivation, particularly for Gram-negative bacteria, than UVC alone and a control (dark reaction). A TUVP treatment of 17·2 mW cm(-2) (30% lower than the UVC light intensity) reduced the microbial load on the agar surface by 4·5-6·0 log CFU cm(-2). UVC treatment of 23·7 mW cm(-2) caused 3·0-5·3 log CFU cm(-2) reduction. The use of agar model surface is effective for investigation of bacterial disinfection and TUVP is a promising nonthermal technique. The results showing effects of photocatalysis and other treatments for inactivation of bacterial pathogens on model surface can be useful for applying such processes for disinfection of fruit, vegetables and other similar surfaces. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Ingestion without inactivation of bacteriophages by Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akunyili, Agnes A; Alfatlawi, Miaad; Upadhyaya, Bandana; Rhoads, Laura S; Eichelberger, Henry; Van Bell, Craig T

    2008-01-01

    Tetrahymena has been shown to ingest and inactivate bacteriophages, such as T4, in co-incubation experiments. In this study, Tetrahymena thermophila failed to inactivate phages PhiX174 and MS2 in co-incubations, although PhiX174 were ingested by T. thermophila, as demonstrated by: (1) recovery at defecation in a pulse-chase experiment, (2) recovery from Tetrahymena by detergent lysis, and (3) transmission electron microscopy. We conclude, therefore, that the phages must be digestion-resistant. Internalized PhiX174 were further shown to be partially protected from lethal damage by ultraviolet (UV) C and UVB irradiation. Finally, ingested PhiX174 were shown to be rapidly transported through buffer in a horizontal swimming, race tube-like assay. The transport and protection of phages may confer evolutionary advantages that explain the acquisition of digestion-resistance by some phages.

  20. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  1. Thirteenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Dertiende CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering in 2008. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Daarnaast is een analyse van alle NRL's als groep uitgevoerd, waaruit bleek dat zij 97 %

  2. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  3. Salmonella outbreak in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Yoshikawa, T T; Bridge, J; Schlaifer, A; Osterweil, D; Reid, D; Norman, D C

    1990-05-01

    We performed a retrospective review of an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis that occurred in a community nursing home in 1987. Forty-four of 199 residents had a diarrheal illness; Salmonella heidelberg was isolated from the stool in 19 cases. Although the distribution of cases suggested a common source for the outbreak, no common source of infection could be demonstrated, despite extensive investigation. The clinical presentation of symptomatic individuals ranged from mild diarrhea to a severe gastrointestinal illness, and 26% of symptomatic, culture-positive patients required hospitalization. The median duration of pathogen excretion during convalescence in untreated residents was six weeks, but six patients who were treated with antibiotics shed S. heidelberg for a median duration of 14.5 weeks. We conclude that (1) the clinical spectrum of Salmonella gastroenteritis in nursing-home patients is variable, ranging from mild to severe illness; and (2) nursing-home Salmonella outbreaks impose a high economic burden because of expense of epidemiologic investigation, prolonged isolation measures, hospitalization for severely ill residents, and potential institutional closure.

  4. Inhibition of Escherichia Coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus. aureus are of great concern to the food industry, especially in foods stored under refrigerated conditions where, unlike most food-borne pathogens are able to multiply. This investigation was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of some spice ...

  5. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  6. Abscesso esplênico causado por Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno von Glen Herkenhoff

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as características demográficas, clínicas, diagnóstica e terapêutica de pacientes com abscesso esplênico (AE causado por Salmonella. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de dados de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral e Aparelho Digestivo do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée-Guinle no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005, a estes se incluiu um caso tratado em outro hospital em época anterior. RESULTADOS: Dentre 4823 pacientes recentemente atendidos, dois apresentaram AE causado por Salmonella enteritidis, enquanto o caso mais antigo o agente responsável foi a Salmonella typhi. Todos eram homens, com idade média de 45 anos. Em nenhum deles foi identificada condição predisponente à formação do abscesso; os exames de imagem foram capazes de diagnosticar o AE. Todos foram tratados por esplenectomia e antibioticoterapia e evoluíram para cura. CONCLUSÕES: A Salmonella, apesar de infrequente, pode ser o agente causal do AE. Caracteristicamente os abscessos eram grandes e apresentavam material necrótico em seu interior. Nesta condição, a esplenectomia associada a antibioticoterapia mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento.

  7. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea can provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of salmonellosis, mainly for typhoid fever caused by MDR strains of S. Typhi.The extract also inhibits S.Hadar a MDR emerging strain in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Thonningia sanguinea; Salmonella, MDR strains, ...

  8. Fate of Salmonella Species and E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... are suggested. In addition, it would be appropriate to determine the microbiological quality and safety of other fruit juices sold in various vending houses as made available for consumption in order to establish their role in the epidemiology of food- borne diseases in the country. Key words: Fruits juice, Salmonella, E. coli.

  9. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella serovars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Salmonella isolates tested displayed multiple antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics used to treat both humans and animals. No resistance was seen to disinfectants used at the manufacturer\\'s recommended rate of dilution. The bacteria were resistant, though, at lower dilutions, highlighting the necessity of ...

  10. Thirteenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Dertiende CRL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering in 2008. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Daarnaast is een analyse van alle NRL's als groep uitgevoerd, waaruit bleek dat zij 97 % van de

  11. Sixteenth EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp. : Zestiende EURL-Salmonella ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Pol-Hofstad IE; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    De 28 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten scoorden in 2011 goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole om Salmonella te typeren. Twee laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Alle NRL's samen konden gemiddeld genomen aan 97 procent van de geteste stammen de juiste naam

  12. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  13. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  14. Effect of Salmonella thyphymurium Infection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Salmonella thyphimurium infection on the plasma kinetics of ceftriaxone in Sokoto red goats. In a randomised two-way study, 10 healthy male goats were divided into two groups of five each, and either received a single intramuscular (IM) injection of 1g ceftriaxone only or ...

  15. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  16. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  17. Quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The human restricted bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhi is the major cause of typhoid fever (or enteric fever), a characteristic severe systemic illness [1]. In 2010, typhoid fever accounted for an estimated global burden of. 27 million new cases and 200,000 deaths [2]. For over two decades, S. enterica ...

  18. Persistence of salmonella typhimurium in nopal cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...

  19. Persistence of salmonella Typhimurium in Nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...

  20. Role of inflammasomes in Salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eFranchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs play a crucial role in both the detection of pathogens and the activation of the innate immune system. NLR family members are cytosolic PRRs that sense bacterial products or endogenous danger signals. Recent evidence suggests that NLRs contribute to the detection of Salmonella through the activation of inflammasomes, molecular platforms that promotes the maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-18. During enteric Salmonella infection the activation of caspase-1 and the production of IL-1 and IL-18 result in a protective host response. In macrophages, the activation of caspase-1 induced by Salmonella is mainly mediated by the NLR family member Nlrc4 that senses cytosolic flagellin. Recent data suggest that an effective innate immune response against Salmonella requires the engagement of multiple inflammasomes in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell lineages. Further understanding of the innate immune response mediated by inflammasomes should provide new insights into the mechanisms of host defense and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  1. In vivo Radiodetoxification of Salmonella minnesota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease (PD) . The Nigerian Health Journal, Vol. 10, No 1 -2, January - June 2010. In vivo Radiodetoxification of Salmonella minnesota Lipopolysaccharides with radio-labeled Leucine Enkephalin cures sensory polyneuropathy: A Case report. Introduction to Parkinson's disease and LPS.

  2. Salmonella osteomyelitis by sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, H.; Tran, V.T.; Boeckmann, U.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Case report of a 28 year old black sickle cell anemia patient with salmonella osteomyelitis of the radius. Aside from sickle cell anemia patients this skeletal complication of enteric salmonellosis is an extreme rarity. Description of the typical roentgenological features includes intracortical fissures and sequestration. (orig.) [de

  3. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  4. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  5. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin–ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, w...

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paronyan, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  7. Antibacterial Mechanism of 405-Nanometer Light-Emitting Diode against Salmonella at Refrigeration Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against Salmonella at 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by determining endogenous coproporphyrin content, DNA oxidation, damage to membrane function, and morphological change. Gene expression levels, including of oxyR , recA , rpoS , sodA , and soxR , were also examined to understand the response of Salmonella to LED illumination. The results showed that Salmonella strains responded differently to LED illumination, revealing that S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul (ATCC 9712) were more susceptible and resistant, respectively, than the 16 other strains tested. There was no difference in the amounts of endogenous coproporphyrin in the two strains. Compared with that in nonilluminated cells, the DNA oxidation levels in illuminated cells increased. In illuminated cells, we observed a loss of efflux pump activity, damage to the glucose uptake system, and changes in membrane potential and integrity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a disorganization of chromosomes and ribosomes due to LED illumination. The levels of the five genes measured in the nonilluminated and illuminated S Saintpaul cells were upregulated in PBS at a set temperature of 4°C, indicating that increased gene expression levels might be due to a temperature shift and nutrient deficiency rather than to LED illumination. In contrast, only oxyR in S Enteritidis cells was upregulated. Thus, different sensitivities of the two strains to LED illumination were attributed to differences in gene regulation. IMPORTANCE Bacterial inactivation using visible light has recently received attention as a safe and environmentally friendly technology, in contrast with UV light, which has detrimental effects on human health and the environment. This study was designed to understand how 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED

  8. Radiosensitivity of E.coli O157: H7 and Salmonella typhimurium on swiss chard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco A.S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2007-01-01

    Swiss Chard is a beet (Beta vulgaris cicla) producing large yellowish green leaves with thick succulent stalks and often cooked as a potherb, called also seakale beet or chard. It is a nutritive vegetable rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and vitamin C. Ionising radiation is an effective method to reduce pathogens. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria, however, depends on several factors. Particularly, few data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on ready to eat vegetables. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the radiation sensitivity of pathogens experimentally contaminating the mentioned vegetable. Swiss chard leaves minimally processed were inoculated separately either with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella typhimurium by immersion to contain 6 log CFU/g and 1h later gamma-irradiated with 0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy and 1.5 kGy, dose rate of 2.94 kGy/h. The assay of pathogen survivors was made by direct plating. After applying a radiation dose of 0.5 kGy reductions of at least 3 log were achieved for both bacteria. The average D10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log of pathogen were 0.12 and 0.10 for E.coli O157:H7 and S.typhimurium respectively. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens that can eventually contaminate ready to eat vegetables. (author)

  9. Salmonella DIVA vaccine reduces disease, colonization and shedding due to virulent S. Typhimurium infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-host adapted Salmonella serovars are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease, including the frequent foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Interventions against Salmonella need to both enhance food safe...

  10. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  11. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  12. Recent Trends in Salmonella Outbreaks and Emerging Technology for Biocontrol of Salmonella Using Phages in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung

    2017-12-28

    Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown less efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobialresistant Salmonella , new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in the food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products. The treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases, and ultimately promotes safe environments for animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. After an extensive investigation of the current literature, this review focuses predominantly on the efficacy of phages for the successful control of Salmonella spp. in foods. This review also addresses the current knowledge on the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella , the prevalence of emerging Salmonella outbreaks, the isolation and characterization of Salmonella -specific phages, the effectiveness of Salmonella -specific phages as biocontrol agents, and the prospective use of Salmonella -specific phages in the food industry.

  13. Exponentially Increased Thermal Resistance of Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus faecium at Reduced Water Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuxiang; Tang, Juming; Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2018-04-15

    Salmonella spp. exhibit prolonged survivability and high tolerance to heat in low-moisture foods. The reported thermal resistance parameters of Salmonella spp. in low-moisture foods appear to be unpredictable due to various unknown factors. We report here that temperature-dependent water activity (a w, treatment temperature ) plays an important role in the sharply increased thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT 30 and its potential surrogate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354. In our study, silicon dioxide granules, as carriers, were separately inoculated with these two microorganisms and were heated at 80°C with controlled relative humidity between 18 and 72% (resulting in corresponding a w,80°C values for bacteria between 0.18 and 0.72) in custom-designed test cells. The inactivation kinetics of both microorganisms fitted a log-linear model ( R 2 , 0.83 to 0.97). Reductions in the a w,80°C values of bacterial cells exponentially increased the D 80°C (the time needed to achieve a 1-log reduction in a bacterial population at 80°C) values for S Enteritidis and E. faecium on silicon dioxide. The log-linear relationship between the D 80°C values for each strain in silicon dioxide and its a w,80°C values was also verified for organic wheat flour. E. faecium showed consistently higher D 80°C values than S Enteritidis over the a w,80°C range tested. The estimated z aw (the change in a w,80°C needed to change D 80°C by 1 log) values of S Enteritidis and E. faecium were 0.31 and 0.28, respectively. This study provides insight into the interpretation of Salmonella thermal resistance that could guide the development and validation of thermal processing of low-moisture foods. IMPORTANCE In this paper, we established that the thermal resistance of the pathogen S Enteritidis and its surrogate Enterococcus faecium , as reflected by D values at 80°C, increases sharply with decreasing relative humidity in the environment. The log

  14. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyyarikkandy, Muhammed Shafeekh; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne

    2017-11-09

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC) followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD), Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR) in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages ( p < 0.05). Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression ( p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  15. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei Attenuate Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium Colonization and Virulence Gene Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shafeekh Muyyarikkandy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH have been responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with the consumption of poultry meat and eggs. Salmonella colonization in chicken is characterized by initial attachment to the cecal epithelial cells (CEC followed by dissemination to the liver, spleen, and oviduct. Since cecal colonization is critical to Salmonella transmission along the food chain continuum, reducing this intestinal association could potentially decrease poultry meat and egg contamination. Hence, this study investigated the efficacy of Lactobacillus delbreuckii sub species bulgaricus (NRRL B548; LD, Lactobacillus paracasei (DUP-13076; LP, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NRRL B442; LR in reducing SE, ST, and SH colonization in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages. Additionally, their effect on expression of Salmonella virulence genes essential for cecal colonization and survival in macrophages was evaluated. All three probiotics significantly reduced Salmonella adhesion and invasion in CEC and survival in chicken macrophages (p < 0.05. Further, the probiotic treatment led to a significant reduction in Salmonella virulence gene expression (p < 0.05. Results of the study indicate that LD, LP, and LR could potentially be used to control SE, ST, and SH colonization in chicken. However, these observations warrant further in vivo validation.

  16. Cellular Injuries in Cronobacter sakazakii CIP 103183T and Salmonella enterica Exposed to Drying and Subsequent Heat Treatment in Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in low-moisture foods, their decontamination is an important issue in food protection. This study aimed to clarify some of the cellular mechanisms involved in inactivation of foodborne pathogens after drying and subsequent heating. Individual strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Senftenberg, and Cronobacter sakazakii were mixed into whole milk powder and dried to different water activity levels (0.25 and 0.58; the number of surviving cells was determined after drying and subsequent thermal treatments in closed vessels at 90 and 100°C, for 30 and 120 s. For each condition, the percentage of unculturable cells was estimated and, in parallel, membrane permeability and respiratory activity were estimated by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes. After drying, it was clearly observable that the percentage of unculturable cells was correlated with the percentage of permeabilized cells (responsible for 20–40% of the total inactivated bacteria after drying, and to a lesser degree with the percentage of cells presenting with loss of respiratory activity. In contrast, the percentages of unculturable cells observed after heat treatment were strongly correlated with the loss of respiratory activity and weakly with membrane permeability (for 70–80% of the total inactivated bacteria after heat treatment. We conclude that cell inactivation during drying is closely linked to membrane permeabilization and that heat treatment of dried cells affects principally their respiratory activity. These results legitimize the use of time–temperature scales and allow better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of bacterial death during drying and subsequent heat treatment. These results may also allow better optimization of the decontamination process to ensure food safety by targeting the most deleterious conditions for bacterial cells without denaturing the food product.

  17. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  18. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  20. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  1. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  2. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES DISSERTATION Emily A. Knight, Major, USAF AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES...EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W

  3. Pathogenicity, Epidemiology and Virulence Factors of Salmonella species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamègnon Victorien DOUGNON

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are major public health problems worldwide. The hereby review aimed to establish an overview on the pathogenicity, epidemiology and virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world. A systematic search was conducted online using the keywords ‘Salmonella’, ‘Salmonella spp.’, ‘Salmonella spp. Epidemiology’, ‘virulence factors of Salmonella spp. in the world’, ‘bacteria responsible for the contamination of meat products’, ‘non-typhoid salmonella’. These keywords were entered into databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using mainly French language. The obtained articles were included based on the reliability of their source, the study area (usually Benin and Africa and the subject. The review revealed that Salmonella spp. is motile Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, of the family Enterobacteriaceae, currently counting more than 2,600 serovars. Human contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated water and food and can cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever, which are two serious public health problems. A gene set constituting the pathogenicity islands determines the pathogenesis of Salmonella spp. The diagnosis is based on bacteriological, serological and molecular techniques. Salmonella infections are usually treated using antibiotics; however, emergence of antibiotic resistance in these microorganisms suggests that the anti-salmonella control should explore new sources such as medicinal plants

  4. Salmonella enterica Induces And Subverts The Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Victoria Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Whereas it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, the data gathered suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.

  5. [Advances in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Zhao, Xinxin; Yi, Jie; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Kong, Qingke

    2016-05-25

    Tumor is a neoplasm formed by the abnormal proliferation of local tissue cells under the effects of different tumorigenic factors. Tumor-therapy has always been a difficult clinical issue, while regular cancer treatments, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery, have obvious limitations. Earlier studies have shown that some obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes have anti-tumor effects, for example, Salmonella typhymurium as facultative anaerobic bacteria can selectively colonize tumors and inhibit their growth. Besides, Salmonella has many advantages in tumor-therapy. In the past decade or two, many researchers have carried out genetic manipulation to attenuate the virulence of Salmonella, to improve their specificity of tumor colonization and specially to use attenuated Salmonella as carriers to deliver a variety of anti-tumor therapeutic molecules, and these genetically modified Salmonella have shown good anti-tumor effects in many animal experiments. Along with further research of Salmonella-mediated antitumor treatment, applications of genetically modified Salmonella for more effective tumor-therapy are promising. We reviewed the anti-tumor mechanisms of Salmonella, the research progress in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella, and current problems and possible solutions.

  6. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  7. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  8. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  9. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  10. Protective immunity to Salmonella enterica is partially serogroup specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Dennis L; Agin, Tonia S; Bade, Donald; Dearwester, Don A; Jolie, Rika; Keich, Robin L; Lohse, Robert M; Reed, Maryke; Rosey, Everett L; Schneider, Patricia A; Taylor, Lucas P; Willy, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    Pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella carriage by swine would benefit both animal health and food quality. While vaccination is an attractive pre-harvest intervention to reduce Salmonella levels in swine, the large number of potential Salmonella enterica serovars found in swine makes it critical that vaccines provide broad serotype efficacy. In order to directly compare the relative efficacy of Salmonella vaccines against serogroup-matched and serogroup-unmatched Salmonella, we vaccinated pigs with two commercially available Salmonella vaccines (either serogroup B or serogroup C1) and challenged with serovar-matched, serogroup-matched or serogroup-unmatched challenge strains. We found that while serogroup-matched vaccines provided relatively better efficacy than unmatched vaccines, serotype-unmatched vaccines also provided significant reduction of Salmonella carriage and shed. In addition, by measuring serogroup specific cell mediated (IFN-γ ELISPOT) and humoral (anti-LPS ELISA) immunity, we found that this serogroup specific efficacy correlates primarily with humoral immunity, while cell mediated immunity was mostly non-serogroup specific. While the practical relevance to pork quality of this serogroup-specific efficacy remains to be demonstrated, the large predominance of serogroup B Salmonella in swine suggests that a serogroup B Salmonella vaccine for swine would be of value to pre-harvest food safety interventions in swine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation inactivation analysis of kidney microvillar peptidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcher, I.S.; Ingram, J.; Kenny, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Five membrane peptidases were studied by radiation inactivation analysis of pig kidney microvillar membranes. One heterodimeric enzyme, γ-glutamyl transferase, presented a target size corresponding to the dimeric M r . The other enzymes are known to be homodimers. Three of these, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, gave results clearly indicating the monomer to be the target and, hence, in this group the association of the subunits was not essential for activity. The target size for endopeptidase-24.11 was intermediate between those for monomer and dimer and its functional state was not resolved by the experiments. (Auth.)

  12. Gamma ray inactivation of some animal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F C; Davies, A G; Dulac, G C; Willis, N G; Papp-Vid, G; Girard, A

    1981-10-01

    Twenty samples of animal viruses comprising 14 different viruses in 12 families were subjected to varying doses of gamma irradiation from a 60Co source in a Gamma Cell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) to determine lethal dose levels. The dose responses appeared linear throughout inactivation. The D10 values, that is the dose necessary to reduce infectivity by one log10, ranged from less than 0.20 Megarads to approximately 0.55 Megarads. There was not a complete inverse correlation between the target size (virion core) and the D10 value.

  13. Gamma ray inactivation of some animal viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F C; Davies, A G; Dulac, G C; Willis, N G; Papp-Vid, G; Girard, A

    1981-01-01

    Twenty samples of animal viruses comprising 14 different viruses in 12 families were subjected to varying doses of gamma irradiation from a 60Co source in a Gamma Cell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) to determine lethal dose levels. The dose responses appeared linear throughout inactivation. The D10 values, that is the dose necessary to reduce infectivity by one log10, ranged from less than 0.20 Megarads to approximately 0.55 Megarads. There was not a complete inverse correlation betwee...

  14. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  15. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    including various cut-off values. In addition, all the tools require bioinformatics skill. In order to apply WGS in routine typing, an automatic and user-friendly tool is needed. Therefor, snpTree has been developed as a server for online-automatic SNP analysis. snpTree can identify SNPs and construct......Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the US alone, salmonellosis was estimated to cause 1.4 million cases effecting 17,000 hospitalization and almost 600 deaths each year. Particularly, Salmonella enterica is a common cause of minor and large food borne outbreaks...... investigation compared to the traditional typing, PFGE. An online tool to construct phylogenetic tree based on SNPs has also been developed. Furthermore, it has revealed the application of WGS in epidemiological study of global and local occurrences of S. Typhimurium DT104....

  16. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  17. Inactivation of virus in solution by cold atmospheric pressure plasma: identification of chemical inactivation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) inactivates bacteria and virus through in situ production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). While the bactericidal and virucidal efficiency of plasmas is well established, there is limited knowledge about the chemistry leading to the pathogen inactivation. This article describes a chemical analysis of the CAP reactive chemistry involved in the inactivation of feline calicivirus. We used a remote radio frequency CAP produced in varying gas mixtures leading to different plasma-induced chemistries. A study of the effects of selected scavengers complemented with positive control measurements of relevant RONS reveal two distinctive pathways based on singlet oxygen and peroxynitrous acid. The first mechanism is favored in the presence of oxygen and the second in the presence of air when a significant pH reduction is induced in the solution by the plasma. Additionally, smaller effects of the H2O2, O3 and \\text{NO}2- produced were also found. Identification of singlet oxygen-mediated 2-imidazolone/2-oxo-His (His  +14 Da)—an oxidative modification of His 262 comprising the capsid protein of feline calicivirus links the plasma induced singlet oxygen chemistry to viral inactivation.

  18. Organoid and Enteroid Modeling of Salmonella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuebang Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are Gram-negative rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria that are comprised of over 2,000 serovars. They cause gastroenteritis (salmonellosis with headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea clinical symptoms. Salmonellosis brings a heavy burden for the public health in both developing and developed countries. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating the infected patients with severe gastroenteritis, although antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella infection is vital to combat the disease. In vitro immortalized 2-D cell lines, ex vivo tissues/organs and several animal models have been successfully utilized to study Salmonella infections. Although these infection models have contributed to uncovering the molecular virulence mechanisms, some intrinsic shortcomings have limited their wider applications. Notably, cell lines only contain a single cell type, which cannot reproduce some of the hallmarks of natural infections. While ex vivo tissues/organs alleviate some of these concerns, they are more difficult to maintain, in particular for long term experiments. In addition, non-human animal models are known to reflect only part of the human disease process. Enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as effective infection models due to their closeness in mimicking the infected tissues/organs. Induced intestinal organoids are derived from iPSCs and contain mesenchymal cells whereas enteroids are derive from intestinal stem cells and are comprised of epithelial cells only. Both enteroids and induced intestinal organoids mimic the villus and crypt domains comparable to the architectures of the in vivo intestine. We review here that enteroids and induced intestinal organoids are emerging as desired infection models to study bacterial-host interactions of Salmonella.

  19. Experimental Adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium to Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Annika I.; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Berg, Otto G.; Andersson, Dan I.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evolution is a powerful approach to study the dynamics and mechanisms of bacterial niche specialization. By serial passage in mice, we evolved 18 independent lineages of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and examined the rate and extent of adaptation to a mainly reticuloendothelial host environment. Bacterial mutation rates and population sizes were varied by using wild-type and DNA repair-defective mutator (mutS) strains with normal and high mutation rates, respectively, and by varying...

  20. Regulatory principles governing Salmonella and Yersinia virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Marc; Dersch, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Yersinia evolved numerous strategies to survive and proliferate in different environmental reservoirs and mammalian hosts. Deciphering common and pathogen-specific principles for how these bacteria adjust and coordinate spatiotemporal expression of virulence determinants, stress adaptation, and metabolic functions is fundamental to understand microbial pathogenesis. In order to manage sudden environmental changes, attacks by the host immune systems and microbial competition, the pathogens employ a plethora of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control elements, including transcription factors, sensory and regulatory RNAs, RNAses, and proteases, to fine-tune and control complex gene regulatory networks. Many of the contributing global regulators and the molecular mechanisms of regulation are frequently conserved between Yersinia and Salmonella. However, the interplay, arrangement, and composition of the control elements vary between these closely related enteric pathogens, which generate phenotypic differences leading to distinct pathogenic properties. In this overview we present common and different regulatory networks used by Salmonella and Yersinia to coordinate the expression of crucial motility, cell adhesion and invasion determinants, immune defense strategies, and metabolic adaptation processes. We highlight evolutionary changes of the gene regulatory circuits that result in different properties of the regulatory elements and how this influences the overall outcome of the infection process. PMID:26441883

  1. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  2. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  3. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  4. Inactivation and changes in metabolic profile of selected foodborne bacteria by 460 nm LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Vinayak; Kim, Min-Jeong; Zhou, Weibiao; Khoo, Gek Hoon; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 460 nm light-emitting diode (LED) on the inactivation of foodborne bacteria. Additionally, the change in the endogenous metabolic profile of LED illuminated cells was analyzed to understand the bacterial response to the LED illumination. Six different species of bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella Typhimurium) were illuminated with 460 nm LED to a maximum dose of 4080 J/cm 2 at 4, 10 and 25 °C. Inactivation curves were modeled using Hom model. Metabolic profiling of the non-illuminated and illuminated cells was performed using a Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Results indicate that the 460 nm LED significantly (p LED illumination. These results elucidate the effectiveness of 460 nm LED against foodborne bacteria and hence, its suitability as a novel antimicrobial control method to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (PL. rhamnosus yoba grew from 5.5 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL to 9.1 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL in the presence of pathogens. The pH of yoba mutandabota dropped from 4.2 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.1 after 24h of fermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food, especially in Southern Africa where there are many vulnerable consumers of mutandabota such as children, elderly and immuno-compromised people with HIV/AIDS. The findings of this study demonstrate that mutandabota fermented with L. rhamnosus yoba has

  6. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  7. US Naval nuclear powering submarine inactivation, disposal and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The US NAVY report dealing with the problem of American nuclear submarine inactivation after service life ending is discussed. 31 submarines were inactivated in 1993 accomplishing the treaty on strategic weapons reduction. The technologies of dismantling, weapon, components and equipment removing, submarine hull cutting, transportation of nuclear compartments contaminated with residual radioactivity and their disposal in Hanford are described. 3 figs

  8. Suicide inactivation of horseradish peroxidase by excess hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In reactions carried out in sodium acetate buffer, higher inactivation rates were observed when the buffer ion concentration was increased, an indication that peroxidase might be generating reactive radicals from the buffer molecules. Promethazine exerted a modest protective effect against inactivation; however, higher ...

  9. "Studies on the Mechanism of Ultraviolet Inactivation of Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiron, Dr. Camillo A. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1968-08-19

    The research proposal accompanying this progress report represents a second renewal. This progress report will be divided into the following parts; (I) Serological properties of enzymes subsequent to inactivation by various methods, (II) Studies on the mechanism of ultraviolet inactivation of enzymes.

  10. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  11. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  12. [Polyphenolic antioxidants efficiently protect urease from inactivation by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelitsa, D I; Tarun, E I; Losev, Iu P

    2002-01-01

    Inactivation of urease (25 nM) in aqueous solutions (pH 5.0-6.0) treated with low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS; 27 kHz, 60 Wt/cm2, 36-56 degrees C) or high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS; 2.64 MHz, 1 Wt/cm2, 36 or 56 degrees C) has been characterized quantitatively, using first-order rate constants: kin, aggregate inactivation; kin*, thermal inactivation; and kin* (US), ultrasonic inactivation. Within the range from 1 nM to 10 microM, propyl gallate (PG) decreases approximately threefold the rate of LFUS-induced inactivation of urease (56 degrees C), whereas resorcinol poly-2-disulfide prevents this process at 1 nM or higher concentrations. PG completely inhibits HFUS-induced inactivation of urease at 1 nM (36 degrees C) or 10 nM (56 degrees C). At 0.2-10 microM, human serum albumin (HSA) increases the resistance of urease (at 56 degrees C) treated with HFUS to temperature- and cavitation-induced inactivation. Complexes of gallic acid polydisulfide (GAPDS) with HSA (GAPDS-HSA), formed by conjugation of 1.0 nM PGDS with 0.33 nM HSA, prevent HFUS-induced urease inactivation (56 degrees C).

  13. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)

  14. Inactivation of pathogens during aerobic composting of fresh and aged dairy manure and different carbon amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Two separate studies were conducted to address the condition and the type of feedstocks used during composting of dairy manure. In each study, physical (temperature), chemical (ammonia, volatile acids, and pH), and biological (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) parameters were monitored during composting in bioreactors to assess the degree to which they were affected by the experimental variables and, ultimately, the ability of the chemical and physical parameters to predict the fate of pathogens during composting. Compost mixtures that contained either aged dairy manure or pine needles had reduced heat generation; therefore, pathogen reduction took longer than if fresh manure or carbon amendments of wheat straw or peanut hulls were used. Based on regression models derived from these results, ammonia concentration, in addition to heat, were the primary factors affecting the degree of pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures formulated to an initial carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 40:1, whereas, the pH of the compost mixture along with the amount of heat exposure were most influential in compost mixtures formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 30:1. Further studies are needed to validate these models so that additional criteria in addition to time and temperature can be used to evaluate the microbiological safety of composted manures.

  15. An atypical presentation of salmonella typhi - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess due to Salmonella typhi is an extremely rare occurrence. A lady with a lump in the left breast was diagnosed to have a fibroadenoma and was subjected to a surgical procedure. She was found to have an abscess due to Salmonella typhi as confirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. She was treated with ciprofloxacin and responded favourably.

  16. Salmonella serovars differentially stimulate bovine leukocyte responses in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of Salmonella serovars cause no clinical signs in cattle, while some serovars, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and Dublin (SD), may cause severe disease. Mechanisms underlying the difference in pathogenesis between different serovars are not clear. The objective of ...

  17. Non—typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia in Malawian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia is a common, recurrent illness in HIV-infected African ... of infection (eg. damaged urinary tract, endothelium, joints, bones [10] or more unusual sites in HIV [1 ..... Cohen 11, Bartlett JA, Corey GR: Extra-intestinal manifestations of Salmonella infections. Medicine (Baltimore) 1987 ...

  18. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  20. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...